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Cocaine

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation).
Cocaine
Kokain - Cocaine.svg
Cocaine-from-xtal-1983-3D-balls.png
Clinical data
Trade names Psicaine, Delcaine, Ensan Cocaine[citation needed]
AHFS/Drugs.com Micromedex Detailed Consumer Information
Pregnancy
category
US: C (Risk not ruled out)
Dependence
liability
Physical: none[1]
Psychological: High[2]
Addiction
liability High[3]
Routes of
administration Topical, oral, insufflation, intravenous
Drug class
CNS stimulant
Local anesthetic
ATC code
N01BC01 (WHO) R02AD03 (WHO), S01HA01 (WHO), S02DA02 (WHO)
Legal status
Legal status
AU: S8 (Controlled)
CA: Schedule I
DE: Anlage III (Special prescription form required)
NZ: Class A
UK: Class A
US: Schedule II[4]
UN: Narcotic Schedules I and III
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability
By mouth: 33%[5]
insufflated: 60[6]80%[7]
Nasal spray: 25[8]43%[5]
Metabolism liver CYP3A4
Onset of action seconds to minutes[9]
Biological half-life 1 hour
Duration of action 5 to 90 minutes[9]
Excretion Kidney
Identifiers
IUPAC name[show]
Synonyms Benzoylmethylecgonine, coke
CAS Number
50-36-2 Yes
53-21-4
PubChem CID
446220
IUPHAR/BPS
2286
DrugBank
DB00907 Yes
ChemSpider
10194104 Yes
UNII
I5Y540LHVR
KEGG
D00110 Yes
ChEBI
CHEBI:27958 Yes
ChEMBL
CHEMBL370805 Yes
PDB ligand
COC (PDBe, RCSB PDB)
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.030
Chemical and physical data
Formula C17H21NO4
Molar mass 303.353 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)
Interactive image
Melting point 98 C (208 F)
Boiling point 187 C (369 F)
Solubility in water ~1.8 mg/mL (20 C)
SMILES[show]
InChI[show]
See also: data page
Yes (what is this?) (verify)
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational
drug.[10] It is commonly snorted, inhaled as smoke, or as a solution injected into
a vein. Mental effects may include loss of contact with reality, an intense feeling
of happiness, or agitation. Physical symptoms may include a fast heart rate,
sweating, and large pupils.[9] High doses can result in very high blood pressure or
body temperature.[11] Effects begin within seconds to minutes of use and last
between five and ninety minutes.[9] Cocaine has a small number of accepted medical
uses such as numbing and decreasing bleeding during nasal surgery.[12]
Cocaine is addictive due to its effect on the reward pathway in the brain. After a
short period of use, there is a high risk that dependence will occur.[10] Its use
also increases the risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, lung problems in those
who smoke it, blood infections, and sudden cardiac death.[10][13] Cocaine sold on
the street is commonly mixed with local anesthetics, cornstarch, quinine, or sugar,
which can result in additional toxicity.[14] Following repeated doses a person may
have decreased ability to feel pleasure and be very physically tired.[10]
Cocaine acts by inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine.
This results in greater concentrations of these three neurotransmitters in the
brain.[10] It can easily cross the bloodbrain barrier and may lead to the
breakdown of the barrier.[15][16] Cocaine is a naturally occurring substance found
in the coca plant which are mostly grown in South America.[9] In 2013, 419
kilograms were produced legally.[17] It is estimated that the illegal market for
cocaine is 100 to 500 billion USD each year. With further processing crack cocaine
can be produced from cocaine.[10]
After cannabis, cocaine is the most frequently used illegal drug globally.[18]
Between 14 and 21 million people use the drug each year. Use is highest in North
America followed by Europe and South America. Between one and three percent of
people in the developed world have used cocaine at some point in their life.[10] In
2013 cocaine use directly resulted in 4,300 deaths, up from 2,400 in 1990.[19] The
leaves of the coca plant have been used by Peruvians since ancient times.[14]
Cocaine was first isolated from the leaves in 1860.[10] Since 1961 the
international Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs has required countries to make
recreational use of cocaine a crime.[20]
Contents [hide]
1 Uses
1.1 Medical
1.2 Recreational
2 Adverse effects
2.1 Acute
2.2 Chronic
2.3 Addiction
2.4 Dependence and withdrawal
2.5 During pregnancy
3 Pharmacology
3.1 Pharmacodynamics
3.2 Pharmacokinetics
4 Chemistry
4.1 Appearance
4.2 Forms
4.3 Biosynthesis
4.4 Detection in body fluids
5 Usage
5.1 Europe
5.2 United States
6 History
6.1 Discovery
6.2 Isolation and naming
6.3 Medicalization
6.4 Popularization
6.5 Modern usage
7 Society and culture
7.1 Legal status
7.2 Interdiction
7.3 Economics
8 Research
9 See also
10 References
11 Bibliography
12 Further reading
13 External links