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Procedia CIRP 26 (2015) 504 509

12th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing

Sustainability Optimization in Manufacturing Enterprises

Ibrahim H. Garbie
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman and
Department of Mechanical Engineering at Helwan, Helwan University, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +968-98106652; fax: +968-24141365. E-mail address:


Nowadays and based on the globalization in the markets, optimization in manufacturing enterprises is strongly recommended and addressed to
identify the time and cost to be sustainable. Although there are several issues/aspects that must be incorporated to achieve the targeted
sustainability index, optimizing these indexes still need more attention from academicians and practitioners. The main goal of this paper is to
optimize the sustainability index taking into consideration time and cost criteria. To achieve this goal, sustainability models were developed
based on two mathematical formulations: minimum sustainable time and minimum sustainable cost. These sustainability optimization models
are taken into consideration the triple bottom line (TBL): economic; social and environmental aspects and their associated issues/aspects.
2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Peer-review under responsibility of Assembly Technology and Factory Management/Technische Universitt Berlin.
Peer-review under responsibility of Assembly Technology and Factory Management/Technische Universitt Berlin.
Keywords: Sustainability, optimization, manufacturing enterprises

1. Introduction and recycling; sustainability as a service; green supply chain;

information and communication technologies; sustainability
Sustainability or sustainable development has gained assessment; renewable energy; water resource management;
increasing awareness in recent years based on the whole range qualification for sustainability engineering; adequate
of dimensions (e.g., the triple bottom line (TBL)), relevant environments for entrepreneurial initiatives; sustainability
aspects and performance metrics for each indicator. It is awareness; society policy; and education for sustainability
known exactly that manufacturing enterprises are considered engineering [3], they are not discussed optimization of
the backbone and cornerstone of the developed countries sustainability (e.g., time and cost to sustainability) expect very
regarding the economy perspective and the associated social few articles mentioned optimizing sustainability issues
perspective and stimulate other sectors having or sharing in individually and/or related to sustainability.
economy. As the sustainability is defined as the way for The main purpose of this paper is how to identify the
improving the quality of life and well-being for the present elements of times and costs required to keep the
and future generations [1-2], identifying the time and cost to manufacturing enterprises sustainable and how to optimize the
sustainability is not easy to determine. In this paper, we are sustainability indexes regarding time and cost based on total
trying to determine the optimum time and cost to time and cost needed for installing infrastructure and
sustainability. development. The remaining sections of this paper are
organized as follows. Section two conducts a literature review
Although there are a large number of papers and special related to sustainability optimization. Section three describes
journal issues including a lot of topics discussed on a wide- the optimization techniques for determining optimum time and
ranging sustainability issues such as: the value creation; cost to sustainability. An illustrative example will be used to
product design for resource efficiency and effectiveness; be discussed in Section four. Section five provides a
manufacturing process and systems; life cycle engineering and conclusion, contribution and depicts future research work.
assessment; maintenance and repair; remanufacturing, reuse

2212-8271 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
Peer-review under responsibility of Assembly Technology and Factory Management/Technische Universitt Berlin.
Ibrahim H. Garbie / Procedia CIRP 26 (2015) 504 509 505

2. Literature Review experience [3]. Table 1 is used to illustrate the major

Although huge research works have been published in the aspects/issues in each pillar of sustainability as mentioned as a
area of sustainability, there is a very few articles regarding general. These issues/aspects are represented the requirements
optimization in sustainability explicitly (based on author of each manufacturing enterprises to be sustainable and
searching). Therefore, we are trying to find some articles survival. Therefore, considering them in the beginning of
related to optimization and/or sustainability assessment. infrastructure is fine and they are needed to be updated and
challenges, perspectives and recent advances in support of upgraded as running items. This running means that they need
sustainable production operations decision-making through time and cost and also cn be considered as development or
sustainable design, manufacture and supply chain enhancement items. Therefore, they must be considered as the
management were reviewed [4]. A framework for sustainable components which must be included in the optimization
business development in manufacturing and services was models.
introduced [5]. Garetti and Taisch [1] presented a discussion
about the importance of sustainable manufacturing as one of 3.2. Optimization models
the most important issues regarding sustainable development. It is interested to optimizing the sustainability or
Rosen [6] identified the key requirements for engineering sustainable development index that must be determined an
sustainability including sustainable resources, processes, appropriate optimization or performance measurement
increased efficiency and reduced environment impact. Garbie criterion. As usually, it is recommended to use minimization
[7] identified the main/major issues and aspects of economical sustainability index as the optimization criterion through time
sustainability taking into consideration their indicators for to sustainable and cost to sustainable. In this part, cost and
designing a sustainable manufacturing enterprises and Garbie time minimization sustainability indexes will be discussed.
[3] presented an analytical technique to model and assess
sustainable development in manufacturing enterprises using Table 1: Components of sustainability issues
the triple bottom line (TBL) with including all aspects/issues Economic Social Environmental
and their performance metrices. sustainability Sustainability Sustainability
Globalization issues Work Environment
Social sustainability criteria framework was proposed management management
based on internal human resources, external population, macro Emerging issues Human rights Use of resources
social performance and stakeholder participation [8]. Egbue Innovation Societal Pollution and
[9] used a life cycle impact assessment to distinguish between commitment dangerousness
different categories including workers, local communities, and Reconfiguration Customers Natural
society. Environmental cost accounting method (extended issues environmental
Competitive Business
activity-based environmental products an waste costing) to
strategies practices
minimize waste as an opportunity for improving productivity Appraisal
and sustainability was proposed [10]. The performance of performance
synthetic sustainable production indicators by adopting fuzzy Flexible
measure and analytical network process (ANP) method was organization
evaluated [11]. A framework to assess the sustainability of management
operations in the manufacturing sector was proposed [12]. A
framework for sustainability indicators as a tool for 3.2.1 Sustainability cost
performance assessment and improvements was developed
[13]. Kannegiesser and Gunther [14] proposed theoretically Infrastructure cost
three sustainability optimization models focusing on
environmental issue comparing mainly between costs and The infrastructure costs depend on the amount of resources
that is ordered or requested in the beginning to satisfy and/or
accomplish the required infrastructure. In reality, the
sustainability infrastructure cost is divided into two main
3. Design research
components: fixed component and a variable component. The
This section is divided into two main parts: sustainability fixed sustainability component cost, K, is incurred
components based on the pillars/ dimensions and their aspects independent based on the type and size of infrastructure which
and sustainability optimization models based on cost and time. was perfectly accomplished at the beginning. This is called a
setup cost. Although this component is mentioned as
3.1. Components of sustainability infrastructure costs, it can be used as the fixed sustainability
Components of sustainability in manufacturing enterprises costs and the variable component of sustainability, s, will use
based on the three common pillars/dimensions: economic; it as a guiding for updating and/or upgrading. The (s) is
social and environmental. These are so called the triple bottom incurred as the exponential proportional according to fixed
line (TBL). Sustainability based on the TBL concept has a (set up) cost. Therefore, the cost of the infrastructure
complex multi-objective optimization [14]. Each sustainability is defined as C(s) as shown in Figure 1 and the
pillar/dimension consists of several aspects/issues. All following Equation (1):
aspects/issues identified and suggested from the perspective of
author based on the whole topics of sustainability and its
associated, literature review and author background and C ( sc ) K e  sc (1)
506 Ibrahim H. Garbie / Procedia CIRP 26 (2015) 504 509

Where: * D (4)
sc  ln
K= capital investment of the infrastructure; K
s c = sustainability index based on sustainability cost 3.2.2 Sustainability time Development Cost (holding and carrying cost) Infrastructure time (setup time)
The development costs regarding sustainability or sustainable The infrastructure time requirements for sustainability is
development include all those costs that are proportional to based on the required time for the initial infrastructure
the index of sustainability and/or sustainability development multiples by the exponential equation for sustainability
in the way of development to be upgraded and updated. As Therefore, the time of the infrastructure sustainability is
the development costs are known as the carrying costs defined as T ( st ) as shown in Figure 4 and the following
associated with the development, the summation of these Equation (5):
costs are proportional to the index of sustainability at any T (st ) T0 e  st (5)
point in time. The aspects of the development cost towards
sustainability are some of these aspects/issues as follows: Where;
x c1= cost toward improving globalization and To = time required for initial infrastructure (building,
international issues installing machines and equipments, hiring employees.etc.),
x c2= cost toward solving any emerging issues s t = sustainability index based on sustainable time.
x c3= cost toward innovation processes Development time (carrying time)
x c4= cost toward reconfiguration of manufacturing
The development times include all those times that are
proportional to the index of sustainability. As the
x c5= cost toward applying competitive manufacturing
development times are known as the carrying times associated
with the development, the summation of these times are
x c6= cost toward performance of appraisal proportional to the index of sustainability at any point in time.
x c7= cost toward opportunity of alternative organization The aspects of the development time towards sustainability
management are some of these aspects/issues as follows:
x c8= cost related to improving work management x t1= time required to improve and/or enhancement
x c9= cost related to follow up human rights issues globalization and international issues
x c10= cost related to societal commitment x t2= time required to implement and solving any
x c11= cost related to customers issues emerging issues
x c12= cost related to business practices. x t3= time required for innovation processes
x c13= cost related to enhancement environment x t4= time required for reconfigurable manufacturing
management enterprises
x c14= cost related to minimizing use of resources x t5= time required for applying competitive
x c15= cost related to elimination pollution and manufacturing strategies
dangerousness of output x t6= time required for conducting a better performance
x c16= cost related to maintaining the natural of appraisal
environmental. x t7= time required toward changing organization
x etc.. management
x t8= time needed to improve work management
It can be noticed that the requirements of economic x t9= time required to follows up human rights issues
sustainability is the highest comparing with social and x t10= time required to conduct activities related to
environmental sustainability. The development cost for societal commitment
sustainability and sustainable index D( sc ) are shown in x t11= time required to reply customers issues
Figure 2 and expressing as the following Equation (3). x t12= time required related to business practices.
n x t13= time required to enhancement environment
D(sc ) { ci }sc (c1  c2  c3  .....  cn ) sc D sc (2) management
i 1
x t14= time required to minimizing use of resources
x t15= time required to elimination pollution and
D = total development cost for sustainability
dangerousness of output
Total sustainability cost, TC ( sc ) , is formulated based on the x t16= time required to maintaining the natural
previous two components, infrastructure and development environmental.
costs as shown in Figure 3 and the following Equation (3). x etc..
TC(sc ) C (sc )  D(sc ) K e  sc  D sc (3)
To identify optimum sustainability index based on minimum It can be observed that the estimation of times is not easily
sustainability cost, taking the derivative with respect to and need a huge work in all pillars of the TBL. The
development time for sustainability and any time sustainable
s c and setting it to zero, the optimum sustainability index index, t ( st ) is shown in Figure 5 and expressing as the
sc will be obtained as the following Equation (4). following Equation (6).
t ( st ) { ti }st (t1  t 2  t 3  .....  t n ) s t st (6)
i 1
Ibrahim H. Garbie / Procedia CIRP 26 (2015) 504 509 507

Where: t = total development time for sustainability in all 5. Conclusion

issues/aspects A sustainability optimization models for a manufacturing
Total sustainability time, T (t t ) , is formulated based enterprise was proposed and discussed. These models provide
and cover the major sustainability dimensions (economic;
on the previous two components, infrastructure and
social and environmental) through their aspects/issues to be
development times as shown in Figure 6 and the following more flexible to incorporate more and more issues regarding
Equation (7). each one. The main target of the proposed optimization
T (tt ) T0 (st )  t (st ) T0 e  st  t st (7) models were focused on designing sustainable index as a
To identify optimum sustainability index based on minimum guide to determine optimum time and cost to sustainability.
sustainability time taking the derivative with respect to s t and These models were examined using the illustrative example.
setting it to zero, the optimum sustainability index st will be
obtained as the following Equation (8). References
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st  ln
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508 Ibrahim H. Garbie / Procedia CIRP 26 (2015) 504 509
Ibrahim H. Garbie / Procedia CIRP 26 (2015) 504 509 509