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1. Conformity with the latest Standards

All NEC NE's are fully SDH compatible and conform to the relevant ITU-R and
ITU-T Recommendations and European Telecommunications Standards (ETS).

2. Various System Applications and Easy Expandability

Various system applications such as N+1 Frequency Diversity (FD) protection

switching system are available. The system can easily be expanded by adding
modules and/or subracks to the existing configuration to add transmission
capacity. The maximum protected transmission capacity is 11+1 (for 11 GHz).
The N+1 protection switchover is hitless, resulting in error free switchover

3. Attained Low Noise Figure

The very low noise figure of the receivers results in a high system gain.
Moreover, Hitless Switching drastically reduces the Bit Error Rate (BER) in
1+1 twin-path and N+1 FD protection systems.

4. Better Error Performance with MLCM

Multi-Level Coding Modulation (MLCM) is applied to ensure a better error

performance. The merits of MLCM are:

a) excellent coding gain (approximately 2.5 dB BER 10-3)

b) low coding redundancy enabling transmission of one or two 2 Mbit/s wayside

(WS) channels in the Radio Frame Complementary Overhead (RFCOH)

c) low operation speed of decoder enabling a cost-effective realization.

*: Two WS channels for 64 QAM and one WS channel for 128 QAM
per RF Channel.

5. Automatic Transmit Power Control

Applying an optional Automatic Transmit Power Control (ATPC) system reduces

interference to neighboring systems, improves residual BER performance, alleviates
upfade problems and reduces system power consumption.

6. Equalization

The standard equipped DFE (Decision Feedback Equalizer) is effective in reducing

inband dispersive amplitude and delay distortions caused by multi-path fading.


7. Synchronization Clock

The timing of the radio system can be done using two different external sources:

a) Reference clock (2 MHz input, optional 2 or 1.5 Mbit/s)

b) Clock derived from incoming signal (only if STM-1 interfaces are applied).
If one reference source fails, the system automatically switches to the
other source, if available. If both external sources fail, the system
automatically switches to the internal oscillator. This is all in accordance
with ITU-T G.783. Two clock oscillators are provided for protection.

8. Compatibility with PDH Radio System

The SDH radio system can be integrated into currently established PDH baseband
network by applying a 140 Mbit /s interface to the SDH radio system. The 140 Mbit/s
signal is mapped into a Virtual Container (VC) - 4 of the STM-1 in accordance with
ITU-T G.709. The The upgrade of the interface to STM-1 transmission is software
settable at any time. Therefore, upgrading to STM-1 does not require any new panels.

9. SOH Termination of Line Section

NEC's SDH radio has the standard feature of SOH termination in two directions: not
only for the radio section but also for the electrical or optical line section which is
terminated at the radio station. For example, the incoming line signal quality can be
monitored. This added value provides cost-effective real total manageability of the
communications network and enables easier fault location between the line, multiplex
and radio systems.

10. STM-1 Interface Options

The system can be equipped with an electrical or an optical STM-1 interface for each
channel. The optical interface is available for two different cable lengths: for intra-office
and long haul inter-office application.

11. Digital Service Channels and Wayside Traffic

In addition to the STM-1 or 140 Mbit/s main traffic signal, one 192 kbit/s or five 64
kbit/s DSC's and one (128 QAM) or two (64 QAM) 2 Mbit/s or 1.5 Mbit/s WS channel
can be dropped and inserted at every terminal and repeater radio station. These
channels are transported in the RFCOH.


12. Alarm, Status and Performance Monitoring

Performance monitoring is built-in, including:

a) Performance parameters as in ITU-T G.784

b) Counting the number of protection switchover operations (for

1+1 and N+1)

c) Accumulation of the failed time for individual regular channels.

The operator can perform monitoring and control functions, by using the LCT
(Local Craft Terminal), or by using a Network Management System (NMS).

Furthermore, OAM&P facilities enables monitoring and control of external

equipment such as housekeeping facilities via a parallel interface.

13. Advanced Technologies

Throughout the SDH radio system, NEC's own advanced technologies are used.
Intensive use of Microwave Integrated Circuits (MIC's) and Hybrid IC's (HIC's) makes
the TRP durable and compact. Also, custom made large-scale integrated circuits (LSI's)
are applied. For example, the SOH termination is incorporated in a single LSI chip,
specially developed by NEC for SDH interface equipment. Furthermore, low-power
high-speed complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) LSI's are extensively
used, making the equipment more compact and reducing the power consumption.
OAM&P performance and functionality are easily upgraded using software download

14. Mounting in standard ETSI Racks

All sub-racks in NEC's SDH Family including radio, fiber optics transmission systems
and add-drop multiplexers, are mounted in standard 2,200 mm high ETSI racks which
meet prETS 300 119-3 (refer to Figure 1). The width of the electronics is 500 mm
(standard), allowing 50 mm wide cable ducts at both sides of the rack. This solution
vendor-independent, provides full front access and allows for future expansion.
Standard SDH radio systems are shipped fully rack-mounted and intra-rack wired,
enabling easy and quick installation. Fans to cool the equipment are not required.

15. Single Design Concept

The STM-1 radio system is part of NEC's SDH family, adopting the same single design
concept. The SDH family includes a wide variety of transmission systems, such as add-
drop multiplexers and NMS, thus opening up a full range of configurations for various
applications. As an example, a ring closure (see Figure 4) is possible with the
combination of NEC's SMS-150A add-drop multiplexer and the 2000 Series SDH
radio. Such systems have a self-healing ring function.


16. Orderwire Telephone Channels

Express Orderwire (OW) and Omnibus OW are available on NEC's SDH Radio, using
the SOH bytes E1 and E2, respectively. These channels provide voice communications
throughout the entire SDH Radio network, using selective calling facilities by means of
Dual Tone Multifrequency (DTMF) signaling.

17. TMN Standard Compliant

Management features are designed in accordance with among others ITU-T Rec.
M.3000 and G.784. This enables interconnection to TMN-based network management
system (NMS) from NEC or other manufacturers by means of the so called Q3

Figure 4. Ring Closure Network by applying a variety of NECs NEs