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IBGE

Analista Geoprocessamento

Estratgias de leitura: compreenso geral; reconhecimento de informaes especficas; capacidade


de anlise e sntese; inferncia e predio; reconhecimento do vocabulrio mais frequente em quaisquer
tipos de textos; cognatos e falsos cognatos; funo retrica; uso de metfora. Estratgias discursivas:
compreenso de partes especficas de textos de diferentes gneros; funo e estrutura discursiva;
marcadores de discurso; elementos de coeso e coerncia. Aspectos lexicais: reconhecimento do
vocabulrio mais frequente em quaisquer tipos de textos; cognatos e falsos cognatos; expresses
idiomticas; sinonmia e antonmia ........................................................................................................... 1

Aspectos gramaticais: uso de artigos definidos e indefinidos; tempos e modos verbais; uso de
preposies, conjunes e pronomes e modais; comparao; concordncia nominal e verbal; formao e
classe de palavras; relaes de subordinao e coordenao; voz passiva, discurso direto e indireto .. 17

Candidatos ao Concurso Pblico,


O Instituto Maximize Educao disponibiliza o e-mail professores@maxieduca.com.br para dvidas
relacionadas ao contedo desta apostila como forma de auxili-los nos estudos para um bom desempenho
na prova.
As dvidas sero encaminhadas para os professores responsveis pela matria, portanto, ao entrar em
contato, informe:
- Apostila (concurso e cargo);
- Disciplina (matria);
- Nmero da pgina onde se encontra a dvida; e
- Qual a dvida.
Caso existam dvidas em disciplinas diferentes, por favor, encaminh-las em e-mails separados. O
professor ter at cinco dias teis para respond-la.
Bons estudos!

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1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA
Estratgias de leitura: compreenso geral; reconhecimento
de informaes especficas; capacidade de anlise e
sntese; inferncia e predio; reconhecimento do
vocabulrio mais frequente em quaisquer tipos de textos;
cognatos e falsos cognatos; funo retrica; uso de
metfora. Estratgias discursivas: compreenso de partes
especficas de textos de diferentes gneros; funo e
estrutura discursiva; marcadores de discurso; elementos de
coeso e coerncia. Aspectos lexicais: reconhecimento do
vocabulrio mais frequente em quaisquer tipos de textos;
cognatos e falsos cognatos; expresses idiomticas;
sinonmia e antonmia

Tcnica de leitura de texto de lngua inglesa

No Brasil, de um modo geral, o ingls instrumental uma das abordagens do ensino do Ingls que
centraliza a lngua tcnica e cientfica focalizando o emprego de estratgias especficas, em geral,
voltadas leitura. Seu foco desenvolver a capacidade de compreenso de textos de diversas reas do
conhecimento. O estudo da gramtica restringe-se a um mnimo necessrio normalmente associado a
um texto atual ou similar que foi veiculado em peridicos. O conhecimento de uma boa quantidade de
palavras tambm faz parte das tcnicas que sero relacionadas abaixo.

Background knowledge (conhecimento prvio): para que um leitor consiga identificar e entender
certas informaes em qualquer tipo de texto, torna-se extremamente importante que ele possua algum
conhecimento prvio sobre seu assunto. Podemos comparar esta situao com a de um estudante
tentando fazer uma prova de redao. Se ele nunca tiver lido, discutido, estudado ou ouvido falar do tema
daquela redao, como poder dissertar? Suas ideias podem at ir para o papel, mas correr um grande
risco de no ter o vocabulrio necessrio, consistncia, profundidade, argumentos, conhecimento de
causa, exemplos a citar, etc. sua redao ser pobre. Da mesma maneira, se o leitor de um texto tcnico
em lngua inglesa no tiver conhecimento de mundo, vivncia, experincias variadas de vida,
conhecimento prvio sobre o assunto, seu nvel de compreenso ser mais superficial. Por isso, o ponto
de partida para uma leitura eficiente est sempre em voc. Mas tambm no adianta buscar apenas
informao de coisas que te atraem, coisas que voc gosta de saber. preciso ampliar sua viso de
mundo. Se voc for mulher, busque saber algo sobre futebol tambm, sobre carros, sobre coisas do
mundo masculino. Se voc for homem, busque tambm conhecer assuntos do mundo feminino como
cosmticos e vesturio. Busquem ambos interessar-se por assuntos relacionados a crianas, idosos,
povos diferentes do seu, pases variados, regies do mundo sobre as quais que voc normalmente no
sabe nada. Leia jornais, revistas, sites da internet, pesquise coisas curiosas, assista a programas de TV
jornalsticos, de variedades, de humor, de esportes, de cincia, de religio, de sade, de entretenimento,
converse com pessoas de opinies, idades e classes sociais diferentes da sua, d valor a todos os
assuntos porque voc nunca sabe qual tema ser abordado num texto de uma prova. Esteja preparado
para todos eles. Desta forma podemos agilizar sua compreenso acerca de um texto. Desta forma voc
ter mais prazer ao ler, pois compreender os mais variados textos. Desta forma voc ver que capaz
de adquirir conhecimento em uma lngua estrangeira. Desta forma poderemos minimizar seus problemas
e aumentar suas chances de obter o sucesso.

Skimming (ler ou examinar superficialmente; desnatar; retirar aquilo de maior peso ou importncia):
uma tcnica que permite rapidez e eficincia na busca de algum direcionamento inicial acerca do texto.
Realizar o skimming significa ler rapidamente o texto para saber o assunto principal trabalhado pelo
autor. Esta atividade de leitura nos proporciona um nvel de compreenso geral, visando nos dar uma
viso global, aberta e ampla do texto. Ao realizarmos o skimming, no podemos nos deter em detalhes
como palavras novas nem palavras das quais nos esquecemos. Estamos em busca do assunto principal
e do sentido geral do texto.

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1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA
Prediction: Com esta estratgia o leitor lana mo do seu prprio conhecimento, atravs das
experincias de vida que possui, e da informao lingustica e contextual. Aps realizar o skimming, o
leitor precisa concentrar-se para tentar ativar as informaes que j possui sobre o tema e prever que
tipos de palavras, frases ou argumentos podem estar presentes naquele texto. um momento de reflexo.
a hora de buscar na memria tudo o que foi lido, estudado, discutido, e visto na mdia a respeito daquele
tema. Alm do mais, esta uma estratgia de leitura que tambm permite ao leitor prever o que vem a
seguir em um texto. Trata-se do desenvolvimento sequenciado do pensamento. Isso s possvel porque
quem escreve, o faz de maneira organizada, porque as pessoas pensam de maneira semelhante e porque
alguns tipos de textos possuem estruturas previsveis levando ns leitores a atingir certas formas de
compreenso. Quanto mais experiente for o leitor, maior ser sua capacidade de prever. Nesta etapa,
passamos a associar o assunto do texto com as dicas tipogrficas usadas pelo autor para transmitir
significados.
Grifo de palavras cognatas, das palavras j conhecidas pelo leitor e das repetidas: Muito comuns
entre as lnguas inglesa e portuguesa, os cognatos so termos bastante parecidos tanto na escrita como
no significado em ambas as lnguas. Grifar todas estas palavras em um texto um recurso psicolgico e
tcnico que visa mostrar e provar visualmente para o leitor que ele tem conhecimento de muitas das
palavras daquele texto e de que, assim, ele capaz de fazer uso dessas informaes para responder s
questes propostas. Trata-se de um recurso que usamos para dar mais relevncia e importncia s
palavras que j sabemos em um texto, pois nelas que nos apoiaremos para resolver exerccios e para
entender os textos. muito mais inteligente voltar nosso foco para as palavras que tm algum significado
para ns do que destacar aquelas que no conhecemos. Alm disso, ao grifar, voc acaba relendo as
informaes de uma maneira mais lenta, o que faz com que perceba certos detalhes que no havia
percebido antes. uma forma de quantificar em porcentagem aproximada o quanto se sabe daquele
texto. preciso lembrar que h um nmero muito grande de palavras repetidas nos textos e isso facilita
para o estudante, pois ele poder grifar mais de uma vez a mesma palavra.

Scanning: esta tcnica de leitura visa dar agilidade na busca por informaes especficas. Muitas
vezes, aps ler um texto, ns queremos reencontrar alguma frase ou alguma palavra j lida anteriormente.
Para efetuar esta busca no precisamos ler o texto inteiro de novo, podemos simplesmente ir direto ao
ponto aonde podemos encontrar tal informao. Isso o scanning, significa encontrar respostas de uma
forma rpida e direta sem perder tempo relendo o texto todo. Esta tcnica em geral deve ser aplicada
aps uma ou mais leituras completas do texto em questo. Assim o leitor diminuir o risco de confundir
informaes, perder tempo ou de dar respostas erradas. Se desejar, o estudante pode ler o que os
exerccios pediro antes de fazer o scanning, pois assim ele ir selecionar mais facilmente o que for mais
importante para responder quelas questes direcionando-se melhor.

Lexical Inference (inferncia lexical): Inferir significa deduzir. s vezes ser preciso deduzir o sentido
de um termo, decifrando o que ele quer dizer. Mas isso no pode ser feito de qualquer maneira. Para
inferirmos bem, necessrio entender o significado daquela palavra desconhecida atravs do contexto
no qual ela est inserida, observando as palavras vizinhas, as frases anteriores e posteriores, o pargrafo
onde ela est, as noes gerais que temos do texto, etc. Precisamos observar o meio no qual a palavra
est posta. Neste caso teremos de nos fazer valer de nossos conhecimentos de classes gramaticais
(substantivos, adjetivos, preposies, verbo, etc.), de afixos, de singular e plural, conhecimento sobre a
estrutura de textos, etc. Tudo isso em conjunto pode ajudar numa aproximao do sentido real daquele
termo que no sabemos.

H estudos que relacionaram as palavras que mais aparecem em textos e livros tcnicos em lngua
inglesa. Desses estudos foram feitas diferentes listas com as 500 palavras mais comuns, ou as 700
palavras mais comuns. Para facilitar seu estudo, inclumos aqui as 318 mais comuns para serem
estudadas. Ao memorizar estas palavras voc obter um magnfico subsdio preparando-se para
enfrentar qualquer texto. Voc ver que vrias destas palavras j so conhecidas por voc, assim, na
verdade, ter que memorizar bem menos destas. Um nmero bem significativo delas est presente em
qualquer tipo de texto. Quanto mais palavras voc souber, mais poder grifar! Apoie-se nelas e bom
estudo!

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1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA
001 although embora 060 common comum
002 able capaz 061 country pas, zona rural
003 about sobre, aproximadamente 062 course curso
004 above acima 063 day dia
005 according to de acordo com 064 dead morto
006 after depois, aps 065 death morte
007 again novamente, de novo 066 different diferente
008 against contra 067 door porta
009 age idade 068 down para baixo
010 air ar 069 during durante
011 all tudo 070 each cada
012 almost quase 071 earth terra (planeta)
013 alone s, sozinho 072 either... or ou... ou
014 along ao longo de 073 emperor imperador
015 already j 074 empire imprio
016 also tambm 075 end fim
017 always sempre 076 enemy inimigo
018 among entre (3 ou mais coisas) 077 England Inglaterra
019 an um, uma 078 enough suficiente
020 ancient antigo 079 even mesmo
021 and e 080 ever em qualquer momento, j
022 another um outro 081 every cada, todo
023 any algum(a), qualquer 082 eye olho
024 anything qualquer coisa 083 fact fato
025 arm brao 084 family famlia
026 army exrcito 085 far distanste, longe
027 around em torno de, perto de 086 father pai
028 art arte 087 fear medo
029 as como, assim como 088 few poucos(as)
030 at em, s 089 fire fogo
031 authority autoridade 090 first primeiro
032 away distante, longe 091 five cinco
033 back de volta, atrs 092 foot/feet p/ps
034 because porque 093 footnote notas de rodap
035 before antes 094 for para, por
036 behind atrs 095 force fora, forar
037 best melhor (superlativo) 096 four quatro
038 better melhor (comparativo) 097 France Frana
039 between entre (2 coisas) 098 free livre, grtis
040 beyond alm 099 French francs
041 big grande 100 friend amigo(a)
042 black preto(a) 101 from de (origem)
043 blood sangue 102 full completo, cheio
044 body corpo 103 general geral
045 both ambos(as) 104 girl menina, garota
046 boy menino, garoto 105 God Deus
047 brother irmo 106 gold ouro
048 but mas, porm, exceto 107 good bom(ns), boa(s)
049 by prximo a, perto de, por 108 government governo
050 captain capito 109 great grande, maravilhoso
051 care cuidado 110 ground cho
052 case caso 111 half metade
053 certain certo 112 hand mo/entregar
054 chapter captulo 113 he ele (pessoa)
055 character carter, personalidade 114 head cabea, lder
056 child criana 115 heart corao
057 children crianas 116 her dela (pessoa)
058 church igreja 117 here aqui
059 city cidade 118 high alto

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1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA
119 him ele, o (pessoa) 178 natural natural
120 himself ele mesmo (pessoa) 179 nature natureza
121 his dele (pessoa) 180 near prximo, perto
122 history histria 181 neither...nor nem...nem
123 home casa, lar 182 never nunca
124 horse cavalo 183 new novo(a)(s)
125 hour hora 184 next prximo, a seguir
126 house casa 185 night noite
127 how como 186 no no
128 however entretanto 187 non no
129 human humano 188 not no
130 hundred cem, centena 189 nothing nada
131 idea idia 190 now agora
132 if se 191 number nmero
133 ill doente 192 of de
134 in em, dentro (de) 193 off afastado, desligado
135 indeed de fato, realmente 194 often frequentemente
136 into para dentro de 195 old velho(s), velha(s)
137 it ele(a) (coisa, animal) 196 on sobre, em cima
138 its seu, sua, (coisa, animal) 197 once uma vez
139 itself a si mesmo (coisa, animal) 198 one um, uma
140 just apenas, justo 199 only apenas, nico, somente
141 kind tipo, gentil 200 or ou
142 king rei 201 other outro(a)
143 knowledge conhecimento 202 our nosso(a), nossos(as)
144 land terra 203 out fora
145 large largo, amplo, grande 204 over acima, encerrado
146 law lei 205 part parte
147 (at) least (pelo) menos 206 peace paz
148 left esquerdo(a) 207 people pessoas
149 less menos 208 perhaps talvez
150 life vida 209 period perodo
151 light luz, leve 210 person pessoa
152 little pouco(a) 211 place lugar
153 long longo 212 point ponto
154 longer mais longo 213 poor pobre
155 love amor 214 power poder, fora
156 man/men homem/homens 215 present presente
157 manner maneira 216 prince prncipe
158 many muitos (as) 217 public pblico
159 master mestre 218 quite completamente, muito
160 matter matria 219 rather preferencialmente
161 me me, mim 220 reason razo
162 miles milhas 221 reign reino
163 mind mente 222 religion religio
164 mine meu(s), minha(s) 223 room cmodo, quarto
165 moment momento 224 round redondo
166 money dinheiro 225 same mesmo(a)
167 more mais 226 sea mar
168 morning manh 227 second segundo
169 most mais 228 set conjunto
170 mother me 229 seven sete
171 Mr. senhor 230 several vrios(as)
172 Mrs. senhora 231 she ela (pessoa)
173 much muito(a) 232 short pequeno(a), curto(a)(s)
174 my meu(s), minha(s) 233 side lado
175 myself eu mesmo 234 sight vista, viso
176 name nome 235 since desde
177 nation nao 236 sir senhor

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1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA
237 six seis 296 when quando
238 small pequeno(s), pequena(s) 297 where onde
239 so ento 298 whether se
240 some algum(a), alguns(mas) 299 which (o,a) qual, (os, as) quais
241 something algo, alguma coisa 300 while enquanto
242 sometimes algumas vezes 301 white branco
243 son filho 302 who/whom quem, a quem
244 soon logo, em breve 303 whole complete, inteiro
245 spirit esprito 304 whose de quem, cujo(a)(s)
246 state estado, situao 305 why por que?
247 still ainda 306 wife esposa
248 street rua 307 with com
249 strength fora 308 within dentro de
250 strong forte 309 without sem
251 subject assunto, sujeito 310 woman/women mulher/mulheres
252 such to 311 word palavra
253 sure certo (certeza) 312 world mundo
254 ten dez 313 year ano
255 than do que 314 yes sim
256 that aquele(a), esse(a) 315 yet ainda, j
257 the o, a, os, as 316 you voc(s)
258 their deles, delas 317 young jovem
259 them eles, os 318 yours seu(s), sua(s)
260 themselves eles mesmos
261 then ento, em seguida
262 there l
263 therefore por esta razo
264 these estes(as)
265 they eles, elas
266 thing coisa
267 thirty trinta
268 this este(a), isto
269 those aquele(as), esses(as)
270 thousand mil, milhar
271 three trs
272 through atravs
273 time tempo, momento, vez
274 to para, em direo a
275 together junto(a)(s)
276 too tambm
277 towards na direo de
278 town cidade
279 true verdade
280 truth verdade
281 twenty vinte
282 two dois
283 under sob
284 until/till at (que)
285 up para cima
286 upon sobre
287 us nos, a ns
288 very muito
289 voice voz
290 war guerra
291 water gua
292 way caminho, maneira, jeito
293 we ns
294 well bem
295 what o que, qual, quais

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1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA
Vamos a um exemplo:

Fonte: http://goo.gl/R7fIJz

Neste caso temos uma antiga propaganda da cola cola que demonstra exatamente os passos da leitura
lexical. Primeiro vamos analisar as palavras grandes, o skimming. Beverage, Men e Ladies. Beverage
no uma palavra to comum, mas pelo contexto da Coca Cola talvez o estudante chegue a sua traduo
que bebida. J men e ladies a maioria das pessoas j conhece que so homens e mulheres. Aqui j
temos o contexto da propaganda, que novamente desde o comeo era obvio por ser uma propaganda da
Coca Cola. Vamos as palavras menores, porm iremos citar apenas as cogntas ou as palavras que a
maioria das pessoas conhea.

Do lado esquerdo: business and professional Negcios e profissionais.


Do lado direito: Students ... Athletes. Estudantes e atletas.
No centro: Favorite drink for ladies. A bebida favorita das mulheres.
E nos cantos inferiores 5c que se refece a 5 centavos, ou seja, o preo.

Questes

1. (CTA ANALISTA EM C&T JNIOR ADMINISTRAO VUNESP/2013)

Brazils Average Unemployment Rate Falls to Record Low in 2012

By Down Jones Business News


January 31, 2013

Brazils unemployment rate for 2012 fell to 5.5%, down from the previous record low of 6.0% recorded
last year, the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, or IBGE, said Thursday. In December,
unemployment fell to 4.6% compared with 4.9% in November, besting the previous record monthly low of
4.7% registered in December 2011, the IBGE sad.

1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA 6


The 2012 average unemployment rate was in line with the 5.5% median estimate of economists polled by
the local Estado news agency. Analysts had also pegged Decembers unemployment rate at 4.4%.

Brazils unemployment rate remains at historically low levels despite sluggish economic activity. Salaries
have also been on the upswing in an ominous sign for inflation a key area of concern for the Brazilian Central
Bank after a series of interest rate cuts brought local interest rates to record lows last year. Inflation ended 2012
at 5.84%.

The average monthly Brazilian salary retreated slightly to 1.805,00 Brazilian reais ($908.45) in December,
down from the record high BRL 1.809,60 registered in November, the IBGE said. Wages trended higher in 2012
as employee groups called on Brazilian companies and the government to increase wages and benefits to
counter higher local prices. Companies were also forced to pay more to hire and retain workers because of the
countrys low unemployment.

The IBGE measures unemployment in six of Brazils largest metropolitan areas, including So Paulo, Rio
de Janeiro, Salvador, Belo Horizonte, Recife and Porto Alegre. Brazils unemployment rate, however, is not
fully comparable to jobless rates in developed countries as a large portion of the population is either
underemployed or works informally without paying taxes. In addition, workers not actively seeking a job in the
month before the survey dont count as unemployed under the IBGEs methodology. The survey also doesnt
take into account farm workers.
(www.nasdaq.com, Adaptado)

O trecho do terceiro pargrafo a key area of concern refere-se, no texto, a:


A) Inflation.
B) Salaries.
C) Brazilian Central Bank.
D) Interest rates.
E) Unemployment rate.

O trecho em questo vem depois do trecho que afirma que os salrios tem aumentado por conta
inegvel da inflao. Portanto a rea de preocupao justamente a inflao.

RESPOSTA: A.

2. (CTA ANALISTA EM C&T JNIOR ADMINISTRAO VUNESP/2013)

Brazils Average Unemployment Rate Falls to Record Low in 2012

By Down Jones Business News


January 31, 2013

Brazils unemployment rate for 2012 fell to 5.5%, down from the previous record low of 6.0% recorded last
year, the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, or IBGE, said Thursday. In December, unemployment
fell to 4.6% compared with 4.9% in November, besting the previous record monthly low of 4.7% registered in
December 2011, the IBGE sad.

The 2012 average unemployment rate was in line with the 5.5% median estimate of economists polled by
the local Estado news agency. Analysts had also pegged Decembers unemployment rate at 4.4%.
Brazils unemployment rate remains at historically low levels despite sluggish economic activity. Salaries
have also been on the upswing in an ominous sign for inflation a key area of concern for the Brazilian Central
Bank after a series of interest rate cuts brought local interest rates to record lows last year. Inflation ended 2012
at 5.84%.

The average monthly Brazilian salary retreated slightly to 1.805,00 Brazilian reais ($908.45) in December,
down from the record high BRL 1.809,60 registered in November, the IBGE said. Wages trended higher in 2012
as employee groups called on Brazilian companies and the government to increase wages and benefits to
counter higher local prices. Companies were also forced to pay more to hire and retain workers because of the
countrys low unemployment.

1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA 7


The IBGE measures unemployment in six of Brazils largest metropolitan areas, including So Paulo, Rio
de Janeiro, Salvador, Belo Horizonte, Recife and Porto Alegre. Brazils unemployment rate, however, is not
fully comparable to jobless rates in developed countries as a large portion of the population is either
underemployed or works informally without paying taxes. In addition, workers not actively seeking a job in the
month before the survey dont count as unemployed under the IBGEs methodology. The survey also doesnt
take into account farm workers.

(www.nasdaq.com, Adaptado)

No trecho do quarto pargrafo Companies were also forced to pay more to hire and retain workers
because of the countrys low unemployment. because introduz uma:

A) Consequncia.
B) Razo.
C) Crtica.
D) Comparao.
E) nfase.

A palavra because porque em portugus, anexando a razo, a explicao de algo a frase. No trecho,
As companhias foram foradas a pagar mais para contratar e manter os trabalhadores (por conta) do
baixo ndice de desemprego do pais.

RESPOSTA: B.

3. (TERMOBAHIA TCNICO DE SEGURANA JNIOR CESGRANRIO/2012)

Committee decides to lower the use of thermoelectric power generation

GTCIT Magazine

The Monitoring Committee of the Electric Sector (CMSE) decided on Monday (May 30, 2012), to
diminish the thermoelectric power generation in Brazil as of next week. According to the Ministry of Mines
and Energy, Mrcio Zimmermann, the thermoelectric generation, which currently averages 4.000
megawatts (MW), should now be reduced to 2.500 MW.

These plants are used in Brazil mainly to prevent a power outage in the country in times of drought,
when the reservoirs of the dams are low. But the ministry assured that the reservoir of the hydroelectric
plants are satisfactory, and that there will be no need to resort to the thermoelectric resources.

According to the Minister Zimmermann, the Southeast has an average of 90% of its reservoirs full,
which is an excellent level for this time of year. Even the Northeast, whose reservoir levels are a little
lower, do not compromise system security.

The system is operating perfectly within the current conditions, which safely allows us to reduce the
generation of thermoelectric energy. This will give us an economic surplus that can be used towards
system maintenance and in the implementation of new quality programs for the energy sector, he said.

He also explained that: of course, this does not mean that the committee will not be flexible as to this
decision in case the current conditions take an unexpected turn. They will be following the reduction of
the projection for the coming months and, if necessary, the plans will be changed according to the
demands vis-avis resources.
Available at: www.gtcit.com

According to the text, the reduction of the thermoelectric power generation is justified because:
A) Minister Zimmermann believes that the system security is a little fragile.
B) Minister Zimmermann is more worried about financial difficulties than about the power
distribution.
C) The draught in the Northeast is worrying authorities.

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D) The power system is operating with total security, granted the high levels of the reservoirs.
E) Nearly 90% of the total financial resources have already been used.

A questo pede que o candidato determine. De acordo com o texto, a reduo na gerao de energia
termoeltrica justificada por. No segundo pargrafo o texto afirma que essas instalaes so usadas
principalmente para prefinir a falta de energia no pais em tempos de seca, mas o ministro garante que os
reservatrios das hidroeltricas esto em um nvel satisfatrio.

RESPOSTA: D.

4. (CPTM ANALISTA ADMINISTRATIVO JNIOR MAKIYAMA/2012)

Generation Y

By Sally Kane, About.com Guide

Born in the mid-1980s and later, Generation Y legal professionals are in their 20s and are just entering
the workforce. With numbers estimated as high as 70 million, Generation Y (also -1- as the Millennials) is
the fastest growing segment of todays workforce. As law firms compete for available talent, employers
cannot ignore the needs, desires and attitudes of this vast generation.
Below are a few common traits that define Generation Y.
Tech-Savvy: Generation Y grew up with technology and rely on it to perform their jobs better. Armed
with BlackBerrys, laptops, cellphones and other gadgets, Generation Y is plugged-in 24 hours a day, 7
days a week. This generation prefers to communicate through e-mail and text messaging rather than face-
to-face contact and -2- webinars and online technology to traditional lecture-based presentations.
Family-Centric: The fast-track has lost much of its appeal for Generation Y who is willing to trade high
pay for fewer billable hours, flexible schedules and a better work/life balance. While older generations may
view this attitude as narcissistic or lacking commitment, discipline and drive, Generation Y legal
professionals have a different vision of workplace expectations and prioritize family over work.
Achievement-Oriented: Nurtured and pampered -3- parents who did not want to make the mistakes of
the previous generation, Generation Y is confident, ambitious and achievement-oriented. They have high
expectations of their employers, seek out new challenges and are not afraid to ask question authority.
Generation Y wants meaningful work and a soli learning curve.
Team-Oriented: As children, Generation Y participated in team sports, play groups and other group
activities. They value teamwork and seek the input and affirmation of others. Part of a no-person-left-
behind generation, Generation Y is loyal, committed and wants to be included and involved.
Attention-Craving: Generation Y craves attention in the forms of feedback and guidance. They
appreciate being kept in the loop and seek frequent praise and reassurance. Generation Y may benefit
greatly from mentors who can help guide and develop their young careers.
Fonte: legalcareers.about.com

Com base no texto, qual das afirmaes abaixo falsa?

A) A gerao Y praticou esportes coletivos e uma srie de atividades em grupo durante a infncia, o
que, consequentemente, desenvolveu um senso forte de trabalho em equipe e cooperao entre
seus componentes.
B) Uma pessoa nascida na dcada de 90 pertence gerao Y.
C) A gerao Y confiante e est sempre procurando novos desafios no trabalho, sem medo de
questionar autoridade de seus superiores.
D) A gerao Y no foi mimada por seus pais, pois estes no gostariam de repetir os erros da
gerao anterior, que os mimou muito e, consequentemente, dificultou seu caminho profissional.
E) A gerao Y est conectada o tempo todo.

No item -3- o texto afirma que a gerao Y busca realizaes: Nutrida e cuidada pelos pais que no
quiseram cometer os erros da gerao anterior. Gerao Y confiante, ambiciosa e busca realizaes.
Eles tem altas expectativas para seus empregados e buscam novos desafios (...)
RESPOSTA: D.

1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA 9


5. (CPTM ANALISTA ADMINISTRATIVO JNIOR MAKIYAMA/2012)

Generation Y
By Sally Kane, About.com Guide

Born in the mid-1980s and later, Generation Y legal professionals are in their 20s and are just entering
the workforce. With numbers estimated as high as 70 million, Generation Y (also -1- as the Millennials) is
the fastest growing segment of todays workforce. As law firms compete for available talent, employers
cannot ignore the needs, desires and attitudes of this vast generation.
Below are a few common traits that define Generation Y.
Tech-Savvy: Generation Y grew up with technology and rely on it to perform their jobs better. Armed
with BlackBerrys, laptops, cellphones and other gadgets, Generation Y is plugged-in 24 hours a day, 7
days a week. This generation prefers to communicate through e-mail and text messaging rather than face-to-
face contact and -2- webinars and online technology to traditional lecture-based presentations.
Family-Centric: The fast-track has lost much of its appeal for Generation Y who is willing to trade high pay
for fewer billable hours, flexible schedules and a better work/life balance. While older generations may view this
attitude as narcissistic or lacking commitment, discipline and drive, Generation Y legal professionals have a
different vision of workplace expectations and prioritize family over work.
Achievement-Oriented: Nurtured and pampered -3- parents who did not want to make the mistakes of the
previous generation, Generation Y is confident, ambitious and achievement-oriented. They have high
expectations of their employers, seek out new challenges and are not afraid to ask question authority.
Generation Y wants meaningful work and a soli learning curve.
Team-Oriented: As children, Generation Y participated in team sports, play groups and other group activities.
They value teamwork and seek the input and affirmation of others. Part of a no-person-left-behind generation,
Generation Y is loyal, committed and wants to be included and involved.
Attention-Craving: Generation Y craves attention in the forms of feedback and guidance. They appreciate
being kept in the loop and seek frequent praise and reassurance. Generation Y may benefit greatly from
mentors who can help guide and develop their young careers.
Font: legalcareers.about.com

No trecho: Generation Y craves attention in the forms of feedback and guidance, a melhor definio
para o termo em destaque :
A) To desire something strongly.
B) To state or demand forcefully, especially despite opposition.
C) To tell someone that you will hurt or harm him or her.
D) To do something as promised or intended.
E) To walk around slowly in a relaxed way or without any clear purpose or direction.

O verbo crave quer dizer desejar algo com intensidade. Como se uma grvida estivesse querendo
comer algo.
RESPOSTA: A.

6. (CPTM ANALISTA DE RECURSOS HUMANOS JNIOR MAKIYAMA/2012)

Generation Y
By Sally Kane, About.com Guide

Born in the mid-1980s and later, Generation Y legal professionals are in their 20s and are just entering the
workforce. With numbers estimated as high as 70 million, Generation Y (also -1- as the Millennials) is the fastest
growing segment of todays workforce. As law firms compete for available talent, employers cannot ignore the
needs, desires and attitudes of this vast generation.
Below are a few common traits that define Generation Y.
Tech-Savvy: Generation Y grew up with technology and rely on it to perform their jobs better. Armed with
BlackBerrys, laptops, cellphones and other gadgets, Generation Y is plugged-in 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
This generation prefers to communicate through e-mail and text messaging rather than face-to-face contact
and -2- webinars and online technology to traditional lecture-based presentations.
Family-Centric: The fast-track has lost much of its appeal for Generation Y who is willing to trade high pay
for fewer billable hours, flexible schedules and a better work/life balance. While older generations may view this
attitude as narcissistic or lacking commitment, discipline and drive, Generation Y legal professionals have a
different vision of workplace expectations and prioritize family over work.

1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA 10


Achievement-Oriented: Nurtured and pampered -3- parents who did not want to make the mistakes of the
previous generation, Generation Y is confident, ambitious and achievement-oriented. They have high
expectations of their employers, seek out new challenges and are not afraid to ask question authority.
Generation Y wants meaningful work and a soli learning curve.
Team-Oriented: As children, Generation Y participated in team sports, play groups and other group activities.
They value teamwork and seek the input and affirmation of others. Part of a no-person-left-behind generation,
Generation Y is loyal, committed and wants to be included and involved.
Attention-Craving: Generation Y craves attention in the forms of feedback and guidance. They appreciate
being kept in the loop and seek frequent praise and reassurance. Generation Y may benefit greatly from
mentors who can help guide and develop their young careers.

Fonte: legalcareers.about.com
Com base no texto, qual das afirmaes abaixo falsa?
A) A gerao Y praticou esportes coletivos e uma srie de atividades em grupo durante a infncia, o
que, consequentemente, desenvolveu um senso forte de trabalho em equipe e cooperao entre
seus componentes.
B) Uma pessoa nascida na dcada de 90 pertence gerao Y.
C) A gerao Y confiante e est sempre procurando novos desafios no trabalho, sem medo de
questionar autoridade de seus superiores.
D) A gerao Y no foi mimada por seus pais, pois estes no gostariam de repetir os erros da
gerao anterior, que os mimou muito e, consequentemente, dificultou seu caminho profissional.
E) A gerao Y est conectada o tempo todo.

No item -3- o texto afirma que a gerao Y busca realizaes: Nutrida e cuidada pelos pais que no
quiseram cometer os erros da gerao anterior. Gerao Y confiante, ambiciosa e busca realizaes.
Eles tem altas expectativas para seus empregados e buscam novos desafios (...)
RESPOSTA: D.

7. (CPTM ANALISTA DE RECURSOS HUMANOS JNIOR MAKIYAMA/2012)

Generation Y
By Sally Kane, About.com Guide

Born in the mid-1980s and later, Generation Y legal professionals are in their 20s and are just entering the
workforce. With numbers estimated as high as 70 million, Generation Y (also -1- as the Millennials) is the fastest
growing segment of todays workforce. As law firms compete for available talent, employers cannot ignore the
needs, desires and attitudes of this vast generation.
Below are a few common traits that define Generation Y.
Tech-Savvy: Generation Y grew up with technology and rely on it to perform their jobs better. Armed with
BlackBerrys, laptops, cellphones and other gadgets, Generation Y is plugged-in 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
This generation prefers to communicate through e-mail and text messaging rather than face-to-face contact
and -2- webinars and online technology to traditional lecture-based presentations.
Family-Centric: The fast-track has lost much of its appeal for Generation Y who is willing to trade high pay
for fewer billable hours, flexible schedules and a better work/life balance. While older generations may view this
attitude as narcissistic or lacking commitment, discipline and drive, Generation Y legal professionals have a
different vision of workplace expectations and prioritize family over work.
Achievement-Oriented: Nurtured and pampered -3- parents who did not want to make the mistakes of the
previous generation, Generation Y is confident, ambitious and achievement-oriented. They have high
expectations of their employers, seek out new challenges and are not afraid to ask question authority.
Generation Y wants meaningful work and a soli learning curve.
Team-Oriented: As children, Generation Y participated in team sports, play groups and other group activities.
They value teamwork and seek the input and affirmation of others. Part of a no-person-left-behind generation,
Generation Y is loyal, committed and wants to be included and involved.
Attention-Craving: Generation Y craves attention in the forms of feedback and guidance. They appreciate
being kept in the loop and seek frequent praise and reassurance. Generation Y may benefit greatly from
mentors who can help guide and develop their young careers.
Font: legalcareers.about.com

No trecho: Generation Y craves attention in the forms of feedback and guidance, a melhor definio
para o termo em destaque :

1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA 11


A) To desire something strongly.
B) To state or demand forcefully, especially despite opposition.
C) To tell someone that you will hurt or harm him or her.
D) To do something as promised or intended.
E) To walk around slowly in a relaxed way or without any clear purpose or direction.

O verbo crave quer dizer desejar algo com intensidade. Como se uma grvida estivesse querendo
comer algo.
RESPOSTA: A.

8. (CPTM AUDITOR JNIOR MAKIYAMA/2012)

Generation Y
By Sally Kane, About.com Guide

Born in the mid-1980s and later, Generation Y legal professionals are in their 20s and are just entering the
workforce. With numbers estimated as high as 70 million, Generation Y (also -1- as the Millennials) is the fastest
growing segment of todays workforce. As law firms compete for available talent, employers cannot ignore the
needs, desires and attitudes of this vast generation.
Below are a few common traits that define Generation Y.
Tech-Savvy: Generation Y grew up with technology and rely on it to perform their jobs better. Armed with
BlackBerrys, laptops, cellphones and other gadgets, Generation Y is plugged-in 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
This generation prefers to communicate through e-mail and text messaging rather than face-to-face contact
and -2- webinars and online technology to traditional lecture-based presentations.
Family-Centric: The fast-track has lost much of its appeal for Generation Y who is willing to trade high pay
for fewer billable hours, flexible schedules and a better work/life balance. While older generations may view this
attitude as narcissistic or lacking commitment, discipline and drive, Generation Y legal professionals have a
different vision of workplace expectations and prioritize family over work.
Achievement-Oriented: Nurtured and pampered -3- parents who did not want to make the mistakes of the
previous generation, Generation Y is confident, ambitious and achievement-oriented. They have high
expectations of their employers, seek out new challenges and are not afraid to ask question authority.
Generation Y wants meaningful work and a soli learning curve.
Team-Oriented: As children, Generation Y participated in team sports, play groups and other group activities.
They value teamwork and seek the input and affirmation of others. Part of a no-person-left-behind generation,
Generation Y is loyal, committed and wants to be included and involved.
Attention-Craving: Generation Y craves attention in the forms of feedback and guidance. They appreciate
being kept in the loop and seek frequent praise and reassurance. Generation Y may benefit greatly from
mentors who can help guide and develop their young careers.

Font: legalcareers.about.com
The best example of a possessive pronoun is:
A) Their in Generation Y legal professionals are in their 20s and are just entering the workforce.
B) While in While older generations may view this attitude as narcissistic or lacking commitment...
C) This in As law firms compete for available talent, employers cannot ignore the needs, desires and
attitudes of this vast generation.
D) They in They appreciate being kept in the loop and seek frequent praise and reassurance.
E) Committees in Part of a no-person-left-behind generation, Generation Y is loyal, committed and wants
to be included and involved.

Os pronomes possessivos adjetivos so: my, your, his, her, its, their, our.
RESPOSTA: A.

9. (CTA TCNICO EM INFORMTICA VUNESP/2013)

Web content inventories of existing sites commonly take the form of a spreadsheet file with multiple
worksheets, containing long listings of every page in the site, along with such essential characteristics as
the page title, URL, people responsible for the content, and so on. Each page typically gets a row on the
spreadsheet, with columns listing such basic information as:
Unique id number for project purposes.

1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA 12


Page title.
Page template or type.
URL.
General type of content.
Person responsible for the content.
Keep/revise/discard decisions.
Create new content?
Review status
Extrado de: webstyleguide.com
De acordo com o texto, informaes como Ttulo de uma pgina e URL, geralmente, ficam
armazenadas como em:
A) Bancos de dados distribudos na rede.
B) Colunas de uma planilha.
C) Linhas de uma planilha.
D) Linhas e colunas de uma planilha.
E) Registros em um arquivo.

O texto afirma que todo o contedo da web armazenado na forma de planilhas, contendo longas
listas para cada pgina em um determinado site (...). Cada pgina tipicamente recebe uma coluna na
planilha, as colunas listam informaes bsicas como (os itens abaixo).
RESPOSTA: B.

10. (CTA TCNICO EM INFORMTICA VUNESP/2013)

Two of the greatest technologies of our age are telecommunications and computer engineering.
Telecommunications is concerned with moving information from one point to another point or from one
point to many other points. I think it is no exaggeration to say that the telecommunications industry is
largely taken for granted by the vast majority of people. If you were to ask the average person what the
greatest technological feat of 1969 was, they would probably reply The first manned landing on the moon.
A much more magnificent achievement was the ability of millions of people half a million kilometers away
to watch what was taking place on the moon in their own homes. However, if most people are not aware
of the great developments in the telecommunications industry, they will not have missed the
microprocessor revolution. In the last few years powerful computers have become even more powerful
and minicomputers and microprocessors have spread to industry education, research and the home.

Extrado de: The Principles of Computer Hardware, Alan Clements, International Student Edition, 2 nd, 1991)

De acordo com o texto, a provvel resposta The first manned landing on the moon, dada por uma
pessoa mdia, refere-se a uma determinada pergunta. Assinale a alternativa que apresenta a pergunta
provvel mencionada no texto.
A) A quem pertence a glria do feito em 1969?
B) Quem realizou um feito histrico em 1969?
C) Quem concretizou o maior sonho mundial em 1969?
D) Qual o maior desejo da populao em 1969?
E) Qual a maior faanha tecnolgica de 1969?

O texto afirma que. Se fosse pra voc perguntar a uma pessoa comum qual foi a maior realizao
tecnolgica de 1969, ela provavelmente responderia, o primeiro pouso tripulado na lua.
RESPOSTA: E.

11. (CTA TCNICO EM INFORMTICA VUNESP/2013)

Two of the greatest technologies of our age are telecommunications and computer engineering.
Telecommunications is concerned with moving information from one point to another point or from one
point to many other points. I think it is no exaggeration to say that the telecommunications industry is
largely taken for granted by the vast majority of people. If you were to ask the average person what the

1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA 13


greatest technological feat of 1969 was, they would probably reply The first manned landing on the moon.
A much more magnificent achievement was the ability of millions of people half a million kilometers away
to watch what was taking place on the moon in their own homes. However, if most people are not aware
of the great developments in the telecommunications industry, they will not have missed the
microprocessor revolution. In the last few years powerful computers have become even more powerful
and minicomputers and microprocessors have spread to industry education, research and the home.

Extrado de: The Principles of Computer Hardware, Alan Clements, International Student Edition, 2nd, 1991)

Com base no texto, nos ltimos anos, os computadores:


A) Ficaram ainda mais potentes.
B) Caminharam para uma miniaturizao crescente.
C) Passaram a ser utilizados na previso do tempo.
D) Revolucionaram a automao industrial.
E) Utilizaram intensivamente os microprocessadores.

O texto afirma na ltima frase que nos ltimos anos computadores poderosos se tornaram ainda mais
poderosos (...)

RESPOSTA: A.

12. (CETESB ADVOGADO VUNESP/2013)

Diet Drinks Link to depression questioned


Experts are questioning whether diet drinks could raise depression risk, after a large study
has found a link.

The US research in more than 250.000 people found depression was more common among frequent
consumers of artificially sweetened beverages. The work, which will be presented all the American
Academy of Neurologys annual meeting, did not look at the cause for this link.
Drinking coffee was linked with a lower risk of depression.
People who drank four cups a day were 10% less likely to be diagnosed with depression during the 10-
year study period than those who drank no coffee. But those who drank four cans or glasses of diet fizzy
drinks or artificially sweetened juice a day increased their risk of depression by about a third. Lead
researcher Dr Honglei Chen, of the National Institutes of Health in North Carolina, said: Our research
suggests that cutting out or down on sweetened diet drink or replacing them with unsweetened coffee may
naturally help lower your depression risk.
But he said more studies were needed to explore this. There are many other factors that may be
involved. And the findings in people in their 50s, 60s, 70s and 80s and living in the US might not apply
to other populations. The safety of sweeteners, like aspartame, has been extensively tested by scientists
and is assured by regulators.
Gaynor Bussell, of the British Dietetic Association, said: Sweeteners used to be called artificial
sweeteners and unfortunately the term artificial has evoked suspicion. As a result, sweeteners have been
very widely tested and reviewed for safety and the ones on the market have an excellent safety track
record. However, the studies on them continue and this one has thrown up a possible link not a cause
and effect with depression.
(www.bbc.co.uk)
According to the text, the research is:
A) Supported by the British Health regulators.
B) Widely accepted among scientific community.
C) Considered unimportant by the consumers.
D) Focused on artificially sweetened beverage.
E) Sponsored by the British Dietetic Association.

1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA 14


O primeiro pargrafo do texto afirma que uma pesquisa americana com mais de duzentos e cinquenta
mil pessoas descobriu que depresso era mais comum entre os consumidores frequentes de bebidas
com adoantes artificiais.
RESPOSTA: D.

13. (CETESB ADVOGADO VUNESP/2013)

Diet Drinks Link to depression questioned


Experts are questioning whether diet drinks could raise depression risk, after a large study
has found a link.

The US research in more than 250.000 people found depression was more common among frequent
consumers of artificially sweetened beverages. The work, which will be presented all the American
Academy of Neurologys annual meeting, did not look at the cause for this link.
Drinking coffee was linked with a lower risk of depression.
People who drank four cups a day were 10% less likely to be diagnosed with depression during the 10-
year study period than those who drank no coffee. But those who drank four cans or glasses of diet fizzy
drinks or artificially sweetened juice a day increased their risk of depression by about a third. Lead
researcher Dr Honglei Chen, of the National Institutes of Health in North Carolina, said: Our research
suggests that cutting out or down on sweetened diet drink or replacing them with unsweetened coffee may
naturally help lower your depression risk.
But he said more studies were needed to explore this. There are many other factors that may be
involved. And the findings in people in their 50s, 60s, 70s and 80s and living in the US might not apply
to other populations. The safety of sweeteners, like aspartame, has been extensively tested by scientists
and is assured by regulators.
Gaynor Bussell, of the British Dietetic Association, said: Sweeteners used to be called artificial
sweeteners and unfortunately the term artificial has evoked suspicion. As a result, sweeteners have been
very widely tested and reviewed for safety and the ones on the market have an excellent safety track
record. However, the studies on them continue and this one has thrown up a possible link not a cause
and effect with depression.
(www.bbc.co.uk)
According to the text, the research:
A) Relied on data from people living in different countries.
B) Held individuals from different age ranges.
C) Lacked accurate techniques and methodology.
D) Set net safety standards for sweeteners production.
E) Revealed depression traces in about 250.000 people.

No penltimo pargrafo o texto afirma que so necessrio mais estudos na rea. Existem muitos outros
fatores que podem estar envolvidos. E as descobertas, de pessoas nos seus 50, 60, 70 e 80 anos (...)
RESPOSTA: B.

14. (CETESB ADVOGADO VUNESP/2013)

Diet Drinks Link to depression questioned


Experts are questioning whether diet drinks could raise depression risk, after a large study
has found a link.

The US research in more than 250.000 people found depression was more common among frequent
consumers of artificially sweetened beverages. The work, which will be presented all the American
Academy of Neurologys annual meeting, did not look at the cause for this link.
Drinking coffee was linked with a lower risk of depression.
People who drank four cups a day were 10% less likely to be diagnosed with depression during the 10-
year study period than those who drank no coffee. But those who drank four cans or glasses of diet fizzy
drinks or artificially sweetened juice a day increased their risk of depression by about a third. Lead
researcher Dr Honglei Chen, of the National Institutes of Health in North Carolina, said: Our research
suggests that cutting out or down on sweetened diet drink or replacing them with unsweetened coffee may
naturally help lower your depression risk.

1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA 15


But he said more studies were needed to explore this. There are many other factors that may be
involved. And the findings in people in their 50s, 60s, 70s and 80s and living in the US might not apply
to other populations. The safety of sweeteners, like aspartame, has been extensively tested by scientists
and is assured by regulators.
Gaynor Bussell, of the British Dietetic Association, said: Sweeteners used to be called artificial
sweeteners and unfortunately the term artificial has evoked suspicion. As a result, sweeteners have been
very widely tested and reviewed for safety and the ones on the market have an excellent safety track
record. However, the studies on them continue and this one has thrown up a possible link not a cause
and effect with depression.

(www.bbc.co.uk)
In order to low depression risks, Dr Honglei Shen suggests:
A) Reducing the coffee consumption.
B) Increasing juice drinking.
C) Drinking more fizzy drinks.
D) The consumption of organic sugar.
E) Avoiding sweetened diet drinks.

No segundo pargrafo Dr Honglei Chen afirma que nossa pesquisa sugere que cortar ou diminuir o
consumo de refrigerantes diet ou substitui-los por caf sem acar pode naturalmente ajudar a diminuir o
risco de depresso.

RESPOSTA: E.

15. (CMARA DOS DEPUTADOS ANALISTA LEGISLATIVO - CESPE/2012)

In order for young people to do better in school, it helps if they actually are in school. Schools basically
have two options when it comes to fighting chronic truancy. Theres the positive approach, in which
students are rewarded with iPads, sneakers, gift cards, and other incentives merely for showing up at
school. Then theres the flip side, in which students and parents are penalized for unexcused absences.
In the past, parents have been sentenced to jail time for failing to get their children to school. Prosecutors
have also suggested jail time as a penalty for missing parent-teacher conferences. Now theres a school
system in the news because its superintendent plans on fining families $75 for each day a student skips
school.
In New Britain, Connecticut, a new superintendent of schools named Kelt Cooper wants to end high
truancy rates among public school students, and hes proposing monetary penalties to get the job done.
A plan to fine students $75 per skipped school day is now being considered by New Britain council
members.
The concept of fining kids for skipping school may come as a shock, but its not new. In Ohio, the
guardians responsible for a student guilty of habitual truancy can be fined up to $500 and/or be required
to perform up to 70 hours of community service. Until recently, students in Los Angeles could be hit with
a $250 penalty for each count of truancy; in early 2012 the law was amended and the expensive fines
were removed, though a $20 penalty may still be handed out for the third offense.
Internet. www.moneyland.com (adapted)

The article admits there are two ways of dealing with the problem of truancy.
A) Certo.
B) Errado.

A questo pede que o candidato determine. O artigo admite que existem dois modos de se lidar com
o problema de matar aulas. O texto afirma no primeiro pargrafo que existe a atuao positiva, onde os
estudantes so recompensados com iPads, tnis, vale compras, etc. O lado oposto onde os alunos e
pais so penalizados pelo excesso de faltas.

RESPOSTA: A.

1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA 16


Aspectos gramaticais: uso de artigos definidos e
indefinidos; tempos e modos verbais; uso de preposies,
conjunes e pronomes e modais; comparao;
concordncia nominal e verbal; formao e classe de
palavras; relaes de subordinao e coordenao; voz
passiva, discurso direto e indireto

Substantivos: gnero, nmero, contveis e incontveis

Substantivos, que no ingls so conhecidos como nouns, so palavras que do nome a pessoas,
lugares, coisas, conceitos, aes, sentimentos, etc. Tambm chamados de nomes, eles funcionam de
muitas maneiras nas sentenas. Na maioria das vezes, posicionam-se como o sujeito de um verbo,
funcionando como o ator ou agente dele. Os nomes tambm podem receber uma ao quando funcionam
como objeto do verbo. Quando atuam como sujeitos ou objetos, os substantivos podem ser apenas uma
palavra, frases, ou clusulas.

Exemplos:
The plane crashed. (substantivo como sujeito da frase)
He kicked the dog. (substantivo como objeto direto do verbo)
A maioria dos substantivos forma o plural com o acrscimo de -s. Por exemplo:

Singular Plural
dog dogs
cat cats
House houses
Friend friends

Quando o substantivo termina em -y e precedido por consoante, faz-se o plural com -ies.
a canary canaries
a library libraries
a pony ponies
a story stories

Se o substantivo termina em -s, -ss, -z, -sh, -ch, -x (exceo: ox => oxen), acrescentamos -es para
formar o plural:
A beach two beaches
A church two churches
A dish two dishes
A fox two foxes

Existem algumas formas irregulares de plural. Alguns exemplos comuns so:


Woman women
Man men
Child children
Tooth teeth
Foot feet
Goose geese
Mouse mice
Person people
Ox oxen

Para alguns terminados em -f ou -fe, trocamos estas letras por -ves. Para outros, apenas usamos -s:

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Knife knives
Wife wives
Life lives
Calf calves
Leaf leaves
Loaf loaves
Thief thieves
Wolf wolves

"Falsos Plurais": A maioria dos nomes de cincias e outros substantivos terminados em -ics so
singulares, isto , no apresentam formas distintas quando no plural. O verbo correspondente fica no
singular:
Politics is a complicated business which most people detest.
(Poltica um negcio complicado o qual a maioria das pessoas detesta.)

Acoustics (Acstica)
Athletics (Atletismo)
Electronics (Eletrnica)
Genetics (Gentica)
Linguistics (Lingustica)
Mathematics (Matemtica)
Physics (Fsica)
Politics (Poltica)
Statistics (Estatstica)

- No entanto, quando essas palavras so usadas com outros sentidos, o verbo poder ir para o plural:
What are your politics? (Quais so suas polticas?)
The unemployment statistics are disturbing. (As estatsticas de desemprego so perturbadoras.)

Substantivos contveis e no contveis

Fonte: http://goo.gl/oiXKLN

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Na tabela acima ns temos os exemplos de alguns alimentos divididos nas duas categorias que iremos
explicar abaixo, contveis e incontveis. Aqui iremos tambm traduzir todos os alimentos da lista, assim
o estudante no precisa ficar procurando em um dicionrio um por um.

Countables Contveis Uncountables Incontveis


Bun Bolinho Bread Po
Sandwich Sanduiche Fruit Fruta
Apple Maa Juice Suco
Orange Laranja Meat Carne
Burguer Hamburguer Rice Arroz
Fries Batata frita Cereal Cereal
Eggs Ovos Jam Gelia
Salad Salada Milk Leite
Vegetables Vegetais Coffee Caf
Cookies Biscoitos Sugar Aucar
Potatoes Batatas Flour Farinha
Tomato Tomates Oil leo
Carrot Cenoura Salt Sal
Hot Dog Cachorro quente Soup Sopa
Candies Doces Tea Ch
Olives Azeitonas Cottage Cheese Coalhada
Peanuts Amedoins Pasta Massa
Pancakes Panquecas Honey Mel
Onion Cebola Water gua
Watermelon Melancia Cheese Quejo
Pea Ervilha Butter Queijo
Grapes Uvas Seafood Frutos do mar
Cherries Cerejas Mustard Mostarda

Contveis so aqueles substantivos que podemos enumerar e contar, ou seja, que podem possuir
tanto forma singular quanto plural. Eles so chamados de countable nouns ou de count nouns, em ingls.

Por exemplo, podemos contar pencil. Podemos dizer one pencil, two pencils, three pencils, etc.

Incontveis so os substantivos que no possuem forma no plural. Eles so chamados de


uncountable nouns, de non-countable nouns, ou at de non-count nouns, em ingls. Podem ser
precedidos por alguma unidade de medida ou quantificador. Em geral, eles indicam substncias, lquidos,
ps, conceitos, etc., que no podemos dividir em elementos separados. Por exemplo, no podemos
contar water em por exemplo one water ou two waters. Podemos, sim, contar "bottles of water" ou
"liters of water", mas no podemos contar water em sua forma lquida.

Outros exemplos de substantivos incontveis so: music, art, love, happiness, advice, information,
news, furniture, luggage, rice, sugar, butter, water, milk, coffee, electricity, gas, power, money, etc.

Em geral, estudantes de lngua inglesa tm dificuldade de saber quando um substantivo contvel e


quando no-contvel. As dicas so sempre conferir a informao num bom dicionrio e tambm tentar
memorizar alguns dos mais comuns para agilizar o seu estudo. Nos dicionrios, normalmente voc
encontra o smbolo [U] para identificar os uncountable nouns e [C] para os countable nouns.

Em vrias situaes necessitamos de fazer o uso de determinantes/quantificadores em conjunto com


substantivos contveis e incontveis.

H determinantes especficos para os incontveis: a little, little, less, much.

Exemplos:

I have little time to study today.


Eu tenho pouco tempo para estudar hoje.

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She has little patience with her kids.
Ela tem pouca pacincia com seus filhos.

He demonstrates less aptitude.


Ele demonstra menos aptido.

Judy and her husband have much money.


Judy e seu marido tm bastante dinheiro.

E h alguns especficos para uso com substantivos contveis: a few, few, fewer, many.

Exemplos:

There are a few coins in my wallet.


H algumas moedas na minha carteira.

Few people went to the show.


Poucas pessoas foram ao show.

We can see fewer cars on the streets today.


Ns podemos ver menos carros nas ruas hoje.
He has many friends.
Ele tem muitos amigos.

Existe ainda o determinante a lot of que pode ser utilizado tanto para substantivos contveis como
incontveis. Ele apelidade de coringa porque serve para ambas as categorias. Mas lembre-se de focar
os estudos nos demais principalmente no much e many. Os concursos sempre focm mais no much e
many na tentativa de confundir o candidato.

Exemplo:

I have a lot of money.


Eu tenho um monte de dinheiro.

I have much money.


Eu tenho muito dinheiro.

There are a lot of cars in the street tonight.


Tem um monte de carros na rua esta noite.

There are many cars in the street tonight.


Tem muitos carros na rua esta noite.

Modificadores de substantivos

Modifiers so palavras, locues, frases, ou clusulas que qualificam o significado de outras palavras.
O termo bem genrico: qualquer parte da fala que funciona como um adjetivo ou advrbio um
modificador.

Nos exemplos abaixo, o modifier est em negrito e a palavra que ele modifica est sublinhada; a
funo do modificador est descrita abaixo.

Adjetivos descrevem ou modificam nomes. Uma locuo adjetiva ou clusula adjetiva funciona da
mesma maneira que uma simples palavra funcionaria.

Exemplos:

The yellow balloon flew away over the crying child.


O balo amarelo voou sobre a criana chorona.

1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA 20


O adjetivo yellow modifica o substantivo balloon; crying modifica child.

Artigos so palavras que acompanham os substantivos e tem funo de classifica-los.

Exemplos:

The killer selected a knife from an antique collection.


O assassino escolheu uma faca de uma antiga coleo.

The, a, e an so artigos que especificam ou delimitam seus respectivos substantivos.

Advrbios descrevem verbos, adjetivos, ou outros advrbios, completando a ideia de como, quanto
ou quando. Uma locuo adverbial ou clusula adverbial funciona da mesma forma que um nico advrbio
funcionaria.

Exemplos:

The woman carefully selected her best dress for the party.
A mulher cuidadosamente escolheu seu melhor vestido para a festa.
Carefully um advrbio que modifica o verbo selected.

Pronomes: pessoal, oblquo, possessivo, reflexivo, demonstrativo, indefinido e interrogativo

1. Pronomes Pessoais:
Em ingls existem dois tipos de pronomes pessoais, eles so: Subject Pronouns e Object Pronouns.

Subject Pronouns
I EU
(Usados como sujeito da frase)
YOU VOC
HE ELE
SHE ELA
IT ELE / ELA (COISAS E
ANIMAIS)
WE NS
YOU VOCS
THEY ELES / ELAS
Exemplos:
I study English and Japanese.
She works in a big city.

Object Pronous
(Usados como objeto da frase) ME
YOU
HIM
HER
IT
US
YOU
THEM

Exemplos:
They gave me the book.
She always see him at school.

2. Pronomes Possessivos:
Em ingls h, tambm, dois tipos de pronomes possessivos, os Possessive Adjectives e os
Possessive Pronouns.

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POSSESSIVE POSSESSIVE
ADJECTIVES PRONOUNS
MY MINE
YOUR YOURS
HIS HIS
HER HERS
ITS ITS
OUR OURS
YOUR YOURS
THEIR THEIRS

* Possessive Adjectives so usados antes de substantivos, precedidos ou no de adjetivos.


Exemplos:
Her parents live in London.
I want your new dress.

* Possessive Pronouns so usados para substituir a construo possessive adjective +


substantivo, evitando, portanto, a repetio.

Exemplo:
My car is red, but theirs is black.

3. Pronomes reflexivos: MYSELF


YOURSELF
HIMSELF
HERSELF
ITSELF
OURSELVES
YOURSELVES
THEMSELVES

Exemplos:

He hurt himself. (Ele se cortou)


I cut myself. (Eu me cortei)

Observao:
Os pronomes reflexivos tambm possuem funo enftica. Veja alguns exemplos:
They themselves built their houses. (Eles prprios construram a casa)
We ourselves made this surprise to you. (Ns mesmos preparamos essa surpresa para voc)

4. Pronomes Demonstrativos:

SINGULAR Traduo Exemplo


THIS esse / essa This is my favorite book.
THAT aquele / aquela That is my cat.

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PLURAL Traduo Exemplo
THESE esses / essas These are my friends from school.
THOSE aqueles / aquelas Those are the English teachers.

5. Pronomes Indefinidos:

Derivaes do SOME SOMETIME (alguma vez)


SOMEWHERE (algum lugar)
SOMEONE (algum)
SOMETHING (alguma coisa / algo)

Derivaes do ANY ANYWHERE (em qualquer lugar, em algum lugar, em nenhum lugar)
ANYBODY (qualquer pessoa, algum, ningum)
ANYTHING (qualquer coisa, nada, algo)

6. Pronomes Interrogativos:

Pronomes Traduo Exemplos:

WHAT O que? What do you study? (O que voc estuda?)


WHERE Onde? Where do you live? (Onde voc mora?)

WHEN Quando? When did he come to Brazil? (Quando ele veio para o Brasil?)

WHO Quem? Who is your friend? (Quem seu amigo?)

WHOSE De quem? Whose wallet is this? (De quem essa carteira?)


WHY Por que? Why is she sad? (Por que ela est triste?)

HOW Como? How do you prepare lemon pie?

Questes

Preencha as frases com o pronome correto:

01. .......... and ........... mother are from Japan.


(A) I - my
(B) Me - my
(C) their - my
(D) I - mine
(E) She hers

Resposta A
I pronome sujeito
My pronome possessivo usado antes do substantivo mother - me

02. ............. do they study here? Because they like our school.
(A) Where
(B) When
(C) Why
(D) Who
(E) What

Resposta C

03. She combs .....................


(A) himself

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(B) yourself
(C) myself
(D) herself
(E) itself

Resposta D

04. (SEFAZ/SP AGENTE FISCAL DE RENDAS GESTO TRIBUTRIA FCC/2013)

For taxpayer advocate, a familiar refrain


By Michelle Singletary, Published: January 15, 2013

Its not nice to tell people I told you so. But if anybody has the right to say that, its Nina E. Olson, the
national taxpayer advocate. Olson recently submitted her annual report to Congress and top on her list of
things that need to be fixed in the complexity of the tax code, which she called the most serious problem
facing taxpayers. Lets just look at the most recent evidence of complexity run amok. The Internal Revenue
Service had to delay the tax-filing season so it could update forms and its programming to accommodate
recent changes made under the American Taxpayer Relief Act.
The IRS wont start processing individual income tax returns until Jan. 30. Yet one thing remains
unchanged the April 15 tax deadline. Because of the new tax laws, the IRS also had to release updated
income-tax withholding tables for 2013. These replace the tables issued Dec. 31. Yes, lets just keep
making more work for the agency that is already overburdened. Not to mention the extra work for
employers, who have to use the revised information to correct the amount of Social Security tax withheld
in 2013. And they have to make that correction in order to withhold a larger Social Security tax of 6.2
percent on wages, following the expiration of the payroll tax cut in effect for 2011 and 2012.
Oh, and there was the near miss with the alternative minimum tax that could have delayed the fax filling
season to late March. The AMT was created to target high-income taxpayers who were claiming so many
deductions that they owed little or no income tax. Olson and many others have complained for years that
the AMT wasnt indexed for inflation. Many middle- and upper-middle-class taxpayers pay the AMT, while
most wealthy taxpayers do not, and thousands of millionaires pay ..A.. income tax at all, Olson said.
As part of the recent fiscal cliff deal, the AMT is now fixed, a move that the IRS was anticipating. It
had already decided to program its systems on the assumption that an AMT patch would be passed, Olson
said. Had the agency not taken the risk, the time it would have taken to update the systems would have
brought about the most chaotic filing season in memory, she said in her report.
The tax code contains almost 4 million words. Since 2001, there have been about 4,680 changes, or
an average of more than one change a day. What else troubles Olson? Heres what:
- Nearly 60 percent of taxpayers hire paid preparers, and another 30 percent rely on commercial
software to prepare their returns.
- Many taxpayers dont really know how their taxes are computed and what rate of tax they pay.
- The complex code makes tax fraud ..B.. to detect.
- Because the code is so complicated, it creates an impression that many taxpayers are not paying
their fair share. This reduces trust in the system and perhaps leads some people to cheat. Who
wants to be the sucker in this game? So someone might not declare all of his income, rationalizing
that millionaires get to use the convoluted code to greatly reduce their tax liability.
- In fiscal year 2012, the IRS received around 125 million calls. But the agency answered only about
two out of three calls from people trying to reach a live person, and those taxpayers had to wait, on
average, about 17 minutes to get through.
I hope 2013 brings about fundamental tax simplification, Olson pleaded in her report. She urged
Congress to reassess the need for the tax breaks we know as income exclusions, exemptions, deductions
and credits. Its all these tax advantage breaks that complicate the code. If done right, and without reducing
revenue, tax rates could be substantially lowered in exchange for ending tax breaks, she said.

(Adapted from http://js.washingtonpost.com)

A alternativa que preenche corretamente a lacuna ..A.. :


(A) No.
(B) Any.

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(C) Lots.
(D) Some.
(E) Little.

Resposta A
No trecho em questo Muitos contribuintes de mdia e mdia-alta classe pagam AMT, enquanto os
contribuintes mais ricos no, e milhares de milionrios pagam (nenhum) imposto de renda. Como o verbo
pay est na afirmativa, para fazer a negativa no sentido de nada, s podemos usar a palavra no.

05. (CPTM ANALISTA ADMINISTRATIVO JNIOR MAKIYAMA/2012)

Generation Y
By Sally Kane, About.com Guide

Born in the mid-1980s and later, Generation Y legal professionals are in their 20s and are just entering
the workforce. With numbers estimated as high as 70 million, Generation Y (also -1- as the Millennials) is
the fastest growing segment of todays workforce. As law firms compete for available talent, employers
cannot ignore the needs, desires and attitudes of this vast generation.
Below are a few common traits that define Generation Y.
Tech-Savvy: Generation Y grew up with technology and rely on it to perform their jobs better. Armed
with BlackBerrys, laptops, cellphones and other gadgets, Generation Y is plugged-in 24 hours a day, 7
days a week. This generation prefers to communicate through e-mail and text messaging rather than face-
to-face contact and -2- webinars and online technology to traditional lecture-based presentations.
Family-Centric: The fast-track has lost much of its appeal for Generation Y who is willing to trade high
pay for fewer billable hours, flexible schedules and a better work/life balance. While older generations may
view this attitude as narcissistic or lacking commitment, discipline and drive, Generation Y legal
professionals have a different vision of workplace expectations and prioritize family over work.
Achievement-Oriented: Nurtured and pampered -3- parents who did not want to make the mistakes of
the previous generation, Generation Y is confident, ambitious and achievement-oriented. They have high
expectations of their employers, seek out new challenges and are not afraid to ask question authority.
Generation Y wants meaningful work and a solid learning curve.
Team-Oriented: As children, Generation Y participated in team sports, play groups and other group
activities. They value teamwork and seek the input and affirmation of others. Part of a no-person-left-
behind generation, Generation Y is loyal, committed and wants to be included and involved.
Attention-Craving: Generation Y craves attention in the forms of feedback and guidance. They
appreciate being kept in the loop and seek frequent praise and reassurance. Generation Y may benefit
greatly from mentors who can help guide and develop their young careers.
Font: legalcareers.about.com

The best example of a possessive pronoun is:

(A)Their in Generation Y legal professionals are in their 20s and are just entering the workforce.
(B)While in While older generations may view this attitude as narcissistic or lacking commitment...
(C)This in As law firms compete for available talent, employers cannot ignore the needs, desires and
attitudes of this vast generation.
(D)They in They appreciate being kept in the loop and seek frequent praise and reassurance.
(E)Committees in Part of a no-person-left-behind generation, Generation Y is loyal, committed and
wants to be included and involved.

Resposta A
Os pronomes possessivos adjetivos so: my, your, his, her, its, their, our.

06. (TERMOBAHIA TCNICO DE SEGURANA JNIOR CESGRANRIO/2012)

Committee decides to lower the use of thermoelectric power generation

GTCIT Magazine

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The Monitoring Committee of the Electric Sector (CMSE) decided on Monday (may 30, 2012), to
diminish the thermoelectric power generation in Brazil as of next week. According to the Ministry of Mines
and Energy, Mrcio Zimmermann, the thermoelectric generation, which currently averages 4.000
megawatts (MW), should now be reduced to 2.500 MW.
These plants are used in Brazil mainly to prevent a power outage in the country in times of drought,
when the reservoirs of the dams are low. But the ministry assured that the reservoir of the hydroelectric
plants are satisfactory, and that there will be no need to resort to the thermoelectric resources.
According to the Minister Zimmermann, the Southeast has an average of 90% of its reservoirs full,
which is an excellent level for this time of year. Even the Northeast, whose reservoir levels are a little
lower, do not compromise system security.
The system is operating perfectly within the current conditions, which safely allows us to reduce the
generation of thermoelectric energy. This will give us an economic surplus that can be used towards
system maintenance and in the implementation of new quality programs for the energy sector, he said.
He also explained that: of course, this does not mean that the committee will not be flexible as to this
decision in case the current conditions take an unexpected turn. They will be following the reduction of
the projection for the coming months and, if necessary, the plans will be changed according to the
demands vis-avis resources.
Available at: www.gtcit.com

In the text, They (line 28) refers to the:


(OBS: Os nmeros das linhas na questo podem variar por conta da diagramao do material.)

(A) Plans.
(B) Resources.
(C) Conditions.
(D) Demands.
(E) Committee.

Resposta E
A questo pede que o candidato determine. De acordo com o texto, o pronome they se refere . No
ltimo pargrafo o texto afirma que, claro que isso no quer dizer que o comit no ser flexvel a sua
deciso caso as condies atuais mudem drasticamente. Eles iro seguir a reduo (...). Eles se refere
aos membros do comit que tomaram tal deciso.

07. ANVISA ANALISTA ADMINISTRATIVO CETRO/2013)

FDA seems to take light approach to Allergan and LAP-BAND

In 1960, a young inspector for the Food and Drug Administration faced down a powerful drug company
by rejecting its application to sell a morning-sickness drug in the United States. The company, Richardson-
Merrell, griped about her repeated demands for more safety data. They complained to her superiors,
branding her as nitpicker. But she stood firm. The drug is question was thalidomide, and worldwide as
many as 12.000 children were born with severe birth defects after their mothers used it, in the U.S., where
Frances Kelsey blocked Merrell from disturbing the drug expect to a few doctors for experimental trials,
the toll was 17. Todays FDA isnt that FDA.
Todays FDA can be steamrolled. Todays FDA just approved an application by Allergan to expand the
target market of its Lap-Band weight-loss device potentially by tens of millions of patients. How much
safety data did the FDA review before giving Allergan the green light? Mainly the results of one year of
study of 149 patients. Kelsey has said that she demanded more information form Merrell, thalidomides
U.S. manufacturer, because its history of conflicts with the agency made her suspicious. Is there any
reason to mistrust Allergan? Lets look at the record. In September, Allergan pleaded guilty to one criminal
count and paid $600 million in fines and penalties to settle federal charges that it had illegally marketed
Botox for uses the FDA hadnt approved. In accepting the plea bargain, the government charged that the
company had made under-the-table payments to doctors who used Botox to treat unapproved conditions,
created front groups and websites to push the broader uses of the drug while concealing Allergans
backing, and coached physicians to over-diagnose a condition for which Botox could be legally marketed
so it could sell more product. Allergan took these steps, the government contended, because the approved
uses had meager sales potential. The most prevalent condition for which Botox treatment was approved,

1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA 26


cervical dystonia, is a neck spasm that affects only about 27.000 people, Allergan wanted doctors to
prescribe Botox for headaches. Botoxs sales grew 1.407% and by 2007, total Botox sales exceeded $500
million. More than 70% of that was unapproved uses.
This didnt seem to enter into the FDAs review of Allergans application to expand its marketing of the
Lap-Band, a device thats surgically implanted around the stomach. So far, the approved use has been for
morbidly obese people. An FDA advisory panel, which gave preliminary approval to Allergans application,
wasnt entirely happy with the companys data supporting its safety and efficacy claims for the Lap-Band
its own 149-patient study and six other studies, at least three of which conducted by researchers with
financial links to Allergan but they felt that the Lap-Bands benefits outweighed the risks.
(HILTZIKLOS, M., Adapted from Los Angeles Times, 22/02/2011)

Read the sentence below

Botoxs sales grew 1.407% and by 2007, total Botox sales exceeded $500 million. More than 70% of
that was for unapproved uses.

It is correct to affirm that the underlined word refers to:


(A) Botox.
(B) Million.
(C)Total.
(D)Sales.
(E)Uses.

Resposta D
A questo pede que o candidato determine. Leia a sentena abaixo e afirme ao que a palavra
sublinhada se refere. As vendas de Botox cresceram 1.407% e em 2007 a venda total de Botox passou
de 500 milhes de dlares. Mais de 70% disso (vendas) foram para usos no aprovados.

08. ANVISA ANALISTA ADMINISTRATIVO CETRO/2013)

FDA seems to take light approach to Allergan and LAP-BAND

In 1960, a young inspector for the Food and Drug Administration faced down a powerful drug company
by rejecting its application to sell a morning-sickness drug in the United States. The company, Richardson-
Merrell, griped about her repeated demands for more safety data. They complained to her superiors,
branding her as nitpicker. But she stood firm. The drug is question was thalidomide, and worldwide as
many as 12.000 children were born with severe birth defects after their mothers used it, in the U.S., where
Frances Kelsey blocked Merrell from disturbing the drug expect to a few doctors for experimental trials,
the toll was 17. Todays FDA isnt that FDA.
Todays FDA can be steamrolled. Todays FDA just approved an application by Allergan to expand the
target market of its Lap-Band weight-loss device potentially by tens of millions of patients. How much
safety data did the FDA review before giving Allergan the green light? Mainly the results of one year of
study of 149 patients. Kelsey has said that she demanded more information form Merrell, thalidomides
U.S. manufacturer, because its history of conflicts with the agency made her suspicious. Is there any
reason to mistrust Allergan? Lets look at the record. In September, Allergan pleaded guilty to one criminal
count and paid $600 million in fines and penalties to settle federal charges that it had illegally marketed
Botox for uses the FDA hadnt approved. In accepting the plea bargain, the government charged that the
company had made under-the-table payments to doctors who used Botox to treat unapproved conditions,
created front groups and websites to push the broader uses of the drug while concealing Allergans
backing, and coached physicians to over-diagnose a condition for which Botox could be legally marketed
so it could sell more product. Allergan took these steps, the government contended, because the approved
uses had meager sales potential. The most prevalent condition for which Botox treatment was approved,
cervical dystonia, is a neck spasm that affects only about 27.000 people, Allergan wanted doctors to
prescribe Botox for headaches. Botoxs sales grew 1.407% and by 2007, total Botox sales exceeded $500
million. More than 70% of that was unapproved uses.
This didnt seem to enter into the FDAs review of Allergans application to expand its marketing of the
Lap-Band, a device thats surgically implanted around the stomach. So far, the approved use has been for

1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA 27


morbidly obese people. An FDA advisory panel, which gave preliminary approval to Allergans application,
wasnt entirely happy with the companys data supporting its safety and efficacy claims for the Lap-Band
its own 149-patient study and six other studies, at least three of which conducted by researchers with
financial links to Allergan but they felt that the Lap-Bands benefits outweighed the risks.
(HILTZIKLOS, M., Adapted from Los Angeles Times, 22/02/2011)

Read the sentence below and choose the alternative that correctly links the underlined words to the
nouns they refer to.

An FDA advisory panel, (I) which gave preliminary approval to Allergans application, wasnt entirely
happy with the companys data supporting (II) its safety and efficacy claims for the Lap-Band (III) its own
149-patient study and six other studies, at least three of (IV) which conducted by researchers with financial
links to Allergan.

(A) I. which refers to panel; II. its refers to company; III. its refers to company; IV. which refers
to studies.
(B) I. which refers to DFA; II. its refers to Allergan; III. its refers to Allergan; IV. which refers
to claims.
(C) I. which refers to panel; II. its refers to data; III. its refers to Lap-Band; IV. which refers to
patient.
(D) I. which refers to FDA; II. its refers to company; III. its refers to Allergan; IV. which refers
to Studies.
(E) I. which refers to panel; II. its refers to data; III. its refers to company; IV. which refers to
data.

Resposta A
A questo pede que o candidato determine. Leia a sentena abaixo e escolha a alternativa que
corretamente ligue as palavras sublinhadas com os substantivos os quais elas se referem. O painel de
conselhos da FDA, o qual (painel) deu aprovao preliminar para a proposta da Allergan, no estando
totalmente feliz com os dados de apoio da empresa e suas (da empresa) alegaes de eficincia e
segurana para o Lap-Band seu (da empresa) prprio estudo com 149 pacientes e outros seis estudos,
os quais (os estudos) pelo menos trs foram conduzidos por pesquisadores com ligaes financeiras a
Allergan.

09. (TERMOBAHIA TCNICO DE ADMINISTRAO E CONTROLE JNIOR


CESGRANRIO/2012)

Committee decides to lower the use of thermoelectric power generation

GTCIT Magazine

The Monitoring Committee of the Electric Sector (CMSE) decided on Monday (may 30, 2012), to
diminish the thermoelectric power generation in Brazil as of next week. According to the Ministry of Mines
and Energy, Mrcio Zimmermann, the thermoelectric generation, which currently averages 4.000
megawatts (MW), should now be reduced to 2.500 MW.
These plants are used in Brazil mainly to prevent a power outage in the country in times of drought,
when the reservoirs of the dams are low. But the ministry assured that the reservoir of the hydroelectric
plants are satisfactory, and that there will be no need to resort to the thermoelectric resources.
According to the Minister Zimmermann, the Southeast has an average of 90% of its reservoirs full,
which is an excellent level for this time of year. Even the Northeast, whose reservoir levels are a little
lower, do not compromise system security.
The system is operating perfectly within the current conditions, which safely allows us to reduce the
generation of thermoelectric energy. This will give us an economic surplus that can be used towards
system maintenance and in the implementation of new quality programs for the energy sector, he said.
He also explained that: of course, this does not mean that the committee will not be flexible as to this
decision in case the current conditions take an unexpected turn. They will be following the reduction of

1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA 28


the projection for the coming months and, if necessary, the plans will be changed according to the
demands vis-avis resources.
Available at: www.gtcit.com

In the text, They (line 28) refers to the:


(OBS: Os nmeros das linhas na questo podem variar por conta da diagramao do material.)

(A)Plans.
(B)Resources.
(C)Conditions.
(D)Demands.
(E)Committee.

Resposta E
A questo pede que o candidato determine. De acordo com o texto, o pronome they se refere . No
ltimo pargrafo o texto afirma que, claro que isso no quer dizer que o comit no ser flexvel a sua
deciso caso as condies atuais mudem drasticamente. Eles iro seguir a reduo (...). Eles se refere
aos membros do comit que tomaram tal deciso.

10. (INNOVA ADVOGADO JNIOR CESGRANRIO/2012)

The Underwater Centre secures its biggest ever contract worth $1.3 million to train
Russian saturation divers

Your Oil and Gas News Magazine

The worlds leading commercial diver and Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) training facility, based in
the Scottish Highlands and Australia, has secured its biggest contract worth US$ 1.3millin to train
Russian saturation divers. The award cements its reputation as a major service provider for the growing
worldwide oil and gas industry.
The men, already experienced air divers, were trained on saturation procedures and techniques and
will receive the Australian Diver Accreditation Scheme (ADAS) and the Closed Bell certification. More
advanced than the ADAS, the Closed Bell is the certification appropriate to deep water dives of 60 meters
/ 200 feet, using a trimix tank with 16 percent oxygen (O2).
During the training, divers lived in a chamber for up to 28 days, which was pressurized to the same
pressure of the sea, exactly at the depth that they will be working at. Living and working at pressure mean
that they can be transported quickly and efficiently to the work site under the water without decompression
stops, allowing divers to work in much greater depths and for much longer periods of time.
MRTS Managing Director Alexander Kolikov said: Oil and gas firms in Russia are currently facing a
skills shortage due to the rapidly increasing amount of exploration work underway at the moment. By
investing in the training of our divers in saturation diving, we are addressing this need for experts in
maintenance and repair activities vital to maintaining Russias subsea infrastructure.
Steve Ham, General Manager at the Fort William Centre said: We were delighted when MRTS chose
The Underwater Centre to train its divers in saturation diving, and I think this is testament to the hard work
we have been putting in to ensure our reputation as a world-class training facility.
Available at: http://www.youroilandgasnews.com

The possessive pronoun its (line 6) refers to


(OBS: Os nmeros das linhas na questo podem variar por conta da diagramao do material.)

(A) Commercial diver and Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) training facility (lines 1-2)
(B) Scottish Highlands and Australia (line 3)
(C) Biggest ever contract (line 4)
(D) Russian saturation divers (line 5)
(E) Oil and gas industry (line 7)

Resposta A

1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA 29


A questo pede que o candidato determine a que o pronome possessivo its se refere. A primeira
parte do texto qualifica o centro de treinamento para mergulhadores e veculos operados remotamente.
Em seguida (no trecho em que temos o pronome its) o texto fala que o prmio cimenta sua reputao.
No caso esse sua se refere ao mesmo centro.

Adjetivos: grau comparativo e superlativo

Os adjetivos em ingls so invariveis tanto em gnero, quanto em nmero. Assim, enquanto no


Portugus fala-se O menino rico / A menina rica, em ingls, fala-se The boy is rich / The girl is
rich, sem mudana de gnero.
O mesmo ocorre com a questo de singular e plural, veja os exemplos:

Eles so felizes / They are happy


Ns gostamos de ler bons jornais / We like to read good newspapers

Alguns adjetivos comuns em ingls:


ACCEPTABLE ACEITVEL
AMAZING INCRVEL
ANGRY BRAVO
BORING CHATO / TEDIOSO
BUSY OCUPADO
DANGEROUS PERIGOSO
DIRTY SUJO
EMPTY VAZIO
FAST RPIDO
FULL CHEIO
HUGE ENORME
YOUNG JOVEM

Ordem dos Adjetivos

Os adjetivos em ingls seguem a seguinte ordem:

OPINION SIZE AGE SHAPE COLOR ORIGIN MATERIAL PURPOSE NOUN


opinio tamanho idade forma cor origem matria propsito substantivo

Example: Lovely small old square black Chinese leather school backpack.

Adjetivos: grau comparativo e superlativo

As formas comparativas e superlativas dos adjetivos ou advrbios na lngua inglesa, so usadas de


acordo com a quantidade de coisas (objetos, pessoas, animais, cidades, etc.) que so comparadas.

Usamos o grau Comparativo para compararmos sempre duas coisas.

Usamos o grau Superlativo para destacarmos uma coisa dentro de um grupo de trs ou mais.

Formas Invariveis

As formas invariveis so aquelas que o Adjetivo ou Advrbio no mudam a escrita, apenas


acrescentamos as formas de igualdade, superioridade ou inferioridade. Veja a tabela abaixo:

1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA 30


Exemplos:
as cold as to frio quanto

NOT so (as) cold as no to frio quanto

Less cold than menos frio que

the least cold o menos frio

as expensive as to caro quanto

NOT so (as) expensive as no to caro quanto

Less expensive than menos caro que

The least expensive o menos caro

Formas Variveis

As formas variveis so aquelas onde o adjetivo ou advrbio mudam a escrita. So aplicadas apenas
as palavras curtas, ou seja, aquelas com uma ou duas slabas. Modificamos as terminaes seguindo
algumas observaes que sero estudadas abaixo:

1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA 31


Observaes:

1. Usamos os sufixos ER ou EST com adjetivos / advrbios de uma s slaba.

Exemplos:

taller than = mais alto que the tallest = o mais alto

bigger than = maior que the biggest = o maior

2. Usamos os sufixos ER ou EST com adjetivos de duas slabas.

Exemplos:
happier than = mais feliz que

cleverer than = mais esperto que

the happiest = o mais feliz

the cleverest = o mais esperto

3. Usamos os prefixos MORE e MOST com adjetivos de mais de duas slabas.

Exemplos:
MORE comfortable than = mais confortvel que

MORE careful than = mais cuidadoso que

THE MOST comfortable = o mais confortvel

THE MOST careful = o mais cuidadoso

4. Usamos os prefixos MORE e MOST com advrbios de duas slabas.


Exemplos:
MORE afraid than = mais amedrontado que

MORE asleep than = mais adormecido que

THE MOST afraid = o mais amedrontado

THE MOST asleep = o mais adormecido

5. Usamos os prefixos MORE e MOST com qualquer adjetivo terminado em ED, ING, FUL, RE,
OUS.
Exemplos:

tired more tired than the most tired (cansado)

charming more charming than the most charming (charmoso)

hopeful more hopeful than the most hopeful (esperanoso)

sincere more sincere than the most sincere (sincero)

famous more famous than the most famous (famoso)

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Variaes Ortogrficas

1. Adjetivos monossilbicos terminados em uma s consoante precedida de uma s vogal, dobram


a consoante final antes de receberem ER ou EST.

Exemplos:

fat fatter than the fattest (gordo)


thin thinner than the thinnest (magro)

2. Adjetivos terminados em Y precedido de vogal trocam o Y para I antes do acrscimo de


-ER ou EST.

Exemplos:

angry angrier than the angriest (zangado)


happy happier than the happiest (feliz)

EXCEO
shy shyer than the shyest (tmido)

3. Adjetivos terminados em E recebem apenas R ou ST.

Exemplos:

nice nicer than the nicest (bonito, simptico)


brave braver than the bravest (corajoso)

Formas Irregulares

1. Alguns adjetivos e advrbios tm formas irregulares no comparativo e superlativo de superioridade.

Good (bom / boa) Better than - the best


Well (bem)
Bad (ruim / mau) Worse than - the worst
Badly (mal)
Little (pouco) Less than - the least

2. Alguns adjetivos e advrbios tm mais de uma forma no comparativo e superlativo de superioridade.

Farther than the farthest


Far (longe) (distncia)
further (than) the furthest
(distncia / adicional)
older than the oldest
Old (velho) elder the eldest (s para elementos
da mesma famlia)
Late (tarde) the latest (o mais recente)
the last (o ltimo da srie)

1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA 33


Parallel Increase

Usamos a estrutura the + comparativo... the + comparativo


para dizer que uma coisa depende de outra.

The warmer the weather, the better I feel. (Quanto mais quente o tempo, melhor eu me sinto.)

The more expensive the hotel, the better the service. (Quanto mais caro o hotel, melhor o servio.)

The longer the phone call, the more you have to pay. (Quanto mais longo o telefonema, mais voc
tem de pagar.)

Gradual Increase

Usamos dois comparativos juntos para indicar que algo est


mudando continuamente.

Its becoming harder and harder to find a job. (Est ficando cada vez mais difcil achar um emprego.)

Traveling is becoming more and more expensive. (Viajar est ficando cada vez mais caro.)

The weather is becoming hotter and hotter. (A temperatura est ficando cada vez mais quente.)

ATENO

ELDER usado antes de substantivos.


Exemplo: My elder brother lives in Chicago.

Questes

01. (STF Analista Judicirio CESPE/2013)

The aging process affects us all at different rates. Some people of fifty-three, like the esteemed author,
look a mere thirty-five, with sparkling brown eyes, a handsome gait and the virility of a steam train. Others,
like the authors friend Colin, look like little middle-aged men at twenty-one with middle-aged outlooks of
set ways and planned futures. In women the former condition is common but women rarely suffer from the
latter, being fired with the insatiable drive of ambition for either an independent and distinguished career
in a still male-dominated world, or a home and seven children by the time they are thirty followed by an
independent and distinguished career as a Cheltenham councillor or a public relations agent for Jonathan
Cape, in later life.
No such luck for Charles Charlesworth, who was born on the 14th of March, 1829, in Stafford. At the
age of four Charles had a beard and was sexually active.
In the final three years of his life his skin wrinkled, he developed varicose veins, shortness of breath,
grey hair, senile dementia and incontinence. Some time in his seventh year he fainted and never gained
consciousness
The coroner returned a verdict of natural causes due to old age.

Hugh Cory. Advanced writing with english in use. Oxford University Press, p. 34.
According to the text above,
It is rather common for women to look older than they really are.
( ) CERTO ( ) ERRADO

02. Lisa is staying home. Her cold is a lot ___________ today.


(A) bad
(B) worst
(C) worse and worst

1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA 34


(D) worse
(E) the worst

03. We complained about the service in our hotel, but instead of improving, it got ______________.
(A) best
(B) the best
(C) worse
(D) the worst
(E) better and better

04. If you need any __________________ information, please contact our head office.
(A) far
(B) farther
(C) more far
(D) the furthest
(E) further

05. The more you practice your English, the _____ youll learn.
(A) faster
(B) farther
(C) fastest
(D) furthest
(E) more fast

06. The parcel seemed to get __________________ as I carried it along the avenue.
(A) more heavy
(B) heaviest
(C) heavier and heavier
(D) the heaviest
(E) most heavy

07. You look _______________. Have you put on weight?


(A) more fat
(B) more thin
(C) fatter
(D) the thinnest
(E) the fattest

08. Its too noisy here. Can we go somewhere _______?


(A) quietest
(B) most quiet
(C) quieter
(D) more and more quieter
(E) more and most quiet

09. What time shall we leave? The ________, the _______.


(A) earlier, best
(B) sooner, better
(C) sooner, worst
(D) earliest, worse
(E) sooner, worst

10. Anns younger sister is still at school. Her ________ sister is a physician.
(A) elder
(B) older than
(C) the eldest
(D) the oldest
(E) the older

1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA 35


Respostas

01. ERRADO
O item diz que: " bastante comum para as mulheres parecerem mais velhas do que realmente so.
Nas linhas 4 e 5 podemos ler o contrrio:
...In women the former condition is common but women rarely suffer from the latter...
"... Nas mulheres a condio anterior comum (quando diz que algumas pessoas com 53 anos,
parecem que tm 35) mas mulheres raramente sofrem da outra condio (onde diz que outros parecem
estar na meia idade aos 25) "

02. (D) Estamos comparando o resfriado entre ontem e hoje. Bad worse (comparativo irregular)

03. (C) O servio do hotel est sendo comparado entre antes e depois da reclamao. Bad worse
(comparativo irregular).

04. (E) Further forma irregular de far(longe), mas tem sentido de algo adicional.

05. (A) - Essa estrutura o Parallel Increase, usamos a forma comparativa, nesse caso de fast (faster).

06. (C) Esta estrutura o Gradual Increase, usamos o comparativo repetidamente (heavy heavier).

07. (C) A frase pede comparativo (fat fatter), pois est sendo comparado o peso da pessoa antes
e agora.

08. (C) A pessoa quer um lugar mais quieto do que onde ela est. Comparando dois lugares, usamos
logo, quieter.

09. (B) - Usamos o Parallel Increase para dizer que algo depende de outra coisa.
10. (A) Ao falarmos de uma pessoa mais velha que outra, podemos usar a forma irregular de old
(elder).

Preposies

1. AT / ON / IN com expresses de tempo:


As regras para as preposies de tempo so mais claras e bem definidas. A ordem seguir vai de
um tempo mais especfico para um mais abrangente. Vamos a elas:
AT usamos o at para horas e um tempo preciso.
IN usamos o in para meses, anos, sculos e longos perodos.
ON usamos o on para dias da semana e datas.

Question: When do you study English?

Specific Times (horas especficas)

Examples:

8 oclock
7:30
AT 9 p.m
Expressions:

noon
midnight
night

1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA 36


Month / Season / Year / Century
(Ms / Estaes / Ano / Sculo)

January
1964
IN Winter
the 20th century

The morning / afternoon / evening

Monday
ON May 16
(Days and Dates) Mothers Day
(Dias e Datas) Saturday

2. AT / ON / IN com endereos:

Question: Where do you live?

Answer: I live...

621 State Street


AT
Endereos 355 Wandermere Rd.
Especficos

ON Hudson Street
Nomes de
Paulista Avenue
ruas,
avenidas, etc

The United States


IN Europe
Nomes de
cidades, estados,
pases, So Paulo
continentes, etc

3. AT / ON / IN com localizaes:

AT ON IN
HOME THE PLANE THE CAR
SCHOOL THE TRAIN THE BED
THE LIBRARY ON THE FLOOR THE BED

1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA 37


4. Preposies de Lugar:

As preposies de lugar, em geral, encontram um paralelo no portugus, o que facilita bastante. A


coisa s se complica um pouco quando temos que lidar com o in, on e at, mas vamos por partes:

As preposies de lugar mais simples seriam:


on em cima
under embaixo
behind atrs
between entre ( usado para algo que est posicionado entre duas coisas)
in front of na frente

Aqui importante ressaltar o uso do in front of quando estamos numa rua. Se dissermos que
estamos in front of the bank, estamos na frente do banco, mas na mesma calada. Se voc quiser
dizer que est na frente do banco, mas do outro lado da rua, deve dizer: Im opposite the bank.

next to ao lado de
near perto, prximo

Cuidado com esses dois ltimos que costumam ser confundidos, se voc est exatamente ao lado
de algum ou algo, deve usar next to. Exemplo:

I am sitting next to Susan. (Eu estou sentada ao lado da Susan.)

Porm, se voc estiver sentada prxima a algo ou algum, mas no necessariamente ao lado, ir
dizer: I am sitting near the door. (Eu estou sentada prximo porta.)

Temos ainda:
over sobre
below abaixo

Outra questo importante o uso das preposies into e onto. Muitas pessoas se perguntam: a
mesma coisa que in e on? Definitivamente no. Usamos essas preposies quando queremos dar ideia
de movimento. Exemplos:

1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA 38


She is putting her keys into her purse. (Ela est colocando suas chaves dentro da bolsa.)
I saw the boy trying to climb onto the wall. (Eu vi o menino tentando subir no muro.)

Para finalizar, temos aqueles que considero um pouquinho mais complicados, que o caso
do in, on e at. Embora em geral, in = dentro e on = em cima, nem sempre assim quando estamos
falando da localizao espacial de algo ou algum e, para completar, no existe uma regra especfica
para seu uso.

In em geral para uma rea mais fechada:


She is not here, she is in her room. (Ela no est aqui. Ela est no quarto dela.)

Contudo, dizemos on the train, on the bus, on the ship e on the airplane. Apesar de dizermos
in the car.

O on mais usado para lugares mais abertos: on the farm, on the beach. O at usado como
pensamos num lugar como sendo um ponto. Exemplo:
Ill meet her at the airport. (Vou encontr-la no aeroporto.)

http://www.englishexperts.com.br/2013/01/15/preposicoes-de-lugar-em-ingles/(Adaptado)

5. Algumas Expresses:

6. Outras Preposies:

ABOUT SOBRE / A RESPEITO DE


AFTER APS / DEPOIS
BEFORE ANTES
DURING DURANTE
IN FRONT OF EM FRENTE DE
INSIDE DENTRO

1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA 39


NEAR / NEXT
PERTO DE
TO
SINCE DESDE
WITH COM
WITHOUT SEM

7. Algumas especificaes:

a) Preposio FOR para / durante / por

Usada para indicar:

Finalidade The feed is FOR the dog to eat. (A rao PARA o cachorro comer)

Tempo I have studied English FOR 2 years (Eu estudei Ingls DURANTE dois anos)

Favor ou benefcio - Do it for me, please. (Faa isso por mim, por favor)

b) Preposio TO para / a

Usada para indicar:

Movimento ou Posio Turn TO the right (Vire PARA a direita) / Dont go TO the other side of the
room. (No v PARA o outro lado da sala)

Questes

01. Complete com in, on ou at as frases abaixo:

a) We could go by car, but Id rather go ............. foot.

b) Ill be very busy ............ Monday, but I could meet you .......... the morning instead.

c) Im free .............. lunchtime. Shall we meet then?

d) We live ............. Michigan Avenue, ................ Chicago.

e) Do you know the girl who lives ................... number 22?

02. (ANVISA ANALISTA ADMINISTRATIVO CETRO/2013)

Read the sentence below, considering the context of the text, and choose the alternative that best fills
in correctly and respectively the blanks.

When we eat, the food is ________ down into glucose (blood sugar), the bodys main energy source.
As blood flows through the pancreas, this organ detects the high levels of glucose and knows to release
insulin, a hormone that it produces in order to allow the cells ________ the body to use the glucose. The
cells have insulin receptors that allow glucose to enter. Then the cell either uses the glucose to make
energy right away or ________ it as a future energy source.

(A) Fall / at / saves.


(B) Break / on / save.
(C) Turned / in / store.
(D) Fallen / out / restores.
(E) Broken / throughout / stores.

1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA 40


03. (TCE/ES AUDITOR DE CONTROLE EXTERNO CESPE/2012)

Welcome to Oxford

Many periods of English history are impressively documented in Oxfords streets, houses, colleges and
chapels. Within one square mile alone, the city has more than 900 buildings of architectural or historical
interest. For the visitor this presents a challenge there is no single building that dominates Oxford, no
famous fortress or huge cathedral that will give you a short-cut view of the city. Even Oxfords famous
University is spread amidst a tangle of 35 different colleges and halls in various parts of the city centre,
flaunt its treasures; behind department stores lurk grand Palladian doorways or half-hidden crannies or
medieval architecture. The entrance to a college may me tucked down a narrow alleyway, and even then
it is unlikely to be signposted.
Oxford University Press, 1999, p. 135 (adapted)

The preposition amidst (L.8) can be synonymous with among.

(OBS: Os nmeros das linhas na questo podem variar por conta da diagramao do material.)
(A) Certo.
(B) Errado.

04. (CPTM ANALISTA ADMINISTRATIVO JNIOR MAKIYAMA/2012)


Generation Y
By Sally Kane, About.com Guide

Born in the mid-1980s and later, Generation Y legal professionals are in their 20s and are just entering the
workforce. With numbers estimated as high as 70 million, Generation Y (also -1- as the Millennials) is the fastest
growing segment of todays workforce. As law firms compete for available talent, employers cannot ignore the
needs, desires and attitudes of this vast generation.
Below are a few common traits that define Generation Y.
Tech-Savvy: Generation Y grew up with technology and rely on it to perform their jobs better. Armed with
BlackBerrys, laptops, cellphones and other gadgets, Generation Y is plugged-in 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
This generation prefers to communicate through e-mail and text messaging rather than face-to-face contact
and -2- webinars and online technology to traditional lecture-based presentations.
Family-Centric: The fast-track has lost much of its appeal for Generation Y who is willing to trade high pay
for fewer billable hours, flexible schedules and a better work/life balance. While older generations may view this
attitude as narcissistic or lacking commitment, discipline and drive, Generation Y legal professionals have a
different vision of workplace expectations and prioritize family over work.
Achievement-Oriented: Nurtured and pampered -3- parents who did not want to make the mistakes of the
previous generation, Generation Y is confident, ambitious and achievement-oriented. They have high
expectations of their employers, seek out new challenges and are not afraid to ask question authority.
Generation Y wants meaningful work and a soli learning curve.
Team-Oriented: As children, Generation Y participated in team sports, play groups and other group activities.
They value teamwork and seek the input and affirmation of others. Part of a no-person-left-behind generation,
Generation Y is loyal, committed and wants to be included and involved.
Attention-Craving: Generation Y craves attention in the forms of feedback and guidance. They appreciate
being kept in the loop and seek frequent praise and reassurance. Generation Y may benefit greatly from
mentors who can help guide and develop their young careers.
Font: legalcareers.about.com

The word that best complete the gap -3- is:


(A) Of.
(B) By.
(C) For.
(D) From.
(E) On.

1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA 41


05. (ANVISA ANALISTA ADMINISTRATIVO CETRO/2013)

The alarm ________ Europe ________ the discovery ________ horse meat ________ beef products
escalated again Monday, when the Swedish furniture giant Ikea withdrew an estimated 1.670 pounds
________ meatballs ________ sale ________ 14 European countries. Ikea acted after authorities in the
Czech Republic detected horse meat in its meatballs. The company said it had made the decision even
though its tests two weeks ago did not detect horse DNA. Horse meat mixed with beef was first found last
month in Ireland, then Britain, and has now expanded steadily across the Continent. The situation in
Europe has created unease among American consumers over ________ or not horse meat might also
find its way into the food supply in the United States.
(The New York Times, 2/25/2013)

Choose the alternative that fills in, correctly and respectively, the blanks of the sentence below.

The alarm ________ Europe ________ the discovery ________ horse meat ________ beef products
escalated again Monday, when the Swedish furniture giant Ikea withdrew an estimated 1.670 pounds
________ meatballs ________ sale ________ 14 European countries.

(A) In / from / of / of / from / for / in


(B) In / over / of / in / of / from / in
(C) From / over / of / of / of / to / from
(D) Of / with / in / in / from / on / in
(E) Over / with / in / of / of / on / from
Respostas

01.
a) Resposta ON
Expresso fixa ON FOOT.

b) Resposta ON IN
Antes de dias da semana usa-se a preposio on.
Antes das expresses MORNING, AFTERNOON e EVENING precisa-se da preposio in

c) Resposta AT
Expresso fixa AT LUNCHTIME

d) Resposta ON IN
On preposio de lugar para nomes de ruas, avenidas, etc.
In preposio de lugar para nomes de cidades estados, pases, etc.

e) Resposta AT
At preposio de lugar para endereos especficos.

02. RESPOSTA E
A questo pede que o candidato determine. Leia as sentenas abaixo e escolha a alternativa que
melhor completa os espaos. Quando ns comemos, a comida (quebrada) em glicose (...), um hormnio
que produzido para permitir que as clulas (por toda a parte) do corpo usem a glicose (...) ento as
clulas usam a glicose para fazer energia na hora ou (armazenam) ela como uma fonte de energia futura.

03. RESPOSTA A
A questo pede que o candidato determine a preposio amidst (entre, no meio de) sinnimo com
among (entre, dentro de, no meio de)

04. RESPOSTA B
A questo pede que o candidato determine. A palavra que melhor completa o espao -3- . No trecho
em questo. Buscam realizaes: Nutridos e cuidados (por) pais que no querem cometer os mesmos
erros da gerao anterior (...)

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05. RESPOSTA B
A questo pede que o candidato determine. Escolha a alternativa que completa, corretamente e
respectivamente, os espaos em branco na sentena abaixo. O alarme (na) Europa (sobre) a descoberta
(de) carne de cavalo (nos) produtos de carne aumentou novamente segunda, quando a gigante dos
mveis Sueca Ikea retirou aproximadamente 1.670 pounds (de) almondegas (das) prateleiras (em) 14
pases europeus.

Conjunes

Conjunes so palavras que ligam duas oraes ou termos semelhantes, dentro de uma mesma
orao. Existem trs tipos de conjunes: Coordinating conjunctions, Correlative conjunctions e
Subordinating conjunctions. A partir de agora estudaremos separadamente cada um dos tipos de
conjunes da Lngua Inglesa.

Coordinating conjunctions

Coordinating conjunctions ligam duas palavras ou duas oraes independentes (independent clauses),
mas devem sempre ligar elementos com a mesma estrutura gramatical, por exemplo: subject + subject;
verb phrase + verb phrase; sentence + sentence; clause + clause. Uma coordinating conjunction
geralmente posiciona-se entre as oraes e, antes dela, usamos vrgula (caso as oraes sejam muito
pequenas e possuam o mesmo sujeito, a vrgula no necessria). As coordinating conjunctions so as
que se encontram no quadro abaixo:

Conjuno Indicao / Funo


for explicao
and adio
nor liga duas alternativas negativas
but oposio, contraste
or alternncia
yet oposio, ressalva
mostra que a segunda ideia o
so
resultado da primeira

AND
He lives in Cambridge, and (he)* studies at Harvard University.
(Ele mora em Cambridge e estuda na Universidade de Harvard.)

We stayed at home and (we)* watched television.


(Ns ficamos em casa e assistimos televiso.)

My sister is married and (she)* lives in London.


(Minha irm casada e mora em Londres.)

*Quando a coordinating conjunction "and" liga dois verbos que possuem o mesmo sujeito, no
necessrio repeti-lo. Isso tambm ocorre com artigos, pronomes, preposies e outras expresses.
Observe os exemplos do quadro:

She sings and she plays the violin. She sings and plays the violin
He plays tennis and he plays football. He plays tennis and football.
They have offices in Britain and in France. They have offices in
Britain and France.
We stayed with my brother and my sister. We stayed with my
brother and sister.

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The house and the garden were full of people. The
house and garden were full of people.
I've been to Greece and I've been to Turkey. I've been to
Greece and Turkey.
I washed my shirt and I dried my shirt. I washed and dried my shirt.

I went downstairs and (I) opened the door.


(Eu fui ao andar de baixo e abri a porta.)

Could I have a knife and (a) fork, please?


(Eu gostaria de um garfo e uma faca, por favor.)

When Robert went to the bookstore, he bought a notebook and several pens.
(Quando Roberto foi livraria, ele comprou um caderno e vrias canetas.)

- Podemos usar vrgula (,) diante de and quando esta conjuno for usada para adicionar o ltimo
item de uma lista ou srie. Esse tipo de construo bastante comum no Ingls, contudo a srie deve
conter pelo menos trs tens. Quando a construo no for longa, o uso da vrgula tambm facultativo.
Observe os exemplos abaixo:

You had a holiday at Christmas, at New Year and at Easter. (Neste caso, no necessrio usar vrgula,
pois os tens da srie no so longos.)
I spent yesterday playing cricket, listening to jazz records, and talking about the meaning of life.

Claudia spent her summer studying basic math, writing, and reading comprehension.
Observe que, nestes dois ltimos exemplos, os tens so maiores, portanto a vrgula pode ser usada.

She bought carrots, lettuce, a pineapple, and a dozen eggs. (Como a lista contm mais de trs tens,
podemos usar vrgula antes da conjuno.)

He drinks beer, whisky, wine, and rum.*

He drinks beer, whisky, wine and rum.*


* Ambas esto corretas, a vrgula opcional quando a conjuno and usada com a ltima palavra
de uma lista.

- A vrgula tambm pode ser usada antes de and quando liga duas oraes independentes
(independent clauses) que no possuem o mesmo sujeito. Caso as oraes sejam pequenas e tenham o
mesmo sujeito, no comum usar vrgula. Observe:

Rachel decided to try the chocolate cake, and Peter ordered a strawberry pie. (Aqui a vrgula pode ser
usada, pois o sujeito das oraes no o mesmo.)

I bought a bottle of wine, and we drank it together. (Aqui a vrgula pode ser usada, pois o sujeito das
oraes no o mesmo.)

Rachel had a cake and Peter had a strawberry pie.


(Embora o sujeito das oraes no seja o mesmo, a vrgula no foi usada, pois as duas oraes so
pequenas. Lembre-se de que a construo com vrgula tambm seria aceitvel neste caso.)

BUT

Grace was a serious woman, but a very sensitive person.


(Grace era uma mulher sria, mas uma pessoa muito sensvel.)

My sofa isn't very soft, but it's comfortable.


(Meu sof no muito macio, mas confortvel.)

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They tried, but did not succeed.
(Eles tentaram, mas no obtiveram sucesso.)

John is Canadian, but Sara is Irish. (Joo canadense, mas Sara irlandesa.)

Our players did their best but they lost the game. (Nossos jogadores fizeram o melhor que puderam,
mas perderam o jogo.)

- But uma conjuno adversativa, ou seja, expressa um contraste. Assim como and,
usaremos vrgula(,) antes de but quando ela ligar duas oraes independentes (independent clauses)
que sejam longas. Observe que, mesmo quando as oraes possuem o mesmo sujeito, pode ocorrer
vrgula diante de but se as oraes so longas. Compare os exemplos:

She had very little to live on, but she would never have dreamed of taking what was not hers. (Aqui,
embora o sujeito das duas oraes seja o mesmo, a vrgula usada, pois as oraes so longas.)

She was poor but she was honest. (As oraes so curtas e o sujeito o mesmo, assim no se faz
obrigatrio o uso da vrgula.)

Veja outros exemplos com but:

I like him, but I don't like her. (Gosto dele, mas no gosto dela.)

I wanted to phone you, but I didn't have your number.


(Queria ligar para voc, mas no tinha o nmero do seu telefone.)

The child was found abandoned but unharmed. (A criana foi encontrada abandonada, porm ilesa.)

I got it wrong. It wasn't the red one but the blue one.
(Entendi tudo errado. No era a vermelha, mas a azul.)

By the end of the day we were tired but happy. (No final do dia estvamos cansados, mas felizes.)

Observao: Alm de significar mas ou porm, but tambm pode significar exceto:

Everybody but Robert is trying out for the team.


(Todos, exceto Roberto, esto competindo para ficar no time)

I had no choice but to sign the contract. (Eu no tinha escolha, exceto assinar o contrato.)

OR

A conjuno or indica alternncia ou excluso:

I could cook some supper, or we could order a pizza.


(Eu poderia fazer uma janta ou ns poderamos pedir uma pizza.)

Do you want to go out, or are you tired? (Voc quer sair, ou est cansado?)

He could go, or stay a little more. (Ele poderia ir ou ficar mais um pouco.)

Have you seen or heard the opera by Paul Richardson?


(Voc assistiu ou ouviu a pera de Paul Richardson?)

They must approve his political style or they wouldn't keep electing him mayor. (Eles decerto devem
aprovar seu estilo poltico, ou no continuariam o elegendo para prefeito.)

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You can study hard for this exam or you can fail.
(Voc pode estudar bastante para esta prova ou pode ser reprovado.)

We can broil chicken on the grill tonight, or we can just eat leftovers.
(Podemos fazer frango grelhado hoje noite ou somente comer a comida que sobrou.)

SO

A conjuno so (assim, portanto, por isso) expressa o que acontece / aconteceu /


acontecer em razo de alguma coisa:
My grandmother was sick, so she went to the doctor.
(Minha av estava doente, por isso foi ao mdico.)

It was raining, so I took my umbrella.


(Estava chovendo, ento peguei meu guarda-chuva.)
Laura does a lot of sport, so she's very fit.
(Laura pratica vrios esportes, por isso tem uma tima forma fsica.)

We didn't study, so we didn't pass.


(No estudamos, por isso no passamos.)

I want to work as an interpreter in the future, so I am studying English at university.


(No futuro, quero trabalhar como intrprete, por isso vou estudar Ingls na universidade.)

The party was boring, so I went home. (A festa estava chata, ento fui para casa.)
- A conjuno so tambm usada no incio de oraes para introduzir algo novo, significando "ento":

So, the judge removed the child from the custody of his parents.
(Ento, o juiz tirou dos pais a custdia da criana.)

FOR

A funo da conjuno for introduzir uma explicao. Nestes casos, for sinnimo
de because. Hoje em dia, o uso de for neste sentido usado, na maioria das vezes, na escrita literria.
Observe os exemplos:

Eric tought he had a good chance to get the job in the company, for his father was one of the owners.
(Eric achou que tinha grande chance de conseguir o emprego na companhia, pois seu pai era um dos
donos.)

We listened eagerly, for he brought news of our families. (Escutamos avidamente, j que ele trouxe
notcias de nossas famlias.)

This movie is particularly interesting to feminist film theorists, for the screenplay was written by Diana
Lers. (Este filme particularmente interessante para tericos de filmes feministas, porque o roteiro foi
escrito por Diana Lers.)

I believed her, for surely she would not lie to me. (Acreditei nela porque tenho certeza de que ela no
mentiria pra mim.)

NOR
A conjuno nor liga duas alternativas negativas e usada, na maioria das vezes, com neither e not.
Veja:

That is neither what I said nor what I meant. (Isto no foi o que eu disse nem o que eu quis dizer.)

She seemed neither surprised nor worried. (Ela no parecia nem surpresa nem preocupada.)

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Not a building nor a tree was left standing. (Nem um prdio nem uma rvore foi deixada em p.)

- Nor tambm usado antes de um verbo positivo concordando com algo negativo que recm foi dito:

She doesn't like them nor does Jeff. [Ela no gosta deles e nem o Jeff (gosta deles).]

A. I'm not going. (Eu no vou.)


B. Nor am I. (Eu tambm no.)

YET

A conjuno yet (contudo, mas, no obstante, porm, no entanto) indica oposio, ressalva:

It's a small car, yet it is surprisingly spacious.


( um carro pequeno, todavia surpreendentemente espaoso.)

He has a good job, and yet he never seems to have any money.
(Ele tem um bom emprego, e apesar disso parece que nunca tem dinheiro.)

John plays basketball very well, yet his favorite sport is tennis.
(Joo joga basquete muito bem, contudo seu esporte favorito tnis.)

OBSERVAO: Como conjuno, yet sempre aparece no incio da orao.

Correlative Conjunctions

As Correlative conjunctions so sempre usadas aos pares, ou seja, elas nunca aparecem sozinhas.
No entanto, elas nunca aparecem uma logo do lado da outra. Assim como as coordinating conjunctions,
usamos as correlative conjunctions para ligar elementos com mesma funo gramatical, por
exemplo: subject + subject; verb phrase + verb phrase; sentence + sentence; clause + clause. Veja
quais so as correlative conjunctions no quadro abaixo:

Correlative
Conjunctions
both...and
either...or
neither...nor
not only...but also
as/so...as
whether...or

Observe alguns exemplos de cada um dos pares:

BOTH...AND

I'd like to work with both animals and children. (Eu gostaria de trabalhar com animais e crianas.)

Both my grandfather and my father worked in the steel plant.


(Ambos meu av e meu pai trabalhavam na fbrica de ao.)

She both sings and dances. (Ela canta e dana.)

She is both pretty and clever. (Ela to bonita e esperta.)

I spoke to both the director and her secretary.


(Falei com a diretora e com a secretria dela.)

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Observao: Both...and sempre concordar com o verbo no plural:

Both David and Amanda know the importance of speaking another language.
(Ambos David e Amanda sabem a importncia de falar outra lngua.)

Joana plays both the trumpet and the violin.


(Joana toca trombeta e violino.)

Both his mother and his father will be there.


(O pai e a me dele estaro l.)

For this job you will need a good knowledge of both French andSpanish.
(Para este trabalho voc precisar de um bom conhecimento de francs e espanhol.)

NOT ONLY...BUT ALSO

"To accomplish great things, we must not only act, but also dream; not only plan, but also believe."
(Anatole France)
(Para realizarmos coisas grandes, precisamos no somente agir, mas tambm sonhar; no somente
planejar, mas tambm acreditar.)

The teacher is not only intelligent but also friendly.


(A professsora no so inteligente, mas tambm simptica.)

We go there not only in the winter, but also in summer. (Vamos l no apenas no inverno, mas
tambm no vero.)

She not only sings like an angel, but also dances divinely.
(Ela no apenas canta como um anjo, mas tambm dana divinamente.)

Not only the bathroom was flooded, but also the rest of the house.
(No s o banheiro estava alagado, mas tambm o resto da casa.)

The place was not only cold, but also damp.


(O lugar no estava s frio, mas tambm mido.)

The explosion destroyed not only the school, but also the museum. (A exploso destruiu no s a
escola, mas tambm o museu.)

Clara wants not only money, but also fame.


(Clara no quer s dinheiro, mas tambm fama.)

Not only pode se posicionar no incio da orao para dar nfase ao que se quer dizer. Nesta
estrutura, not only deve ser seguido por auxiliary verb (and non-auxiliary have and be) + subject; do
usado* caso no haja outro auxiliar:

Not only has she been late three times; she has also done no work.
(Ela no s chegou atrasada trs vezes, como tambm no fez trabalho algum.)

*Not only do they need clothing, but they are also short of water.
(Eles no somente necessitam de roupas, mas tambm esto com falta d'gua.)

Not only is the food in this restaurant awful, but also the prices are too high.
(Como se no bastasse a comida nesse restaurante ser terrvel, os preos tambm so altos
demais.)

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Not only were you late for class, but also forgot to do the homework.
(Voc no apenas se atrasou para a aula, mas tambm esqueceu de fazer a lio de casa.)

AS / SO...AS

If you are as/so intelligent as your father, it will not be difficult for you to run your family business. (Se
voc to inteligente quanto seu pai, no vai ser difcil para voc administrar os negcios da sua famlia.)

She is as/so beautiful as her mother.


(Ela to bonita quanto a me.)

He is not as/so bad as many think.


(Ele no to ruim quanto muitos pensam.)

She is as/so successful as her sister. (Ela to bem sucedida quanto sua irm.)

The situation is not as/so difficult as people make out.


(A situao no est to difcil quanto as pesoas dizem.)

WHETHER... OR

Whether you win this race or lose it doesn't matter as long as you do your best.
(No importa se voc ganhar ou perder essa corrida, contanto que faa o melhor que pode.)

Have you decided whether you will come or not? (Voc decidiu se vir ou no?)

The ticket will cost the same, whether we buy it now or wait until later.
(O ingresso custar o mesmo valor se comprarmos agora ou esperarmos at mais tarde.)

You need to decide whether you go to the movies or to the park today.
(Voc precisa decidir se vai ao cinema ou ao parque hoje.)

Whether we go by bus or train, it'll take at least six hours.


(Independente de irmos de nibus ou trem, a viagem levar pelo menos seis horas.)

I don't know whether my father is arriving by the eight o'clock flight or nine o'clock fight.
(No sei se meu pai vai chegar no voo das oito ou das nove horas.)

Whether he comes or not makes no difference.


(Se ele vem ou no, no faz diferena.)

I don't know whether I should stay or leave.


(No sei se devo ficar ou ir embora.)

Subordinating Conjunctions

Assim como as Coordinating e Correlative Conjunctions, as Subordinating Conjunctions estabelecem


relao entre oraes, frases ou termos semelhantes. Entretanto, diferentemente da primeira,
estabelecem relaesentre uma orao dependente (dependent clause)* e uma orao
independente (independent clause).

* Dependent clause: oraes que no so completas em si mesmas. Observe o exemplo abaixo:

Because it was raining, I took my umbrella.

Este perodo contm duas oraes, "Because it was raining" e "I took my umbrella". A primeira orao
uma dependent clause, ou seja, no possui sentido em si mesma. Se dissermos apenas

"Because it was raining" e nada mais, as pessoas no compreendero o que queremos dizer. Contudo,

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"I took my umbrella" uma independent clause, pois possui sentido em si mesma, ou seja,
compreendemos seu sentido mesmo se falarmos apenas "I took my umbrella".
Esses tipos de conjunes posicionam-se no incio da orao dependente (dependent clause).
Porm, a orao dependente pode vir antes ou depois da orao independente.

Observe abaixo exemplos com as principais subordinating conjunctions da Lngua Inglesa:

AFTER
(depois, aps)

I went home after the concert finished.


(Fui para casa depois que o concerto acabou.)

After the party, we started talking.


(Depois da festa, comeamos a conversar.)

ALTHOUGH / THOUGH / EVEN THOUGH


(apesar de (que), embora, ainda que)

Although it was raining, we went out.


(Samos, embora estivesse chovendo.)

The weather was nice, although it was a bit cold.


(O tempo estava bom, embora estivesse um pouco frio.)

His clothes, though old and worn, looked clean and of good quality.
(As roupas dele, embora velhas e surradas, pareciam limpas e de boa qualidade.)

He bought me this ring, even though I had told him not to.
(Ele me comprou esse anel, muito embora eu o tenha avisado para no comprar.)

Observao: A conjuno though mais usada na linguagem falada.

AS (enquanto, assim que, logo que, como, porque, medida que)

He left the bedroom, as he saw his daughter sleeping.


(Ele saiu do quarto assim que / logo que viu a filha dormindo.)

Leave the papers as they are. (Deixem os papis como eles esto.)

As you were out, I left a message. (J que /Como voc no estava, deixei uma mensagem.)

As she grew older she gained in confidence.


( medida que ficou mais velha, ficou mais confiante em si mesma.)

As you know, Julia is leaving soon. (Como voc sabe, Julia est indo embora em breve.)

AS IF / AS THOUGH
(como se)

She behaved as if/as though nothing had happened.


(Ela se comportou como se nada tivesse acontecido.)

She was acting as if/as though she was in a great movie.


(Ela estava agindo/atuando como se estivesse em um grande filme.)

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Observao: Quando falamos sobre coisas que sabemos que no so verdades, podemos usar,
aps asif/as though, o verbo no passado com significado futuro. Este uso enfatiza o fato de sabermos
que algo no verdade. Compare:

He talks as if/as though he was very rich. (Ele fala como se fosse muito rico.)

No caso acima, temos certeza absoluta de que ele no rico.

He talks as if/as though he is rich. (Ele fala como se fosse rico.)

J neste exemplo, no temos certeza se ele rico ou no.

Why is he looking at me as if/as though he knew me? I've never seen him before. (Por que ele est
olhando para mim como se me conhecesse? Eu nunca o vi antes.)

Na linguagem formal, podemos usar were ao invs de was quando fazemos esse tipo de comparao.
Este uso comum no Ingls Americano:

He talks as if/as though he were rich.

AS / SO LONG AS / PROVIDED THAT


(contanto que, desde que, com a condio de que)

We will go to the beach as/so long as the weather is good.


(Iremos para praia contanto que/ desde que o tempo esteja bom.)

You can take my car as/so long as you drive carefully.


(Voc pode usar o meu carro contanto que / desde que dirija cuidadosamente.)

They can stay here provided that they behave well.


(Eles podem ficar aqui contanto que / desde que se comportem bem.)

BECAUSE
(porque, pois)

I went to England because my boyfriend was there.


(Fui para a Inglaterra porque meu namorado estava l.)

I didn't buy the handbag because it was too expensive.


(No comprei a bolsa porque era muito cara.)

- Because e a orao dependente podem vir tanto antes como depois da orao independente ou
principal. Observe:

I finished early because I worked fast. (Terminei cedo porque trabalhei rpido.)

Because I worked fast, I finished early. (Porque trabalhei rpido, terminei cedo.)

No confunda: Because uma conjuno, mas because of uma preposio.


Veja a diferena:

We were late because it rained. (NOT ... because of it rained.)


(Estvamos atrasados porque choveu.)

We were late because of the rain. (NOT ... because the rain.)
(Estvamos atrasados por causa da chuva.)

I'm happy because I met you. (NOT ... because of I met you.)
(Estou feliz porque conheci voc.)

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I'm happy because of you. (NOT ... because you.)
(Estou feliz por causa de voc.)

BEFORE
(antes de, antes que)

Before I have breakfast, I spend half an hour doing physical exercises.


(Antes de tomar caf da manh, passo meia hora fazendo exerccios fsicos.)

Do it before you forget. (Faa antes que voc esquea.)


I'll telephone you before I get home.
(Vou ligar para voc antes de chegar em casa.)

You can't go home before I have signed the letters.


(Voc no pode ir para casa antes de eu assinar as cartas.)

He went out before I had finished my test. (Ele saiu antes de eu terminar minha prova.)

DESPITE / IN SPITE OF
(apesar de)

Despite her efforts, she could not find a job.


(Apesar dos esforos, ela no conseguiu achar um emprego.)

Despite the traffic, we got there on time.


(Apesar do trfego, chegamos na hora.)

In spite of the rain, we went for a walk in the park.


(Apesar da chuva, fomos dar uma volta no parque.)

Observao: Os verbos que vierem imediatamente aps despite / in spite of devem estar
no gerndio:

Despite being a big star, she's very approachable.


(Apesar de ser uma estrela, ela bastante acessvel.)

In spite of having a headache, I enjoyed the film.


(Apesar de estar com dor de cabea, gostei do filme.)

HOWEVER / NONETHELESS / NEVERTHELESS / NOTWITHSTANDING


(Porm, entretanto, todavia, contudo, no entanto, no obstante)

He was feeling bad. However, he went to work and tried to concentrate. (Ele estava se sentindo mal.
Contudo, foi trabalhar e tentou se concentrar.)

I hadn't slept well that night. However, I was not sleepy during the following day. (Eu no tinha dormido
bem naquela noite. Entretanto, no estava com sono no dia seguinte.)

The problems are not serious. Nonetheless, we shall solve them soon. (Os problemas no so graves.
Todavia, devemos resolv-los logo.)

I haven't had lunch. Nevertheless, I'm not hungry. (No almocei. Todavia, no estou com fome.)

Notwithstanding, the problem is a significant one. (Contudo, o problema significativo.)

The man is, notwithstanding, sufficient. (O homem , entretanto, suficiente.)

Observao: Notwithstanding tambm sinnimo de despite e insipite of. Contudo, nestes casos,
funciona como uma preposio.

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IF
(se)

Ask her if she is staying at home tonight. (Pergunte se ela vai ficar em casa hoje noite.)

If you meet my sister, give her this note. (Se voc encontrar minha irm, d a ela este bilhete.)

You can stay for the weekend if you like. (Voc pode ficar para o fim de semana se quiser.)

If I knew her name, I would tell you. (Se eu soubesse o nome dela, eu lhe diria.)

ONCE (uma vez que, j que, desde que, assim que...)

We didn't know how we would pay our bills once the money had gone. (No sabamos como
pagaramos nossas contas uma vez que o dinheiro tinha acabado.)

Once he had gone... (Assim que ele saiu...)


Observao: Como conjuno, once sinnimo de 'after', 'when' e 'as soon as' e na maioria das vezes
usado com perfect tense. Veja:

Once you know how to ride a bike you never forget it.
(Depois que voc aprende a andar de bicicleta, nunca mais esquece.)

Once you've passed your test I'll let you drive my car.
(Assim que / Quando voc passar na prova, vou deixar voc dirigir meu carro.)

Once he had found somewhere to live he started looking for work.


(Depois / Assim que encontrou um lugar para morar, ele comeou a procurar trabalho.)
- Observe tambm que depois de once no se usa that.

OTHERWISE
(seno, caso contrrio, do contrrio)

Be here before noon, otherwise you will not have lunch with your father.
(Esteja aqui antes do meio-dia, do contrrio / seno voc no almoar com seu pai.)

You have to study hard, otherwise you won't pass the exam.
(Vocs devem estudar bastante, caso contrrio / seno no vo passar na prova.)

Shut the window, otherwise it'll get too cold in here.


(Feche a janela, do contrrio / seno vai ficar muito frio aqui.)

My parents lent me the money. Otherwise I couldn't have bought the house.
(Meus pais me emprestaram o dinheiro. Do contrrio / Seno eu no poderia ter comprado a casa.)

SINCE
(j que, visto que, como, desde)

Since you are here, help us, please! (J que voc est aqui, ajude-nos, por favor!)

Since she knows you well, she'll disagree with you.


(Visto que / J que ela lhe conhece bem, no vai concordar com voc.)

Since you don't mind, I'll leave now. (Visto que / J que voc no se importa, vou embora agora.)

Cath hasn't phoned since she went to Belfast. (Cath no ligou desde que foi para Belfast.)

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SO THAT / IN ORDER THAT / IN ORDER TO / SO AS TO
(de modo que, a fim de que, para que)

She worked hard so that everything would be ready in time.


(Ela trabalhou muito para que / a fim de que tudo ficasse pronto a tempo.)

She's spending here for six months so that she can perfect her English.
(Ela vai ficar aqui seis meses para que / a fim de que possa aperfeioar seu Ingls.)

Mary talked to the shy girl so that she wouldn't feel left out.
(Mary falou com a menina tmida para que / a fim de que ela no se sentisse excluda.)

He got up early in order to have time to pack.


(Ele acordou cedo para / a fim de ter tempo de arrumar as malas.)
We send monthly reports in order that they may have full information.
(Mandamos relatrios mensais para que eles possam ter informaes completas.)

UNLESS
(a menos que, a no ser que, salvo se)

Don't leave the room unless you receive permission.


(No saia da sala a menos que / a no ser que receba permisso.)

Come tomorrow unless I phone (= ... if I don't phone / except if I phone.)


(Venha amanh a menos que / a no ser que eu ligue.)

I'll take the job unless the pay is too low (= if the pay isn't too low / except if the pay is too low.)
(Ficarei com o emprego a menos que / a no ser que o salrio seja muito baixo.)

Let's have dinner out - unless you're too tired. (= if you aren't too tired.)
(Vamos jantar fora - a menos que / a no ser que voc esteja muito cansada.)

Unless I'm mistaken, she was wearing a black dress.


(A menos que / a no ser que eu esteja enganado, ela estava usando um vestido preto.)

UNTIL / TILL
(at, at que)

Essas duas palavras possuem o mesmo significado, porm o uso de till considerado mais informal.

Do I have to wait unitl / till tomorrow? (Tenho que esperar at amanh?)

You are not going out until / till you've finished your homework.
(Voc no vai sair at que tenha terminado sua lio de casa.)

Until now I have always lived alone. (until now = so far = at agora, por enquanto)
(At agora sempre vivi sozinho.)

You can stay on the bus until / till London. (= until you reach London.)
(Voc pode ficar no nibus at chegar a Londres.)

WHEN / BY THE TIME


(quando)

She left her job when she knew she was pregnant.
(Ela saiu do emprego quando soube que estava grvida.)

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When we got to New York the shops were already closed. (Quando chegamos a Nova Iorque as lojas
j estavam fechadas.)

He'll phone you when he arrives. (Ele vai ligar para voc quando chegar.)

By the time I leave work, the sun will be setting. (Quando eu sair do trabalho, o sol estar se pondo.)

By the time I arrive, they'll be eating dinner. (Quando eu chegar, eles estaro jantando.)

WHENEVER
(quando, toda vez que, sempre que)

Come whenever you like. (Venha quando quiser / a hora que quiser.)

You can borrow my car whenever you want.


(Voc pode usar meu carro sempre que quiser / toda hora que quiser.)

You can ask for help whenever you need it. (Voc pode pedir ajuda sempre que precisar.)

Whenever she comes, she brings a friend. (Sempre que ela vem, traz um amigo.)

Observao: A conjuno whenever tambm usada quando o momento em que algo ocorre no
importante:

A. When do you need it by? (Para quando voc precisa disso?)


B. Saturday or Sunday. Whenever. (Sbado ou Domingo. Tanto faz.)

It's not urgent - we can do it next week or whenever. (No urgente - podemos fazer isso na semana
que vem ou em qualquer outro momento.)

WHERE
(onde)

Seat where I can see you, please. (Sente onde eu consiga lhe enxergar, por favor.)

This is where I live. (Aqui onde eu moro.)

Stay where you are. (Fique onde est.)

WHEREAS
(ao passo que, enquanto)

Some of the studies show positive results, whereas others do not.


(Alguns dos estudos mostram resultados positivos, enquanto / ao passo que outros, no.)

She was crazy about him, whereas for him it was just another affair.
(Ela era doida por ele, ao passo que / enquanto que para ele aquilo era apenas mais um caso.)

He likes broccoli, whereas she hates it. (Ele adora brcolis, ao passo que / enquanto ela detesta.)

WHILE
(enquanto)

They were burgled while they were out. (A casa deles foi assaltada enquanto eles estavam fora.)

You can go swimming while I'm having luch. (Voc pode nadar enquanto eu almoo.)

While Andrew is very good at Biology, his brother doesn't know anything about that.
(Enquanto Andrew muito bom em biologia, seu irmo no sabe nada sobre essa matria.)

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Observaes:
- No incio de oraes, while pode significar although, despite the fact that.... Observe:

While I am willing to help, I do not have much time available.


(Embora eu esteja com vontade de ajudar, no tenho muito tempo disponvel.)

- Algumas vezes, while sinnimo de until:


I waited while five o'clock. (Esperei at s cinco horas.)

Fonte: http://www.solinguainglesa.com.br/conteudo/Conjunctions1.php (Adaptado)

Questes

1. (TCE/ES AUDITOR DE CONTROLE EXTERNO CESPE/2012)

Welcome to Oxford

Many periods of English history are impressively documented in Oxfords streets, houses, colleges and
chapels. Within one square mile alone, the city has more than 900 buildings of architectural or historical
interest. For the visitor this presents a challenge there is no single building that dominates Oxford, no
famous fortress or huge cathedral that will give you a short-cut view of the city. Even Oxfords famous
University is spread amidst a tangle of 35 different colleges and halls in various parts of the city centre,
flaunt its treasures; behind department stores lurk grand Palladian doorways or half-hidden crannies or
medieval architecture. The entrance to a college may me tucked down a narrow alleyway, and even then
it is unlikely to be signposted.
Oxford University Press, 1999, p. 135 (adapted)

Nor (L.10) means not either


(OBS: Os nmeros das linhas na questo podem variar por conta da diagramao do material.)
A) Certo.
B) Errado.

2. (CTA ANALISTA EM C&T JNIOR ADMINISTRAO VUNESP/2013)

Brazils Average Unemployment Rate Falls to Record Low in 2012

By Down Jones Business News


January 31, 2013

Brazils unemployment rate for 2012 fell to 5.5%, down from the previous record low of 6.0% recorded
last year, the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, or IBGE, said Thursday. In December,
unemployment fell to 4.6% compared with 4.9% in November, besting the previous record monthly low of
4.7% registered in December 2011, the IBGE sad.
The 2012 average unemployment rate was in line with the 5.5% median estimate of economists polled
by the local Estado news agency. Analysts had also pegged Decembers unemployment rate at 4.4%.
Brazils unemployment rate remains at historically low levels despite sluggish economic activity.
Salaries have also been on the upswing in an ominous sign for inflation a key area of concern for the
Brazilian Central Bank after a series of interest rate cuts brought local interest rates to record lows last
year. Inflation ended 2012 at 5.84%.
The average monthly Brazilian salary retreated slightly to 1.805,00 Brazilian reais ($908.45) in
December, down from the record high BRL 1.809,60 registered in November, the IBGE said. Wages
trended higher in 2012 as employee groups called on Brazilian companies and the government to increase
wages and benefits to counter higher local prices. Companies were also forced to pay more to hire and
retain workers because of the countrys low unemployment.
The IBGE measures unemployment in six of Brazils largest metropolitan areas, including So Paulo,
Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Belo Horizonte, Recife and Porto Alegre. Brazils unemployment rate, however,
is not fully comparable to jobless rates in developed countries as a large portion of the population is either
underemployed or works informally without paying taxes. In addition, workers not actively seeking a job in

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the month before the survey dont count as unemployed under the IBGEs methodology. The survey also
doesnt take into account farm workers.
(www.nasdaq.com, Adaptado)

No trecho do ltimo pargrafo In addition, workers not actively seeking a job a expresso in addition
pode ser substituda, sem alterao de sentido, por:
A) Otherwise.
B) Nevertheless.
C) However.
D) Furthermore.
E) Therefore.

3. (CTA ANALISTA EM C&T JNIOR ADMINISTRAO VUNESP/2013)

Brazils Average Unemployment Rate Falls to Record Low in 2012

By Down Jones Business News


January 31, 2013

Brazils unemployment rate for 2012 fell to 5.5%, down from the previous record low of 6.0% recorded
last year, the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, or IBGE, said Thursday. In December,
unemployment fell to 4.6% compared with 4.9% in November, besting the previous record monthly low of
4.7% registered in December 2011, the IBGE sad.
The 2012 average unemployment rate was in line with the 5.5% median estimate of economists polled
by the local Estado news agency. Analysts had also pegged Decembers unemployment rate at 4.4%.
Brazils unemployment rate remains at historically low levels despite sluggish economic activity.
Salaries have also been on the upswing in an ominous sign for inflation a key area of concern for the
Brazilian Central Bank after a series of interest rate cuts brought local interest rates to record lows last
year. Inflation ended 2012 at 5.84%.
The average monthly Brazilian salary retreated slightly to 1.805,00 Brazilian reais ($908.45) in
December, down from the record high BRL 1.809,60 registered in November, the IBGE said. Wages
trended higher in 2012 as employee groups called on Brazilian companies and the government to increase
wages and benefits to counter higher local prices. Companies were also forced to pay more to hire and
retain workers because of the countrys low unemployment.
The IBGE measures unemployment in six of Brazils largest metropolitan areas, including So Paulo,
Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Belo Horizonte, Recife and Porto Alegre. Brazils unemployment rate, however,
is not fully comparable to jobless rates in developed countries as a large portion of the population is either
underemployed or works informally without paying taxes. In addition, workers not actively seeking a job in
the month before the survey dont count as unemployed under the IBGEs methodology. The survey also
doesnt take into account farm workers.
(www.nasdaq.com, Adaptado)

No trecho do quinto pargrafo Brazils unemployment rate, however, is not fully comparable to jobless
rates in developed countries as a large portion of the population is either underemployed or works
informally a palavra as pose ser substituida, sem alterao de sentido, por:
A) But.
B) Nor.
C) Such.
D) Likely.
E) Since.

4. (ANVISA ANALISTA ADMINISTRATIVO CETRO/2013)

An increased incidence of kidney stones and renal failure in infants has been reported in China, believed
to be associated with the ingestion of infant formula contaminated with melamine. It has been discovered
that melamine has been deliberately added to raw milk for a number of months in order to boost its
apparent protein content. In 2007 there was a large outbreak of renal failure in cats and dogs in the USA

1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA 57


associated with ingestion of pet food found to contain melamine and cyanuric acid. Melamine alone is of
low toxicity; ________ experimental studies have shown that combination with cyanuric acid leads to
crystal formation and subsequent kidney toxicity.
(World Health Organization, 30/10/2008)

Choose the alternative that fills in correctly the blank of the sentence below.

Melamine alone is of low toxicity; ________ experimental studies have shown that combination with
cyanuric acid leads to crystal formation and subsequent kidney toxicity.

A) Therefore.
B) So.
C) However.
D) Unless.
E) Since.

5. (ANVISA ANALISTA ADMINISTRATIVO CETRO/2013)


The alarm ________ Europe ________ the discovery ________ horsemeat ________ beef products
escalated again Monday, when the Swedish furniture giant Ikea withdrew an estimated 1.670 pounds
________ meatballs ________ sale ________ 14 European countries. Ikea acted after authorities in the
Czech Republic detected horsemeat in its meatballs. The company said it had made the decision even
though its tests two weeks ago did not detect horse DNA. Horsemeat mixed with beef was first found last
month in Ireland, then Britain, and has now expanded steadily across the Continent. The situation in
Europe has created unease among American consumers over ________ or not horsemeat might also find
its way into the food supply in the United States.
(The New York Times, 2/25/2013)

According to the formal rule of the English language, choose the alternative that fills in correctly the
blank of the sentence below.

The situation in Europe has created unease among American consumers over ________ or not horse
meat might also find its way into the food supply in the United States.

A) Rather.
B) Whether.
C) Perhaps.
D) Either.
E) If.

Respostas

1. (A)
A questo pede que o candidato determine. A palavra nor significa not either. Ns utilizamos nor
para frases negativas, especialmente aps neither para introduzir uma segunda frase ou perodo em
uma srie de negativas. Not either utilizado da mesma maneira que nor quando temos vrias frases
negativas que concordam.

2. (D)
No trecho em questo. Alm (do fato exposto na frase anterior), trabalhadores que no procuram
ativamente por um emprego (...). Otherwise caso contrrio. Nevertheless todavia, porm. Furthermore
alm disso, ademais. Therefore portanto, por isso, assim.

3. (E)
No trecho em questo A taxa de desemprego brasileira, entretanto, no completamente comparvel
com as taxas de desemprego dos pases desenvolvidos (uma vez que) uma grande parte da populao
desempregada ou trabalha informalmente (...)

4. (C)

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A questo pede que o candidato determine. Escolha a alternativa que melhor completa o espao na
frase abaixo. A melanina sozinha de baixa toxicidade. (Porm) estudos experimentais mostram que sua
combinao com cido cianrico leva a formao de cristais e subsequente intoxicao do rim.

5. (B)
A questo pede que o candidato determine de acordo com a regra formal da lngua inglesa, escolha a
alternativa que completa corretamente o espao na sentena abaixo. A situao na Europa tem criado
um desconforto entre os consumidores americanos (caso acontea) ou no da carne de cavalo conseguir
entrar na fonte alimentcia dos Estados Unidos.

Advrbios
Ordem dos Advrbios

- Advrbios de frequncia (OFTEN, GENERALLY, SOMETIMES, NEVER, SELDOM, ALWAYS...)


so colocados, de preferncia, ANTES do verbo principal ou APS o verbo auxiliar ou o verbo to be.

They usually watch TV in the evenings.

She seldom eats sweets.

She is always late.

These curtains have never been cleaned.

Expresses adverbiais de frequncia


so colocadas no final ou no incio de
uma orao.

They watch TV every evening.


Once a week they go swimming.

- Advrbios de probabilidade (POSSIBLY, PROBABLY, CERTAINLY...) so colocados antes do


verbo principal mas aps be ou um verbo auxiliar.

He probably knows her phone number.

He is certainly at home now.

- Perhaps e maybe (talvez) aparecem normalmente no comeo de uma orao.

Perhaps Ill see her later.


Maybe youre right.

- Advrbios de tempo (TODAY, TOMORROW, NOW, SOON, LATELY...) so colocados no final ou


no incio de uma orao.

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He bought a new camera yesterday.
On monday Im going to London.

- Advrbios de modo (SLOWLY, QUICKLY, GENTLY, SOFTLY, WELL...) aparecem normalmente


no final da orao. Alguns advrbios podem tambm aparecer no incio de uma orao se quisermos
enfatiz-los.

She entered the room slowly.


Slowly she entered the room.

- Grande parte dos advrbios de modo formada pelo acrscimo de LY (-mente) ao adjetivo.

serious seriously
careful carefully
quiet quietly
heavy heavily
bad badly

- Porm, nem todas as palavras terminadas em LY so advrbios.

solitrio
lonely =
(adjetivo)
encantador
lovely =
(adjetivo)
silly = tolo (adjetivo)
idoso
elderly =
(adjetivo)

- Advrbios de lugar (HERE, THERE, EVERYWHERE...) so usados no incio ou no final de


oraes.

Youll find what you want here.


There comes the bus.

MODO, LUGAR, TEMPO

- A posio normal dos advrbios em uma orao :


He did his job CAREFULLY AT HOME YESTERDAY.

MODO LUGAR TEMPO

LUGAR, MODO, TEMPO

- Com verbos de movimento, a posio normal :


She traveled TO LONDON BY PLANE LAST WEEK.

LUGAR MODO TEMPO

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OBSERVAES

1) FAST, HARD e LATE funcionam como adjetivos ou advrbios.

John is a fast runner. (adjetivo)


John runs very fast. (advrbio)

The train is very late. (adjetivo)


Jill arrived very late. (advrbio)

This is a hard question. (adjetivo)


If you want to succeed, study hard. (advrbio)

2) Ateno para as tradues de HARDLY e LATELY.

I can hardly move my feet. (advrbio)

= mal, com dificuldade

I havent seen John, lately. (advrbio)

= ultimamente

3) GOOD = bom (adjetivo) BAD = mau (adjetivo)


WELL = bem (advrbio) BADLY = mal (advrbio)

Questes

01. (SEFAZ/RJ Auditor Fiscal FCC/2014)

Why Is Spain Really Taking Lionel Messi to Tax Court?

By Jonathan Mahler Sep 27, 2013

So Spain has decided to haul Lionel Messi into court for tax evasion, which strikes me as completely
insane on pretty much every level.
You may remember the story from a few months back: The greatest soccer player in the world and his
father were accused of setting up a bunch of shell companies in Belize and Uruguay to avoid paying taxes
on royalties and other licensing income.
Messi - who makes an estimated $41 million a year, about half from sponsors - reached a settlement
with Spains tax authorities earlier this summer, agreeing to pay the amount he apparently owed, plus
interest. The matter was settled, or so it seemed. Messi could go back to dazzling the world with his
athleticism and creativity.
Only it turns out that Spain wasnt quite done with Messi. His adopted country - Messi is Argentine but
became a Spanish citizen in 2005 - is now considering pressing criminal charges against him.
Cracking down on tax-evading footballers has become something of a trend in Europe, where players
and clubs have been known to launder money through image-rights companies often set up in tax
havens. When you need money - and Europe needs money - go to the people who have it, or something
like that. Over the summer, dozens of Italian soccer clubs were raided as part of an investigation into a
tax-fraud conspiracy. A number of English Premier League clubs were forced last year to pay millions of
pounds in back taxes.
No one likes a tax cheat, and theres little doubt that widespread tax fraud has helped eat away at the
social safety net in Spain and elsewhere, depriving schools, hospitals and other institutions of badly

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needed funds. But Europe is not going to find the answers to its financial problems in the pockets of some
professional soccer players and clubs.
Messis defense, delivered by his father, seems credible enough to me. He is a footballer and thats
it, Messis father Jorge said of his soccer-prodigy son. If there was an error, it was by our financial adviser.
He created the company. My mistake was to have trusted the adviser. Even if Messi is legally responsible
for the intricate tax dodge he is accused of having participated in, its pretty hard to believe that he knew
much about it.
More to the point, Lionel Messi is probably Spains most valuable global asset. What could possibly
motivate the Spanish government to want to tarnish his reputation, especially after hes paid off his alleged
debt? After four years of Great-Depression level unemployment, have anxiety and despair curdled into
vindictiveness?
Heres another explanation: Maybe this whole case has less to do with money than it does with history.
Maybe its no coincidence that the target of the Spanish governments weird wrath happens to play for FC
Barcelona, which is, after all, "mes que un club." It's a symbol of Catalan nationalism - and a bitter, longtime
rival of Spains establishment team, Real Madrid.
Too conspiratorial? Prove it, Spain. Release Cristiano Ronaldos tax return.

(Adapted form http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-09-27/why-is-spain-really-taking-lionel-messi-to-tax-court-.html)

A synonym for badly, as it is used in the text, is


(A) closely.
(B) evenly.
(C) much.
(D) almost.
(E) not.

02. (CODEVASF - Tcnico em Informtica CONSULPLAN/2008)

The uses for oil

Oil is the largest source of liquid fuel and, in spite of attempts to develop synthetic fuels, world
consumption of oil products in increasing.
The oil industry is not much more than a hundred years old. It began when the first oil well was drilled
in 1859. In the early days, oil was used to light houses because there was no electricity and gas was very
scarce. Later, people began to use oil for heating too.
Most industries use machinery to make things. Every machine needs oil in order to run easily. Even a
small clock or watch needs a little oil from time to time.
The engines of many machines use oil fuels petrol, kerosene or diesel. Cars, buses, trucks, tractors,
and small aircraft use petroleum chemicals: synthetic rubber, plastics, synthetic fiber materials for clothes
and for the home, paints, materials which help to stop rust, photographic materials, soap and cleaning
materials (detergents), drugs, fertilizers for farms and gardens, food containers, and may others.
In 1900 the worlds oil production was less than 2 million tons a year. Today the oil industry is one of
the worlds largest and most important suppliers of raw materials.

In the sentence: every machine needs oil in order to run easily. Easily can be considered:
(A) an adverb.
(B) an adjective.
(C) a noun.
(D) a preposition.
(E) a conjunction.

03. (INB Engenheiro eletrnico CONSULPLAN/2006)

Wolves

Tsali, an old chief of the Cherokees (a tribe of Noth American Indians that live in the Southwest of the
Unites States), often walks along the stream near the village with his grandson. They do that almost every
day. The old man knows a lot of stories full of adventure or wisdom and the boy loves to listen to them.

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This morning Tsali decides to tell the boy about a battle that sometimes happens inside himself. The
old man says, This battle is between two wolves. One is evil: cruelty, hate, anger, envy, despair, greed,
arrogance, guilt, lies, resentment, inferiority, superiority, and ego.
The old Indian stops for a moment and then says, the other is good: joy, peace, love, hope, empathy,
friendship, serenity, humility, kindness, generosity, truth, compassion, and faith
The boy is filled with curiosity. He looks at his grandfather and asks, What happens then? Which wolf
wins?
Tsali just smiles and answers, The one I feed.

They _________________ walk along the stream. They frequently do that.


(A) often
(B) sometimes
(C) every day
(D) always
(E) never

Respostas

01. C Um dos significados do advrbio badly o seguinte de acordo com o dicionrio


Macmillan: Se voc precisa ou quer algo badly, voc precisa disso very much (muito).
Ex: How successful you are depends on how badly you want to succeed. (O quo bem-sucedido que
voc seja, depende muito de quanto voc quer ter sucesso).

02. A
Muitos advrbios so derivados de adjetivos ou possuem a mesma forma do adjetivo. Quando so
derivados de adjetivos, os advrbios so, na maioria dos casos, formados pelo acrscimo do sufixo -ly (
mente em portugus) a um adjetivo.
O advrbio "easily" vem do adjetivo "easy"
Ex: easy ou easily: His success came too easy. / His success came too easily.
(O sucesso dele veio fcil / facilmente.)
Portanto na sentena: "toda mquina precisa de leo para funcionar facilmente". "Easily" pode ser
considerado um advrbio.

03. A A traduo correta de often frequentemente (um sinnimo para frequently)

Numerais

Cardinal Numbers
Usados para:
1. Count things (contar as coisas): I have one little brother. There are thirty-one days in January.

2. Give your age (falar sobre idade): You are nineteen years old. My sister is twenty-seven years old.

3. Give your telephone number (dar nmero de telefone): Our phone number is two-six-nine, three-
eight-four-seven (269-3847).

4. Give years (falar sobre os anos): I was born in nineteen ninety-five (1995).

1 ONE
2 TWO
3 THREE
4 FOUR
5 FIVE
6 SIX
7 SEVEN
8 EIGHT
9 NINE

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10 TEN
11 ELEVEN
12 TWELVE
13 THIRTEEN
14 FOURTEEN
15 FIFTEEN
16 SIXTEEN
17 SEVENTEEN
18 EIGHTEEN
19 NINETEEN
20 TWENTY
21 TWENTY ONE
22 TWENTY TWO
23 TWENTY THREE
24 TWENTY FOUR
25 TWENTY FIVE
26 TWENTY SIX
27 TWENTY SEVEN
28 TWENTY EIGHT
29 TWENTY NINE
30 THIRTY
31 THIRTY ONE
32 THIRTY TWO
33 THIRTY THREE
40 FORTY
50 FIFTY
60 SIXTY
70 SEVENTY
80 EIGHTY
90 NINETY
100 ONE HUNDRED
101 ONE HUNDRED AND ONE
200 TWO HUNDRED
300 THREE HUNDRED
1000 ONE THOUSAND
1,000,000 ONE MILLION
1,000,000,000 ONE BILLION

Ordinal Numbers
Usados para:
1. Give a date (falar sobre datas): My birthday is on the 27th of August. (Twenty-seventh of August)
2. Put things in a sequence or order (colocar as coisas em uma sequncia ou ordem): I was the second
to be interviwed.

3. Give the floor of a building (falar sobre os andares de construes): His office is on the tenth floor.

1st FIRST
2nd SECOND
3rd THIRD
4th FOURTH
5th FIFTH

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6th SIXTH
7th SEVENTH
8th EIGHTH
9th NINTH
10th TENTH
11th ELEVENTH
12th TWELFTH
13th THIRTEENTH
14th FOURTEENTH
15th FIFTEENTH
16th SIXTEENTH
17th SEVENTEENTH
18th EIGHTEENTH
19th NINETEENTH
20th TWENTIETH
21st TWENTY-FIRST
22nd TWENTY-SECOND
23rd TWENTY-THIRD
30th THIRTIETH
40th FORTIETH
50th FIFTIETH
60th SIXTIETH
70th SEVENTIETH
80th EIGHTIETH
90th NINETIETH
100th HUNDREDTH
101st HUNDRED AND FIRST
200th TWO HUNDREDTH
300th THREE HUNDREDTH
1,000th THOUSANDTH
1,000,000th TEN MILLIONTH

Artigo definido e indefinido

Artigo Definido
THE = o, a, os, as

- Usamos antes de substantivos tomados em sentido restrito.

Exemplos:

The coffee produced in Brazil is of very high quality.


I hate the music theyre playing.
The people youve just met are my neighbors.

- Emprega-se tambm antes de nomes de pases no plural ou que contenham as palavras


Kingdom, Republic, Union, Emirates.

Exemplos:
The United States
The Netherlands
The United Kingdom
The Dominican Republic

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- Antes de adjetivos ou advrbios no grau superlativo.

Exemplos:

John is the tallest boy in the family.


The best students will be awarded.

- Antes de acidentes geogrficos (rios, mares, oceanos, cadeias de montanhas, desertos e ilhas
no plural), mesmo que o elemento geogrfico tenha sido omitido.

Exemplos:
The Nile (River)
The Sahara (Desert)
The Pacific (Ocean)

- Antes de nomes de famlias no plural.

Exemplos:

The Smiths have just moved here.


The Browns are our friends.

- Antes de adjetivos substantivados.

Exemplos:

You should respect the old.


I feel sorry for the blind.

- Antes de numerais ordinais.

Exemplos:

He is the eleventh on the list.


This is the third time I hear you say that.

- Antes de nomes de hotis, restaurantes, teatros, cinemas, museus.

Exemplos:
The Hilton (Hotel)
The British Museum

- Antes de nacionalidades.

Exemplos:
The Dutch
The Chinese

- Antes de nomes de instrumentos musicais.

Exemplos:
She plays the piano very well.
Can you play the guitar?

- Antes de substantivos seguidos de preposio.

Exemplos:
The Battle of Trafalgar
The Houses of Parliament

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Omisses

- Antes de substantivos tomados em sentido genrico.


Exemplos:
Roses are my favorite flowers.
Salt is used to flavor food.

- Antes de nomes prprios no singular.


Exemplos:
John didnt come to the party yesterday.
She lives in South America.

- Antes de possessivos.
Exemplo:
My house is more comfortable than theirs.

- Antes de nomes de idiomas, no seguidos da palavra language.


Exemplo:
She speaks French and English. (Mas: She speaks the French language.)

- Antes de nomes de estaes do ano.


Exemplo:
Summer is hot, but winter is cold.

Casos especiais

- No se usa o artigo THE antes das palavras church, school, prison, market, bed, hospital,
home, university, college, market, quando esses elementos forem usados para seu primeiro
propsito.

Exemplos:
She went to church. (para rezar)
She went to the church. (talvez para falar com algum)

- Sempre se usa o artigo THE antes de office, cathedral, cinema, movies e theater.
Exemplos:
Lets go to the theater.
They went to the movies last night.

Artigo indefinido

A / AN = um, uma
Emprego do artigo A:

- Antes de palavras iniciadas por consoantes.


Exemplos:
A boy
A girl
A woman

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- Antes de palavras iniciadas por vogais, com som consonantal.

Exemplos:
A uniform
A university
A European
Emprego do artigo AN:

- Antes de palavras iniciadas por vogais.

Exemplos:
AN egg
AN orange
AN umbrella

- Antes de palavras iniciadas por H mudo (no pronunciado).

Exemplos:
AN hour
AN honor
AN heir

Usa-se os artigos indefinidos para:

- Dar ideia de representao de um grupo, antes de substantivos.

Exemplo:
A chicken lays eggs. (Todas as galinhas pem ovos.)

- Antes de nomes prprios no singular, significando um tal de.

Exemplo:
A Mr. Smith phoned yesterday.

- No modelo:
WHAT + A / AN = adj. + subst.
Exemplos:
What a nice woman! (Que mulher bondosa!)
What a terrible situation! (Que situao terrvel!)

- Em algumas expresses de medida e frequncia.


Exemplos:
A dozen (uma dzia)
A hundred (uma centena, ou cem)
Twice a year (duas vezes ao ano)

- Em certas expresses.
Exemplos:
Its a pity ( um a pena)
Its a shame ( uma vergonha)
Its an honor ( uma honra)

- Antes de profisso ou atividades.


Exemplos:
James is a lawyer.
Her sister is a physician.

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Omisses

- Antes de substantivos contveis no plural.


Exemplos:
Lions are wild animals.
Ive seen (some*) good films lately.

- Antes de substantivos incontveis.


Exemplos:
Please, bring me (some*) bread.
Water is good for our health.
* Em alguns casos, podemos usar SOME antes dos substantivos.

Fonte: objetivo.br (com adaptaes)

Questes

Marque a alternativa adequada para cada questo abaixo, de acordo com as regras estudadas:
01. I love living in this __________ city.
(A) no article
(B) a
(C) the
(D) an

02. Generally speaking, __________ boys are physically stronger than girls.
(A) no article
(B) a
(C) the
(D) an

03. The boss gave me __________ hour to finish the report.


(A) no article
(B) a
(C) the
(D) an

04. Do you remember __________ girl that we saw last night?


(A) no article
(B) a
(C) the
(D) an

05. P1: Did you go to the Thai restaurant?


P2: No, I went to __________ place where you and I normally go.
(A) the
(B) a
(C) no article
(D) an

06. He is __________ really good person.


(A) the
(B) a
(C) no article
(D) an

1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA 69


07. My brother is __________ expert at fixing cars.
(A) the
(B) no article
(C) an
(D) a

08. __________ Paris is a beautiful city.


(A) no article
(B) a
(C) the
(D) an

09. My __________ teacher's name is William.


(A) no article
(B) a
(C) the
(D) an

10. We got our son __________ dog for Christmas.


(A) the
(B) a
(C) no article
(D) an
Respostas

01. A - Amo morar nesta cidade, no h necessidade de um artigo antes de cidade.

02. A - A frase cita meninos em geral, e nesse caso, no se usa artigo.

03. D - Usa-se antes de substantivo iniciando com som de consoante.

04. C - Trata-se de uma menina especfica, logo, usa-se o artigo the.

05. A - Trata-se de um local especfico, logo, usa-se o artigo the.

06. B - Usa-se antes de palavra iniciada com som de consoante.

07. C - Artigo indefinido, usado antes de palavra com som de vogal.

08. A - Antes de nome de cidade, no se usa artigo.

09. A - Trata-se de um teacher especfico, portando, no se usa artigo.

10. B - Usa-se antes de substantivo iniciando com som de consoante.

Verbos: tempos, modos, formas e vozes

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PRESENTE CONTNUO: indica algo que acontece no exato momento da fala. As frases neste tempo
verbal mostram o que algum est fazendo (gerndio). Necessita do verbo to be (am, is, are) e mais
algum outro verbo com terminao -ing (-ando, endo, -indo, -ondo):

Exemplos:

I am writing a book.
Eu estou escrevendo um livro.

You are reading.


Voc est lendo.

He is listening to music.
Ele est escutando msica.

She is making lunch.


Ela est fazendo o almoo.

It is playing with a ball.


Ele/Ela est brincando com uma bola.

We are learning together.


Ns estamos aprendendo juntos.
You are studying English.
Vocs esto estudando Ingls.

They are traveling.


Eles esto viajando.

*O pronome it usado para coisas e animais. Pode referir-se a pessoas quando no se sabe o sexo.

Tudo o que foi descrito nestas frases est acontecendo agora, neste exato momento. Por isso usamos
o presente contnuo. Para tornar todas estas frases negativas, basta posicionar a palavra not aps o to
be, ou fazer uma contrao ente eles (am not, isnt, arent).

Exemplos:

I am not writing a book. (O to be am negativo no possui forma contraida)

You arent reading.


Voc no est lendo.

He isnt listening to music.


Ele no est escutando msica.

She isnt making lunch.


Ela no est fazendo o almoo.

It isnt playing with a ball.


Ele/Ela no est brincando com uma bola.

We arent learning together.


Ns no estamos aprendendo juntos.

You arent studying English.


Vocs no esto estudando Ingls.

They arent traveling.


Eles no esto viajando.

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Agora, para transformarmos as frases em interrogaes, devemos mudar a posio do to be.
Precisamos posicion-lo (am, is, are) antes dos sujeitos das frases. As outras palavras permanecem em
suas posies originais. Claro que no podemos esquecer do ponto de interrogao. Veja:

Exemplos:

Am I writing a book?
Eu estou escrevendo um livro?

Are you reading?


Voc est lendo?

Is he listening to music?
Ele est ouvindo msica?

Is she making lunch?


Ela est fazendo o almoo?

Is It playing with a ball?


Ele/ela (animal) est brincando com a bola?

Are we learning together?


Ns estamos aprendendo juntos?

Are you studying English?


Voc est estudando Ingls?

Are they traveling?


Eles esto viajando?

PASSADO CONTNUO: se voc quiser colocar todas as frases que acabamos de estudar no passado,
para relatar o que algum estava fazendo, muito simples. Basta trocar verbo to be que estava no
presente pelo to be no passado (was, were). Apenas tenha ateno na hora de saber qual pessoa usar
was e qual usar were. Exemplos:

Exemplos:

I was writing a book.


Eu estava escrevendo um livro.

You were reading.


Voc estava lendo.

He was listening to music.


Ele estava ouvindo musica.

She was making lunch.


Ela estava fazendo o almoo.

It was playing with a ball.


Ele/ela (animal) estava brincando com a bola.

We were learning together.


Ns estvamos aprendendo juntos.

You were studying English.


Voc estava estudando Ingls.

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They were traveling.
Eles estavam viajando.

Perceba que usamos was com I/He/She/It, e que usamos were com You/We/They. Agora, para formar
a negativa (wasnt, werent) e a interrogativa (Was I...?, Were you...?), basta proceder da mesma forma
que vimos no caso do Presente Contnuo.

FUTURO CONTNUO: para relatar aquilo que algum estar fazendo em um determinado momento
no futuro, s utilizar will be e mais qualquer outro verbo terminado em -ing.

I will be writing a book tomorrow night.


Eu estarei escrevendo um livro amanh a noite.

You will be reading when she arrives.


Voc estar lendo quando ela chegar.

He will be listening to music this Saturday.


Ele estar ouvindo msica este sbado.

She will be making lunch tomorrow at noon.


Ela estar fazendo o almoo amanh ao meio dia.

It will be playing with a ball Monday.


Ele/ela (animal) estar brincando com a bola segunda-feira.

We will be learning together during the trip to Spain.


Ns estaremos aprendendo juntos durante a viagem para a Espanha.

You will be studying English next semester.


Voc estar estudando Ingls durante o prximo semestre.

They will be traveling to Germany next summer.


Eles estaro viajando para a Alemanha no prximo vero (frias).
Nas negativas, simplesmente posicionamos not logo aps o auxiliar will, ou fazemos uma contrao
com eles (will+not= wont).

Para interrogar, faz-se a colocao do auxiliar will antes do sujeito das frases (Will I...?, Will you...?).

PRESENTE SIMPLES: este tempo verbal nos fala de situaes que acontecem rotineiramente. Estas
situaes no acontecem no exato momento da fala, mas usualmente durante o dia a dia. Por exemplo,
voc pode dizer em portugus eu trabalho. Essas suas palavras indicam algo rotineiro para voc, no
querem dizer que voc esteja trabalhando agora, neste exato momento. essa noo de que algo
acontece no presente mas como uma rotina o que o presente simples indica. Vamos ver a conjugao
de alguns verbos no presente simples com frases afirmativas primeiro:

I work in the evening.


Eu trabalho a noite (no perodo da noite).

You like to dance.


Voc gosta de danar.

He sleeps a lot.
Ele dorme muito.

She cooks well.


Ela cozinha bem.

It barks too much.

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Ele/ela* late muito. (Lembrando que o pronome it utilizado como ele/ela quando se refere a animais
ou objetos, neste caso um cachorro ou cadela).

We speak English fluently.


Ns falamos Ingls fluentemente.

You drive fast.


Voc dirige rapidamente.

They drink beer.


Eles bebem cerveja.

Perceba que basta seguir a ordem sujeito + verbo no infinitivo sem to (+complemento) para formar
algumas sentenas. a ordem natural das palavras em Portugus tambm. Assim, se voc souber uma
boa gama de verbos, poder montar muitas frases para praticar.

Neste caso de sentenas afirmativas somente necessitamos tomar cuidado com os detalhes em
negrito e em sublinhado. Todas as vezes em que o sujeito da frase for a terceira pessoa do singular
(he/she/it), devemos acrescentar um -s no final do verbo. Em algumas situaes ser um -es, e no caso
do verbo ter (to have) a forma ser has. Repito: s nas afirmativas com 3 pessoa singular.

As negativas precisam fazer o uso dos verbos auxiliares do e does, acrescidos de not (do+not=dont /
does+not=doesnt). Doesnt ser usado somente com 3 pessoa singular. Exemplos:
I dont work in the evening.
Eu no trabalho a noite (no perodo da noite).

You dont like to dance.


Voc no gosta de danar.

He doesnt sleep a lot.


Ele no dorme muito.

She doesnt cook well.


Ela no cozinha bem.
It doesnt bark too much.
Ele/ela* no late muito. (Lembrando que o pronome it utilizado como ele/ela quando se refere a
animais ou objetos, neste caso um cachorro ou cadela).

We dont speak English fluently.


Ns no falamos Ingls fluentemente.

You dont drive fast.


Voc no dirige rapidamente.

They dont drink beer.


Eles no bebem cerveja.

Para fazermos perguntas, posicionaremos do e does antes do sujeito da frase e acrescentaremos o


ponto de interrogao.

Do I work in the evening?


Voc trabalha a noite (no perodo da noite)?

Do you like to dance?


Voc gosta de danar?

Does he sleep a lot?


Ele dorme muito?

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Does she cook well?
Ela cozinha bem?

Does it bark too much?


Ele/ela* late muito? (Lembrando que o pronome it utilizado como ele/ela quando se refere a animais
ou objetos, neste caso um cachorro ou cadela).

Do we speak English fluently?


Ns falamos Ingls fluentemente?

Do you drive fast?


Voc dirige rapidamente?

Do they drink beer?


Eles bebem cerveja?

timo. Agora, para finalizarmos o presente simples, passemos ao principal verbo ingls: o to be. A
conjugao do presente do to be possui trs formas: am, is e are. Este verbo significa duas coisas ao
mesmo tempo: ser e estar. Mas como identificar se numa frase ele quer se referir ao verbo ser ou se ao
verbo estar? Resposta: depende da frase, depende do contexto. Veja:

I am a teacher.
Eu sou um(a) professor(a).

You are a student.


Voc um(a) aluno(a).

He is late.
Ele est atrasado.

She is early.
Ela est adiantada.

It is tall.
Ele/Ela alto(a).

We are Brazilians.
Ns somos brasileiros.

You are busy.


Voc(s) est(o) ocupado(s).

They are happy.


Eles/Elas esto/so felizes.

Note que am usado na primeira pessoa do singular, is na terceira do singular e are nas outras.
Para negarmos, usamos not logo aps o to be ou fazemos contrao entre eles.

I am not a teacher.
Eu no sou um(a) professor(a).
You arent a student.
Voc no um(a) aluno(a).

He isnt late.
Ele no est atrasado.

She isnt early.


Ela no est adiantada.

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It isnt tall.
Ele/ela no alto(a).

We arent Brazilians.
Ns no somos Brasileiros(as)

You arent busy.


Voc no (so)/no est(esto) ocupado(a)(s).

They arent happy.


Eles no esto/so feliz(es).

Finalizando, para transformarmos estas frases em interrogaes, temos que por o to be antes dos
sujeitos. Lembrete: ponto de interrogao! Assim:

Am I a teacher?
Eu sou um(a) professor(a)?

Are you a student?


Voc um(a) aluno(a)?
Is he late?
Ele est atrasado?

Is she early?
Ela est adiantada?

Is it tall?
Ele/ela* alto(a)?

Are we Brazilians?
Ns somos brasileiros?

Are you busy?


Voc est ocupado?

Are they happy?


Eles esto felizes?

PASSADO SIMPLES: indica alguma ao completa no passado, ou seja, algo j finalizado. O passado
simples caracteriza-se pela adio da terminao -ed ao verbos REGULARES nas afirmativas. Nas
interrogativas, usamos Did antes dos sujeitos das frases e, nas negativas, did not ou didnt. Vejamos:

I worked yesterday.
Eu trabalhei ontem.

You answered my e-mail.


Voc respondeu ao meu e-mail.

He traveled a lot.
Ele viajou muito.

She watched the movie.


Ela assitiu o filme.

It barked all night.


Ele/Ela* latiu a noite toda.

We stayed here.
Ns ficamos aqui.

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You played very well.
Vocs jogaram muito bem.

They parked far.


Eles estacionaram longe.

I didnt work yesterday.


Eu no trabalhei ontem.

You didnt answer my e-mail.


Voc no respondeu ao meu e-mail.

He didnt travel a lot.


Ele no viajou muito.

She didnt watch the movie.


Ela no assistiu o filme.

It didnt bark all night.


Ele/Ela* no latiu a noite toda.
We didnt stay here.
Ns no ficamos aqui.

You didnt play very well.


Vocs no jogaram muito bem.

They didnt park far.


Eles no estacionaram longe.

Did I work yesterday?


Eu trabalhei ontem?
Did you answer my e-mail?
Voc respondeu ao meu e-mail?

Did he travel a lot?


Ele viajou muito?

Did she watch the movie?


Ela assistiu o filme?

Did it bark all night?


Ele/Ela* latiu a noite toda?

Did we stay here?


Ns ficamos aqui?

Did you play very well?


Vocs jogaram muito bem?

Did they park far?


Eles estacionaram longe?

Quanto aos verbos irregulares, procederemos da mesma forma. A nica diferena nas afirmaes,
pois eles no recebem terminao -ed.

essencial memorizar as formas irregulares. Vejamos:

I went to the beach. (to go: ir)


Eu fui para a praia.

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You left early. (to leave: sair, deixar)
Voc saiu cedo.

He drank too much. (to drink: beber)


Ele bebeu demais.

She had a sister. (to have: ter)


Ela tinha uma irm.

It slept under the bed. (to sleep: dormir)


Ele/Ela* dormiu embaixo da cama.

We ate pizza last night. (to eat: comer)


Ns comemos pizza ontem a noite.

You won together. (to win: vencer, ganhar)


Vocs venceram juntos.

They cut the meat. (to cut: cortar)


Eles cortaram a carne.

FUTURO SIMPLES: Usamos o futuro simples para dizer que algo vai acontecer ou dever acontecer,
para expressar aes que iremos fazer mas que no tnhamos planejado anteriormente, para fazer
previses sobre o futuro, uma vez que no temos certeza se essa previso ir mesmo se concretizar ou
no. Usamos tambm o futuro simples para promessas, ofertas e propostas. A estrutura formado pela
utilizao do auxiliar will aps o sujeito seguido de algum verbo. A negativa obtida com will not ou com
a contrao wont. Para perguntar no futuro simples, s colocar will antes do sujeito. Exemplos:

I will buy a car.


Eu vou comprar um carro.
You will have a baby.
Voc vai ter um beb.

He will study abroad.


Ele ir estudar no exterior.

She will go to the park.


Ela ir para o parque.

It will stay at the veterinarian.


Ele/ela* ir permanecer no veterinrio.

We will make a barbecue.


Ns iremos fazer um churrasco.

You will help me later.


Voc ir me ajudar depois.

They will be partners.


Eles sero parceiros.

FUTURO IMEDIATO: Utilizamos o futuro imediato para expressar algo que j foi planejado e por isso
existe a certeza de que ir acontecer. Por ser algo que temos certeza que iremos fazer o futuro imediato
acaba sendo usado frequentemente para expressar aes que acontecero num futuro bem prximo, por
isso chamado de imediato. A estrutura do futuro imediato o sujeito + o verbo to be no presente (am, is,
are) + going to + verbo principal + complemento.

Im going to visit my mother tonight.


Eu irei visitar minha me hoje a noite.

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Jack is going to swim tomorrow.
Jack ir nadar amanh.

It is going to rain in a few minutes.


Ir chover em alguns minutos.

Como o futuro imediato composto do to be, para fazermos frases interrogativas e negativas, basta
utilizar as mesmas regras acrescentando not aps o to be, ou colocando o mesmo antes do sujeito para
a interrogativa.

Steve is not going to dance samba.


Steve no ir danar samba.

They arent going to play soccer.


Eles no iro jogar futebol.

Is he going to buy a new car?


Ele vai comprar um carro novo?

Are you going to call Ann?


Voc ir ligar pra Ann?

Apenas em conversas e dilogos informais o going to pode ser substitudo pela expresso/abreviao
gonna:

Im gonna study tonight.


Eu irei estudar hoje a noite.

Are you gonna help me?


Voc ir me ajudar?

PRESENTE PERFEITO: formado pela utilizao do auxiliar have ou has (has para he, she, it) mais a
forma do particpio de outro verbo (conhecida como a terceira forma do verbo). Indica quando
descrevemos situaes que j ocorreram, mas que no sabemos quando. O tempo indefinido, no
interessa, ou simplesmente no importa, pois o que importa o fato acontecido.

Mike has seen the ocean many times.


Mike viu o oceano muitas vezes.

Sheila and Susan have already been to New York.


Sheila e Susan j estiveram em Nova Iorque.

I have already made my bed.


Eu j arrumei minha cama.

As formas negativas sero:

I havent made my bed.


Eu no arrumei minha cama.

Mike hasnt seen the ocean.


Mike no viu o oceano.

Sheila and Susan havent been to New York.


Sheila e Susan no estiveram em Nova Iorque.

Se quisermos, podemos acrescentar no final da frase a palavra yet, que significa tal ao ainda no
aconteceu. (apenas nas negativas)

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I havent made my bed yet.
Eu ainda no arrumei minha cama.

Mike hasnt seen the ocean yet.


Mike ainda no viu o oceano.

Sheila and Susan havent been to New York yet.


Sheila e Susan ainda no estiveram em Nova Iorque.

Para fazermos perguntas no present perfect, basta colocar have ou has antes do sujeito da frase. s
vezes, fazemos uso da palavra ever, que significa alguma vez, em perguntas: (o uso da palavra ever
opcional)

Have you bought Milk for the baby?


Voc comprou leite para o beb?

Has he talked to the police officer?


Ele falou com o policial?

Has Tina ever traveled to Salvador?


A Tina viajou para Salvador alguma vez?

Have you ever seen a famous person?


Voc alguma vez viu uma pessoa famosa?

PRESENTE PERFEITO CONTNUO: formado pela utilizao do auxiliar have ou has (has para he,
she, it) mais o presente perfeito do verbo be e o gerndio do verbo principal. Esta forma verbal enfatiza
uma ao que comeou no passado e que contina se repetindo at hoje.
I have been playing tennis for one hour.
Eu estou jogando tennis h uma hora.

Daniel has been waiting for two hours.


Daniel est esperando a duas horas.

Anna has been teaching in the university since April.


Anna tem lecionado na universidade desde Abril.

As formas negativas:

She has not been working at that company for three years.
Ela no tem trabalhado naquela companhia a trs anos.

I havent been watching much television lately.


Eu no tenho assistido muita televiso ultimamente.

Roberto hasnt been feeling well in the past few days.


Roberto no tem se sentido bem nos ltimos dias.

Para fazermos perguntas no present perfect continuos, basta colocar have ou has antes do sujeito da
frase.

Has David been doing his homework everyday?


David est fazendo sua tarefa todos os dias?

Have Donald and Mike been training for the race?


Donald e Mike esto treinando para aquela corrida?

Have you been playing video games all day?


Voc est jogando video games o dia inteiro?

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PASSADO PERFEITO: usado para dizer que alguma coisa ocorreu antes de outra no passado.
Formado por had mais o particpio de algum verbo. Veja no prximo exemplo que h duas situaes
acontecendo, mas, aquela que aconteceu primeiro est usando o past perfect. E aquela que aconteceu
em seguida est no passado simples. Ambas as oraes esto unidas por when.

I had already left when my father called home.


Eu j tinha sado quando meu pai ligou para casa.

She had called a taxi when I told her I would pick her up.
Ela j tinha chamado um taxi quando eu disse a ela que a pegaria.

O passado perfeito no precisa acontecer obrigatoriamente com as duas situaes em uma mesma
orao.

David had bought meat for the barbecue this morning.


David tinha comprado carne para o churrasco hoje de manh.

A negativa formada com had not ou hadnt. Para perguntar, devemos posicionar o had antes do
sujeito.

He hadnt gone to the bar.


Ele no tinha ido ao bar.

Had you brought me those documents?


Voc tinha me trazido aqueles documentos?

VERBOS AUXILIARES

Em perguntas voc pode mudar o tempo verbal de uma frase simplesmente alterando o verbo auxiliar.
Por exemplo:

Do you work?
Voc trabalha?

Does He work?
Ele trabalha?

Did you work?


Voc trabalhou?

Will you work?


Voc vai trabalhar?

Os verbos auxiliares no possuem traduo nas frases:

Do you play volleyball?


Voce joga volei?

A presena de um verbo auxiliar numa frase nos indica em que tempo verbal ela est (no presente, no
passado ou no futuro), dependendo do auxiliar que foi usado. Do e does indicam tempo presente, did
indica tempo passado, e will indica tempo futuro.

Suas formas negativas so dont (do not), didnt (did not) e wont (will not).

Para montarmos interrogaes, basta posicionar o auxiliary desejado antes do sujeito da frase.
O auxiliar tambm pode facilitar as coisas nas respostas. Ele pode substituir o verbo e todos os seus
complementos. Assim, se algum faz um pergunta muito longa, voc pode responder rapidamente:

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Do you always go to work by car on weekdays?
Voc sempre vai para o trabalho de carro nos dias da semana?

Sua resposta pode ser, simplesmente, Yes, I do.


Estas respostas curtas so conhecidas como short answers.

Os verbos auxiliares seguidos de um verbo principal so usados praticamente s em perguntas ou


frases negativas:

Do you like pizza?


Voc gosta de pizza?

I don't like pizza


Eu no gosto de pizza.

Numa frase afirmativa diramos:


I like pizza.
Eu gosto de pizza.

As formas does e doesnt so usadas quando o sujeito da frase no presente for terceira pessoa do
singular (he, she, it).
I dont eat pizza.
Eu no como pizza.

You dont eat pizza.


Voc no come pizza.

She doesnt eat pizza.


Ela no come pizza.

He doesnt eat pizza.


Ele no come pizza.

It doesnt eat pizza.


Ela/Ele* no come pizza.

We dont eat pizza.


Ns no comemos pizza.

You dont eat pizza.


Vocs no comem pizza.

They dont eat pizza.


Eles no comem pizza.

Do I eat pizza?
Eu como pizza?

Do you eat pizza?


Voc come pizza?

Does she eat pizza?


Ela come pizza?

Does he eat pizza?


Ele come pizza?

Does it eat pizza?


Ela/Ele* come pizza?

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Do we eat pizza?
Ns comemos pizza?

Do you eat pizza?


Vocs comem pizza?

Do they eat pizza?


Eles comem pizza?

VERBOS MODAIS

Os verbos modais so distintos dos regulares e irregulares pois possuem caractersticas prprias:

1. No precisam de auxiliares na formao de negativas e interrogativas;

2. Sempre aps os modais, usamos um verbo regular ou irregular no infinitivo, mas sem o to;

3. No sofrem alterao na terceira pessoa do singular do presente. Logo, nunca recebem s, es


ou ies para he/she/it.

So verbos modais: can, could, may, might, should, must, ought to.

May - pode ser usado para pedir permisso:

Exemplos:
May I open the window?
Posso abrir a janela?

May I use your bathroom?


Posso usar seu banheiro?

May e Might - podem indicar possibilidade mais certa ou probabilidade mais remota:

Exemplos:
It may rain.
Pode chover.

May indica algo com mais certeza do que might.

Exemplos:
It might rain.
Pode chover. (a probabilidade de chover pequena.)

He might come to the party, but I don't think he will.


Ele pode vir festa, mas no creio que vir.

May e might podem ser usados para exprimir um propsito, uma aspirao ou uma esperana:

Exemplos:
May he rest in peace.
Que ele repouse em paz.

I hope that he might like this cake.


Espero que ele possa gostar deste bolo.

May all your dreams come true.


Que todos os seus sonhos se realizem.

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Para dizermos algo no passado e no futuro, ao invs de may e might, normalmente usamos os
verbos to be allowed to ou to be permitted to, que significam ser permitido.

Exemplos:
He will be allowed to leave prison.
Ser-lhe- permitido sair da priso.

I wasnt allowed to enter without a uniform.


No me deixaram entrar sem um uniforme.
Must - precisar, dever, ter que.

Must usado no presente e no futuro. Must pode exprimir ordem, necessidade, obrigao, dever.
equivalente a have to (ter que):

Exemplos:

I must go now.
Preciso ir agora.

You must obey your parents.


Voc deve obedecer a seus pais.
You must follow your doctor's advice.
Voc tem que seguir os conselhos do seu mdico.

He has worked a lot; he must be tired.


Ele trabalhou muito; ele deve estar cansado.

A forma negativa mustn't (must not) exprime uma proibio ou faz uma advertncia.

Exemplos:
Visitors must not feed the animals.
Visitantes esto proibidos de alimentar os animais.

You mustn't miss the 9:00 train.


Voc no pode perder o trem das 9:00.

Can poder, conseguir.

Can pode ser usado para expressar talentos e habilidades no presente.

Exempos:
They can sing really well.
Eles consigo cantar realmente muito bem.

I can speak English.


Eu consigo falar Ingls.

H duas formas negativas, cant e cannot.

Exemplos:
He cant dance at all.
Ele no consegue danar nada.

Tim cannot control his feelings.


Tim no consegue controlar seus sentimentos.

Could - conseguia, podia, poderia.

Usamos could para expressar ideias como sendo o passado de can.

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Exemplos:
When I was a teenager I could swim better.
Quando eu era adolescente eu podia nadar melhor.

I could run, now I cant anymore.


Eu podia correr, mas agora no consigo mais.

Usamos could para pedir permisso. Could mais educado e formal que can:

Exemplos:
Could you help me?
Voc poderia me ajudar?

Could I borrow your cell phone?


Eu poderia pegar emprestado seu celular?

Should e Ought to deveria.


Usamos should e ought to para expressar nossa opinio, para dar sugesto ou conselho:

Exemplos:
He should travel more.
Ele deveria viajar mais.

I ought to go right now.


Eu deveria ir imediatamente.

As formas negativas so shouldnt e ought not to.

Exemplos:
You shouldnt talk like that.
Voc no deveria falar desse jeito.

I ought not to see her.


Eu no deveria v-la.

ORDEM DAS PALAVRAS NA ORAO

Para comear, vejamos a ordem das palavras em sentenas afirmativas:


sujeito verbo objeto
I study English.
I play tennis.

Se voc j um estudante um pouco mais avanado, lembre-se da seguinte regra:

Sujeito verbo objeto indireto objeto direto lugar tempo


I will tell you the story at school tomorrow.

A ordem das palavras em sentenas negativas a mesma que nas afirmativas. Note, entretanto, que
nas negativas ns normalmente precisamos de um verbo auxiliar:

Sujeito verbo objeto indireto objeto direto lugar tempo


I will not tell you the story at school tomorrow.

Posio de Expresses de Tempo (recently, now, then, yesterday, etc.)

Advrbios de tempo so normalmente postos no final da sentena.

Sujeito verbo objeto indireto objeto direto tempo


I will tell you the story tomorrow.

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Posio de Advrbio de modo (slowly, carefully, awfully, etc.)
Estes so postos atrs do objeto direto, ou atrs do verbo se no houver objeto direto.
Sujeito verbo objeto direto advrbio
He drove the car carefully.
He drove carefully.

Advrbios de lugar (here, there, behind, above, etc.)


Assim como os advrbios de modo, estes so colocados atrs do objeto direto ou do verbo.

Sujeito verbo objeto direto advrbio


I didnt see him there.
He stayed behind.
Advrbios de tempo (recently, now, then, yesterday, etc.)
Advrbios de tempo so normalmente colocados no final da sentena.

Sujeito verbo objeto indireto objeto direto tempo


I will tell you the story tomorrow.

Se voc no quiser impor nfase no tempo da ao, voc pode por o advrbio de tempo no incio da
sentena.

Tempo sujeito verbo objeto indireto objeto direto


Tomorrow I will tell you the story.

Advrbios de Frequncia (always, never, seldom, usually, etc.)


So posicionados diretamente antes do verbo principal. Se o to be for o verbo principal e no houver
nenhum verbo auxiliar, os advrbios de frequncia devem ser postos atrs do to be. Se houver um verbo
auxiliar, entretanto, advrbios de frequncia so posicionados antes do to be.

Sujeito auxiliar/to be advrbio verbo principal objeto, lugar ou tempo


We are usually here in the summer.

Ordem de palavras em sentenas interrogativas:


Em perguntas, a ordem sujeito-verbo-objeto a mesma que nas sentenas afirmativas. A nica coisa
que pode se alterar que voc normalmente tem que interpor o verbo auxiliar antes do sujeito. Pronomes
Interrogativos so colocados no incio das sentenas:

Interrog. verbo aux. Suj. outro verbo obj. indireto obj. direto lugar tempo
What would you like to tell me?
Did you have a party at home yesterday?
When were you there?

No podemos usar um verbo auxiliar quando procuramos ou perguntamos pelo sujeito da orao.
Neste caso, o pronome interrogativo simplesmente toma o lugar do sujeito.

Interrogativo verbo(s) objeto


Who invited you?

Caso possessivo

O Genitive Case (Caso Possessivo) usado para estabelecer uma relao de posse, parentesco ou
autoria. Sendo representado por s ou apenas .
Exemplos: The car of the boy = The boys car / The house of the dog = The dogs house

O elemento a receber s ou dever ser uma


pessoa ou um animal, nunca uma coisa.

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Recebem s

a) Substantivos singulares, terminados ou no de -s


Exemplos:
The mother of Sue = Sues mother
The husband of the waitress = The waitresss husband (O marido da garonete)

b) Substantivos plurais, no terminados em s


Exemplos:
The toys of the children = The childrens toys
The bags of the women = The womens bags

Recebem apenas

a) Substantivos plurais terminados em s


Exemplo: The uniforms of the workers = The workers uniforms

b) Nomes clssicos, famosos, terminados em s


Exemplos:
The words of Jesus = The Jesus words
The thoughts of Socrates = The Socrates thoughts

Observaes

1. Quando houver dois ou mais possuidores para um s elemento possudo, apenas o ltimo possuidor
recebe s ou
Exemplo: The bedroom of Henry and Paul is blue= Henry and Pauls bedroom is blue

2. Quando houver dois ou mais possuidores para elementos possudos diferentes, todos os
possuidores recebem s ou
Exemplo: The bedrooms of Henry and Paul are blue= Henrys and Pauls bedrooms are blue

3. Substantivos compostos recebem s no ltimo elemento


Exemplo: The cake of my mother-in-law = My mother-in-laws cake

4. Usa-se Genitive Case com expresses de tempo, medida e quantidade


Exemplos:
A weeks Holiday = um feriado de uma semana
A months wage = o salrio de um ms
A pounds weight = o peso de uma libra

5. Pode-se usar Genitive Case se o possuidor for o governo, um lugar ou uma organizao
Exemplos:
The governments intention
Brazils food

Questes

Preencha as frases com a alternativa correta:


01. ...................................... is Tom.
(A) My fathers-in-law name
(B) My father-in-law name
(C) My father-in-laws name
(D) My fathers-in-laws name
(E) My father-in-laws name

02. You should pay attention to ............................


(A) the Jesus words
(B) Jesuss words

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(C) the words of Jesus
(D) Jesus words
(E) the Jesuss words

03. .................................... are famous doctors.


(A) Paula and Joans husbands
(B) the Paula and the Joan
(C) Paulas and Joans husband
(D) the husband of Paula and Joan
(E) Paulas and Joans husbands

Respostas

01. Resposta C
Father-in-law um substantivo composto, portanto, deve receber -s apenas no ltimo elemento (law).

02. Resposta D
Jesus um nome clssico terminado em s, assim, enquadra-se na regra de receber apenas

03. Resposta E
Temos dois maridos diferentes, o da Paula e o da Joan. Quando houver dois possuidores para dois
elementos diferentes os dois possuidores devem receber s

Tag Questions e respostas curtas

As Tag Questions so perguntas curtas colocadas no final das oraes usadas para pedir uma
informao ou uma confirmao do que foi dito.

Caractersticas das Tag Questions:

1. Orao afirmativa a Tag Question ser negativa (forma contrada)


2. Orao negativa - a Tag Question ser afirmativa
3. A Tag Question deve sempre vir aps a vrgula
4. Estrutura: Verbo auxiliar + pronome

Exemplos:
Your mother is working, inst she?
Maria and Greg arent traveling, are we?
They live here, dont they?
You cant swim, can you?
Fred plays tennis, doesnt he?
She talked to you, didnt she?
They will not come tomorrow, will they?

* Quando a frase estiver na 1 pessoa do singular (I) e houver verbo TO BE a


Tag Question no segue a regra geral.
Exemplo: I am fat, arent I?

* Quando a frase contm uma expresso negativa como: nobody, never,


rarely, etc., a Tag Question positiva.
Exemplo: She never reads books, does she?

* Quando a frase um imperativo, a Tag Question will you?


Exemplo: Dont go there, will you?

* A Tag Question que corresponde a Lets + verb shall we?


Exemplo: Lets have a drink, shall we?

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Questes

Preencha com a Tag Question correta:

01. She is collecting stickers, .................................?

02. John and Max don't like maths, .............................?

03. Peter played handball yesterday, ...............................?

04. Kevin will come tonight, ...........................................?

05. Mary didn't do her homework last Monday, ................................?

Respostas

01. Resposta: inst she?

02. Resposta: do they?

03. Resposta: didnt he?

04. Resposta: won1t he?

05. Resposta: did she?

Short answers

As Short Answers (respostas curtas) so usadas em perguntas que exigem como resposta apenas
um sim ou um no e sua finalidade evitar a repetio.
Exemplos:
Do you speak English?
Yes, I do. (Sim) / No, I dont. (No)

Will he help us?


Yes, he will / No, he Wont.

Did Mary invite you to her party?


Yes, she did. / No, she didnt.

Estrutura da orao

A distribuio correta das palavras na frase ou orao, na lngua inglesa, segue o mesmo padro da
lngua portuguesa. Embora seja mais usada de forma rigorosa na primeira.
A ordem correta :

Sujeito verbo complementos


(s) (v) (c)

1. Sujeito

O sujeito, que sempre ocupa a primeira posio na frase, contrrio ao que ocorre na lngua portuguesa,
nunca omitido. O sujeito pode ser representado por um ou vrios substantivos ou por pronomes
pessoais.

Exemplos:

- The Microsoft is one of the richest corporations in the world.


- Explorer and Navigator are two famous browsers.

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- The United States, Canada, England and Japan are some of the countries where people make
the best use of internet.

O sujeito tambm pode ser representado por locues ou por sintagmas nominais.

Exemplos:

- My parents prefer the eletronic typewriter than the computer for typing their texts.

- Some of the software we use in the lab must be replaced.

- The world Bank and The United Nations Organization invest money in projects that improve the
information technology.
Encontraremos tambm oraes inteiras que exercem a funo de sujeito de uma orao.

Exemplos:

- Retraining the staff over and over and much of repeated reworking is what most businesses expect to
eradicate with investments in highly advanced technology.

- Better education, an increase in the living conditions and a serious health care program would suffice
to establish a desirable welfare status for the poor population in this country.

- From now on, not only machines, such as computers, watches and vehicles, but also books, trees
and even shoes will be equipped with microchips.

2. Verbo

Como se pode observar nos exemplos anteriores, o verbo ou a locuo verbal (sublinhados) ocupa a
segunda posio na estrutura frasal inglesa.
Na poesia, na msica ou no ingls falado coloquial, pode-se encontrar exemplos em que esta regra
no observada.
Entretanto, em linguagem tcnico-cientfica, como no ingls computacional, o formato S+V+C usado
rigorosamente.
Os dois nicos casos estabelecidos pela gramtica inglesa em que um verbo pode iniciar uma orao
so:

a) Modo imperativo (nunca acompanhado de sujeito)

- The computer is off. Turn it on.

- Execute the instructions following the manual procedures.

- Please, wait.

b) Frases Interrogativas (um verbo auxiliar sempre antecede o sujeito da frase).

- Would you please show me how I can run this program?

- Is this the correct way to write it in English ?

- Can you tell me what your e-mail is ?

Em casos ainda mais raros, podemos encontrar oraes introduzidas pelo infinitivo (to stop, to love,
to work, etc). Quem nunca ouviu ou falou a clssica shakespeareana: to be or not to be?
Embora coubesse um auxiliar nessa frase, o que a tornaria mais especfica, o uso do infinitivo
desempenha exatamente a funo de tornar o sentido do verbo infinitivo, genrico, atemporal ou
impessoal. Basta se reportar ao evento em que esta frase foi citada.

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Um tradutor eletrnico, por razes bvias, no aplica regras de sintaxe, e traduz as palavras nas
oraes, na mesma sequncia em que elas lhe forem apresentadas. Portanto, tome cuidado!

3. Complementos

Os complementos so palavras ou frases inteiras que detalham ou completam as informaes


estabelecidas pelo sujeito e o verbo, que so os nicos termos essenciais da orao.

Analisemos estas frases: A secretria chegou, O nibus saiu, O avio caiu. Sintaticamente, j
temos os dois elementos indispensveis: 0 sujeito que determina quem est envolvido na execuo de
uma determinada ao e o verbo que responde pelo ato executado.
As perguntas que fazemos ao verbo para saber os detalhes (Como? Quando? Com quem? Onde? Por
qu? Etc) so respondidas atravs destes complementos. Ento, teremos: A secretria chegou em casa
chorando. O nibus saiu vazio da frente da escola s onze horas. O avio caiu por causa de uma falha
mecnica.

Os principais complementos da orao so os elementos de transitividade dos verbos (objetos direto


e indireto) e os advrbios (que determinam o modo, tempo, lugar, causa, etc).

a) Objeto direto
o complemento que responde a pergunta: o qu feita ao verbo.

Exemplos:

- He bought a book.

- My father is a computer programmer.

- I dont know what to do.

b) Objeto indireto

o complemento que responde a pergunta : de qu?com qu?de quem?para quem? etc,


feitas ao verbo. O objeto indireto, na maioria dos casos, est ligado ao verbo indiretamente, ou seja, este
complemento precisa de uma preposio para se ligar ao verbo.
Outras vezes no, ele simplesmente responde pelo complemento relacionado a pessoas.

Exemplos:
a. Shes helping him finish his work.

b. She got home with her husband.

c. Im tired of speaking.

d. Diana told me what happened.

Quanto a ordem de colocao dos objetos em ingls, esta se d de forma contrria da nossa lngua.
O objeto indireto antecede o objeto direto. Veja em Give peace a chance! No portugus ns temos que
inverter essa ordem.
Lembre-se bem disso!

Fonte: http://files.tiunibratec2010-2012.webnode.com.br/200000019-3b2783b6d4/estrutura_frasal_inglesa%5B1%5D.doc.

Questes

01. (EBC Ansalista CESPE/2011) In the sentence:


The new gas stove in the kitchen which I bought last month has a very efficient oven., the subject is
The new gas stove in the kitchen.
( ) Certo ( ) Errado

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02. (EBC Ansalista CESPE/2011) In the sentence:

Bernard is now the best student at that college., the best student is a direct object.
( ) Certo ( ) Errado

03. (EBC Ansalista CESPE/2011) In the sentence:

Seeing the large crowd, John stopped his car., Seeing the large crowd is an adverbial clause.
( ) Certo ( ) Errado

04. (EBC Ansalista CESPE/2011) In the sentence:

They elected Prof. Palmer the head of that department for the second time., the head of that
department is a direct object.
( ) Certo ( ) Errado

05. (EBC Ansalista CESPE/2011)


Translation exists because men speak different languages. This truism is, in fact, founded on a
situation, which can be regarded as enigmatic and posing problems of extreme difficulty. Why should
human beings speak thousands of different, mutually incomprehensible tongues? Why does homo
sapiens, whose digestive tract has evolved and functions in precisely the same complicated ways the
world over, whose biochemical fabric and genetic potential are, orthodox science assures us, essentially
common, the delicate runnels of whose cortex are wholly akin in all peoples and at every stage of social
evolution why does this unified, though individually unique mammalian species not use common
language?
We do not speak one language, nor half a dozen, nor twenty or thirty. Four to five thousand languages
are thought to be in current use. This figure is almost certainly on the low side. It seems reasonable to
assert that the human species developed and made use of at least twice the number we can record today.
A genuine philosophy of language must grapple whit the phenomenon and rationale of the human
invention and retention of anywhere between five and ten thousand distinct tongues. However difficult
and generalizing the detour, a study of translation ought to put forward some view of the evolutionary,
psychic needs or opportunities, which have made translation necessary. To speak seriously of translation
one must first consider the possible meanings of Babel, their inherence in language and mind.

George Steiner. After Babel: aspects of language and translation. 2 ed.


Oxford University Press, 1992, p. 51-4 (adapt ed).

In line 4, the verbal form functions has as its subject homo sapiens.

( ) Certo ( ) Errado

Respostas

01. Errado - O sujeito da orao principal gas stove. O perodo tem 2 oraes, logo, tem 2 sujeitos.

02. Errado - complemento nominal por ter verbo de ligao (linking verb).

03. Certo Mesmo que uma frase seja usada para descrever uma ao, pode-se dizer que tem uma
funo adverbial na sentena geral.

04. Errado - the head of the department apenas um modificador do objeto real da sentena:
prof. Palmer.

05. Errado - O sujeito correto digestive tract.

Perodo Composto: oraes condicionais, relativas, apositivas, etc

Um perodo simples, tambm chamado de orao coordenada, pode ficar sozinho como uma frase. J
uma orao subordinada no pode ficar sozinha. Formamos um perodo composto quando ligamos uma

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orao coordenada a uma orao subordinada em uma frase completa. Leia a seguir para aprender a
como escrever perodos compostos.

Instrues

1 - Adicione uma conjuno subordinativa a orao subordinada. As conjunes desse tipo


frequentemente usadas incluem: after, if, once, unless, when, since e because.

Conectivos ou linking words ou words of transition, ou transitional words so todas as palavras ou


expresses que servem para estabelecer uma conexo lgica entre frases e elementos da ideia. So
principalmente conjunes ou locues conjuntivas, mas tambm advrbios, preposies etc.

muito importante entender que as linking words, principalmente na escrita, asseguram que as frases,
sentenas e pargrafos tenham coeso, o que essencial para uma boa comunicao.

Para usarmos as linking words corretamente, precisamos ter muito clara em nossa mente qual ideia
queremos expressar. Elas devem ser usadas se voc est tentando ligar duas ideias numa sequncia,
duas ideias diferentes ou se voc est tentando dizer que uma coisa depende da outra.

As linking words so usadas, por exemplo, para exemplificar, contrastar, resumir, adicionar, dar ideia
de sequncia, de causa e de resultado.

Vamos ver cada um desses casos com alguns exemplos. Contudo, preciso entender que a lista das
linking words extensa e o meu objetivo aqui , primeiramente, deixar claro alguns tipos de construes
que usamos para nos expressar. Entendendo essa parte, depois s ir adicionando mais palavras sua
lista.

Exemplificar

Para exemplificar, uma expresso muito comum de ser usada antes de dar um exemplo e muito similar
ao Portugus: for example (por exemplo), que tambm pode ser substituda por for instance. Vejamos:

There are some wonderful cities to visit in Brazil, for example / for instance Rio, Salvador, Florianpolis,
and Belm.

Contrastar

Muito usados no ingls, but usado para contrastar oraes dentro de uma sentena e however
para contraste entre sentenas:

I like going to the beach, but I never go at midday.


Ive always enjoyed going to the beach. However, I never go there at midday.
Podemos usar despite, in spite of, que so seguidas por substantivos ou gerndios (verbo + ing). No
so seguidas por partes de uma sentena (sujeito + verbo).

Despite losing the match, the team were happy with their efforts.
In spite of the lost match, the team were happy. (Eles perderam o jogo mas estavam contentes).
Para construes seguidas por sujeito + verbo, precisamos adicionar the fact that:

Despite the fact that they lost the match, the team were still happy.
In spite of the fact that they lost, the team were still happy.
Resumir

Nesse caso temos expresses que so geralmente usadas no comeo da sentena, indicando que
vamos resumir a ideia principal do que acabamos de expor. Exemplos: in conclusion, in summary, all
things considered.

In summary, the meeting was very productive and all the participants were able to present their ideas.

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Adicionar

Para adicionarmos informaes, usamos and ou also ou at um mais formal furthermore ou


moreover que so mais usados na linguagem escrita.

I like Italian and Japanese food.


I want to be an astronaut. I also want to be a biologist. What should I do?
The companys business plan for next year is excellent; furthermore/moreover, it points to the direction
of success for next five years.
The company is attempting a hostile take over; furthermore/moreover, they plan to lay off hundreds of
employees.

Ideia de sequncia

Temos aqui linking words fundamentais quando estamos fazendo uma narrativa. Elas organizam a
histria numa sequncia de eventos, facilitando para o leitor a compreenso do texto.

First we have to consider the existence of the linking words, then their importance, and finally their use
in a sentence.

Ideia de causa

Quando queremos explicar a razo ou a causa de algo, podemos usar linking words como: due to,
because of, because, since, as, entre outras. Nesse caso tambm muito importante prestar ateno
estruturao das frases. Exemplos:

Due to / Because of the heavy rain the flight was cancelled. (Antes de um substantivo ou um verbo no
gerndio)
Because/Since/As it was raining heavily the flight was cancelled. (Antes de uma sentena)
Ideia de resultado

Quando falamos de resultado estamos falando da consequncia de algo e as linking words mais
usadas so: therefore, consequently, as a result, so, sendo esse ltimo mais usado na fala.

They heard the warning on the radio; therefore, they took another route.
As a result of the accident, Tom couldnt walk for six months.

2 - Coloque uma vrgula depois da orao subordinada quando fizer um perodo composto.

Por exemplo: "Although I drove all day, I am not tired". A palavra "although" uma conjuno
subordinativa. Perceba que parte dessa frase com a conjuno subordinativa uma orao subordinada
e a outra parte da frase, depois da vrgula, uma orao coordenada.

3 - No coloque vrgula quando a conjuno subordinativa vier depois da orao subordinada.


Por exemplo: "Although I drove all day, I am not tired". Perceba que a orao que segue a conjuno
subordinativa ("after") uma orao subordinada e no uma frase completa.

4 - Use um pronome relativo para forma um perodo composto. Alguns exemplos desses pronomes
incluem: that, which, whose e what. O pronome relativo introduz uma orao subordinada e descreve um
substantivo ou um pronome.

Por exemplo: "I got a score of 10, which is the highest score you can get". A primeira parte da frase, a
orao coordenada, pode ficar sozinha, e a segunda parte da frase adiciona informao.

Os pronomes relativos podem exercer a funo de sujeito ou objeto do verbo principal. Lembre-se de
que quando o pronome relativo for seguido por um verbo, ele exerce funo de sujeito. Caso o pronome
relativo for seguido por um substantivo ou pronome, ele exerce funo de objeto.

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- Quando o antecedente for pessoa e o pronome relativo exercer a funo de sujeito do verbo, usa-se
who ou that.

The boy who / that arrived is blond. (O menino que chegou loiro.)

- Quando o antecedente for pessoa e o pronome relativo exercer a funo de objeto do verbo, usa-se
who, whom, that ou pode-se omitir (-) o pronome relativo. Contudo, essa omisso s pode ocorrer
quando o relativo exercer funo de objeto. Lembre-se de que na linguagem informal pode-se empregar
who em vez de whom.

The girl who / whom / that / (-) I saw in the beach was beautiful.
(A menina que vi na praia era bonita.)

- Quando o antecedente for coisa ou animal e o pronome relativo exercer a funo de sujeito do verbo,
usa-se which ou that.

The cat that / which is in the garden belongs to my sister.


(O gato que est no jardim pertence minha irm.)

The brown guitar that / which was on the table is mine. (O violo marrom que estava em cima da mesa
meu.)

Observao: O pronome who tambm pode referir-se a animais (mas apenas animais que tenham
nomes ou so conhecidos, como Lassie, por exemplo).

- Quando o antecedente for coisa ou animal e o pronome relativo exercer a funo de objeto, usa-se
which, that ou pode-se omitir (-) o pronome relativo.

The brown guitar which / that / (-) he was playing belongs to me. (O violo marrom que ele estava
tocando pertence a mim.)

The cat which / that / (-) I saw in the garden was mewing. (O gato que eu vi no jardim estava miando.)

Lembre-se: Quando o pronome relativo for seguido por um verbo, ele exerce funo de sujeito. Caso
o pronome relativo seja seguido por um substantivo, artigo, pronome ou outra classe de palavra, ele
exerce funo de objeto.

- Usa-se apenas o pronome that:

a) Quando houver dois antecedentes (pessoa e animal ou pessoa e coisa):


I know the singers and the songs that she mentioned.
(pessoa) (coisa)
(Conheo os cantores e as msicas que ela mencionou.)

b) Aps adjetivos no superlativo, first e last:


She is the sweetest woman that I have ever met.
(superlativo)
(Ela a mulher mais dcil que j conheci.)
The last time that I saw him was in May. (A ltima vez que o vi foi em Maio.)

The first thing that you have to do is call the police. (A primeira coisa que voc tem que fazer ligar
para a polcia.)

c) Aps all, only, everything, none, some, any, no e seus compostos.

She ate something that we never saw. (Ela comeu algo que ns nunca vimos.)

Lembre-se: Os pronomes relativos s podem ser omitidos quando funcionam como objeto, nunca
quando exercem funo de sujeito.

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- O pronome relativo whose (cujo, cuja, cujos, cujas) estabelece uma relao de posse e usado com
qualquer antecedente. Esse pronome sempre seguido por um substantivo e nunca pode ser omitido.

The cat whose owner is my sister was in the garden. (O gato cuja dona minha irm estava no jardim.)

- O pronome relativo where (onde, em que, no que, no qual, na qual, nos quais, nas quais) usado
para se referir a lugar ou lugares.

The place where I live is far from here. (O lugar onde moro / fica longe daqui.)

- O pronome relativo when (quando, em que, no qual, na qual, nos quais, nas quais) usado referindo-
se a dia(s), ms, meses, ano(s), etc.

I will always remember the day when we met each other. (Sempre me lembrarei do dia em que nos
conhecemos.)

We will get married when you get a job. (Ns iremos casar quando voc conseguir um emprego.)

- What (o que) pode ser usado como pronome relativo e pode exercer funo de sujeito ou objeto.

I don't know what happened yesterday. (No sei o que aconteceu ontem.)

What is this? (O que isto?)

Fontes: http://www.ehow.com.br/escrever-periodos-compostos-ingles-como_318646/
http://www.solinguainglesa.com.br/conteudo/pronomes8.php

Oraes condicionais

H trs tipos bsicos de oraes condicionais:

1. First Conditional
Indica uma condio real ou provavelmente verdadeira.

If he runs, he will catch the train.



Simple Present Simple Future

If I have enough money, I will buy the tickets.



Simple Present Simple Future
Observao: Quando algo sempre acontece, usamos o presente nas duas partes da frase.

If it rains in So Paulo, the traffic becomes impossible.



Simple Present Simple Present
2. Second Conditional

Indica uma condio irreal ou improvvel no presente.

If he ran, he would catch the train.



Simple Past Simple Conditional

If I had enough money, I would buy the tickets.



Simple Past Simple Conditional

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3. Third Conditional

Indica uma condio irreal ou impossvel no passado.

If he had run, he would have caught the train.



Past Perfect Conditional Perfect

If I had had enough money, I would have bought the tickets.



Past Perfect Conditional Perfect

Observaes:

1. UNLESS significa a menos que ou a no ser que e substitui IF ... NOT.

She will get a low mark UNLESS she studies hard.


She will get a low mark IF she doesNT study hard.
They will be late UNLESS they hurry.
They will be late IF they doNT hurry.

2. WERE usado em todas as pessoas aps if se o verbo for to be.

I would buy the flat if I WERE richer.


She would buy the house if it WEREnt so small.

3. Podemos expressar condio sem if. Nesse caso usamos WERE ou HAD (+ past participle) no
incio da orao.

WERE I richer, I would buy the flat.


HAD he run, he would have caught the train.

4. HAD e WOULD tm a mesma abreviao.

If he'd invited me, I'd have gone to the party.



= had = would
Fonte: objetivo.br
Questes

01. (FUNASA Todos os cargos CESPE/2013)

1 The difficulty for health policy makers the world over is


this: it is simply not possible to promote healthier lifestyles
through presidential decree or through being overprotective
4 towards people and the way they choose to live. Recent history
has proved that one-size-fits-all solutions are no good when
public health challenges vary from one area of the country to
7 the next. But we cannot sit back while, in spite of all this, so
many people are suffering such severe lifestyle-driven ill health
and such acute health inequalities.

Internet: <www.gov.uk> (adapted).


In the text above,

the expression in spite of all this (l.7) could be replaced correctly by despite of all this

( ) Certo ( ) Errado

1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA 97


02. (SEFAZ-SP Agente Fiscal de Rendas FCC/2013)

Facebook Announces Its Third Pillar Graph Search That Gives You Answers, Not Links Like Google
DREW OLANOFF JOSH CONSTINE, COLLEEN TAYLOR, INGRID LUNDEN
Tuesday, January 15th, 2013

Today at Facebooks press event, Mark Zuckerberg, CEO of Facebook, announced its latest product,
called Graph Search.
Zuckerberg made it very clear that this is not web search, but completely different.
He explained the difference between web search and Graph Search. Web search is designed to take
any open-ended query and give you links that might have answers. Linking things together based on
things that youre interested in is a very hard technical problem, according to Zuckerberg.
Graph Search is designed to take a precise query and give you an answer, rather than links that might
provide the answer. For example, you could ask Graph Search Who are my friends that live in San
Francisco?
Zuckerberg says that Graph Search is in very early beta. People, photos, places and interests are the
focus for the first iteration of the product.
Facebook Graph Search is completely personalized. Tom Stocky of the search team explains he gets
unique results for a search of friends who like Star Wars and Harry Potter. Then, If anyone else does
this search they get a completely different set of results. ____C____ someone had the same set of friends
as me, the results would be different [because we have different relationships with our friends].
You can also use Graph Search for recruiting. Stocky says if he was looking for people to join the team
at Facebook, he could search for NASA Ames employees who are friends with people at Facebook. If I
wanted to reach out and recruit them, I could see who their friends are at Facebook. To refine them I can
look for people who wrote they are founders.
Photos is another big part of Graph Search. Results are sorted by engagement so you see the ones
with the most likes and comments at the top. For example, Lars Rasmussen, Facebook engineer, searched
for photos of my friends taken at National Parks. He got a gorgeous page of photos from Yosemite,
Machu Pichu, and other parks.

(Adapted from http://techcrunch.com/2013/01/15/facebook-announce...)

A alternativa que preenche corretamente a lacuna _________ :


(A) Instead of.
(B) Such as.
(C) Even if.
(D) By contrast.
(E) According to.

03. (COBRA Tecnologia S-A (BB) - Analista Administrativo - ESPP/2013)

In each of the following text pages, a connective is missing.

I. Six months ago, saving Libya from potential atrocities inspired by Moammar Gadhafi meant
establishing a no- fly zone over the country, all the better to protect Benghazi, the rebel stronghold in the
east._____________classic mission creep set in and the NATO forces, Canada among them, were
bombing Tripoli and clearly trying to eliminate Africas longest-standing dictator and his sons (while
denying that was the goal).

II. Like all early civilizations Ancient Greece was an agricultural society. Most of the people lived by
farming and the main form of wealth was owning land. In each city, there was an upper class and a middle
class of men like substantial farmers, doctors and teachers. ____________ the vast majority of people
were peasants and craftsmen or slaves. Slavery was common. (It is estimated that about 30% of the
population of Athens was made up of slaves). If they worked in rich peoples homes slaves could be
reasonably treated. However by law owners were allowed to flog slaves. Those slaves who worked in
mines probably suffered the most.

III. Older people are facing a scarcity of qualified nurses to care for them_____________the
Government changes its policy on undergraduate education, a leading nursing organization has warned.

1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA 98


The All-Ireland Gerontological Nurses Association (AIGNa) is calling for the urgent introduction of
specialized nursing degree courses in care for older people - as an estimated 700 jobs remain unfilled in
the sector.

The alternative that respectively brings the correct connective for each one is:

(A) As far as / however / then.


(B) Nevertheless / however / as far as.
(C) Unlike / unless / as far as.
(D) Then / however / unless.

04. (EBC Analista CESPE/2011)


In the sentence

The new gas stove in the kitchen which I bought last month has a very efficient oven., the subject is
The new gas stove in the kitchen.

( ) Certo ( ) Errado

05. (UFAL Secretrio Executivo COPEVE-UFAL/2011)

'CityVille' now bigger on Facebook than 'FarmVille' (Mashable) -- Facebook game developer Zynga has
proved once again that it knows exactly what it needs to do to keep millions of Facebook users happy and
occupied. In less than a month, its latest game "CityVille"___ ______ (become) the most popular
application on Facebook, surpassing Zynga's previous hit "FarmVille" in all areas.
According to AppData, "CityVille" now has 16.8 million daily active users, compared to "FarmVille's"
16.4 million. Looking at monthly active users, "CityVille" is also ahead with 61.7 million users, while
"FarmVille" trails behind with 56.8 million users. Zynga's "FrontierVille" and "Texas HoldEm Poker" also
round out the top five: put those four apps together (we'll disregard the fact that many of those users
overlap for a second) and you have a very impressive number: 184 million active users across four games.
The only non-Zynga app in the top five list is "Phrases," _____ at one point threatened to take the top
place, but is now overshadowed by both "CityVille" and "FarmVille." "CityVille's" future success wasn't
hard to predict after an amazingly good start at the beginning of December, but it's still impressive to see
Zynga amassing tens of millions of users in a matter of days, proving that all that venture capital that went
into the company isn't there by accident.
Fonte :cnn.com

Complete the sentence from the text with a pronoun: The only non-Zynga app in the top five list is
"Phrases,"_____ at one point threatened to take the top place,

(A) who
(B) where
(C) whose
(D) whom
(E) which
06. BAHIAGS-BA Analista de Processos Organizacionais FCC-2010)

Brazil is one of the world's fastest growing economies with enormous energy requirements. The growing
consumer base coupled with rapid industrial development has infused the overall energy demand and
encouraged natural gas consumption in the country. The volatile international crude oil prices as well as
the cheaper and environment-friendly nature of natural gas have further boosted the use of natural gas
throughout the country. This has resulted in enormous demand for gas flow measurement and supervision
devices in the country which is all set to uplift the sales and deployment of gas meters.

According to our latest research report "Brazil Gas Meter Market Forecast to 2013", Brazil gas meter
industry is being increasingly benefitted by surging piped natural gas consumption in the residential,
commercial, industrial and automobile sectors. The natural gas distribution network reached around
18,400 Km in 2009. In order to strictly supervise the gas flow measurement and to accurately measure its
quantity, the utilities are rapidly deploying gas meter devices in their transportation network. These utilities

1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA 99


are not only installing conventional gas meters, but also rapidly opting advanced metering devices such
as AMR and AMI to ensure accurate and immediate information on gas consumption. This adoption has
enabled utilities to automate their gas distribution networks and upgrade safety standards in their routine
operations.

No texto acima, o pronome relativo which, no 1 pargrafo, refere-se a


(A) natural gas.
(B) gas flow measurement.
(C) country.
(D) deployment of gas meters
(E) supervision devices.

07. (DETRAN-RJ Todos os cargos EXATUS/2012)

Choose the best alternative to complete the sentence:


If I_____you I_____to your daughter seriously.

a) was, will talk.


b) were, will talk.
c) would be, talk.
d) were, would talk.

08. (AL-SP - Agente Legislativo de Servios Tcnicos e Administrativos FCC-2010)

Security: UAC Gets Tolerable

Let's talk about User Account Control ? the Windows Vista security element that was a prominent
example for everything that bothered people about that OS. UAC aimed to prevent rogue software from
tampering with your PC by endlessly prompting you to approve running applications or changing settings.
The experience was so grating that many users preferred to turn UAC [PARTICLE] and [VERB] their
chances with Internet attackers. Those who left it active risked slipping into the habit of incautiously clicking
through every prompt, defeating whatever value the feature might have had.

Whereas Vista's notorious User Account Control gave users no control over the feature other than to
turn it off, Windows 7's version of UAC lets users choose from two intermediate notification levels between
'Always notify' and 'Never notify'.

Windows 7 gives you control over UAC, in the form of a slider containing four security settings. As
before, you can accept the full-blown UAC or elect to disable it. But you can also tell UAC to notify you
only when software changes Windows settings, not when you're tweaking them yourself. And you can
instruct it not to perform the abrupt screen-dimming effect that Vista's version uses to grab your attention.

If Microsoft had its druthers, all Windows 7 users [TO USE] UAC in full-tilt mode: The slider that you
use to ratchet back its severity advises you not to do so if you routinely install new software or visit
unfamiliar sites, and it warns that disabling the dimming effect is "Not recommended." Redmond: I have
every intention of recommending the intermediate settings to most people who ask me for advice, since
those settings retain most of UAC's theoretical value without driving users bonkers.

(Adapted from http://www.pcworld.com/article/172602/windows_7_review.html)

A forma correta de [TO USE] no texto


(A) will use.
(B) would use.
(C) will be using.
(D) will have used.
(E) would have used.

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09. (COPEL-PR Redator Jnior Bilingue PUC-PR/2010)

Mark the alternative which is equivalent to: "Had I stopped" in the sentence below:

"Had I stopped at the red light, I wouldnt have been involved in the accident."
(A) If I stopped.
(B) If I stop.
(C) If I had stopped.
(D) As I stopped.
(E) When I stopped.

Respostas

01. Resposta Errado - Depois de in spite of ou despite (apesar de), usamos um substantivo, um
pronome (this/that/what etc.) ou a forma do gerndio ing.
In spite of the rain, we enjoyed our holiday. (Apesar da chuva, aproveitamos nosso feriado.)
I didnt get the job in spite of having all the necessary qualifications. (No consegui o emprego apesar
de ter todas as qualificaes necessrias.)
She wasnt well, but in spite of this she went to work. (Ela no estava bem, mas apesar disso ela foi
trabalhar.)
In spite of what I said yesterday, I still love you. (Apesar do que eu te disse ontem, eu ainda te amo.)
Despite tem o mesmo uso que in spite of, mas nunca leva o OF. Pode-se tambm usar as formas in
spite of the fact (that) e despite the fact (that)
I didnt get the job in spite of / despite the fact that I had all the necessary qualifications.

02. Resposta C - Even if someone had the same set of friends as me, the results would be different
(because people have different kinds of relationship with their friends).

A orao subordinada, com verbo no modo subjuntivo. Destarte, exige uma locuo conjuntiva que
expresse contraste: even if -mesmo que.

03. Resposta D - O primeiro conectivo then, uma conjuno que denota concluso ou
consequncia. However, usado para contrartas ideias e unless tambm introduz uma ideia de
contrasteem relao orao principal

04. Resposta Errado - o sujeito da orao principal gas stove. O perodo tem 2 oraes, logo, tem
2 sujeitos.

05. Resposta E
who - refere-se pessoa - liga duas ideias com o mesmo sujeito
where - refere-se a lugar
whose - cujo(a)
whom - refere-se pessoa - liga duas ideias quando o sujeito de uma o objeto da outra.
which - refere-se coisa - liga duas ideias com o mesmo sujeito ou quando o sujeito de uma delas
objeto da outra.
Na questo, which refere-se "Phrases"- coisa

06. Resposta C - This has resulted in enormous demand for gas flow measurement and supervision
devices in the country which is all set to uplift the sales and deployment of gas meters.

Isso resultou em enorme demanda para medio de vazo de gs e dispositivos de superviso no pas
que est tudo pronto para elevar as vendas e implantao de medidores de gs.

07. Resposta D - Were a forma usada em prterito imperfeito do modo subjuntivo e usada em
oraes subordinadas (subordinate clauses), e a orao principal deve conter uma forma de would (would
talk to- conversaria com)

08. Resposta B - If Microsoft had its druthers, all Windows 7 users would use ( Second conditional
Simple past would + verbo)

1176739 E-book gerado especialmente para MARA PEDROSO PEREIRA 101


09. Resposta C - Podemos expressar condio sem if. Nesse caso usamos WERE ou HAD (+ past
participle) no incio da orao.

WERE I richer, I would buy the flat.


HAD he run, he would have caught the train.

Discurso direto e indireto

No discurso indireto (Indirect ou Reported Speech), relatamos as palavras de uma pessoa, sem aspas,
fazendo algumas alteraes.

Direct Speech
He said, I study English.

Indirect (Reported) Speech


He said that he studied English.

Alteraes necessrias:
- Quando o verbo SAID for seguido de um objeto indireto, usa-se no REPORTED SPEECH told +
objeto indireto sem to.

Exemplo
Jane said to her sister, The baby is crying.
Jane told her sister that the baby was crying.

- Se no DIRECT SPEECH uma pergunta for introduzida por um pronome interrogativo (who, when,
why, where, what, how etc.), esse pronome se mantm no INDIRECT SPEECH e mudamos os verbos
SAID e TOLD para ASKED.

Exemplo
The teacher said, Who broke the window?
The teacher asked who had broken the window.

- Se no houver um pronome interrogativo no DIRECT SPEECH, usamos IF ou WHETHER no


REPORTED SPEECH.

Exemplo
The boss said, Do you speak English?
The boss asked IF (WHETHER) I spoke English.

- Se o DIRECT SPEECH indicar um pedido ou ordem, mudamos o verbo SAID para TOLD
(ORDERED, ASKED, COMMANDED).
Exemplo
The mother said to her kids, Behave yourselves!

- Ao transformarmos um DIRECT SPEECH em REPORTED SPEECH, fazemos alteraes nos


tempos verbais. Em geral, o tempo verbal muda para um tempo verbal anterior.

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Exemplos

She said, I am too busy. (simple present)


She said (that) she was too busy. (simple past)
John said, I am writing a letter. (present continuous)
John said (that) he was writing a letter. (past continuous)
Peter said, I have bought a car. (present perfect)
Peter said (that) he had bought a car. (past perfect)
Peter said, I bought a car in January. (simple past)
Peter said (that) he had bought a car in January. (past perfect)
Ann said, I will travel in July. (future)
Ann said (that) she would travel in July. (conditional)
The teacher said, Sit down! (imperative)
The teacher told his students to sit down. (infinitive)
The teacher said, Dont open your books. (imperative negative)
The teacher told his students not to open their books. (infinitive negative)

- Ao transformarmos um DIRECT SPEECH em REPORTED SPEECH, fazemos alteraes nos


pronomes pessoais e possessivos.
Exemplo
Jennifer said: Can I borrow your book?
Jennifer asked if she could borrow my book.

- Ao transformarmos um DIRECT SPEECH em REPORTED SPEECH, fazemos alteraes nos


demonstrativos e nos advrbios de tempo e de lugar.
Exemplo
Jane said: This castle was built four centuries ago.
Jane said (that) that castle had been built four centuries before.

Principais alteraes

now then

today that day

tonight that night

yesterday the day before

ago before

next month the following month

tomorrow the next day

this that

these those

here there

Fonte: objetivo.br (com adaptaes)


Questes

01. Prefeitura de Aroeiras/PB Professor de Ingls ACAPLAM/2010)

She Said, Im not going to call you again! In other words, she said:

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(A) She was not going to call him again.
(B) She was not going to call you again.
(C) I am not going to call you again.
(D) She is not going to call him again.
(E) N. D. A.

02. "Do you play chess?"


(A) He asked me do I play chess.
(B) He asked me if I did play chess.
(C) He asked me did I play chess.
(D) He asked me if I played chess.

03. "Why dont you start again?"


(A) He suggested me to start again.
(B) He suggested that I started again.
(C) He suggested why didnt I start again.

04. "Can you help me, please?"


(A) John wanted me to help him.
(B) John wanted that I helped him.
(C) John wanted that I help him.

05. Do not tell her what I said.


(A) He begged me to not tell her what he had said.
(B) He begged that I didnt tell her what he had said.
(C) He begged me not to tell her what he had said.

Respostas

01. A; 02. D; 03. B; 04. A; 05. C

Comentrio: Em todos os casos, o Reported Speech pede, como regra, um tempo mais antigo que o
usado no Direct Speech. Logo, ao usarmos o presente simples, passamos as frases para o passado
simples.

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