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City of London

Environmental Services

Consolidated

AUTOMATION AND CONTROL


VOLUME 1
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

Version 3_9
City of London
Environmental Services
Automation & Control
Volume 1 Design

INDEX

PART 1 INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................................4
1.01 GENERAL ...................................................................................................................................................... 4
PART 2 SYSTEM HIERARCHY ........................................................................................................................5
2.01 GENERAL ...................................................................................................................................................... 5
2.02 PROGRAMMABLE CONTROLLER................................................................................................................ 6
2.03 CONTROL INTERFACE ................................................................................................................................. 7
2.04 SERVERS ....................................................................................................................................................... 8
PART 3 GENERAL PHILOSOPHY.................................................................................................................10
3.01 GENERAL .................................................................................................................................................... 10
3.02 INSTRUMENTATION................................................................................................................................... 10
3.03 GATES AND VALVES ................................................................................................................................. 11
3.04 PACKAGE SYSTEMS................................................................................................................................... 11
3.05 OS TOPOLOGY ........................................................................................................................................... 12
3.06 DEVICE COMMUNICATION NETWORK.................................................................................................... 13
PART 4 PUMP STATION PHILOSOPHY.....................................................................................................15
4.01 GENERAL .................................................................................................................................................... 15
4.02 COMMUNICATION BETWEEN SCADA & PUMP STATION.................................................................... 15
4.03 COMMON STRATEGY ................................................................................................................................ 16
4.04 PROCESS OBJECTIVES & PERFORMANCE INDICATORS ........................................................................ 16
4.05 BASIC PUMPAGE ........................................................................................................................................ 17
4.06 VFD PUMPAGE .......................................................................................................................................... 20
4.07 GRINDERS................................................................................................................................................... 26
4.08 STANDBY GENERATOR ........................................................................................................................ 26
4.09 SITE MONITORING..................................................................................................................................... 27
PART 5 P&I DRAWINGS ...................................................................................................................................29
5.01 INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................................... 29
5.02 PURPOSE OF STANDARD........................................................................................................................... 29
5.03 ISA REFERENCE STANDARD.................................................................................................................... 29
5.04 PURPOSE OF P&ID .................................................................................................................................... 29
5.05 SCOPE OF DRAWINGS ................................................................................................................................ 30
5.06 DRAWING PHASES..................................................................................................................................... 31
5.07 CONTROL LEVELS ..................................................................................................................................... 31
5.08 INTERLOCKS............................................................................................................................................... 32
5.09 CONTROL PANELS..................................................................................................................................... 32
5.10 CONTROL SIGNALS.................................................................................................................................... 32
5.11 TYPIFYING.................................................................................................................................................. 34
5.12 PLANT OR SYSTEM OVERVIEW................................................................................................................ 35
5.13 DEVICE DETAILS ....................................................................................................................................... 35
5.14 PROCESS DETAIL....................................................................................................................................... 36
5.15 STANDARD DRAWING LEGENDS ............................................................................................................. 36
PART 6 DEVICE INTERFACES ......................................................................................................................45
6.01 INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................................... 45
6.02 SAFETY AND PERMISSIVE INTERLOCKS ................................................................................................. 45
6.03 FIELD CONTROL ........................................................................................................................................ 45

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Environmental Services
Automation & Control
Volume 1 Design

PART 7 DOCUMENTATATION......................................................................................................................47
7.01 GENERAL..................................................................................................................................................... 47
7.02 DRAWINGS - GENERAL ............................................................................................................................... 47
7.03 CAD DRAWING S TANDARDS ...................................................................................................................... 52
PART 8 PROCESS CONTROL NARRATIVE .............................................................................................53
8.01 GENERAL..................................................................................................................................................... 53
8.02 DOCUMENT S TRUCTURE............................................................................................................................ 53

Version Date Description of Revisions


3.9 04/12/02 Preliminary release of consolidated requirements

All changes subsequent to V3.9 are highlighted in Red in the PDF version of this document.
Additions are in regular text, while deletions show as strike outs.

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City of London
Environmental Services
Automation & Control
Volume 1 Design

PART 1 INTRODUCTION

1.01 General
This document defines the City of Londons base requirements for Water &
Wastewater Automation Systems including minimum level of automation and
how various components are to function and interact.
Unless documentation provided by the City of London along with a specific
request for tender or request for proposal states specifically that a provision set
forth has been waived, all provisions are to be satisfied. For example, if within a
standard it is stated that specific monitoring is to be provided but this is not
indicated on design drawings the requirements within these standards shall
supersede unless the City has specifically stated that the specific monitoring
requirements are not required on the project in question.
This document is part of a series of standards and as such should not be viewed in
isolation of all other City of London standards. Associated standards may modify
and/or clarify the requirements set forth within this document.
The requirements set forth within these standards are minimum requirements that
shall be applied universally by all parties performing services for and/or providing
equipment to the City of London. This includes, but is not limited to, all
component parts that may form part of package systems.

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Environmental Services
Automation & Control
Volume 1 Design

PART 2 SYSTEM HIERARCHY

2.01 General
The control system hierarchy shall conform to a layered client server based
model.
The IO Servers (IOS) shall provide a bridge between the real-time control
environment, the CONTROL network segment in which the controllers operate,
and the SCADA network segment. The only access to control information at the
SCADA level shall be through these servers.
To ensure system integrity, and reliability, IOS nodes shall function strictly as
servers and will not be used as operator interfaces. The systems shall be
configured in such a manner that upon failure of an IOS OS stations will
automatically reroute data flow through another IOS.
All operator stations (OS) within the SCADA system shall have the technical
ability to access all information from all of the controllers through the IOS.
Access control shall be restricted based on user network login and physical
location. If a user does something that slows down or locks up an OS, this shall
in no way limit or restrict the functionality or performance of any other OS.
Communication between OSs and IOSs will be over the SCADA segment of the
City of Londons Wide Area Network (WAN). The WAN is separated into
different Virtual Local Area Networks (VLANs) for traffic control, one for
administrative purposes and one for SCADA purposes. A separate real-time
control segment shall be provided which is physically (i.e. at the hardware level)
separated from the City of Londons Administrative WAN. The routers will be
configured to maintain complete separation between these segments such that the
IOSs are the only data gateways between the two segments.
The RPU function shall be implemented using a Programmable Logic Controller
(PLC) or Ultrasonic Level Controller (ULC). If field information is not required
for real- time control, the devices shall be connected to the Ethernet network and
polled directly by the IOS.
Polling shall be performed by not more than three IOSs at any point in time (the
local IOS, the primary IOS and the backup IOS). If the information is required by
other systems, information shall be passed over the SCADA network through
these IOSs to the other nodes.
The approach to control will conform to one of the following methodology.
PLCs shall be used for all control at plants and critical pumping stations.
Ethernet will directly connect these PLCs to the IOSs over the dedicated
Real-time network segment.

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At VFD & complex pumping stations (see City of London Pumping Station
Philosophy for definitions) control will be provided by PLCs. Leased line
serial modems will bridge these PLCs to the Real-time network segment at
which point communication will be converted to Ethernet.
At basic pumping stations Ultrasonic Level Controllers (ULC) will provide
control. At these locations, the ULCs, along with all supplemental devices,
shall be connected to a local serial RS-485 network. Leased line serial
modems will bridge these network to the Real-time network segment at
which point communication will be converted to Ethernet.
2.02 Programmable Controller
Controllers are to be kept relatively small for ease of programming and start-up,
and for increased process reliability. When implementing control system, the
following general design principals shall be followed.
Under normal operating conditions, all automated control strategies shall be
executed by the RPU.
Control devices shall be connected in such a fashion that fail-safe operation
is ensured in the case of Controller failure.
The control system shall be designed in a manor that supports manual base
loading of process equipment associated with a failed controller. While base
loaded, controllers that are still operational will adjust the equipment under
their control to compensate for process variations.
24Vdc discrete wiring or serial digital communication shall connect all
digital I/O that is connected by new field wiring. All digital I/O that is
connected using existing field wiring shall be 120 Vac. All field devices
shall be connected without interposing relays.
Control and timer relays shall only be used where required by regulation to
provide hardwired critical safety and process interlocks.
Interposing relays shall only be used were the load requirements exceed the
rating of RPU I/O.
The following additional special conditions may also apply depending upon the
nature of the process.
For critical portions of the process, which are defined as those processes
where process equipment redundancy is provided by design, redundancy
shall also be designed into the control system.
For critical processes with multiple process streams, multiple controllers are
to be deployed splitting the control of the process such that at least one
stream is maintained should a controller fail.

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A hot standby redundant control is required for those applications where the
process will not always remain in a safe stable state until the controller is
replaced.
2.03 Control Interface
The following four basic interface levels are to be provided to the control system.
Local Control Hard wired control panels
Area Control Direct communication with RPU
OS Control Interfaced through IOS
Supervisory Limited view function through WEB Server
These are described in detail in the following sections.
(a) Local Control
Local Control is the first level of interface to the control system. As a minimum,
the field station will provide an override operation with lockout capability. No
remote operation of the device shall be possible while in local mode.
The operator interface at this level shall be kept to a minimum. In those cases
where the process requires field control actions in case of RPU failure,
hand/off/remote selectors or local/remote switches and start/stop pushbuttons will
be located at the Device, MCC or VSD. These controls shall function
independent of the RPU.
Panels are not to be provided with status indicators (e.g. lamps & gauges) or
mechanical control devices (e.g. switches & pots) except where associa ted with
fail-safe control and are fully functional independent of the PLC.
(b) Area Control
Area control interfaces shall be provided for adjustment of control parameters
such as pump queue, control limits (e.g. high and low control levels at pumps
stations) and display of local alarms.
Control shall be provided by means of a graphical active matrix touch panel
interfaced directly with the RTU controlling the process. The panel shall display
key control parameters including current alarm conditions. The panel shall allow
for local adjustment of control parameters and provide basic control.
At facilities with Ethernet connectivity, the area control panels shall be connected
to the Real-time network.
(c) OS Control (SCADA)
OS control stations are the primary operator link to the process. The operator
shall be able to start/stop equipment, change control set points, and monitor the
process from these stations. These stations shall have complete access to all

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information and shall be strategically located to ensure operators are able to


quickly access the control system from all major sites.
As a minimum, the OS control stations will provide the functionality listed below.
Annunciate and acknowledge alarms.
Permit adjustments to event triggers for analog alarms, discrete alarms and
events.
Display status of process equipment and instrumentation information.
Permit entry of control commands and track operational changes.
Provide access to historical trends and event information.
Generate both routine and custom reports.
In general, for maintenance, support and reliability reasons, OS stations shall be
restricted to only those locations which have controlled office type environments
and direct Ethernet connection to the City of Londons WAN. Where it is
necessary that OS systems be located in harsh environments, defined as any
environment other than climate controlled office class environments, they shall be
mounted in environmentally controlled cabinets such that the equipment is not
exposed to conditions which may result in premature failure. Where exposure
may be compromised due to an operator leaving keyboard trays or access
openings open, these openings shall be monitored and when left open for
prolonged periods alarmed.
(d) Supervisory View (WEB)
Supervisors and other key personnel within the City of London shall be provided
with access to information via a standard WEB browser interface. The interface
shall provide the ability to view and generate reports on information managed by
the OS system, both real time and historical. In addition to access to information
directly managed by the OS system, these individuals will also be provided with
access to historical reports.
2.04 Servers
(a) Central Application Servers
Central Application Servers shall collect status and process data from field
devices and controllers on a real-time base. In addition to making this information
accessible to other systems on a real time basis, these systems shall store the
information for historical analysis. These servers shall function in a redundant
configuration.
The Central Application Server shall also maintain the master copy of the graphic
application and transmit the application files to the area operator station as
required to keep them up-to-date.

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In addition to historian data from SCADA, the database on these servers shall also
store manually entered operational data, lab transmitted data, maintenance
management records, etc.
(b) Distributed Application Servers
Distributed application servers shall communicate with all PLCs within their
span of control. In addition to making information accessible to other systems on
a real time basis, these systems shall buffer the storage of historical information
during communication interruptions with the Central Application Servers. In
essence the primary purpose served are redundant communication portals.
(c) SCADA Web Server
The SCADA Web Server shall support controlled access to the real-time
application graphics and historical data through the City of London intranet. This
system shall be dedicated to performing solely this function.
The SCADA web server shall provide intranet support for browser access to the
SCADA graphics screens and operational reports.

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PART 3 GENERAL PHILOSOPHY

3.01 General
The primary function of process control systems is to provide a cohesive real-time
interface allowing operators to interact with process operations under various
operating conditions. A secondary function is to automate time consuming and/or
routine tasks in order to allow staff to focus on other activities.
Device run lamp & Hand/Off/Remote selector shall be located at the MCC.
Control systems for critical processes shall be designed with a level of
redundancy such that the system adjusts for and maintains automatic control
even following key equipment failures. It is the responsibility of the
contractor to verify with the City whether a system is deemed critical.
Decisions by the City shall be binding and final.
Control system shall be designed such that in the event of a controller failure
process equipment can still be operated manually. Equipment connected to
other controllers, but related to the device controlled by the failed controller,
will automatically compensate for all process variations.
All process equipment operation shall be fully automated. For example,
equipme nt shall automatically shut down when operating beyond safe limit.
In addition, auxiliary safety equipment shall start automatically when needed;
for example, ventilation fans shall start when high toxic gas concentrations
are detected. One goal of automa tion (design, implementation and
maintenance) is to operate with the number of pages per day kept to a
minimum.
3.02 Instrumentation
All instrumentation shall be monitored by the SCADA system and logged to
the historian.
Transmitters and transducers shall be mo unted as near as practical to the
measurement point.
Instruments shall be readily and safely accessible from grade, permanent
platforms or fixed ladders to facilitate ease of maintenance for the equipment.
Instrumentation shall be provided as required for monitoring of all
parameters not specifically listed above but set forth as a C of A reporting
requirements.
Automatic samplers shall be provided as required to satisfy C of A
monitoring requirements.

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All instrumentation shall be designed for continuous online process


monitoring and shall conform to all requirements set forth under the
applicable City of London Standard for instrumentation.
SEE AUTOMATION & CONTROL STANDARDS FOR BASE
MONITORING REQUIREMENTS. The following classes of facility are
defined:
1) Sewage Treatment Facilities
2) Sewage Pumping Stations
3) Water Storage Facilities
4) Water Pumping Stations
5) Water Distribution Chambers
3.03 Gates and Valves
The following rules apply to determining the level of monitoring required for
valve and gate positions.
Full open-close type valves that are remotely controlled require limit
switches for both the open and closed positions.
Valves that are manually controlled require one limit switch for monitoring
the normal operating position.
Modulating valves and gates require limit switches for both full closed and
full open positions. These valves shall also provide positive positional
feedback (i.e. % open).
Valves and sluice gates that are only used to isolate process equipment such
as clarifiers, flumes and tanks for maintenance purposes shall be monitored
where improper position may result in a health and safety risk, damage to
equipment, and/or an environmental hazard. Limit switches shall confirm
normal operating position (i.e. if the normal operating position is closed,
limit switch shall monitor the fully closed position).
Limit switches and position sensing transmitters are to be provided as an integral
part of the valve assembly and shall be furnished by the manufacturer of the
valve.
3.04 Package Systems
Process equip ment is often procured as a subcontract under which a complete
package is provided with self-contained controls and instrumentation.
Package system, and all component parts thereof, must conform to all
requirements set forth within the City of London Standards unless
specifically exempted within this section.

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All modifications to package systems, which are required in order to ensure


seamless integration with the City of Londons centralized control system,
shall be incorporated.
PLC applications shall be provided unlocked (i.e. without passwords or
encryption) such that City of London staff has full access to the programs to
make modifications and confirm conformance with City of London
programming standards.
Package systems with self-contained controllers shall connect by Ethernet
(EGD or SRTP protocol) to the Citys distributed control system.
3.05 OS Topology
The intent of this section is to provide a general conceptual understanding of the
City of Londons overall control architecture.
The following fundamental guidelines apply to all projects.
All programmable controllers at a given facility are to communicate using
the same IP based protocol and shall communicate without need for any form
of protocol converter (i.e. the protocol shall be supported as a native protocol
by the programmable controller).
All interconnections between a PLC and analog devices, including but not
limited to instrumentation, may use Ethernet SRTP, Modbus Ethernet, RS-
485 Profibus and/or RS485 Modbus RTU.
All Power Monitors & Programmable devices (e.g. VSD, PLC, Enviroranger,
etc.) are to be directly connected to the City of Londons Real-Time
Ethernet control network and provide for remote program examination and
modification over this network. The contractor shall provide complete details
(including passwords and documented source code) regarding how to
connect to and modify the configuration and program of all programmable
devices over this network.
For locations with direct Ethernet connectivity, UPS monitoring is to be
provided by direct Ethernet connection to UPS.
Routers will be supplied and installed by Bell Canada as directed by the City of
Londons TSD group. All other communication equipment is to be provided by
the Contractor. All equipment, including routers, shall be installed by the
Contractor and/or under the contractors supervision.
The following configuration drawing is a conceptual representation of the City of
Londons overall control architecture. This drawing does not show all the
networking components, but defines the basic architecture. It is up to the
Contractor to confirm exact components and configuration requirements with the
City as this information may not necessarily be provided in the tender package.
The Contractor is responsible for acquiring adequate information at time of tender

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to avoid errors and/or omissions resulting from the provision of incomplete


information within the tender package.

InTouch View Node

TCP/IP Admin & SCADA Network


Commercial Grade Networking Hardware
SCADA

I D
C
InSQL & IO Server
-
OPC Servers
SRTP to PLCs
VersaPro Programming Node
Modbus Ethernet to All Other Devies

Real Time Network Ethernet IP Network


Industrial Grade Networking Hardware

VersaMax SE VersaMax SE
Generator 90-30 364 d i
g ti
a l

- -
Ethernet Modbus SRTP Ethernet
Ethernet to Serial
to SNP Serial
A
T /
K
L K
L
T
A
D S
R T
S
C D
R C
D
T D

Modem
CONTROL

A
T /D
K
L K
L
T
A S
R T
S
C D
R C
D
T D

T4S4 Leased
Serial
Modbus Serial Conversion

T4S4 Leased
9600 Baud Modbus RTU Network Modem
Conversion
and / or
9600 Baud Profibus Network
K
L
A
T /D
A
T A
K
L R C
S R
T T
D
R D
C
Serial
id ig a
t l
Serial Modem
Modem
K
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A
T /D
A
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K
L R C
S R
T T
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R D
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VSD Modbus RS-485


d ig t
la

Power
Milltronics
Monitor
Grinder Flowmeter Enviroranger 90-30 350
Flowmeter Serial

3.06 Device Communication Network


All devices (excluding new MCCs) providing analog data and/or multiple discrete
inputs shall have either:
RS-485 port supporting multi-drop communications (the protocol supported
shall be Modbus RTU or Profibus);
Ethernet port supporting GE SRTP or Modbus Ethernet (the port shall
support both 10MB & 100MB data transmissions).
Typical devices that shall be connected by these means include:
VSDs/VFDs (Variable Speed Drives);
Flow Meters;
Chemical Feed Pumps;
Valve Actuators;
Motor Protection Relays;
Power Monitors;

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Generators;
Online Instrumentation.
In the case of VSD motors, in addition to the serial link, a separate discrete hard-
wired motor run status shall be provided.
MCCs shall be DeviceNet based providing full digital communication
connectivity to the City of London Real Time Control Network.
If from a control perspective it is possible to subdivide the process into parallel
process streams, the devices are to be distributed over separate communication
buses such that with the loss of a single bus at least one process stream will
remain fully operational. For example, at a four pump pumping station, bus one
could monitor all devices associated with the control of pumps 1 & 3 and a
second bus could monitor devices related to the control of pumps 2 & 4.
It is the contractors responsibility to ensure tha t all information from all devices
is directly accessible over the City of London Real- Time control network. In
addition to monitoring, the communications link shall also allow remote program
modifications. This includes insuring full compatibility of all connected devices,
including the installation and configuration of all necessary interconnection
devices including but not limited to protocol converters, modems, and line
extenders.
All Ethernet network components shall be manageable over the network us ing
SNMP management tools. Switches shall be used in place of Hubs except where
specifically approved by the City of Londons Technical Services Division.

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PART 4 PUMP STATION PHILOSOPHY

4.01 General
This standard provides a baseline for pumping station control and automation
setting forth the minimum requirements for new pumping stations and the
upgrading and expansion of existing facilities.
For the purposes of this document, Pumping stations are divided into the
following general categories.
Basic: This approach is only applicable to a limited number of locations and
shall not be used if one or more of the following attributes apply: multiple
wet wells, over three pumps, valves actuators and/or one or more pumps over
50 hp.
VFD: All other locations shall be controlled by variable frequency drives
(VFD). All new stations and retrofits with pumps 50 hp and over are to
comply with these requirements.
Where upgrade costs are prohibitive, the City of London may, on a case-by-case
basis, at the Citys sole discretion, approve deviations from these standards.
4.02 Communication between SCADA & Pump Station
The Contractor shall be responsible for communications with the pump station up
to and including the serial protocol converter connecting the pumping station to
the City of London WAN. This includes, but is not restricted to, responsibility for
all communication at the pumping station and the communication link between
the pumping station and the point of connection to the WAN (Wide Area
Network) by S4T4 (Bell Canada Schedule 4 Type 4) phone circuit.
With the exception of Basic pumping stations, all devices shall communicate with
the PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) over RS485 Profibus communication
links. In turn, the PLC shall communicate over phone lines by SNP (GEFanuc
Series Ninety Protocol) which shall be converted to SRTP (GEFanuc Ethernet
based Service Request Transfer Protocol) at the point of connection to the WAN.
At basic pumping stations all RS485 communication shall be by Modbus RTU
protocol and all devices shall be directly accessible from the City of London
WAN. The Ethernet converter in this case shall convert Modbus RTU to Modbus
Ethernet.
The contractor is not responsible for changes required to the Central monitoring
system used to remotely monitor the pumping stations. However, the contractor
is responsible for all works at the pumping station including all local interface
requirements.

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4.03 Common Strategy


The following sections describe the operation of the key processes that shall be
performed at each pump station. The focus is on describing automatic and backup
modes of operation as these are the normal modes of operation.
Manual Control is not specifically discussed but is required for all equipment.
Once a device is switched to local, control of the device shall be independent of
(and unaffected by) the actions (or absence) of the controller.
Unless parameters are specifically identified as derived, all monitored information
is to be provided directly from field instrumentation (e.g. where rate of flow is
listed, a flow meter which conforms with City of London Standards for Flow
Meters must be provided and must provide this information directly).
Detailed pump monitoring, such as temperature and vibration, where stated as
required, shall be interlocked with pump control by dedicated integrated
electronic motor protection relay controller.
Pump run lamp & Hand/Off/Remote selector shall be located either at the MCC
or the location of the backup interface panel not both.
Local electronic touch screen operator interface data panels shall be provided for
all pumping stations with PLCs. For basic pumping stations, an operator interface
integral to the ultrasonic controller may be substituted.
The contractor shall have a process control engineer specializing in water and
wastewater review the requirements set forth within this document. The engineer
shall identify all deviations (if any) required to the control philosophy in order to
address site specific operational restrictions. Suggested changes shall be
submitted to the City for review if in the Citys opinion the changes are required
a change order shall be issued, otherwise the contractor shall conform to the
requirements set forth in this standard.
4.04 Process Objectives & Performance Indicators
Process objectives define the basic framework for monitoring the efficiency and
effectiveness. The following list of process objectives identifies the performance
indicators which the control system shall monitor.
Effectiveness
1. Prevention of Sewage Spills
a) Frequency of Bypasses (Mean Time Between Bypasses)
b) Duration (Average Duration, Total Annual Duration)
c) Severity (Volumetric)
2. Transfer of Flow Toward Treatment
a) Pump Fail (MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure) for each pump)
3. Service Interruptions during Power Failure

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a) # of bypasses during power outages


b) hours Generator online / hours power offline
Quality
1. Avoidance of Deposition in Networks
a) Discharge Pressure Increase without Increase in Flow
b) Grinder (MTBF)
Efficiency
1. Minimize operating costs
a) kW / ML pumped
b) Gallon Diesel / ML pumped on Standby
c) Mean Time between alarm events
4.05 Basic Pumpage
(a) Level Control & Flow Monitoring
RPU Automatic
1. If the overflow/bypass is located above the level monitored by the
transducers used for control, an additional transducer will be provided to
monitor the overflow/bypass.
2. A magnetic flow meter shall be installed on the discharge line to monitor
flow rates. The flow meter shall be directly connected by RS-485 connection
to allow the SCADA system to directly interrogate the instrument over the
same T4S4 data circuit used to monitor the ultrasonic based pump controller.
3. At stations which have a possibility of bypassing, bypass pipes of sufficient
size to handle bypass flows shall be provided complete with appropriately
installed magnetic flow meters to monitor bypass flows. This requirement is
irrespective as to whether the bypass will occur locally at the station or at a
remote chamber.
4. The local controller shall provide for local buffering of the start time,
duration and volume of bypasses. The design shall ensure that if a bypass
should occur during a communication interruption that the event shall still be
accurately recorded locally and shall then be transmitted to the central
SCADA and recorded centrally upon reestablishment of communication.
5. Also, local UPS power shall be provided to all devices necessary for accurate
estimation of bypass start time, duration and volume of bypasses during a
communication interruption.
Backup Control
1. A low-level stop and high- level start float shall be provided.

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(b) Pump Control


RPU Automatic
1. The ultrasonic controller shall perform pump control, event monitoring, and
remote communications. The control algorithm selected shall as closely as
possible match the control algorithm described for complex pumps.
Backup Control
1. Upon loss of echo, relay based backup pump control will automatically

enable.
2. When enabled for backup pump control, if the backup high- level start is
exceeded for more than a predefined time interval (independent timer relays
shall be provided for each pump) the pump will start.
3. If the level falls below the backup level, all pumps selected as backup pumps
will stop irrespective as to what the Ultrasonic is calling for.
4. Under normal operation pumps with backup control enabled will be
controlled by the RPU. Unless a fault is detected, ultrasonic pump control
will not be overridden by relay control.
5. The following diagram is intended to demonstrate the general concept. The
contractor is responsible for engineering the actual control circuit to provide
the described functionality, irrespective as to errors and/or omissions (if any)
in these diagrams.

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(c) Enviroranger IO Assignment


See Automation & Control Volume 2 - Standards
(d) Control Interface
The following defines the minimum acceptable I/O requirement s.
Hard-wired Interface
1. Lamps:
a) Bypass Level / Bypass Flow Detected
b) Backup Circuit High- level Start
c) Backup Circuit Low-level Stop
d) Hardwired Interlock status for each interlock
e) Backup Control Start Commanded for each Pump
f) Pump Run Status for each Pump
2. Switches:
a) Normal/Test Switch, spring return with latch to hold switch in either
position.
b) Hand/Off/Remote Selector for each Pump
SCADA to Controller
1. Pump start/stop control levels (for each pump)
2. Pump duty selection (duty / standby)
3. Pump Auto / Manual (for each pump)
Auto control provided by ultrasonic control algorithm

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Manual pump operation manually controlled by operator at SCADA
4. Pump Start / Stop (for each pump)
Controller to SCADA
1. Status of all IO defined under section 2.03
2. Wet well level
3. Loss of echo
4. Total station flow (RS-485 connection to discharge flow meter)
5. Pump Discharge Header Pressure (RS-485 connection, but only applies to
pump stations pumping into force mains)
6. Pump Mode (Auto / Manual repeated for each pump)
7. General Pump Fail (Common for all pumps)
8. Backup Control Enabled (Common for all pumps)
9. Total Station Power (kWh) derived from pulse connection to revenue meter
SCADA Derived Values
1. Pump run status Uncommanded Stop
2. Pump run status Uncommanded Start
3. Bypass flow estimated by SCADA based upon level and flow velocity
provided by ultrasonic.
4.06 VFD Pumpage
(a) Level Control & Flow Monitoring
RPU Automatic
1. Each pump well will be equipped with a separate ultrasonic level monitor
and separate transceivers.
2. For locations with multiple ultrasonic, the operators shall be able to select
between duty, standby and offline for each transceiver. If the duty transceiver
reports a fault, and a standby unit is defined, the PLC will automatically
switch control to the standby unit.
3. When a pump well has been taken out of service for maintenance, the
monitor for the well that is out of service will be locked out of service based
on gate position limit switches on the interconnection and inlet gates.
4. If the overflow/bypass is located above the level monitored by the
transducers used for control, additional transducers will be mounted to
monitor high levels.
5. A bypass/overflow float will be provided as a backup to the ultrasonic based
level monitoring system.
6. Individual magnetic flow meters will be provided for each pump.

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7. At stations which have a possibility of bypassing, bypass pipes of sufficient


size to handle bypass flows shall be provided complete with appropriately
installed magnetic flow meters to monitor bypass flows. This requirement is
irrespective as to whether the bypass will occur locally at the station or at a
remote chamber.
8. The local controller shall provide for local buffering of the start time,
duration and volume of bypasses. The design shall ensure that if a bypass
should occur during a communication interruption that the event shall still be
accurately recorded locally and shall then be transmitted to the central
SCADA and recorded centrally upon reestablishment of communication.
9. Also, local UPS power shall be provided to all devices necessary for accurate
estimation of bypass start time, duration and volume of bypasses during a
communication interruption.
Backup Control Level
1. For stations with only one ultrasonic, each pump well will be equipped with
two control floats low- level stop, high- level start.
2. For stations with two or more ultrasonic, the relay contacts on the ultrasonic
level transmitter will be used for backup control.
(b) Pump Control
RPU Automatic
1. The following strategy describes the normal mode of operation for VFD
based pumps. The actual PLC control algorithm shall provide for greater
variation in pump control in order to address site specific requirements.
Contact the City of London for details regarding additional functional
requirements if not using the City of Londons standard PLC pump control
algorithm block.
2. It is the responsibility of the design engineer to review the standard control
strategy and advise the contractor of any specific local requirements which
may require changes to the standard control strategy.
3. The following control parameters apply to RPU automatic mode of
operation.
1) MES - Minimum Efficient Speed for each pump (not adjustable to less
than the MOS - Minimum Operating Design Speed)
2) MaxS Maximum control speed for each pump (in most cases this
will be 100%)
3) Upper Control Level
4) Pump Start Level - for each pump
5) Pump Start Time Delay
6) Pump Stop Level
7) Pump Stop Time Delay

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8) Duty Queue Position - For each pump


9) Duty Queue Rotation - Auto / Manual
4. The following algorithm applies to the starting of pumps and ramping of the
speed of the pumps while in RPU Automatic.
1) As the well level increases above the Pump 1 start level, Pump 1 starts
and is ramped by the VFD up to the MOS.
2) The PLC then increases the speed to the MES.
3) As the well level increases, the speed of the pump increases linearly
from the MES to the MaxS at the Pump 2 start level.
4) If the level is still increasing after the Pump Start Delay, Pump 2 will
start.
5) Once Pump 1 is at MaxS, if the level is still increasing Pump 2 starts
and is ramped by the VFD to the MOS.
6) The PLC then increases the speed of the second pump while
decreasing the speed of the first pump until the speed of both pumps
are the same.
7) Once reaching this level, the pump speed will adjust linearly between
the Upper Control Limit (the Upper Control Leve l if all pumps are
running or the next pump start level if all pumps are not running) and
the start level for the first pump.
8) The speed set point will be calculated for each pump by the following
general equation.
y = mx + b where

y = speed set point


x = current pump well level
m = (Upper Control Limit Lower Control Limit) / (MaxS - MES)
b = (MES MOS) / (MaxS MOS)
9) The same pattern is repeated for each subsequent available pump.
10) If a duty pumps fails to start, if a standby pump is designated, the standby
pump will be called to start. The standby pump will not start unless at least
one duty pump has failed to start. Note that pumps not included in the duty
queue will not start.

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MES MaxS

High Level Alarm


Upper Control Level
3 Pumps
Pump 3 Start
2 Pumps
Pump 2 Start
1 Pump
Pump 1 Start
Pump Stop

5. The following algorithm applies to the stopping of pumps while in RPU


Automatic.
1) Once all the pumps have all slowed down to the MES, if the level drops
below the "All Pump Stop" level for more than the Pump Stop Delay one
pump will stop. If in Auto Duty Queue Mode, pumps will stop on a FIFO
basis (and the dutys will automatically rotate) while pumps will stop based
on queue position if in Manual Duty Queue Mode.
2) As each pump stops, the Upper Control Limit will adjust accordingly such
that the ramp is between the Pump 1 Start level and the Start Level for the
next duty pump to be started as the level increases.
Backup Control
1. Backup control will automatically enable upon failure of the PLC. PLC
failure shall be detected based upon a PLC pulse not being received by the
backup circuit for a period of 1 minute.
2. When enabled for backup pump control, if the backup high- level start is
exceeded for more than a predefined time interval (local timer relay for each
pump) the pump will start and ramp to 100% speed irrespective as to what
the RPU is calling for.
3. Thus, since the pump run is actually driven by a Time Delay relay, it is
possible to sequence the pumps such that one pump starts immediately and
subsequent pumps after an adjustable time period start if the level does not
drop below the start level.
4. If the level falls below the backup level, all pumps selected as backup pumps
will stop irrespective as to what the RPU is calling for.
5. The following diagram is intended to demonstrate the general concept for a
station with two well. The contractor is responsible for engineering the
actual control circuit to provide the described functionality, irrespective as to
errors and/or omissions (if any) in these diagrams.

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(c) Control Interface


The following defines the minimum acceptable I/O requirements.
Hard-wired Interface
1. Lamps:
a) Bypass Level / Bypass Flow Detected
b) Backup Circuit High- level Start
c) Backup Circuit Low-level Stop
d) Hardwired Interlock status
e) Backup Control Start Commanded for each Pump
f) Pump Run Status for each Pump
2. Switches:
a) Normal/Test Switch, spring return with latch to hold switch in either
position.
b) Hand/Off/Remote Selector for each Pump
SCADA to Controller
1. Control Levels
a) MES - Minimum Efficient Speed for each pump
b) MaxS Maximum control speed for each pump
c) Upper Control Level
d) Pump Start Level - for each pump

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e) Pump Start Time Delay


f) Pump Stop Level
g) Pump Stop Time Delay
h) Duty Queue Position - For each pump
i) Duty Queue Rotation - Auto / Manual
2. Ultrasonic duty selection (Duty, Standby) If applicable
3. Auto / Manual for each pump
Auto control provided by PLC control algorithm

Manual pump operation manually controlled by operator at SCADA

4. Start / Stop for each pump


5. Manual Speed set point for each pump
6. Alarm System Rearm
Controller to SCADA
1. Running status for each pump
2. Speed for each pump
3. Wet well level (for each ultrasonic)
4. Loss of echo (for each ultrasonic)
5. Overflow/bypass float (for each wet well)
6. High wet well level float (for locations with only one ultrasonic)
7. Low wet well level float (for locations with only one ultrasonic)
8. PID Tuning Parameters for each PID loop
9. Pump flows (for each pump)
10. Bypass flow
11. Pump Discharge Header Pressure (only applies to force mains)
12. All site specific interlocks (e.g. emergency stop, interconnection gate closed
status)
13. Pump Alarms
1) General pump fail (for each pump)
2) Moisture detection (for each submerged pump)
3) High Casing Temperature
4) Excessive Vibration
5) High Bearing Temperature (inboard and outboard)
6) High Stator Temperature
7) Motor Overload

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4.07 Grinders
(a) General
All pumping stations 50 hp and over will be equipped with in channel grinders
upstream of the pumps. These grinders shall be installed in such a fashion that
flow automatically bypasses the grinders and passes through course screening in
the event the grinders should fail.
All pumping stations 50 hp and under where traditionally screens would have
been installed shall be equipped with either chopper pumps or inline grinders.
This equipment shall match the model and manufacturer of equipment currently
installed within the Citys collection system.
All other locations shall be equipped with non-clog style pumps.
4.08 Standby GENERATOR
(a) General
All new pumping stations shall include a permanent standby generator which
shall provide alternate power in the case of power interruptions unless the City of
London states otherwise for a specific station.
Where it is deemed by the City that a permanent generator is not currently
warranted the pumping station design shall still provide for the future installation
of a permanent generator. In addition, the station shall be designed with transfer
switch and standby power socket which will accommodate the City of Londons
portable generators.
(b) Process Control Strategy
The control system for standby generation and transfer switch shall be provided
by a single supplier as a comp lete package. Although the detailed control strategy
shall be developed by the manufacturer of the generator, the following general
strategy shall apply.
1. Generator to start on loss of grid supply. Once generator operating in a
steady state, load to be transferred to the generator.
2. After transferring to the Generator, the load shall not be transferred back to
the Grid until grid power has remained on for a period of 5 minutes.
3. The Generator shall not stop until the load has been successfully transferred
back to the grid.
4. Changeover-switch control shall be integrated with control circuit for
standby power generator.
(c) Control Interface
See Automation & Control Volume 2 - Standards

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4.09 Site Monitoring


(a) Process Description
Building and site monitoring pertains to support systems such as heating,
ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC), sump pumping, building drainage, fire
detection and security.
The following general guidelines apply to all pumping stations, however more
comprehensive strategies may be required depending upon location specific
details.
All additional monitoring required to meet applicable regulatory requirements
including but not limited to building codes, health & safety guidelines and MOEE
C of A requirements shall be provided. It is the respons ibility of the contractor to
determine all such requirements before bid submission.
(b) Process Control Strategy
Entry Alarms
Pump stations are to be provided with keypad based security systems. The
keypads are to automatically rearm after a programmable time delay. The keypad
shall locally display which specific contact switch has been tripped.
When the administrator code is entered, the keypad shall display a detailed history
of the past 1000 events including who entered the building and at what time.
The controller shall monitor a single NO alarm contact and a single NC alarm
disabled contact both provided at the keypad. A relay output from the controller
shall be connected to the keypad in order to allow the security system to be
rearmed remotely by SCADA.
If site alarms have been disabled for a period of 60 minutes an alarm shall be
triggered indicating that the system has been disabled.
Alarm Test Mode
Each pumping station panel will have a key lock, spring return selector switch to
select between Test & Normal mode of operation. In Test mode the system shall
behave as follows:
1. When momentarily switched to the Test position all normal alarms from
the station will be acknowledged and disabled for 15 minutes.
2. In addition, a test alarm shall be triggered which will be treated as a low
priority alarm at the SCADA but will trigger an immediate page to the
appropriate pump crew.
3. Once the page is acknowledged, the alarm will clear.
4. If the switch is latched in the Test position, every 60 minutes an alarm will be
triggered indicating that the pump station alarm system is in test mode.

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(c) Control Interface


See Automation & Control Volume 2 - Standards

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PART 5 P&I DRAWINGS

5.01 Introduction
This standard defines the City of London requirements regarding the development
of P&I drawings. This standard is based on the Instrumentation Society of
America (ISA) standard ISA-S5.1-1984, Instrumentation Symbols and
Identification. This material has been reformatted to be directly applicable to
the water and wastewater industry.
Although this section is based on ISA, it is not constrained by it and hence some
deviations do exist.
All P&I Drawings are to be generated in Microsoft Visio as native Visio
Drawings. AutoCAD generated drawings are not acceptable.
5.02 Purpose of Standard
This standard is intended to ensure that information is shown in a consistent
fashion on all drawings generated for the City. Consistent presentation
speeds staffs ability to review and understanding diagrams. Consistent
preparation of the diagrams will also enable the use of data base access to
and from information on the diagrams.
This standard applies to all design project and construction contracts that
prepares or modifies P&IDs.
The contractor is responsible for converting all existing diagrams already
prepared related to the works covered under this contract which are
inconsistent with this standard to this standard.
5.03 ISA Reference Standard
Duplication and conflict may exist between standards set by ISA and by
other agencies or standards setting organizations such as Canadian Gas
Association (CGA), National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), and
International Standards Organisation (ISO).
P&IDs are to be produced which are consistent with ISA in order to have
documentation readily understood by as wide an audience as practical.
Symbols and nomenclature not defined within the ISA standards will only be
used with the written consent of the City of London except where already
defined within City of London standards.
The electrical symbol sheet (not ISA), shall be included in each drawing set
containing panel control diagrams.
5.04 Purpose of P&ID
P&IDs shall convey process, instrument and control equipment information.
It shall be possible from the P&IDs for an individual who has a reasonable

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knowledge of sewage and water treatment to understand the means of


measurement and control of the process.
The P&ID must be an accurate representation of the physical process or
system and shall show equipment in the proper functional relation. P&IDs
shall include the following:
o Process piping, tanks, structures, and equipment;
o Primary elements, transducers, and analyzers;
o Actuators and final control elements;
o Panels and controls;
o Input/output signals to digital controllers;
o Schematic representations of control signal interconnections.
P&IDs shall be used during the design phase for:
o Computer control strategy design;
o Computer input/output point list development;
o Field instrument schedule development;
o Control panel design;
o Electrical interface definition;
o Mechanical and electrical equipment tagging;
o Overall design coordination.
During construction and start-up P&IDs shall be used for:
o Shop drawing review of computer controls, panel and loop
submittals;
o Electrical interface coordination;
o Graphic display development/approval;
o Process control operational checkout;
o Developing as built drawings;
o Developing operation and maintenance manuals;
o Training.
5.05 Scope of Drawings
A set of P&IDs for a process or sub-process shall includes all aspects of the
process or sub-process. That is, all of the piping, equipment, instrumentation
and controls in the process or sub-process must be included on the drawing
set. For example, the set of P&IDs for a pumping sub-process would include
the main system, e.g. waste sludge or wash water pumping and all auxiliary
systems such as sample system, drainage system, service water, city (potable)
water, instrument air, power distribution, gas monitoring, hydraulic and
pneumatic systems, security, fire alarm and suppression, safety systems and
heating, ventilation and air conditioning.
P&IDs must show:
o All automated and non-automated systems;

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o Current project additions, deletions and modifications;


o Existing conditions and future provisions if known;
o All hardwired interlocks, totalizers and signal converters;
o All software controllers and software interlocks.
o All inputs and outputs of the Process Control System and the
instruments and equipment that provide the inputs and receive the
outputs.
The P&IDs shall show virtual points where needed to clarify control logic.
The P&IDs do not include equipment that is not associated with operation of
the process or sub-process. That is, the drawing set does not include such
equipment as elevators, cranes, lights, vehicles, phones, fire extinguishers or
computers.
Information shall only be shown once. Do not repeat symbols for the same
I/O point, instrument or piece of equipment on more than one drawing.
5.06 Drawing Phases
The P&IDs are to be developed in stages in order to add information at the
appropriate time. The required P&ID development stages at which point
these drawings are to be reviewed by the City are shown in the following
table.
Preliminary
Major Item Final Design As Built
Design
Piping, tanks, equipment and valves for - Required Required
process and auxiliary processes
Sensors, transmitters, switches Required Required Required
Actuator type with pneumatic and hydraulic Required Required Required
instrumentation
Panel Face mounted instrumentation
New / Modified custom panels Required Required Required
Existing custom panels - Required Required
Equipment package panels - - Required
Specialty package panels - Required Required
Panel Internal instrumentation
New / Modified custom panels - Required Required
Existing custom panels - Required Required
Equipment package panels - - Required
Specialty package panels - Required Required
Control loops hardwired Required Required Required
Control loops software - Required Required
Control parameters Setpoints, limits - - Required
Use of Typicals Allowed? Yes No No

5.07 Control Levels


Use a layered approach to distinguish the various levels of control.
o Place field instrument and equipment balloons above or next to the
devices.

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o Locate field controls, motor controls, and area control panels above
the field devices at separate levels.
o Where applicable, the highest level shall show program logic
controller (PLC), remote terminal unit (RTU), distributed process
controller (DPC) and remote station controller (RSC) identification.
Identification tagnames shall conform to the City of London Standard for
Identification.
5.08 Interlocks
Process interlocks are control connections wired between two separate
equipment items. For example, a hard-wired control connection that causes an
electro-hydraulic check valve to operate whenever a pump starts and stops is a
process interlock.
Show all process interlocks. Process interlock details are also to be shown on
electrical drawings. Notes one the drawings should describe the function of
all interlocks and cross-reference to electrical drawings and the operations
manual.
All device protective interlock symbols shall be shown including internal
device protection interlocks (e.g. motor overload protection).
5.09 Control Panels
For panels, face mounted instruments have a single, solid line across the
instrument balloon. Interior mounted instruments have a single, dashed line
across the instrument balloon. Show balloon interconnections and electrical
interlocks.
Package system panels shall be shown on process and sub-process P&IDs as
boxes with face of panel mounted instruments and external I/O connections
only. Do not show interconnections, interlocks, interior signal function
balloons, or signal function codes within the box that are internal to the
package system. Provide separate P&IDs specific to each package providing
all additional details.
5.10 Control Signals
Run computer output signal lines to computer- manual selector switches to
indicate that the switch selects between computer control and an alternate
source of control.
Show signals which are to be terminated within a panel by running the signal
line up to the package panel border or through the custom panel. If the signal
does not require termination in the panel, run the signal around the panel or
use the break symbol (see example on following page).
Label signal lines any time the function of the signal may be unclear. The
label should be enclosed in quotation marks.

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SIGNAL PASSING THROUGH


PANEL INDICATES
TERMINATION IN CP-21

S-PPP S-PPP S-PPP S-PPP S-PPP S-PPP S-PPP


EEE## EEE## EEE## EEE## EEE## EEE## EEE##
III CO
III CO
III CO
III III III III
MOMENTARY START/STOP. DI CO CO CO DI DI DI
CONTROL PANEL RELAY CIRCUIT
CONVERTS TO A MAINTAINED
ON/OFF CONTRACT SIGNAL

CP- 21

S-PPP S/S C/L S-PPP S-PPP


EEE## S-PPP EEE## EEE##
III EEE## III
III
III
START/STOP CONTROL DI
PUSHBUTTONS,
MOMENTARY ACTION MAINTAINED CONTROL
SIGNAL
~
CP- 22 S-PPP R/L
EEE##
III

REMOTE/LOCAL PILOT LIGHT FOR


PUMP RUN
SLECTOR SWITCH
MAINTAINED CONTACTS MAINTAINED CONTROL
~ INDICATION
SIGNAL

MC S-PPP S-PPP
EEE## EEE##
III III

MAINTAINED MOTOR CONTROL


S-PPP LO/S POWER WIRING COMPARTMENT IN MOTOR
EEE## CONTROL CENTRE
III
M
S-PPP-EEE##

EQUIPMENT TAG

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5.11 Typifying
Typical drawings are only allowed during the preliminary design phase of
P&ID development.
When typifying controls, the following rules apply (see following sample
drawing):
o Show all signals to and from balloons, control devices or primary
elements.
o Include equipment tags whenever there are no other balloons which
indicate the loop number.
o Show the loop numbers, panel designations, and equipment tags of all
devices represented by the typical box. List the loop number which is
shown on the drawing.
Typified controls must be functionally process related. Do not typify based
on control interface only. For exa mple, do not use one typical to show both
return and waste sludge pump control.
Do not sacrifice clarity when in doubt, do not typify even if additional
drawings will be needed.

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1-FCL 1-FCL 1-FCL 1-FCL 1-FCL


WSP01 WSP01 WSP01 WSP01 WSP01
YN MB MD MN MO
DI CO CO DI DI

~ ~
CP- 6
1-FCL
S-PPP S/S
WSP01
-HMS 1-FCL C/L
HMS WSP01
DI HS

~ ~
MC-6
1-FCL
WSP01
MLN

1-FCL-WSP01

SHOW PUMP TAG WHEN


TYPIFYING AND NO OTHER
BALLOONS SHOW THE
LOOP NUMBER

5.12 Plant or System Overview


Prepare a P&I plant or system overview drawing on all projects involving
several unit processes, plants, or process areas. The overview should be
prepared after the individual P&IDs are near complete and shall precede the
P&IDs in the drawing set.
The overview shall show:
o Each unit process, plant or process area by name and number;
o Flow streams between processes;
o Information common to multiple P&ID drawings;
o Dashed boxes to show division between P&ID drawing numbers.
The overview shall be oriented with north toward the upper part of the
drawing. Show process stream connections to other areas or unit processes.
5.13 Device Details
Large or complex devices may be shown as an overview symbol on a P&ID
and then detailed on a separate drawing. The overview shall identify the

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device, detail reference number and which panels contain instrumentation


related to the detail. If a panel is dedicated to the device it should only be
shown on the device detail.
Frequently occurring devices may be shown as an overview symbol on a
P&ID and detailed on another drawing as standard devices. Restrict this
practice to only those areas where required for clarity and or to ensure
consistency.
5.14 Process Detail
This diagram shows full detail of the process and may reference P&ID
layouts for standard devices.
Information shown on this drawing includes:
o Flow meter size, tank size and capacity;
o Trip points for level, pressure, temperature and similar switches
which are set at a fixed point in the field;
o Process parameters and set points, except those which are operator
adjustable from SCADA;
o Pipe sizes.
5.15 Standard Drawing Legends

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(/(&7520$*1(7,& 6 ( / ) & 2 1 7 $ ,1 ( '


0 ' , $ 3 + 5 $ * 0 6( $/ $6
%8%%/( 78 %( $,5 6 8 3 3 / <

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Automation_Design_V3_9 Page 37 of 57 2002-11-21


City of London
Environmental Services
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Volume 1 Design

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Volume 1 Design

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Environmental Services
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Volume 1 Design

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Volume 1 Design

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Volume 1 Design

' 2 &$ 5 ' 1 2 5 0 $ / / < 2 3( 1


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City of London
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* ( 1 ( 5 $ / ; ,1 6 75 80 ( 17
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Volume 1 Design

Automation_Design_V3_9 Page 44 of 57 2002-11-21


City of London
Environmental Services
Automation & Control
Volume 1 Design

PART 6 DEVICE INTERFACES

6.01 Introduction
This standard defines the City of London requirements regarding device interface
requirements.
The intent of this standard is to ensure that the level of device monitoring is
applied consistently across the City. The requirements do not differentiate
between analog / discrete I/O and information provided by serial
communication links except where specifically stated.
Details regarding IO requirements are addressed in Automation & Control
Volume 2 Standards.
6.02 Safety and Permissive Interlocks
Interlocks are to be used to prevent equipment from running under undesirable
conditions (e.g. low pump well level locking a pump out). The following general
requirements apply to all equipment.
All interlocks, except those that are integral to devices (e.g. motor overload
protection) and device disconnects, are to be handled programmatically in the
PLC, unless specifically directed otherwise by the City of London. An
exception is that motor protection for large motors (over 50 hp) shall be
provided by dedicated motor protection relays.
Each interlock condition shall be individually monitored and alarmed by the
City of Londons Wastewater SCADA system.
Individual disconnect switches shall be provided for all equipment.
Disconnects shall be located within 3 m of the equipment controlled in direct
line of sight. The paths between disconnect and controlled device shall be
unobstructed. When the disconnect switch is open, the switches auxiliary
shall be wired such as to not permit the operation of the starter coil, or a
starter contact. Disconnect switch position shall be monitored by the central
control system.
When the breaker at the starter panel is open, the status auxiliary contact
shall be wired such as to not permit the operation of the starter coil, or a
starter contact. As a minimum, each breaker shall be monitored by the
SCADA for Open, Closed and Tripped states.
6.03 Field Control
The following information defines the requirements for field control wiring for
equipment. It is recognized that exceptions may need to be granted, however
where possible the following guidelines are to be followed. Any deviations must

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be reviewed and approved by the City before field implementation to verify that
the deviation is required.
Devices (unless otherwise stated within this section) are to be provided with
Hand/Off/Remote selector switches. The PLC is to monitor the Remote
positions of the selector and shall alarm when a device is not in remote as
this is an abnormal mode only intended to be used for maintenance purposes.
Where the ability to switch the devices between local and remote in a bump-
less fashion is required, Start/Stop Pushbuttons with a separate Local/Remote
Selector shall be provided. An example where this type control applies is to
aeration blowers.
Where the device is to default to the OFF state when running in local upon
interruption of power, Start/Stop Pushbuttons with a separate Local/Remote
Selector shall be provided.
Sending the valve an analog set point for position shall control modulating
Valves. Upon loss of signal, the valve shall return to either a preset set point
or will hold last position as required.
Open/Closed Valves shall be controlled by separate open & close signals.
The open state requires open signal to be energized (not momentary pulse)
and the closed state requires close signal to be energized (not momentary
pulse). If both the open and close signal are the same (both energized or both
denergized) then the valve shall revert to a predetermined state of either
open, closed or hold last state.
A single run contact shall control motors & similar devices. If the PLC fails,
the device is to stop and the operational procedure shall be that in order to
restart the device the selector must be switched off of Remote.
From a programming perspective, since Hand and Off are abnormal
operating procedures, the SCADA should generate a low priority Not
Available to SCADA alarm when left in these modes.
Manual controls (e.g. local device start/stop or open/close selectors) will only
function when the mode selector is in the Local position. Similarly, remote
control will only function when the selector switch is in the remote position.

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PART 7 DOCUMENTATATION

7.01 General
The following general requireme nts apply to all submissions unless specifically
directed otherwise by the City.
The contractor shall provide a list of all drawings and documents to be
submitted within fourteen (14) days of contract award. The list shall include
title and proposed submission date. The contractor shall update this index
during the project whenever submission dates and revision numbers change.
Five (5) hard copies are to be submitted of all information intended for
review and/or approval. Sheet size is not to exceed 280 x 432 mm
Electronic copies of all final drawings and documents are to be submitted on
CD-Rom. The CD-Rom shall contain copies both in electronically editable
format (i.e. native AutoCAD, Microsoft Visio, Microsoft Excel, or Microsoft
Word format) and in Adobe PDF format. Provide a total of 5 copies of the
CD-Rom.
All document submissions, unless otherwise directed by the City of London,
are to be accompanied by copies of the originating electronic files in editable
native format (i.e. without password protection). The originating format shall
be Microsoft Office 2000, Word Perfect Suite 2000, Microsoft Visio,
AutoDesk AutoCAD 2000 or Bentley Microstation 7.01.
Documents are not to use external references or customized file extensions
(e.g. drawings are to contain title blocks, documents are to contain all
graphics). Submissions are to be provided in native file format (e.g. if
created with AutoCAD in DWG format) without password protection.
7.02 Drawings - General
The following general requirements apply.
Construction drawings are to provide complete standalone documentation of
the systems provided under the contract and related existing equipment. In
the case of instrumentation work, this includes not only field devices and
control but also local area networks, and security systems.
Drawings are to be completed in according to the City of London Drafting
Standards, City of London P&ID Standards and City of London
Identification Standards. This includes but in not limited to the use of layers,
line types, title block, symbols and device identification.
Title blocks are to include City of London Contract Number, Engineer's
Project Number, Contractor Project Number, Contractor Logo, Project Title
(as stated in the contract documents), Drawing Title, Drawing Number and
File Name. Tabular columns shall be used to record the original submission

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date, a revision number, date and reason for subsequent revisions, and
signature of individual authorizing the release of the drawing.
As a minimum, drawing revisions to be generated shall include preliminary
design (by engineer), final design (by engineer), construction mark-up (by
contractor), and as built (by engineer). Until acceptable construction mark-
up drawings have been submitted and approved, the contractor shall not be
eligible to claim for substantial completion.
All existing facility drawings that are affected by the scope of works are to be
digitized in vector format and updated accordingly.
The contractor shall maintain two (2) sets of project record drawings upon
which the contractor will record accurately record all deviations from the
Contract Documents. Changes shall be indicated in red ink. In addition to
deviations, record the following information:
o Depths of all buried elements of the foundation.
o Horizontal and vertical locations of underground utilities and
appurtenances referenced to permanent surface improvements.
o Location of internal utilities and appurtenances concealed in
construction, referenced to visible and accessible features of the
structure.
The following drawing details shall be provided and will include the
information as described. All additional drawings requested by the City shall
also be provided.
Each drawing detail shall consist of not less than one drawing, or such
number greater than one to ensure that the information on the drawings can
be easily interpreted when the drawings are plotted as an A3 drawing.
Unless otherwise approved, drawings are to be submitted either concurrently
or in the order listed at the option of the contractor.
Note that under some contracts many of the drawings listed already exist and
will be provided to the contractor. It is the responsibility of the contractor to
ensure they are fully aware of which drawings they are responsible for
generating and which drawings they are responsible for updating such that
they include all associated costs within their tender bid.
(a) Site Plan
Show the overall layout of the site, special site access for construction,
contractor storage areas and contractor parking to scale.
(b) Plan Drawing(s)
Show the location of system components including RPUs, computers,
printers, hubs (routers, bridges and modems may be shown separately or as
part of the hub), speakers, cameras and horns.

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Show major process piping, channels, tanks and other major process
structures.
Indicate both existing equipment and work to be done.
(c) Device Removal Plan(s)
Show all wiring and devices to be removed. Include a cross-reference to the
control schematics.
(d) Process and Instrumentation Drawing(s)
Show all instrumentation and equipment (new and existing where affected).
Include all coding and tagging information.
Provide control schematics (equipment interface diagrams), control logic,
panel lights and I/O wiring details.
(e) Loop Drawing(s)
Develop in accordance with ISA S5.4 format and show the information
called for in Sections 4.1 through 4.15 of the Standard.
Include itemized instrument wiring arm drawings for all analogue process
loops and discrete connections. As a minimum incorporating the following
details:
o Analog instrument signal, analog control loop wiring, and wiring
termination in junction boxes and panels.
o PLC terminal numbers, Control Cabinet terminal numbers, field
terminal numbers, wire numbers, contact orientation, power source
identifications and equipment numbers.
o Identify cables, cable wires and colours, terminal strips, terminal
numbers, grounds, shielding and input/output point power sources.
Show information for items supplied by others that are necessary for
completion of loops.
(f) Single line Diagram(s)
Show power from MCC panels to equipment, lighting panels and other
electrical loads.
Show power coming into the site and distribution to MCCs.
Show all power monitors, transformers, breakers, switches and fuses.
(g) Wiring & Electrical Plan(s)
Show locations of items that require electrical installation.
Show wiring furnished and installed under this Contract including all
instances of the following items:

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o Inter-cabinet cabling.
o Wiring from control rooms to each panel or termination cabinet.
o Wiring from each panel or termination cabinet to each motor control
centre, instrument and control device.
o Panel or termination cabinet internal wiring.
o Power wiring to all hardware.
o Communication cables.
o Wiring termination in junction boxes and panels.
o Control networks, instrument signal, control loop, and I/O wiring.
o MCCs, panels, conduit, junction boxes, instruments, control devices
and electronic devices.
o Circuit breakers, fuses, power supplies and power conditioners.
Show termination identification at each item of equipment, inter-wiring and
cable numbering, including network connections between SCADA system
components, all peripheral equipment, PLC module configuration
information (including DIP switch settings and software configuration), pin
assignments for D-shell connectors, plugs and jacks, and
instrument/equipment tag numbers
Show conduit size, wire numbers, cables, cable wires and colours, terminal
strips, terminal numbers, grounds, shielding and input/output point power
sources.
Show cross-reference installation details for conduit and cable tray supports
and wall penetrations.
If the required information is too much to fit on one drawing, split by type of
cable.
(h) Cable and Device Schedule(s)
Indicate cable number, cable type, wire numbers, wire type, cable
tray/conduit numbers, length and plan drawing reference(s).
Document electronic systems using cable diagrams, plan drawings and cable
schedules.
Detail electronic systems include paging system, local area networks,
security systems and control systems.
(i) Mechanical Plan Drawing(s)
Show locations of all equipment requiring mechanical installation and/or
modification.

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Provide installation details for instruments, conduits, cable trays, panels,


valves and pumps as separate drawings or drawing insets.
Show how items are to be physically installed including orientation,
mounting brackets, supports, mounting bolts, grouting, seals, piping, valves,
unions, tees, other plumbing fixtures and grounding.
Include tag identifier, service, function, normal position or status, base
specification, and location for each item.
(j) Panel Drawings
Provide scaled, referenced, front of panel layouts, and general arrangement
drawings.
Provide scaled, referenced, internal panel layouts (may be combined with the
above) showing mounting of face- mounted instruments and arrangement of
wire raceways, termination strips, relays and timers, field control, power
supply, and surge protector.
Include control power schematic showing power wiring, grounding, fusing
and circuit breakers for each panel connected device.

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7.03 CAD Drawing Standards


All drawings will conform to the City of London CAD Drawing Standards. In
addition to these standards, layers and line standards shall conform to the
following table.
Level # Level Name Sub Classification Colour Style Weight Font Notes
2 E/P 0,4 0 1 N/A
3 Curb/Gut & Sidewalk 0 0 1 N/A
4 P/L 5 0 3 N/A
5 Fence 0 Curtain 0 N/A
6 Bldg 3 0 2 N/A
7 PCS
Grit Chamber 37 0 1 N/A
Primary Clarifiers 6 0 1 N/A
Secondary Clarifiers 62 0 1 N/A
Chlorine Tank 7 0 1 N/A
Aeration Tank 100 0 1 N/A
Final Tank 50 0 1 N/A
Ulra Violet Channel 26 0 1 N/A
Equalization Tank 4 0 1 N/A
Scum Chamber 57 0 1 N/A
Miscelaneous PC (Parshall) 11,12 0 1 N/A
8 Ground 2 0 0 N/A
9 Storm 2 3 1 N/A
10 Water 1 4 1 N/A
11 Utilities
Gas 4 6 0 N/A
Hydro 16 7 0 N/A
Air 13 0 0 N/A
12 Sanitary 3 0 1 N/A
13 Dimensions 0 0 0 N/A
14 Labels 0 0 1 1
15 Rebar 72 0 1 1
16 Storm Appertenance 2 0 1 N/A
17 Sanitary Appertenance 3 0 1 N/A
18 Water Appertenance 1 0 1 N/A
19 Utility Appertenance 1 0 0 N/A
20 Soils 9 0 0 1
21 Micelaneous Steel 87 0 VARY N/A Screens, Checker Plate, Handrails etc.
22 Mechanical 38,50 0 1 N/A Sluice, Valves, Weirs, etc.
23 Miscelaneous 162,163 0 1 N/A Insulation, Wood, Waterstops, Concrete, etc.
24 Rebar Labels 0 0 0 1
25 Electrical 246 0 1 1
26 Piping 12 0 1 N/A
27 Ferric Chloride 159 0 1 N/A
28 Instrumentation 0 0 1 1 Equipment Tags
29 Demolished Structures 142 3 0 N/A
30 Contours 200 0 0 1 including elevations
62 Title Block 0 0 1 43, 1
63 Grid 160 0 0 N/A

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PART 8 PROCESS CONTROL NARRATIVE

8.01 General
The Process Control Narrative (PCN) will describe how the control philosophy
has been implemented on a given project. It will identify the equipment to be
controlled on a process-by-process basis. For each process, all available modes of
control will be clearly defined.
The document will define how control software is to function, provides a clear
description of how operators interface with the system, and defines process
indicators to be monitored to ensure that the process is operating efficiently. This
includes complete listing of all device names, IO points, control loops, tagnames,
etc.
Short bullet point phrases, tables, and diagrams are to be used in order to keep the
document as concise as possible. The following sample process description
demonstrates how bullets are to be used to present descriptions in a clear concise
fashion.
At Oxford, alum is used to supplement biological
phosphorus removal and enhance clarifier performance.
The process is as follows.
1. Transferred daily to day tank (local control)
2. Dosed from day tank (auto, manual & local control)
3. Injected normally near comminuter
4. Alternate injection point provided at aeration
inlet
5. Phosphate & Turbidity used to determine required
dosage
The PCN is generated by the System Integrator as the first stage of system
integration before commencing on any programming or configuration.
Each narrative follows a standard format. Items in the standard format that are
not relevant or not used for a control narrative are not shown.
8.02 Document Structure
The following outlines the basic structure to be followed.
1.0 General
.1 Introduction
.2 Performance Monitors
2.0 Typical Process Section (repeated for each process)
.1 Equipment Summary

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.2 System Control Strategy


To include the following in order
Summary Statement
Control Parameters / Set-points
Control Logic Description
Equipment Failure Response
Input Validation
.3 Equipment Control Strategy (repeated for each device)
Introduction addressing the following
Available Control Modes
Hardwired Interlocks
.1 Local (i.e. MCC or VSD)
.2 Remote (i.e. PLC)
Introduction addressing the following
Local / Remote Transitioning
Software Interlocks
.1 Manual (i.e. Operator initiates all changes)
.2 Automatic (i.e. PLC makes dynamic changes)
To include the following in order
Control Description
Failsafe (i.e. PLC Failure)
.3 Programmed Interlocks
.4 Device Set-points
3.0 SCADA Configuration
.1 Input Validation
.2 Alarms
.3 Trended Values
Each narrative follows a standard format. Items in the standard format that are
not relevant or not used for a control narrative are not shown. The following
outlines the basic structure to be followed.
(a) General Section
The following describes the information to be included in the applicable sections.
Introduction
An overview of the process control system highlighting deviations from the
City of London Standards.
Table of processes listing the level of control (Local, Monitor, SCADA
Manual and SCADA Auto).

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Performance Indicators
This section describes performance indicators provided by the control system
that may be used to track operational efficiency along with objectives for
each parameter. These objectives tend to relate to efficiency, effectiveness
and/or quality. For example, the objective of chemical dosing system may be
to minimize chemical consumption while still achieving satisfactory effluent
objectives.
(b) Process Sections
The following describes the information to be included in the various sections.
Description
The description defines the physical process including its relationship to
other processes.
In addition, the equipment related to the process is described (the tanks,
pumps and other units of the process) and a block diagram included which
shows the logical connection and interaction of the control system
components.
This section will focus on factors that differentiate the process at the
particular facility from other facilities.
Process Control Strategies
The control strategy describes how the process is controlled. Field selector
switches allow equipment to be selected for either Local or Remote service.
Local is defined as manual control which bypassing the process controller
(RPU), while remote is defined as controlled by the RPU. These general
modes of operation are expanded as follows.
The following describes the information to be included in the various sections.
The control strategy describes how the process is controlled. Field selector
switches allow equipment to be selected for either Local or Remote service.
Local is defined as manual control which bypassing the process controller
(RPU), while remote is defined as controlled by the RPU. These general
modes of operation are expanded as follows.
Local
v Hand In this mode, the device is controlled from a local control
panel or from the MCC, in both cases without control requiring the
PLC. In this mode, all interlocks, except for safety interlocks such
as overloads & emergency stops, are bypassed. As this mode is only
to be used in an emergency or during maintenance, possible
limitations on an operators ability to run the device are to be
minimized even to the possible determent to the equipment itself.

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vHardwired Interlocks list of all hardwired interlocks provided for


protection of staff. Where possible the list also identifies internal
interlocks provided within devices such as integral overload
protection on motors. This interlocks are kept to an absolute
minimum.
Remote
v Programmed Interlocks list of all programmed interlocks provided
for protection of equipment, process automation, etc. Most interlocks
(including interlocks such as low pump well lockout) are
programmed and not hardwired.
v Manual In this mode the PLC will not make any changes to the
process (or related equipment) this is not specifically requested by
the operator. From the OS the operator will be able to manually
control the process (e.g. start & stop equipment, set fixed chemical
feed rates, etc.). If not all equipment that is required for the system
to operate is in Remote; the remaining equipment will default to
Manual.
v Automatic This is the normal mode of operation for a device. In
this mode, the PLC controls all aspects of the process adjusting the
process based upon predefined algorithms. This section will
describe the adjustments that the operator normally makes to the
automatic controls to accomplish the process objectives including
setpoints, limits, timer settings and option selections. In addition, the
section will include a detailed control logic diagram, list of all
control parameters, and list of all interlocks.
v Failsafe This section describes how the process is to function in
the event of equipment failure, including the failure of the PLC.
Depending upon the process this may require the device to hold
last state, shut down, or local relays to take over control of the
device.
(c) SCADA Configuration
This section provides specific details regarding the configuration of the OS
not addressed specifically in the process description. Note that both real
(generated directly by field IO) and virtual (generated by a prescribed set of
parameters) conditions are treated in the same manner.
In order to reduce the number of entries in each table, typical entries can be
used where all represented are identical with regards to configuration.
However the description is to indicate each individual device (for example,
five identical sludge pumps can be described as Sludge Pumps 1 to 5)
Input Validation Detailed description of any checks for logical
inconsistency of inputs. This section will include only those checks that are
not inherent to the software programming standards. For example, a flow

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switch on a pump discharge used to validate pump run status would be listed,
but confirmation that the pump run coil and the pump run status input both
indicated running would not.
Alarms a table listing all alarms and related alarm configuration. The
following table provides the general concept to be followed to ensure all
relevant information is provided (see Programming Standards for additional
information).

Real /
Virtual Description Classification Settings Historical Operator Control
Adjust Level
Group Priority LoLo Lo Hi HiHi Deadband Log Disable

Level Page Level Page Level Page Level Page Value Time Duration Lo Hi

Trended Values a table listing all parameters that are to be trended along
with logging configuration parameters. The following table provides the
general concept to be followed to ensure all relevant information is provided
(see Programming Standards for additional information).

Real /
Virtual Description Valid Range Deadband Historical Summary Generation
Min Max Units Value Time Hourly Daily
Ma
Min Max Avg Tot Min x Avg Tot

Deadband - Value is absolute (e.g. +/- 0.05m) and typically derived from
instrumentation accuracy, time is required sample resolution
Disable - Auto disable works by value falling outside of valid range, manual is operator
selectable

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