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Procedia CIRP 26 (2015) 482 485

Aklilu Tesfamichael Bahetaa*, Suhaimi Hassana, Allya Radzihan B Reduana, and Abraham D.

Woldeyohannesb

a

Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bandar Seri Iskandar,31750,Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia

b

Caledonian College of Engineering, PO Box 2322, CPO Seeb 111, Sultanate of Oman

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +6053687690; fax: +6053656461. E-mail address: aklilu.baheta@petroans.com.my

Abstract

CO2 has low critical pressure and temperature. This gives an opportunity CO2 cycles to work in a transcritical nature where heat rejection and

absorption are done at supercritical and subcritical conditions, respectively. However, this characteristic posed some performance issues for

CO2 refrigeration cycle such as the pressure and temperature of CO2 becomes independent of one another above the critical point thus

specifying the operating conditions would be tough. It is also important to identify the optimum cooler pressure and control LWLQRUGHUWRJHW

high cycle coefficient of performance (COP). Thus, the objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of a transcritical CO2

compression refrigeration cycle for different parameters and evaluate its COP. To achieve that, a refrigeration cycle was modeled using

thermodynamic concepts. Then, the model was simulated for various parameters that were manipulated to investigate the cycle performance.

Maintaining other operating parameters constant the highest COP was 3.24 at 10MPa gas cooler pressure. It was also observed that the cycle

is suitable for air-condition application than refrigeration cycle, as COP increases when the evaporator temperature increases. Simulations

were conducted using EXCEL developed program. The results can be used in the design of CO2 refrigeration cycle.

2015

2014Published

The Authors. Published

by Elsevier by Elsevier

B.V. This is an openB.V.

access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Assembly Technology and Factory Management/Technische Universitt Berlin.

Peer-review under responsibility of Assembly Technology and Factory Management/Technische Universitt Berlin.

Keywords: CO2; transcritical cycle; refrigeration; optimum pressure; COP; supercritical

function of various operating parameters. Kim et al. [4]

CO2 has low critical pressure and temperature which are reviewed many research works and explained this cycle

7.36 MPa and 31.1oC, respectively. The low critical COP is optimum at a specific operating parameters

temperature causes the heat rejection process to occur above combination. Sarkar [5] explained that maximum COP

the critical point and heat absorption process to happen occurred at specific gas cooler pressure which in turn is

below the critical point. Figure 1 represents a p-h phase affected by evaporator temperature (T1), gas cooler exit

diagram of CO2 transcritical refrigeration cycle. Heat is temperature (T3), and components efficiency. Moreover,

rejected at supercritical pressure and the fluid will exist in Perez-Garcia et al. and Xue et al. [6, 7], supports that

the superheated region. Existence of optimum heat rejection compressor inlet temperature (T1) influences the COP and

pressure gives maximum COP. During heat rejection added another variable which is compressor efficiency.

process, the refrigerant experiences large temperature glide. Thus, in order to obtain the maximum value of COP, the

One of the challenges of this cycle is, due to the high popt for the system must be achieved and controlled. Since the

pressure level there is a need to control the pressure. One pressure is not constant and influenced by other working

method is to adopt dynamic pressure control [1]. This parameters, the relationship between the parameters and its

pressure influences the highest COP value the cycle can influence on the system COP must be understood. With this

produce [2]. Thus, having the ability to control high-side understanding only the parameters that significantly affect the

pressure will provide optimum COP. However, practically refrigeration cycle of COP could be controlled and CO2

this pressure changes as it is influenced by various operating refrigeration system COP can be improved. Thus, the

parameters of the cycle. With this respect, McEnaney [3], objective of the paper is to understand operating parameter

investigated CO2 for mobile air conditioning application and changes on each and the subsequent devices and on the cycle

2212-8271 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Assembly Technology and Factory Management/Technische Universitt Berlin.

doi:10.1016/j.procir.2015.02.084

Aklilu Tesfamichael Baheta et al. / Procedia CIRP 26 (2015) 482 485 483

using thermodynamic concepts. Then, the model was

simulated for various parameters that were manipulated to The fluid flows into the gas cooler where heat rejection is

investigate the cycle performance. Simulations were done. In here the refrigerant will experience large

conducted using EXCEL developed program. temperature glide and exits the gas cooler at slightly higher

than the coolant temperature. In the gas cooler, the heat

rejection process occurs at constant pressure. The heat

rejection in this component can be quantified using:

efficiency. For COP calculation, actual compressor exit

enthalpy (h2a) was used. And it was calculated by Eq. (4).

h2 h1 (4)

h2a = h1

is, c

Then, the refrigerant enters into the throttling device where

Fig.1. CO2 vapor compression cycle on a p-h diagram it was expanded and experienced isenthalpic process. The

enthalpies of the refrigerant both at gas cooler exit and

Nomenclature evaporator inlet are equal as represented by Eq. (5).

W power h3 = h4 (5)

Q heat transfer rate

m mass flow rate Enthalpy at point three is a function of both gas cooler

pressure and exit temperature. Whereas, the enthalpy at

h enthalpy

point four is a function of the evaporator pressure and the

p pressure

quality at the expansion valve exit. If T3 and cooler exit

T temperature

pressure is known, then the enthalpy is obtained from CO2

cp specific heat

property tables. When x4 was used as the input parameter,

popt gas cooler optimum pressure the value was obtained by using Eq. (6) at the given

x quality evaporator pressure.

is,c isentropic efficiency of compressor

h 4 = h 4 f + x 4 h fg 4 (6)

Subscripts

Finally the coefficient of performance (COP) of the cycle

R Refrigerant

was calculated as

1 exit of evaporator

2 exit of compressor Refrigerat ion effect

3 exit of gas cooler COP = (7)

4 exit of throttling valve Compressor power input

2. Methodology

integrated by simulation model which was developed in

Microsoft Excel. For the study of effect of each parameter

2.1. Modeling Components of the System

and to evaluate the COP of the cycle practical operating

parameters were used. Gas cooler pressure and its exit

Each process that represent the transcritical CO2 temperature were varied from 8 to 13 MPa and 35 to 50oC,

refrigeration cycle was identified. With some assumptions

respectively. The evaporator exit temperature was varied

each component process was modeled thermodynamically.

from -15 to 15oC, whereas its pressure was maintained at 4

Inside the evaporator, the refrigerant absorbs heat from the MPa. The compressor efficiency was assumed to be 100%.

refrigerated space and the amount of heat absorbed is

evaluated as

2.2. Varying the Cycle Parameters

Q 41 = m R (h1 h4 ) (1)

At this stage, various input parameters were manipulated

and analyzed to understand their influence on the COP.

Once the refrigerant exits the evaporator, it flows into the First, only one parameter was varied to see its effect on COP

compressor where it is compressed to superheated state. and then two parameters were manipulated to see the

Compressor is power consuming device and the power input influence of their relationship on the cycle COP.

used to compressor the fluid is given as

484 Aklilu Tesfamichael Baheta et al. / Procedia CIRP 26 (2015) 482 485

3. Results and Discussion = 100%. It can be seen in Figure 4 as T1 increases the cycle

COP value increases. However, the temperature of the

Figure 2 shows the COP versus gas cooler pressure (p2). evaporator is determined by the space to be cooled. This

For this simulation, the input parameters that were result also showed that CO2 refrigeration cycle is suitable

maintained are p1 = 4 MPa, T3 = 40, and p2 for air conditioning purpose than for refrigeration

was varied. The graph shows as p2 increases initially the application.

COP increases, reach maximum and reduces. At this given

conditions the optimum pressure is 10 MPa and the

corresponding highest COP is 3.24. Increasing the pressure,

increases the COP initially however the added capacity no

longer able to compensate compressor additional work thus

COP

the COP value decreases. The initial COP shows that the as

the p value close to the critical pressure the COP is below

one and hence to improve COP value, p2 should not be too

close to the pcr.

3.50

3.00 Evaporator temperature, T1 (oC)

2.50 Fig.4. Variation of COP versus evaporator temperature

2.00

COP

1.50 investigated. Fig. 5, shows the COP variation against the gas

1.00 cooler pressure for different gas cooler exit temperatures. At

0.50 a given gas cooler pressure the smaller the gas cooler

temperature, the higher will be the COP. For the pressure

0.00 range analyzed maximum COP was observed at 35oC and

8 9 10 11 12 13 40oC gas cooler exit temperatures at unique pressure (popt).

Gas cooler pressure, p2 (MPa) However, at T3 45oC and above the COP initially increases

and then becomes flat. Here it can be deduced that T3 has a

Fig.2. Variation of COP with respect to gas cooler pressure

significant effect on the popt. Moreover, it would take higher

Figure 3 shows the variation of COP, at 4 MPa and 10 pressure for the system to achieve the highest COP as the

MPa evaporator and gas cooler pressures, respectively, for gas cooler exit temperature increases. Negative value of

different CO2 gas cooler exit temperatures. Almost linear COP was also observed at 50oC and 8 MPa which shows

relationship is observed between the COP and T3. The that the cycle has failed to provide refrigeration or

highest value of COP was 3.82 at 35oC which is the heat evaporator becomes condenser. However, at 35oC, the value

sink temperature. The smaller the refrigerant temperature suddenly increased to 3.23. This was due to the effect of

leaving the gas cooler, the bigger will be the COP, but this is enthalpy value at h4. At higher T3, the value was bigger

limited by the heat sink temperature. At temperature more compared to enthalpy at 35oC, thus enthalpy difference at

than 50oC, the COP value is less than one. refrigerating capacity was smaller (even negative) as the

temperature increases. Thus appropriate gas cooler pressure

must be used for a given gas cooler exit temperature.

4

3

COP

2

COP

1

0

8 9 10 11 12 13

Gas cooler exit temperature, T3 (C) -1

Gas cooler pressure, p2 (MPa)

Fig.3. Variation of COP versus gas cooler exit temperature

Fig.5. Variation of COP versus gas cooler pressure for different gas cooler

The effect of the evaporator temperature was investigated exit temperatures

while other parameters are maintained constant. Here, the In Fig. 6 the COP value is plotted against gas cooler

constant parameters were p2 = 10 MPa, T3 = 40oC and at is,c pressure (p2) for different evaporator temperatures

Aklilu Tesfamichael Baheta et al. / Procedia CIRP 26 (2015) 482 485 485

maintaining other parameters constant. At a given gas cooler combinations of these parameters can be obtained by

pressure as the evaporator temperature increases the COP analyzing the cycle for the given parameters. It was also

increases. Apart from that, by varying the p2, maximum observed that the cycle is suitable for air-condition

COP is observed at popt and this more distinct at higher T1 application than refrigeration cycle, as COP increases when

especially at 0oC and above. This figure also shows that the the evaporator temperature increases. Based on these

maximum COP happened almost at the same optimum outcomes, it is hoped that a better understanding of

pressure. Hence, the effect of evaporator temperature on the controlling CO2 transcritical refrigeration cycle COP can be

optimum gas cooler pressure for maximum COP is not achieved. Apart from that, with the identification of the

significant compare to the gas cooler exit temperature which parameters that affect the COP significantly, it is hoped that

is shown in Fig. 6. future design of CO2 refrigeration cycle can be improved.

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank Universiti Teknologi

PETRONAS for providing financial support to publish the

paper.

KW

References

[1] Nordic Chemical Group (NKG), The transcritical CO2 Cycle Fact sheet

2.2.4, Natural Refrigerants for new Application, Copenhagen K:

Denmark, AIP 2009:426.

[2] Sarkar, J., Bhattacharyya, S., and Ram Gopal, M., Optimization of a

transcritical CO2 heat pump cycle for simultaneous cooling and heating

applications, International Journal of Refrigeration, 2004; 27: 830-838.

' DW

[3] McEnaney, R.P., Yin, J. M., Bullard, C.W., and Hrnjak, P.S., An

Fig.6.Variations of COP vs Gas Cooler Pressure for different evaporator Investigation of Control-Related Issues in Transcritical R744 and

temperatures Subcritical 134a Mobile Air Conditioning Systems, 1999.

[4] Kim, M-H., Pettersen, J. and Bullard, C-W., Fundamental process and

4. Conclusion system design issues in CO2 vapor compression systems, Progress in

Energy and Combustion Sciences, 2004; 30: 119-174.

Model of CO2 transcritical refrigeration cycle was [5] Sarkar, J., Review On Cycle Modifications of Transcritical CO2

developed thermodynamically. The model was used to Refrigeration and Heat Pump Systems, Journal of Advanced Research in

investigate the effect of the various parameters on the cycle Mechanical Engineering, 2010; 1: 22-29.

COP and to identify the combined effect for optimum COP. [6] Perez-Garcia, V., Belman-Flores, J-M., Navarro-Esbri, J. and Rubio-

The following were drawn from the investigation.

Maya, C., Comparative study of transcritical vapor compression

Transcritical CO2 refrigeration cycle has specific gas

configurations using CO2 as refrigeration mode base on simulation,

cooler pressure (popt) that gives maximum COP. This

Applied Thermal Engineering, ., 2012; 51: 1038-1046.

pressure is not constant and varies when the rest of the cycle

[7] Xue, J., Koyama, S., and Kuwahara, K. (Eds.), Proceedings from 2010

operating parameters change. Moreover, gas cooler exit

International Symposium on Next-generation Air Conditioning and

temperature and evaporator temperature have significant

effect on the cycle pressure that gives maximum COP. In Refrigeration Technology: Performance Prediction of A R744

general, higher evaporator and smaller gas cooler exit Transcritical Cycle for Air Conditioning. Tokyo: Japan, 2010.

temperatures would give better cycle COP. The best

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