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You are on page 1of 31

For

ME/CE

By

www.thegateacademy.com

Contents

Contents

Chapters Page No.

#1. Introduction 1

Introduction 1

Introduction 2

Equivalent Force System 23

Newtons Laws of Motion 3

Equilibrium and Free Body Diagrams 3

Coplanar Concurrent Forces 46

Coplanar Non-Concurrent Forces 7

Condition for Body in Equilibrium 78

Friction 8

Solved Examples 9 24

Assignment 25 27

Answer Keys & Explanations 27 28

Trusses and Frames 29 31

Solved Examples 31 38

Assignment 39 40

Answer Keys & Explanations 40 42

#4. Friction 43 51

Introduction 43

Dry Friction 43 44

Laws of Dry Friction 44 45

Rolling Resistance 45

Force of Friction on a Wheel 46 47

Assignment 48 49

Answer Keys & Explanations 50 51

Contents

Principle of Virtual Work 52 54

Solved Examples 54 59

Introduction 60

Kinematics of Rectilinear Motion 60 65

Kinematics of Curvilinear Motion 65 66

Acceleration Analysis 66 77

Impulse and Momentum 77 79

Collision of Elastic Bodies 79 82

Assignment 83 85

Answer Keys & Explanations 85 87

Work and Energy 88 89

Conservative/Non-Conservative Force Fields and Energy Balance 89 93

Assignment 94

Answer Keys & Explanations 94

Center of mass and Center of Gravity 95

Eulers Equation of Motion 95 96

Moment of Inertia 96 102

Conservation of Angular Momentum 103 104

Assignment 105 106

Answer Keys & Explanations 106 107

"I am a slow walker ... but I

never walk backwards."

12

..Abraham Lincoln

CHAPTER

and Equilibrium

Learning Objectives

After reading this chapter, you will know:

1. Equivalent Force System, Newtons Law of Motion

2. Equilibrium and Free Body Diagrams, Type of Equilibrium

3. Static Friction, Virtual Work, Trusses and Frames, Statics Related Problems

Introduction

Statics deals with system of forces that keeps a body in equilibrium. In other words the resultant of

force systems on the body are zero.

Force

A force is completely defined only when the following three characters are specified.

Magnitude

Point of Application

Line of action/Direction

A quantity is said to be scalar if it is completely defined by its magnitude alone. e.g. length, energy,

work etc. A quantity is said to be vector if it is completely defined only when its magnitude and

direction is specified.

E.g.: Force, Acceleration.

Coplanar Force System: If all the forces in the system lie in a single plane, it is called coplanar force

system.

Concurrent Force System: If line of action of all the forces in a system passes through a single point it

is called concurrent force system.

Collinear Force System: In a system, all the forces parallel to each other, if line of action of all forces

lie along a single line then it is called a collinear force system.

Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

Coplanar like parallel force is straight Weight of stationary train on rail off the track

Coplanar concurrent force Forces on a rod resting against wall

Coplanar non- concurrent force Forces on a ladder resting against a wall when a person

stands on a rung which is not at its center of gravity

Non- coplanar parallel force The weight of benches in class room

Non- coplanar concurrent force A tripod carrying camera

Non- coplanar non-concurrent force Forces acting on moving bus

First Law: Everybody continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line unless it is

compelled to change that state by force acting on it.

Second Law: The rate of change of momentum of a body is directly proportional to the applied force

& it takes place in the direction in which the force acts.

dv

F (m )

dt

Third Law: For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

Principle of Transmissibility of Forces: The state of rest or motion of rigid body is unaltered if a force

action on a body is replaced by another force of the same magnitude and direction but acting

anywhere on the body along the line of action of applied forces.

P

Parallelogram Law of Forces: If two forces acting simultaneously on a body at a point are

represented in magnitude and direction by the two adjacent sides of a parallelogram their resultant

is represented in magnitude and direction by the diagonal of the parallelogram which passes

through the point of intersection of the two sides representing the forces.

Equilibrium: Any system of forces which keeps the body at rest is said to be equilibrium, or when the

condition of the body is unaffected even though a number of forces acted upon it, is said to in

equilibrium.

Laws of Equilibrium

Force Law of Equilibrium: For any system of forces keeping a body in equilibrium, the algebraic

sum of forces, in any direction is zero, ie. F = 0

Moment Law of Equilibrium: For any system of forces keeping a body in equilibrium, the

algebraic sum of the moments of all the forces about any point in their plane is zero.

i.e., M = 0

F d = 0

This law is applicable only to coplanar, non-concurrent force systems.

Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

Triangle Law of Forces

If two forces acting simultaneously on a body are represented by the sides of triangle taken in order,

their resultant is represented by the closing side of the triangle taken in the opposite order.

P2

P3 P4 D

E

P3

R2

R R1 C

P1 P2

P4 A

B P1

If a number of forces acting at a point be represented in magnitude and direction by the sides of a

polygon in order, then the resultant of all these forces may be represented in magnitude and

direction by the closing side of the polygon taken in opposite order.

P2 E D

P1

A

B C

Resultant, (R) = P12 + P22 + 2P1 P2 cos

P2 sin

tan = ( )

P1 +P2 cos

Where,

= Angle between two forces, = Inclination of resultant with force P1

When forces acting on a body are collinear, their resultant is equal to the algebraic sum of the forces.

Lamis Theorem: (Only three coplanar concurrent forces) If a body is in equilibrium under the action

of three forces, then each force is proportional to the sine of the angle between the other two forces.

c

P2

P2 P1

P3 b

P1

P3

a

P1 P2 P3

= =

sin sin sin

Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

Free Body Diagram: A free body diagram is a pictorial representation used to analyze the forces

acting on a free body. Once we decide which body or combination of bodies to analyze, we then treat

this body or combination as a single body isolated from all our surrounding bodies.

A free body diagram shows all contact and non-contact forces acting on the bodies.

600N 600N

W R1

P

P

R2

V V

F2 F1 V V

F3

F y

M

W=m

g

x

A Cantilever Beam

j

i

m mg

of Just the Block

A Block on a Ramp

In a free body diagram all the contacts/supports are replaced by reaction forces which will exert on

the structure. A mechanical system comprises of different types of contacts/supports.

Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

Types of Contacts/Supports

Following types of mechanical contacts can be found in various structures,

Flexible Cable, Belt, Chain or Rope

T

Weight of Cable not Negligible

T

Force exerted by the cable is always a tension away from the body in the direction of the cables.

Smooth Surfaces

N

Contact force is compressive and is normal to the surfaces.

Rough Surfaces

Rough surfaces are capable of supporting a tangential component F (frictional force as well as a

normal component N of the resultant R.

Roller Support

Roller, rocker or ball support transmits a compressive force normal to supporting surface.

Freely Sliding Guide

N N

Collar or slider support force normal to guide only. There is no tangential force as surfaces are

considered to be smooth.

Pin Connection

Rx Rx M

R Ry

A freely hinged pin supports a force in any direction

y in the plane normal to the axis; usually

shown as two components Rx and Ry. A pin not free to turn also supports a couple M.

Built in or Fixed End

A

A A M

O F

r Weld

V

A built-in or fixed end supports an axial force F, a transverse force V, and a bending moment M.

Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

Varignons Theorem: The algebraic sum of the moments of a system of coplanar forces about a

momentum center in their plane is equal to the moment of their resultant forces about the same

moment center.

B d2

R

d

P2

d1

P1

A

R.d = P1.d1 +P2.d2

Effect of couple is unchanged if

Couple is rotated through any angle.

Couple is shifted to any position.

The couple is replaced by another pair of forces whose rotated effect is the same.

Couple is free vector.

The algebraic sum of the components of the forces along each of the three mutually

perpendicular direction is zero.

The algebraic sum of the components of the moments acting on the body about each of the

three mutually perpendicular axis is zero.

When a body is in equilibrium, the resultant of all forces acting on it is zero. Thus, the resultant

force R and the resultant couple M are both zero and we have the equilibrium equations,

R = F = 0 & M = M = 0

For collinear force system

Fx = 0, Fy = 0 & Fz = 0

For non-collinear force system

MA = 0 , MB = 0 & MC = 0

These requirements are both necessary and sufficient conditions for equilibrium.

Two forces can be in equilibrium only if they are equal in magnitude, opposite in direction, and

collinear in action. If a system is in equilibrium under the action of three forces, those three

forces must be concurrent.

Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

Wrench: When the direction of resultant couple M and resultant force F are parallel, then it is

called wrench.

When direction of resultant couple & direction of resultant force is same then it is called

Positive wrench and when the direction opposite to each other it is called negative wrench.

Example of wrench is screw driver

Types of Equilibrium

There are three types of equilibrium as defined below,

Stable Equilibrium: A body is in stable equilibrium if it returns to its equilibrium position after it has

been displaced slightly.

Unstable Equilibrium: A body is in unstable equilibrium if it does not return to its equilibrium

position and does not remain in the displaced position after it has been displaced slightly.

Neutral Equilibrium: A body is in neutral equilibrium if it stays in the displaced position after if has

been displaced slightly.

Friction

Friction is the force resisting the relative motion at solid surfaces, fluid layers and material elements

sliding against each other.

Types of Friction

1. Dry Friction: Friction between the contact surface.

2. Fluid Friction: Friction between the layers of fluid element.

3. Internal Friction: When cyclic load applied on the solid then, friction between the elements.

When applied force is, F

And static friction coefficient,

Fmax = N

F<Fmax

F = Friction Force

F = Fmax= N

If F >Fmax

F = k N= Friction Force

k = Kinetic Friction Co-efficient

Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

Solved examples

Example 1

ABCD is a string suspended from points A and D and carries a weight of 5 N at B and a

weight of W N at C. The inclination to the vertical of AB and CD are 45 and 30

respectively and angle ABC is 165 . Find W and thetensions in the different parts of the

string.

Solution:

Let T1 ,T2 and T3 be the tensions in the parts AB, BC and CD respectively, as shown in figure.

A 45

D

T1

1 30 T3

120

3

B

T2

T2 C

5N

W

For the equilibrium of point B, we have

T1 T2 5

=

= (From Lamis theorem)

sin 60 sin 135 sin 165

sin 60 5 0.86602

T1 = 5

= = 16.73 N

sin 165 0.25882

sin 135 5 0.70710

T2 = 5 = = 13.66 N

sin 165 0.25882

For the equilibrium of point C, we have

T2 T3 W

=

= (From Lamis theorem)

sin 150 sin 120 sin 90

sin 120 3 2

T3 = T2 (

) = 13.66 = 23.66 N

sin 150 2 1

T2 sin 90 13.66 1

W=

= = 27.32 N

sin 150 0.5

Example 2

A fine string ABCDE whose extremity A is fixed has weights W1 and W2 attached to it at B

and C and passes over a smooth pulley at D carrying a weight of 20 N at the free end E. If

in the position of equilibrium, BC is horizontal and AB, CD makes angles 60 and 30

respectively with the vertical, find

(A) Tensions in the portions AB, BC, CD and DE

(B) The value of the weights, W1 and W2

(C) The pressure on the pulley axis

Solution:

Since the string passes over a smooth pulley at D, the tension in CD portion of string is 20 N.

Let the tension in AB and BC be T1 and T2 respectively, as shown in figure.

For the equilibrium of point B, we have

Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

T1 T2 W1

=

=

sin 90 sin 120 sin 150

And for the equilibrium of point C,

T2 20 W

=

=

sin 150 sin 90 sin 120

20 N D

A

30

60 E

20 N 20 N

T1

B C

T2 T2

W1 W2

sin 120o 3

Hence, W2 = 20 o

= 20 = 17.32 N

sin 90 2

sin 150o 1

T2 = 20 o

= 20 = 10 N

sin 90 2

sin 90o 10 2

Thus, T1 = T2 = = 11.55 N

sin 120o 3

sin 150 1 2

W1 = T2 o

= 10 = 5.77 N

sin 120 2 3

Pressure on the pulley

3

F = (20)2 + (20)2 + 2 20 20 cos 30o = 20 2 + 2 = 20 2 + 3 = 38.6 N

2

Example 3

A beam AB hinged at A and is supported at B by a vertical chord which passes over two

frictionless pulleys C and D. If the pulley D carries a vertical load W, find the position x of

the load P if the beam is to remain in equilibrium in the horizontal position.

T1

l

T1 T1

A

x B

D

P

Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

Solution:

From pulley D

2T1 = W

W

T1 =

2

W

T1 =

2

l

A

x

P

Taking moments about A

W

MA = 0 = l p. x = 0

2

Wl

= px

2

Wl

x=

2P

Example 4

The wire passing round a telephone pole is horizontal and the two portions attached to

the pole are inclined at an angle of 60o to each other. The pole is supported by another

wire attached to the middle point of the pole and inclined at 60o to the horizontal. Show

that the tension in this wire is 43 times that of the telephone wire.

Solution:

Let the tension in the two portions of the telephone wire be T1 each and the tension in

another wire be T2 , as shown in figure.

T1

T A

60

T1

C

T2

60

B D

Then T = 2 T1 cos 30o = 3T1

Let AC = BC = l

Taking moments about B, we get

T 2l = T2 cos 60 l

T2 = 2T1 3 2

= 4 3T1

T2

= 43

T1

Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

Example 5

Two halves of a round homogeneous cylinder is held together by a thread wrapped round

the cylinder with two equal weights, P attached to its ends, as shown in figure. The

complete cylinder weighs, W Newton. The plane of contact of both of its halves is vertical.

Determine the minimum value of P for which both halves of the cylinder will be in

equilibrium on a horizontal plane.

P

G

4r

P P 3 A

W/2

W

(a) (b)

Solution:

Given the problem as shown in below figure. We draw the free body diagram as follows.

Note the following salient points

P

1 P 1

W W

2 2

W

P P

Nx Nx

P N P

Ny Ny

C

In the F.B.D.

As the question is to find the minimum value of force F on rope for which the two halves

just remain in contact, we see that the limiting case is that the two halves are just about

to touch. In this case, the two halves rotate about point of contact C. So, the point of

contact as acts as revolute joint about which the two semi-circular cylinders rotate and

hence has two normal reactions Nx & Ny as shown in FBD.

In case of a half turn rope (rope which goes around the cylinder just half a turn around

the top half once), to split the two halves as we have to cut the rope once. On cutting

the rope, the rope tension force P is exposed once on the top tip each half, which is why

it is marked on top.

1

The left two force, are gravity of each half which is 2 acting on Center of Gravity of each

semi cylindrical half. To calculate the CG location, we know that

xdA

CG = A

A dA

Now, employing polar coordinates and taking a infinitesimal element as shown in figure,

we get as follows.

Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

R 2 3 R

A xdA 0 0 r sin rdrd R 4R A yda 0 0 r cos (rdr)d

CG = = = 3 = & CGy = =

A dA R

0 0 (rdr)d 1 2 3 dA R

0 0 (rdr)d

2 R A

Y

x = r sin

y = r cos

dA = (r d)dr

d dr

r

X

Now, as the body is to be in static equilibrium in the limiting condition, we get by zero

moment sum about point P as follows.

W 4R 2W

( ) ( ) + (P)(R) (P)(2R) = 0 P =

2 3 3

Modification/Extension for Multiple Turns: When the number of turns on the cylinder

increases, by physical intuition, clearly, the minimum value of P required to just hold the

two halves together must be lesser, right? Lets check if the solution gives this analytically.

Assume that the rope turns n full turns around the cylinder. In this case, when we try to

draw FBD of two halves separately, we have to cut the ropes n+1 times on top edge of

cylinder which means a force of (n+1)P acts on top edge. In addition, we have to cut rope

n times at bottom edge ie at point C, which means force acting at bottom point is nP. With

these modifications, we get the new FBD as follows. Now,

(n + 1)P (n + 1)P

1 1

w w

2 2

P P

Nx Nx

Ny nP nP Ny

W 4R

Again taking moment about point C, we get ( ) ( ) + (P)(R) ((n + 1)P)(2R) = 0

2 3

1 2W

P=

2n + 1 3

1

Clearly, as number of turns n The minimum force to hold the halves together P

2n + 1

: 080-617 66 222, info@thegateacademy.com Copyright reserved. Web:www.thegateacademy.com 13

Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

Example 6

A smooth circular cylinder of radius 2 m is lying in a triangular groove, one side of which

makes an angle of 10 and the other an angle of 30 with the horizontal, as shown in

figure. Find the reactions at the surface of contact if there is no friction and the weight of

the cylinder is 150 N.

R1 R2

40

140

170 O

30 10

30 W 10

B A

Solution:

Let R 1 and R 2 be the reaction of the 10 and 30 planes respectively.

Using Lamis theorem, we get

W R1 R2

= =

sin 40 sin 150 sin 170

sin 150 0.5

R1 = W = W = 0.778 W

sin 40 0.64278

= 0.778 150 = 116.6 N

sin 170 0.17365

R2 = W = 150 = 40.52 N

sin 40 0.64278

Example 7

Two smooth spheres of weight, W and radius, r each are in equilibrium in a horizontal

channel of width (b<4r) and vertical sides, as shown in figure. Find the three reactions

from the sides of the channel which are all smooth. Also find the force exerted by each

sphere on the other. Calculate these values if r = 25 cm, b = 90 cm and W = 100 N.

R2 B

R3 E

P r

O P

A

C R1

r

W W

D

r b2r r

b

Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

Solution:

Let R 1 R 2 and R 3 be the reactions at C, E and D respectively. Also let P be the force exerted

by one sphere on the other at the point of contact O. Then,

b 2r

cos =

2r

The forces acting at the point A are (R 3 W), R 1 and P. Using Lamis theorem, we get

R3 W R1 P

= =

sin sin(90 ) sin 90

R3 W

P =

sin

R 1 = (R 3 W) cot

The forces acting at the point B are W, R 2 and P. Again using Lamis theorem.

R2 P W W

= = ; R 2 = W cot ; P =

sin(90 ) sin 90 sin sin

For r = 25 cm and b = 90 cm

90 (2 25) 40

cos = = = 0.8

2 25 50

= 36.87

R 2 = 100 cot 36.87 = 133.3 N

100

P = = 166.66 N

sin 36.87

R 3 = P sin + W = 166.66 sin 36.87 + 100 = 200 N

R 1 = (200 100) cot 36.87 = 133.33 N.

Example 8

A uniform wheel of 0.5 m diameter and weighing 1.5 kN rests against a rectangular block

0.2 m hight lying on a horizontal plane, as shown in figure. It is to be pulled over this

block by a horizontal force, P applied to the end of a string around the circumference of

the wheel. Find the force, P when the wheel is just about to roll over the block.

Solution:

Let W = weight of wheel, R A = reaction on the wheel at A

The three forces P, W and R A are in equilibrium. Since P and W meet at D, therefore R A

must pass through D. Using Lamis theorem, we have

P W

=

sin(180 ) sin(90 + )

D P RA

D P

0.25 m

C

C

A A

1.5 kN E

B 0.2m

W 0.2m

B

(a) (b)

Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

P

= W cos

sin

P = W tan

AE

tan =

DE

AE = (AC)2 (CE)2 = (0.25)2 (0.25 0.2)2

0.0625 0.0025 = 0.06 = 0.245 m

0.245

tan = = 0.8165

0.3

= 39.23

P = 1.5 0.8165 = 1.225 kN

Example 9

Two rollers of weights W1 and W2 are connected by a flexible string AB. The rollers rest

on two mutually perpendicular planes DE and EF, as shown in figure. Find the tension in

the string and the angle, that it makes with the horizontal when the system is in

equilibrium. Take, W1 = 60 N, W2 = 120 N and = 30

E

B

A

(90 )

D W2 F

W1

Solution:

Let R A and R B be the reaction on the planes at A and B respectively and T the tension in

the string AB. These forces are shown in figure.

RB

RA T B

T

W1

(90 )

(a) W2

Roller A[Fig (b)]

Applying Lamis theorem at A, we have

T W1

=

sin(90 + ) sin{180 ( + )}

T W1

= . (1)

cos sin( + )

Roller B [Fig. (c)]

T W2

=

sin(180 ) sin{90 + ( + )}

Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

T W2

= . (2)

sin cos ( + )

W1 cos W2 sin

sin( + ) = ; cos ( + ) =

T T

RA T RB

(90+ + )

T

(90+ )

() (90 ) (90 ) (90 )

W2

W1 (c)

(b)

W1 60

tan( + ) = cot = cot 30 = 0.866

W2 120

+ = 40.89; = 40.89 30 = 10.89

W1 co s 60co s 30

T = = = 79.38 N

sin ( + ) si n 40.89

Example 10

Three cables are joined at the junction ring C. Determine the tensions in cables AC and BC

caused by the weight of the 30 kg cylinder.

A D

45o

C 15o

30o

B 30kg

Solution:

Let T1 and T2 be the tension in the string AC and BC respectively.

45o T1 T = 294.3 N

45o 15o

60o 135o

120o

T2

30o

Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

294.3 T1 T2

o

= o

=

sin 105 sin 135 sin 120o

T1 = 304.68 sin 135o = 215.44 N

T2 = 304.68 sin 120o = 263.86 N

T = 294.3 N

T1 = 215.44 N

T2 = 263.80 N

Example 11

The flanged steel cantilever beam with riveted bracket is subjected to the couple and two

forces shown and their effect on the design of the attachment at A must be determined.

Replace the two forces and couple by an equivalent couple M and resultant force, R at A.

1.5m 0.5 2kN

m 70o

0.15m

A y 0.15m

500Nm

3

4 1.2k

x

N

Solution:

Fx = 2 cos 70 + 1.2 cos 36. 87o

Fx = 1.644 kN

Fy = 2 sin 70 1.2 sin 36. 87o 3

Fy = 1.1594 kN 36.87o

R = Fx i + Fy j 4

R = 1.644i + 1.1594j

MA = [2 cos 70o 0.15] + [2 sin 70o 2] + [1.2 cos 36.87 0.15]

[1.2 sin 36.87 1.5] 0.5

MA = 2.72 0.5

MA = 2.22 Nm ccw

Example 12

A ladder rests at an angle, to the horizontal, with its ends resting on a smooth floor and

against a smooth vertical wall, the lower end being attached by a string to the junction of

the wall and the floor.

(a) Find the tension in the string

(b) Find also the tension in the string when a man whose weight is one-half that of the

ladder stands on the ladder at two-thirds of its length

Y

B

S

D

G

R

W/2

W

X

A T C

Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

Solution:

Let AB be the ladder resting against the wall BC. Let R and S be the reactions of the floor

and wall respectively and T be the tension in the string AC.

MB = 0 it gives

AB

R AB cos = T (AB sin ) + W ( cos )

2

W

R cos = T sin + cos

2

Fy = 0 it gives

R = W

W

T sin = W cos cos

2

W

T = cot

2

W 2

When a man of weight stands at D where AD = AB, then,

2 3

Fy = 0 it gives

3

R = W

2

MB = 0 it gives

AB W 1

R AB cos = T AB sin + W ( cos ) + ( ABco s )

2 2 3

W W

Or R cos = T sin + cos + cos

2 6

3 W W

Or T sin = W cos cos cos

2 2 6

5

T = W cot

6

Example 13

A jib crane is loaded as shown in figure. Determine the forces in the jib and the tie.

A

T1

tie

45

60 15 T2

60 10 kN

T1

jib

B

T2

45

Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

Solution:

Using Lamis theorem at point A, we get

10 T1 T2

= =

sin 15 sin 45 sin 60

sin 45 1 1

T1 = 10 = 10 = 27.32 kN

sin 15 2 0.25882

sin 60 3 1

T2 = 10 = 10 = 33.46 kN

sin 15 2 0.25882

Otherwise, for the equilibrium of point A,

Fx = 0 gives

T1 cos 30 = T2 cos 45

3 1

T1 = T2

2 2

2

T1 = T2

3

Fy = 0 gives

T1 cos 60 + 10 = T2 cos 45

1 1

T1 + 10 = T2

2 2

2 1 1

3 T

2 2

+2 T2 = 10

T2 (0.707 0.408) = 10

10

T2 = = 33.45 kN

0.299

2

T1 = 33.45 = 27.31 kN

3

Example 14

Determine the reactions at the supports for the beam loaded as shown in figure.

500 N/m

500 N 1000 N

A B

R1 2m 2m 2m R2

Solution:

Fy = 0 gives

R 1 + R 2 = 500 + 1000 + 500 2 = 2500 N

MB = 0 gives

R 1 6 = 500 4 + 1000 2 + 500 2 3

= 2000 + 2000 + 3000

7000

R1 = = 1166.67 N

6

R 2 = 2500 1166.67 = 1333.33 N.

Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

Example 15

Find the force, P that is capable of pulling the cylinder of figure. Over the block

P

30 cm

10 cm

C

W = 100 N

30

Solution:

MC = 0 gives

W cos 30 (30)2 (20)2 = (P W sin 30) 20

3 1

100 22.36 = (P 100 ) 20

2 2

1936 = 20 P 1000

936

P = = 46.8 N

20

Example 16

A uniform wheel 60 cm in diameter rests against a rigid rectangular block 15 cm thick in

figure. Find the least pull through the centre of the wheel to just turn the wheel over the

corner of the block. All surfaces are smooth. Find the reaction of the block. The wheel

weighs 10 kN.

P

30 cm R

D

A

C

15 cm

B

10 kN

Solution:

Let R be the reaction at A between the wheel and rectangular block and O be angle which

the pull P makes with R.

Now (AC)2 = (OA)2 (OC)2 = (30)2 (30 15)2 = 900 225 = 675

AC = 25.98 cm

Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

AD = AO sin = 30 sin

Taking moments about A, we get

10 CA = P DA

25.98 8.66

P = 10 =

30 sin sin

P will be least when sin is maximum, i. e. , = 90.

P = 8.66 kN

Now

OC 15

cos AOC = = = 0.5

OA 30

AOC = 60

10

Resolving along R, we get; R = 10 cos AOC = 10 cos60 = = 5 kN

2

Example 17

A cylinder of diameter 1 m weighing 1kN and another block weighing 500 N are

supported by a beam of length 7 m weighing 250 N with the help of a cord as shown in

figure. If the surface of contact are frictionless, determine the tension in the cord.

C

45

90o

O 45 500 cos 45o

D

S 50

R

m 0N

1000 E

45

N

22.5o o

250 N 250 cos 45

3.5 m

A

Solution:

R S W

o

= o

= R

sin 90 sin 135 sin 135o

R = 10002 = 1414 N

S = 1000 N 135o

From OAE 135o S

0.5 90o

tan (22.5) =

AE

AE = 0.5/ tan 22.5

AI = 1.207

Taking moment at A 1000 N

T(7) = R(AI) + 250 35 cos 45 + 500 7 cos 45o

T = 442 . 114 N

Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

Example 18

Three cylinders weighing 100 N each and 16 cm in diameter are placed in a channel

rectangular in section as shown in figure. What is the pressure that the cylinder A is

exerting on the cylinder B at the point of contact? What is the pressure exerted by the

lower two cylinder on the channel base and walls at the contact points?

36 cm

A

O1

P

Q H

100 N

R2 Q P R

3

O2

D R1 G

R4 O3

B C

10 H

100 N cm 100 N

Solution:

Let the reactions at the points of contact be R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , R 4 and P, Q be the pressure

between the cylinders A, C and A, B respectively.

10

cos = = 0.625

16

= 51.32

Applying Lamis theorem at point O1 , we get

P Q 100

= =

sin (90 51.32) sin (90 51.32) sin (180 102.64)

P Q 100

= =

0.62497 0.62497 0.97576

0.62497

P = Q = 100 = 64 N

0.97576

Applying Lamis theorem at point O2 , we get

R1 R 1 100 Q

= =

sin (90 51.32) sin 51.32 sin 90

R 1 = 64 0.62497 = 40 N

R 2 100 = 64 0.78065

R 2 = 150 N

By symmetry,

R 1 = R 4 = 40 N

R 3 = R 2 = 150 N

Example 19

A right circular cylinder is placed on a V block which is placed on a inclined plane as

shown in the figure along side. Find the value of when reaction at A is double of the

reaction at B.

Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

B

A

45o

Solution

FBD of the cylinder,

RB

RA

W

RA= 2RB

RB RA W

= =

SM(135 + ) SM(135 ) sin90o

sin(135 + ) R B

=

sin(135 ) R A

sin(135 + ) 1

=

sin(135 ) 2

= 18.43o

Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

Assignment

1. For a particle in plane to be in 5. If the maximum and minimum resultant

equilibrium forces of two forces acting on a particle

1. Sum of the forces along X-direction is are 40 N and 10 N respectively, then

zero. two forces are

2. Sum of the forces along Y-direction is (A) 25 N & 15 N (C) 20 N & 10 N

(B) 20 N & 20 N (D) 20 N & 5 N

zero.

3. Sum of the moments of all the forces

6. A uniform beam AB pinned at A is held

about any point is zero

by the cable BC in the position shown. If

Which of the following statements are

the tension in the cable is 200 kgf, then

always correct?

the weight of the boom and the reaction

(A) 1 & 2 (C) 1 & 3

of the pin at A on the boom are

(B) 2 & 3 (D) 1, 2 & 3

respectively.

has the following magnitudes and

passing through origin and the 60oo B

60o

indicated points: o 60

60

P = 280 N (12, 6, 4)

Q = 520 N (3, 4, 12) 30o

A W

R = 270 N (6, 3, 6)

The magnitude of the resultant of this (A) 300 kgf, 100 3 kgf, 30o

force system is (B) 400 kgf, 100 3 kgf, 60o

(A) 560 N (C) 274 N (C) 300 kgf, 200 3 kgf, 30o

(B) 394 N (D) None of these (D) 400 kgf, 200 3 kgf, 60o

upward force of 2 N and a clockwise block of 2kg and table shown is s = 0.2.

couple of 4 Nm. These are equivalent to What should be maximum value of m so

a single vertical force of 2 N at a point B. that blocks do not move? Take

The distance of point B from point A is g = 10m/s2. Pulley and string are light

(A) 1 m to the left (C) 2 m to the left and smooth.

(B) 1 m to the right (D) 2 m to the right

2kg

4. A clockwise couple of 5 Nm acts at point

A on a plane and a counter clockwise

couple of 10 Nm acts at a point B (5m

right of A). These couple has to replaced m

by an equivalent couple at a point C (1m (A) 1 kg (C) 0.2 kg

left of B) on the plane. The magnitude (B) 0.4 kg (D) 2 kg

and direction of the couple at C is

(A) 5 Nm clockwise 8. A uniform bar is supported with hinge

(B) 5 Nm counter clockwise joint at point A and a smooth contact at

(C) 15 Nm clockwise point B. The weight of bar is 300 N.

(D) 15 Nm counter clockwise

Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

distance 15 m from A. edge, L is placed in large tray of mass M.

B If the ice melts, how for does the centre

of mass of the system ice plus tray

Smooth Contact comes down.

60o 2(M+m)L mL

(A) (C) M+m

m

L mL

(B) (D)

2 2(M+m)

(A) 200 N (C) 100 N support, O. Forces lie in one plane

(B) 173.2 N (D) 300 N 1.4kN

4kNm

3kN

9. Three cables are joined at junction ring 0

B

C. Determine tension in cable AC caused A 0.6 0.6m

by weight of 30 kg cylinder (take g = 10 1.8m

m 30o 0.6m

m/s2) (A) 5.98 (C) 2.73

A D (B) 2.5 (D) 1.4

30 weightless bar AB which is supported by

a cable CB and a pin at A as shown in. The

30

pin reactions at A on the bar AB are

B

(A) 155.3N (C) 15.53 N

125 mm

T

(B) 268.97 N (D) 26.897 N

A B

10. Ratio of lift force L to drag force D for a

simple airfoil is L/D = 10. If the lift

275mm

force on a short section of the airfoil is y

200 N, compute the angle which

resultant makes with horizontal, m

x

L

(A) Rx = 343.4 N, Ry = 755.4 N

(B) Rx = 343.4 N, Ry = 0

(C) Rx = 755.4 N, Ry = 343.4 N

D (D) Rx = 755.4 N, Ry = 0

(A) 84.3o (C) 42.15o perpendicular to the portion BC of the

(B) 10o (D) None of these bent bar as shown in the figure.

Determine moment of P about point A

(in Nm)

Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

C plane, as shown in figure. s = 0.40.

1.6m Maximum horizontal force, P that can

be applied to the block without causing

45o it to slide.

B

1.6m P 50kg

(B) 57.94 Nm (D) 24 Nm

(A) 439 N (C) 495 N

(B) 78.52 N (D) 139.2 N

15. If two equal forces of magnitude, P act

an angle , their resultant will be

(A) 2P sin (C) 2P tan

2 2

(B) 2P cos 2 (D) P sin 2

Assignment 1

1. [Ans. D] FBD of 2kg mass: FBD of small mass

By definition of equilibrium hanging

T = sN

2. [Ans. B] = s(Mg) (1)

Resultant force can be calculated by T = mg (2)

adding the three force vectors. By 1 and 2,

mg = s(Mg)

3. [Ans. D]

m = sM = 0.2 2 = 0.4 kg

4. [Ans. B]

8. [Ans. C]

5. [Ans. A] FBD

B

6. [Ans .D]

W T R

= =

sin 90 o sin(90 + 60 ) sin(90 + 30o )

o o o 15 m

W 200 R

Or o

= o

=

sin 90 cos 60 cos 30o 10 m w cos 60

From which, W = 400 kgf and R = 200 60 w

with horizontal is 60o Ay

Taking moment about A MA = 0

7. [Ans. B] W cos 60 10 B 15 = 0

Mg T 10

T

B = 300 0.5 = 100 N

15

sN Mg

N

Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

D C P

A 105o

45o

1.6m

105o

150o B

B 1.6m

TCD TAB

o

=

sin 105 sin 150o A

sin 150o m = 0,

TAB = TCB = 155.3 N

sin 105o P cos 45o (1.6 + 1.6 cos 45o ) + P sin 45o

(1.6 sin 45o )

10. [Ans. A]

value is 81.94 N-m

11. [Ans. D]

15. [Ans. B]

R = P2 + R2 + 2P(cos )

X2 X1 = 2P2 [1 + cos ]

Mx1 + mx2

Xcm = (1) = 2P2 [1 + 2 cos2 1]

m+m 2

When ice melts, centre of mass of water is

on surface of tray (since tray is large)

= 2Pcos

x2` = x2 L/2 2

Mx1 + m(x2 L/2)

xnew = (2) 16. [Ans. A]

M+m

(1) (2) y

mL 50g

xnew = xcm = x

2(M + m) 20o

() means comes down. P f = s N

20o

12. [Ans. A] 20o

1.8 3 + 1.4 1.2 4 + 2.4 1.4 sin 60 N

= 5.98 kNm. So change any option with 5.98 (+)Fx = 0; P cos 20o s N 50g sin 20o

=0

13. [Ans. D] (+)Fy = 0, N P sin 20o 50g cos 20o

Tsin = mg =0

15 By (1) and (2),

tan = P cos 20o 50g sin 20o = s (P sin 20o +

275

= 24.45o 50g cos 20o )

T=829.5 N s (50g cos 20o ) + 50g sin 20o

P =

R x = Tcos24.45 = 755.4 N cos 20o s sin 20o

Ry = 0 = 438.58N

B

Rx

mg

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