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Engineering Mechanics

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ME/CE

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Contents

Contents
Chapters Page No.
#1. Introduction 1
Introduction 1

#2. Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium 2 28


Introduction 2
Equivalent Force System 23
Newtons Laws of Motion 3
Equilibrium and Free Body Diagrams 3
Coplanar Concurrent Forces 46
Coplanar Non-Concurrent Forces 7
Condition for Body in Equilibrium 78
Friction 8
Solved Examples 9 24
Assignment 25 27
Answer Keys & Explanations 27 28

#3. Trusses and Frames 29 42


Trusses and Frames 29 31
Solved Examples 31 38
Assignment 39 40
Answer Keys & Explanations 40 42

#4. Friction 43 51
Introduction 43
Dry Friction 43 44
Laws of Dry Friction 44 45
Rolling Resistance 45
Force of Friction on a Wheel 46 47
Assignment 48 49
Answer Keys & Explanations 50 51

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Contents

#5. Principle of Virtual Work 52 59


Principle of Virtual Work 52 54
Solved Examples 54 59

#6. Kinematics and Dynamics of Particle 60 87


Introduction 60
Kinematics of Rectilinear Motion 60 65
Kinematics of Curvilinear Motion 65 66
Acceleration Analysis 66 77
Impulse and Momentum 77 79
Collision of Elastic Bodies 79 82
Assignment 83 85
Answer Keys & Explanations 85 87

#7. Work & Energy Methods 88 94


Work and Energy 88 89
Conservative/Non-Conservative Force Fields and Energy Balance 89 93
Assignment 94
Answer Keys & Explanations 94

#8. Kinematics and Dynamics of Rigid Body 95 107


Center of mass and Center of Gravity 95
Eulers Equation of Motion 95 96
Moment of Inertia 96 102
Conservation of Angular Momentum 103 104
Assignment 105 106
Answer Keys & Explanations 106 107

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"I am a slow walker ... but I
never walk backwards."

12
..Abraham Lincoln

Free Body Diagram


CHAPTER

and Equilibrium
Learning Objectives
After reading this chapter, you will know:
1. Equivalent Force System, Newtons Law of Motion
2. Equilibrium and Free Body Diagrams, Type of Equilibrium
3. Static Friction, Virtual Work, Trusses and Frames, Statics Related Problems

Introduction
Statics deals with system of forces that keeps a body in equilibrium. In other words the resultant of
force systems on the body are zero.

Force
A force is completely defined only when the following three characters are specified.
Magnitude
Point of Application
Line of action/Direction

Scalar and Vector


A quantity is said to be scalar if it is completely defined by its magnitude alone. e.g. length, energy,
work etc. A quantity is said to be vector if it is completely defined only when its magnitude and
direction is specified.
E.g.: Force, Acceleration.

Equivalent Force System


Coplanar Force System: If all the forces in the system lie in a single plane, it is called coplanar force
system.

Concurrent Force System: If line of action of all the forces in a system passes through a single point it
is called concurrent force system.

Collinear Force System: In a system, all the forces parallel to each other, if line of action of all forces
lie along a single line then it is called a collinear force system.

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Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

Force System Example


Coplanar like parallel force is straight Weight of stationary train on rail off the track
Coplanar concurrent force Forces on a rod resting against wall
Coplanar non- concurrent force Forces on a ladder resting against a wall when a person
stands on a rung which is not at its center of gravity
Non- coplanar parallel force The weight of benches in class room
Non- coplanar concurrent force A tripod carrying camera
Non- coplanar non-concurrent force Forces acting on moving bus

Newtons Laws of Motion


First Law: Everybody continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line unless it is
compelled to change that state by force acting on it.
Second Law: The rate of change of momentum of a body is directly proportional to the applied force
& it takes place in the direction in which the force acts.
dv
F (m )
dt
Third Law: For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

Principle of Transmissibility of Forces: The state of rest or motion of rigid body is unaltered if a force
action on a body is replaced by another force of the same magnitude and direction but acting
anywhere on the body along the line of action of applied forces.
P

Parallelogram Law of Forces: If two forces acting simultaneously on a body at a point are
represented in magnitude and direction by the two adjacent sides of a parallelogram their resultant
is represented in magnitude and direction by the diagonal of the parallelogram which passes
through the point of intersection of the two sides representing the forces.

Equilibrium and Free Body Diagrams


Equilibrium: Any system of forces which keeps the body at rest is said to be equilibrium, or when the
condition of the body is unaffected even though a number of forces acted upon it, is said to in
equilibrium.

Laws of Equilibrium
Force Law of Equilibrium: For any system of forces keeping a body in equilibrium, the algebraic
sum of forces, in any direction is zero, ie. F = 0
Moment Law of Equilibrium: For any system of forces keeping a body in equilibrium, the
algebraic sum of the moments of all the forces about any point in their plane is zero.
i.e., M = 0
F d = 0
This law is applicable only to coplanar, non-concurrent force systems.

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Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

Coplanar Concurrent Forces


Triangle Law of Forces
If two forces acting simultaneously on a body are represented by the sides of triangle taken in order,
their resultant is represented by the closing side of the triangle taken in the opposite order.

Polygon Law of Forces


P2
P3 P4 D
E
P3
R2
R R1 C
P1 P2
P4 A
B P1
If a number of forces acting at a point be represented in magnitude and direction by the sides of a
polygon in order, then the resultant of all these forces may be represented in magnitude and
direction by the closing side of the polygon taken in opposite order.
P2 E D


P1

A
B C
Resultant, (R) = P12 + P22 + 2P1 P2 cos
P2 sin
tan = ( )
P1 +P2 cos
Where,
= Angle between two forces, = Inclination of resultant with force P1
When forces acting on a body are collinear, their resultant is equal to the algebraic sum of the forces.

Lamis Theorem: (Only three coplanar concurrent forces) If a body is in equilibrium under the action
of three forces, then each force is proportional to the sine of the angle between the other two forces.
c
P2
P2 P1

P3 b

P1
P3
a
P1 P2 P3
= =
sin sin sin

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Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

Free Body Diagram: A free body diagram is a pictorial representation used to analyze the forces
acting on a free body. Once we decide which body or combination of bodies to analyze, we then treat
this body or combination as a single body isolated from all our surrounding bodies.
A free body diagram shows all contact and non-contact forces acting on the bodies.

Sample Free Body Diagrams


600N 600N
W R1

P
P
R2

A Ladder Resting on Smooth Wall

V V
F2 F1 V V
F3

F y
M
W=m
g
x
A Cantilever Beam
j
i
m mg

Free Body Diagram


of Just the Block
A Block on a Ramp

In a free body diagram all the contacts/supports are replaced by reaction forces which will exert on
the structure. A mechanical system comprises of different types of contacts/supports.

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Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

Types of Contacts/Supports
Following types of mechanical contacts can be found in various structures,
Flexible Cable, Belt, Chain or Rope

Weight of Cable Negligible



T
Weight of Cable not Negligible
T

Force exerted by the cable is always a tension away from the body in the direction of the cables.
Smooth Surfaces

N
Contact force is compressive and is normal to the surfaces.
Rough Surfaces
Rough surfaces are capable of supporting a tangential component F (frictional force as well as a
normal component N of the resultant R.
Roller Support

Roller, rocker or ball support transmits a compressive force normal to supporting surface.
Freely Sliding Guide

N N
Collar or slider support force normal to guide only. There is no tangential force as surfaces are
considered to be smooth.
Pin Connection

Rx Rx M
R Ry
A freely hinged pin supports a force in any direction
y in the plane normal to the axis; usually
shown as two components Rx and Ry. A pin not free to turn also supports a couple M.
Built in or Fixed End
A
A A M
O F
r Weld
V
A built-in or fixed end supports an axial force F, a transverse force V, and a bending moment M.

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Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

Coplanar Non-Concurrent Forces


Varignons Theorem: The algebraic sum of the moments of a system of coplanar forces about a
momentum center in their plane is equal to the moment of their resultant forces about the same
moment center.
B d2

R
d

P2

d1

P1
A
R.d = P1.d1 +P2.d2
Effect of couple is unchanged if
Couple is rotated through any angle.
Couple is shifted to any position.
The couple is replaced by another pair of forces whose rotated effect is the same.
Couple is free vector.

Condition for Body in Equilibrium


The algebraic sum of the components of the forces along each of the three mutually
perpendicular direction is zero.
The algebraic sum of the components of the moments acting on the body about each of the
three mutually perpendicular axis is zero.
When a body is in equilibrium, the resultant of all forces acting on it is zero. Thus, the resultant
force R and the resultant couple M are both zero and we have the equilibrium equations,
R = F = 0 & M = M = 0
For collinear force system
Fx = 0, Fy = 0 & Fz = 0
For non-collinear force system
MA = 0 , MB = 0 & MC = 0
These requirements are both necessary and sufficient conditions for equilibrium.
Two forces can be in equilibrium only if they are equal in magnitude, opposite in direction, and
collinear in action. If a system is in equilibrium under the action of three forces, those three
forces must be concurrent.

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Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

Wrench: When the direction of resultant couple M and resultant force F are parallel, then it is
called wrench.
When direction of resultant couple & direction of resultant force is same then it is called
Positive wrench and when the direction opposite to each other it is called negative wrench.
Example of wrench is screw driver

Types of Equilibrium
There are three types of equilibrium as defined below,

Stable Equilibrium: A body is in stable equilibrium if it returns to its equilibrium position after it has
been displaced slightly.

Unstable Equilibrium: A body is in unstable equilibrium if it does not return to its equilibrium
position and does not remain in the displaced position after it has been displaced slightly.

Neutral Equilibrium: A body is in neutral equilibrium if it stays in the displaced position after if has
been displaced slightly.

Stable Equilibrium Unstable Equilibrium Neutral Equilibrium

Friction
Friction is the force resisting the relative motion at solid surfaces, fluid layers and material elements
sliding against each other.

Types of Friction
1. Dry Friction: Friction between the contact surface.
2. Fluid Friction: Friction between the layers of fluid element.
3. Internal Friction: When cyclic load applied on the solid then, friction between the elements.
When applied force is, F
And static friction coefficient,
Fmax = N
F<Fmax
F = Friction Force
F = Fmax= N
If F >Fmax
F = k N= Friction Force
k = Kinetic Friction Co-efficient

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Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

Solved examples
Example 1
ABCD is a string suspended from points A and D and carries a weight of 5 N at B and a
weight of W N at C. The inclination to the vertical of AB and CD are 45 and 30
respectively and angle ABC is 165 . Find W and thetensions in the different parts of the
string.
Solution:
Let T1 ,T2 and T3 be the tensions in the parts AB, BC and CD respectively, as shown in figure.
A 45
D
T1
1 30 T3
120
3

B
T2
T2 C

5N
W
For the equilibrium of point B, we have
T1 T2 5

=
= (From Lamis theorem)
sin 60 sin 135 sin 165
sin 60 5 0.86602
T1 = 5
= = 16.73 N
sin 165 0.25882
sin 135 5 0.70710
T2 = 5 = = 13.66 N
sin 165 0.25882
For the equilibrium of point C, we have
T2 T3 W

=
= (From Lamis theorem)
sin 150 sin 120 sin 90
sin 120 3 2
T3 = T2 (
) = 13.66 = 23.66 N
sin 150 2 1
T2 sin 90 13.66 1
W=
= = 27.32 N
sin 150 0.5

Example 2
A fine string ABCDE whose extremity A is fixed has weights W1 and W2 attached to it at B
and C and passes over a smooth pulley at D carrying a weight of 20 N at the free end E. If
in the position of equilibrium, BC is horizontal and AB, CD makes angles 60 and 30
respectively with the vertical, find
(A) Tensions in the portions AB, BC, CD and DE
(B) The value of the weights, W1 and W2
(C) The pressure on the pulley axis
Solution:
Since the string passes over a smooth pulley at D, the tension in CD portion of string is 20 N.
Let the tension in AB and BC be T1 and T2 respectively, as shown in figure.
For the equilibrium of point B, we have

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Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

T1 T2 W1

=
=
sin 90 sin 120 sin 150
And for the equilibrium of point C,
T2 20 W

=
=
sin 150 sin 90 sin 120
20 N D

A
30
60 E
20 N 20 N
T1
B C
T2 T2

W1 W2

sin 120o 3
Hence, W2 = 20 o
= 20 = 17.32 N
sin 90 2
sin 150o 1
T2 = 20 o
= 20 = 10 N
sin 90 2
sin 90o 10 2
Thus, T1 = T2 = = 11.55 N
sin 120o 3
sin 150 1 2
W1 = T2 o
= 10 = 5.77 N
sin 120 2 3
Pressure on the pulley
3
F = (20)2 + (20)2 + 2 20 20 cos 30o = 20 2 + 2 = 20 2 + 3 = 38.6 N
2

Example 3
A beam AB hinged at A and is supported at B by a vertical chord which passes over two
frictionless pulleys C and D. If the pulley D carries a vertical load W, find the position x of
the load P if the beam is to remain in equilibrium in the horizontal position.

T1
l
T1 T1
A
x B
D
P

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Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

Solution:
From pulley D
2T1 = W
W
T1 =
2
W
T1 =
2
l
A
x

P
Taking moments about A
W
MA = 0 = l p. x = 0
2
Wl
= px
2
Wl
x=
2P

Example 4
The wire passing round a telephone pole is horizontal and the two portions attached to
the pole are inclined at an angle of 60o to each other. The pole is supported by another
wire attached to the middle point of the pole and inclined at 60o to the horizontal. Show
that the tension in this wire is 43 times that of the telephone wire.
Solution:
Let the tension in the two portions of the telephone wire be T1 each and the tension in
another wire be T2 , as shown in figure.
T1

T A
60

T1
C

T2

60
B D
Then T = 2 T1 cos 30o = 3T1
Let AC = BC = l
Taking moments about B, we get
T 2l = T2 cos 60 l
T2 = 2T1 3 2
= 4 3T1
T2
= 43
T1

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Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

Example 5
Two halves of a round homogeneous cylinder is held together by a thread wrapped round
the cylinder with two equal weights, P attached to its ends, as shown in figure. The
complete cylinder weighs, W Newton. The plane of contact of both of its halves is vertical.
Determine the minimum value of P for which both halves of the cylinder will be in
equilibrium on a horizontal plane.
P

G
4r
P P 3 A

W/2
W
(a) (b)

Solution:
Given the problem as shown in below figure. We draw the free body diagram as follows.
Note the following salient points
P
1 P 1
W W
2 2

W
P P
Nx Nx
P N P
Ny Ny
C


In the F.B.D.
As the question is to find the minimum value of force F on rope for which the two halves
just remain in contact, we see that the limiting case is that the two halves are just about
to touch. In this case, the two halves rotate about point of contact C. So, the point of
contact as acts as revolute joint about which the two semi-circular cylinders rotate and
hence has two normal reactions Nx & Ny as shown in FBD.
In case of a half turn rope (rope which goes around the cylinder just half a turn around
the top half once), to split the two halves as we have to cut the rope once. On cutting
the rope, the rope tension force P is exposed once on the top tip each half, which is why
it is marked on top.
1
The left two force, are gravity of each half which is 2 acting on Center of Gravity of each
semi cylindrical half. To calculate the CG location, we know that
xdA
CG = A
A dA
Now, employing polar coordinates and taking a infinitesimal element as shown in figure,
we get as follows.

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Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

R 2 3 R
A xdA 0 0 r sin rdrd R 4R A yda 0 0 r cos (rdr)d
CG = = = 3 = & CGy = =
A dA R
0 0 (rdr)d 1 2 3 dA R
0 0 (rdr)d
2 R A

(which is clear from symmetry of the body about X axis)


Y
x = r sin
y = r cos

dA = (r d)dr
d dr
r
X

Semi-Cylinder COG Calculation Diagram


Now, as the body is to be in static equilibrium in the limiting condition, we get by zero
moment sum about point P as follows.
W 4R 2W
( ) ( ) + (P)(R) (P)(2R) = 0 P =
2 3 3

Modification/Extension for Multiple Turns: When the number of turns on the cylinder
increases, by physical intuition, clearly, the minimum value of P required to just hold the
two halves together must be lesser, right? Lets check if the solution gives this analytically.
Assume that the rope turns n full turns around the cylinder. In this case, when we try to
draw FBD of two halves separately, we have to cut the ropes n+1 times on top edge of
cylinder which means a force of (n+1)P acts on top edge. In addition, we have to cut rope
n times at bottom edge ie at point C, which means force acting at bottom point is nP. With
these modifications, we get the new FBD as follows. Now,

(n + 1)P (n + 1)P

1 1
w w
2 2

P P
Nx Nx
Ny nP nP Ny

FBD for the General n Rope Turn Case


W 4R
Again taking moment about point C, we get ( ) ( ) + (P)(R) ((n + 1)P)(2R) = 0
2 3
1 2W
P=
2n + 1 3
1
Clearly, as number of turns n The minimum force to hold the halves together P
2n + 1
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Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

Example 6
A smooth circular cylinder of radius 2 m is lying in a triangular groove, one side of which
makes an angle of 10 and the other an angle of 30 with the horizontal, as shown in
figure. Find the reactions at the surface of contact if there is no friction and the weight of
the cylinder is 150 N.

R1 R2
40
140
170 O

30 10

30 W 10
B A

Solution:
Let R 1 and R 2 be the reaction of the 10 and 30 planes respectively.
Using Lamis theorem, we get
W R1 R2
= =
sin 40 sin 150 sin 170
sin 150 0.5
R1 = W = W = 0.778 W
sin 40 0.64278
= 0.778 150 = 116.6 N
sin 170 0.17365
R2 = W = 150 = 40.52 N
sin 40 0.64278

Example 7
Two smooth spheres of weight, W and radius, r each are in equilibrium in a horizontal
channel of width (b<4r) and vertical sides, as shown in figure. Find the three reactions
from the sides of the channel which are all smooth. Also find the force exerted by each
sphere on the other. Calculate these values if r = 25 cm, b = 90 cm and W = 100 N.

R2 B
R3 E
P r
O P
A
C R1
r
W W

D
r b2r r
b

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Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

Solution:
Let R 1 R 2 and R 3 be the reactions at C, E and D respectively. Also let P be the force exerted
by one sphere on the other at the point of contact O. Then,
b 2r
cos =
2r
The forces acting at the point A are (R 3 W), R 1 and P. Using Lamis theorem, we get
R3 W R1 P
= =
sin sin(90 ) sin 90
R3 W
P =
sin
R 1 = (R 3 W) cot
The forces acting at the point B are W, R 2 and P. Again using Lamis theorem.
R2 P W W
= = ; R 2 = W cot ; P =
sin(90 ) sin 90 sin sin
For r = 25 cm and b = 90 cm
90 (2 25) 40
cos = = = 0.8
2 25 50
= 36.87
R 2 = 100 cot 36.87 = 133.3 N
100
P = = 166.66 N
sin 36.87
R 3 = P sin + W = 166.66 sin 36.87 + 100 = 200 N
R 1 = (200 100) cot 36.87 = 133.33 N.

Example 8
A uniform wheel of 0.5 m diameter and weighing 1.5 kN rests against a rectangular block
0.2 m hight lying on a horizontal plane, as shown in figure. It is to be pulled over this
block by a horizontal force, P applied to the end of a string around the circumference of
the wheel. Find the force, P when the wheel is just about to roll over the block.
Solution:
Let W = weight of wheel, R A = reaction on the wheel at A
The three forces P, W and R A are in equilibrium. Since P and W meet at D, therefore R A
must pass through D. Using Lamis theorem, we have
P W
=
sin(180 ) sin(90 + )
D P RA
D P

0.25 m

C
C

A A
1.5 kN E
B 0.2m
W 0.2m
B
(a) (b)

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Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

P
= W cos
sin
P = W tan
AE
tan =
DE
AE = (AC)2 (CE)2 = (0.25)2 (0.25 0.2)2
0.0625 0.0025 = 0.06 = 0.245 m
0.245
tan = = 0.8165
0.3
= 39.23
P = 1.5 0.8165 = 1.225 kN

Example 9
Two rollers of weights W1 and W2 are connected by a flexible string AB. The rollers rest
on two mutually perpendicular planes DE and EF, as shown in figure. Find the tension in
the string and the angle, that it makes with the horizontal when the system is in
equilibrium. Take, W1 = 60 N, W2 = 120 N and = 30
E

B
A

(90 )
D W2 F
W1
Solution:
Let R A and R B be the reaction on the planes at A and B respectively and T the tension in
the string AB. These forces are shown in figure.
RB

RA T B
T

W1
(90 )
(a) W2
Roller A[Fig (b)]
Applying Lamis theorem at A, we have
T W1
=
sin(90 + ) sin{180 ( + )}
T W1
= . (1)
cos sin( + )
Roller B [Fig. (c)]
T W2
=
sin(180 ) sin{90 + ( + )}

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Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

T W2
= . (2)
sin cos ( + )
W1 cos W2 sin
sin( + ) = ; cos ( + ) =
T T
RA T RB
(90+ + )


T
(90+ )
() (90 ) (90 ) (90 )

W2
W1 (c)
(b)
W1 60
tan( + ) = cot = cot 30 = 0.866
W2 120
+ = 40.89; = 40.89 30 = 10.89
W1 co s 60co s 30
T = = = 79.38 N
sin ( + ) si n 40.89

Example 10
Three cables are joined at the junction ring C. Determine the tensions in cables AC and BC
caused by the weight of the 30 kg cylinder.
A D

45o
C 15o

30o
B 30kg

Solution:
Let T1 and T2 be the tension in the string AC and BC respectively.

45o T1 T = 294.3 N

45o 15o
60o 135o
120o

T2
30o

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Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

294.3 T1 T2
o
= o
=
sin 105 sin 135 sin 120o
T1 = 304.68 sin 135o = 215.44 N
T2 = 304.68 sin 120o = 263.86 N
T = 294.3 N
T1 = 215.44 N
T2 = 263.80 N

Example 11
The flanged steel cantilever beam with riveted bracket is subjected to the couple and two
forces shown and their effect on the design of the attachment at A must be determined.
Replace the two forces and couple by an equivalent couple M and resultant force, R at A.
1.5m 0.5 2kN
m 70o
0.15m
A y 0.15m
500Nm

3
4 1.2k
x
N
Solution:
Fx = 2 cos 70 + 1.2 cos 36. 87o
Fx = 1.644 kN
Fy = 2 sin 70 1.2 sin 36. 87o 3
Fy = 1.1594 kN 36.87o
R = Fx i + Fy j 4
R = 1.644i + 1.1594j
MA = [2 cos 70o 0.15] + [2 sin 70o 2] + [1.2 cos 36.87 0.15]
[1.2 sin 36.87 1.5] 0.5
MA = 2.72 0.5
MA = 2.22 Nm ccw

Example 12
A ladder rests at an angle, to the horizontal, with its ends resting on a smooth floor and
against a smooth vertical wall, the lower end being attached by a string to the junction of
the wall and the floor.
(a) Find the tension in the string
(b) Find also the tension in the string when a man whose weight is one-half that of the
ladder stands on the ladder at two-thirds of its length
Y
B
S

D
G
R
W/2
W
X
A T C

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Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

Solution:
Let AB be the ladder resting against the wall BC. Let R and S be the reactions of the floor
and wall respectively and T be the tension in the string AC.
MB = 0 it gives
AB
R AB cos = T (AB sin ) + W ( cos )
2
W
R cos = T sin + cos
2
Fy = 0 it gives
R = W
W
T sin = W cos cos
2
W
T = cot
2
W 2
When a man of weight stands at D where AD = AB, then,
2 3
Fy = 0 it gives
3
R = W
2
MB = 0 it gives
AB W 1
R AB cos = T AB sin + W ( cos ) + ( ABco s )
2 2 3
W W
Or R cos = T sin + cos + cos
2 6
3 W W
Or T sin = W cos cos cos
2 2 6
5
T = W cot
6

Example 13
A jib crane is loaded as shown in figure. Determine the forces in the jib and the tie.
A
T1
tie
45
60 15 T2
60 10 kN
T1
jib
B
T2

45

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Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

Solution:
Using Lamis theorem at point A, we get
10 T1 T2
= =
sin 15 sin 45 sin 60
sin 45 1 1
T1 = 10 = 10 = 27.32 kN
sin 15 2 0.25882
sin 60 3 1
T2 = 10 = 10 = 33.46 kN
sin 15 2 0.25882
Otherwise, for the equilibrium of point A,
Fx = 0 gives
T1 cos 30 = T2 cos 45
3 1
T1 = T2
2 2
2
T1 = T2
3
Fy = 0 gives
T1 cos 60 + 10 = T2 cos 45
1 1
T1 + 10 = T2
2 2
2 1 1
3 T
2 2
+2 T2 = 10
T2 (0.707 0.408) = 10
10
T2 = = 33.45 kN
0.299
2
T1 = 33.45 = 27.31 kN
3
Example 14
Determine the reactions at the supports for the beam loaded as shown in figure.
500 N/m
500 N 1000 N

A B

R1 2m 2m 2m R2

Solution:
Fy = 0 gives
R 1 + R 2 = 500 + 1000 + 500 2 = 2500 N
MB = 0 gives
R 1 6 = 500 4 + 1000 2 + 500 2 3
= 2000 + 2000 + 3000
7000
R1 = = 1166.67 N
6
R 2 = 2500 1166.67 = 1333.33 N.

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Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

Example 15
Find the force, P that is capable of pulling the cylinder of figure. Over the block

P
30 cm

10 cm
C

W = 100 N

30
Solution:
MC = 0 gives
W cos 30 (30)2 (20)2 = (P W sin 30) 20
3 1
100 22.36 = (P 100 ) 20
2 2
1936 = 20 P 1000
936
P = = 46.8 N
20

Example 16
A uniform wheel 60 cm in diameter rests against a rigid rectangular block 15 cm thick in
figure. Find the least pull through the centre of the wheel to just turn the wheel over the
corner of the block. All surfaces are smooth. Find the reaction of the block. The wheel
weighs 10 kN.
P
30 cm R
D

A
C
15 cm
B
10 kN
Solution:
Let R be the reaction at A between the wheel and rectangular block and O be angle which
the pull P makes with R.
Now (AC)2 = (OA)2 (OC)2 = (30)2 (30 15)2 = 900 225 = 675
AC = 25.98 cm

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Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

AD = AO sin = 30 sin
Taking moments about A, we get
10 CA = P DA
25.98 8.66
P = 10 =
30 sin sin
P will be least when sin is maximum, i. e. , = 90.
P = 8.66 kN
Now
OC 15
cos AOC = = = 0.5
OA 30
AOC = 60
10
Resolving along R, we get; R = 10 cos AOC = 10 cos60 = = 5 kN
2

Example 17
A cylinder of diameter 1 m weighing 1kN and another block weighing 500 N are
supported by a beam of length 7 m weighing 250 N with the help of a cord as shown in
figure. If the surface of contact are frictionless, determine the tension in the cord.
C
45

90o
O 45 500 cos 45o
D
S 50
R
m 0N
1000 E
45
N
22.5o o
250 N 250 cos 45
3.5 m

A
Solution:
R S W
o
= o
= R
sin 90 sin 135 sin 135o
R = 10002 = 1414 N
S = 1000 N 135o
From OAE 135o S
0.5 90o
tan (22.5) =
AE
AE = 0.5/ tan 22.5
AI = 1.207
Taking moment at A 1000 N
T(7) = R(AI) + 250 35 cos 45 + 500 7 cos 45o
T = 442 . 114 N

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Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

Example 18
Three cylinders weighing 100 N each and 16 cm in diameter are placed in a channel
rectangular in section as shown in figure. What is the pressure that the cylinder A is
exerting on the cylinder B at the point of contact? What is the pressure exerted by the
lower two cylinder on the channel base and walls at the contact points?
36 cm

A
O1
P
Q H
100 N
R2 Q P R
3
O2
D R1 G
R4 O3
B C

10 H
100 N cm 100 N
Solution:
Let the reactions at the points of contact be R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , R 4 and P, Q be the pressure
between the cylinders A, C and A, B respectively.
10
cos = = 0.625
16
= 51.32
Applying Lamis theorem at point O1 , we get
P Q 100
= =
sin (90 51.32) sin (90 51.32) sin (180 102.64)
P Q 100
= =
0.62497 0.62497 0.97576
0.62497
P = Q = 100 = 64 N
0.97576
Applying Lamis theorem at point O2 , we get
R1 R 1 100 Q
= =
sin (90 51.32) sin 51.32 sin 90
R 1 = 64 0.62497 = 40 N
R 2 100 = 64 0.78065
R 2 = 150 N
By symmetry,
R 1 = R 4 = 40 N
R 3 = R 2 = 150 N

Example 19
A right circular cylinder is placed on a V block which is placed on a inclined plane as
shown in the figure along side. Find the value of when reaction at A is double of the
reaction at B.

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Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

B
A

45o

Solution
FBD of the cylinder,
RB
RA

W
RA= 2RB
RB RA W
= =
SM(135 + ) SM(135 ) sin90o
sin(135 + ) R B
=
sin(135 ) R A
sin(135 + ) 1
=
sin(135 ) 2
= 18.43o

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Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

Assignment
1. For a particle in plane to be in 5. If the maximum and minimum resultant
equilibrium forces of two forces acting on a particle
1. Sum of the forces along X-direction is are 40 N and 10 N respectively, then
zero. two forces are
2. Sum of the forces along Y-direction is (A) 25 N & 15 N (C) 20 N & 10 N
(B) 20 N & 20 N (D) 20 N & 5 N
zero.
3. Sum of the moments of all the forces
6. A uniform beam AB pinned at A is held
about any point is zero
by the cable BC in the position shown. If
Which of the following statements are
the tension in the cable is 200 kgf, then
always correct?
the weight of the boom and the reaction
(A) 1 & 2 (C) 1 & 3
of the pin at A on the boom are
(B) 2 & 3 (D) 1, 2 & 3
respectively.

2. A system of concurrent forces P, Q & R C T 90o R


has the following magnitudes and
passing through origin and the 60oo B
60o
indicated points: o 60
60
P = 280 N (12, 6, 4)
Q = 520 N (3, 4, 12) 30o
A W
R = 270 N (6, 3, 6)
The magnitude of the resultant of this (A) 300 kgf, 100 3 kgf, 30o
force system is (B) 400 kgf, 100 3 kgf, 60o
(A) 560 N (C) 274 N (C) 300 kgf, 200 3 kgf, 30o
(B) 394 N (D) None of these (D) 400 kgf, 200 3 kgf, 60o

3. At a point A in a plane there is a vertical 7. The coefficient of static friction between


upward force of 2 N and a clockwise block of 2kg and table shown is s = 0.2.
couple of 4 Nm. These are equivalent to What should be maximum value of m so
a single vertical force of 2 N at a point B. that blocks do not move? Take
The distance of point B from point A is g = 10m/s2. Pulley and string are light
(A) 1 m to the left (C) 2 m to the left and smooth.
(B) 1 m to the right (D) 2 m to the right
2kg
4. A clockwise couple of 5 Nm acts at point
A on a plane and a counter clockwise
couple of 10 Nm acts at a point B (5m
right of A). These couple has to replaced m
by an equivalent couple at a point C (1m (A) 1 kg (C) 0.2 kg
left of B) on the plane. The magnitude (B) 0.4 kg (D) 2 kg
and direction of the couple at C is
(A) 5 Nm clockwise 8. A uniform bar is supported with hinge
(B) 5 Nm counter clockwise joint at point A and a smooth contact at
(C) 15 Nm clockwise point B. The weight of bar is 300 N.
(D) 15 Nm counter clockwise

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Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

Length of bar is 20 m. Point B is at 11. A cubical block of ice of mass, m and


distance 15 m from A. edge, L is placed in large tray of mass M.
B If the ice melts, how for does the centre
of mass of the system ice plus tray
Smooth Contact comes down.

60o 2(M+m)L mL
(A) (C) M+m
m
L mL
(B) (D)
2 2(M+m)

Reaction at support B at equilibrium 12. Compute the resistive moment at


(A) 200 N (C) 100 N support, O. Forces lie in one plane
(B) 173.2 N (D) 300 N 1.4kN
4kNm
3kN
9. Three cables are joined at junction ring 0
B
C. Determine tension in cable AC caused A 0.6 0.6m
by weight of 30 kg cylinder (take g = 10 1.8m
m 30o 0.6m
m/s2) (A) 5.98 (C) 2.73
A D (B) 2.5 (D) 1.4

45 C 13. A mass 35 kg is suspended from a


30 weightless bar AB which is supported by
a cable CB and a pin at A as shown in. The
30
pin reactions at A on the bar AB are
B
(A) 155.3N (C) 15.53 N
125 mm

T
(B) 268.97 N (D) 26.897 N

A B
10. Ratio of lift force L to drag force D for a
simple airfoil is L/D = 10. If the lift
275mm
force on a short section of the airfoil is y
200 N, compute the angle which
resultant makes with horizontal, m
x
L
(A) Rx = 343.4 N, Ry = 755.4 N
(B) Rx = 343.4 N, Ry = 0
(C) Rx = 755.4 N, Ry = 343.4 N
D (D) Rx = 755.4 N, Ry = 0

14. The 30 N force, P is applied


(A) 84.3o (C) 42.15o perpendicular to the portion BC of the
(B) 10o (D) None of these bent bar as shown in the figure.
Determine moment of P about point A
(in Nm)

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Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

P 16. A 50 kg block rests on a 20o inclined


C plane, as shown in figure. s = 0.40.
1.6m Maximum horizontal force, P that can
be applied to the block without causing
45o it to slide.
B

1.6m P 50kg

(A) 96 Nm (C) 81.94 Nm 20o


(B) 57.94 Nm (D) 24 Nm
(A) 439 N (C) 495 N
(B) 78.52 N (D) 139.2 N
15. If two equal forces of magnitude, P act
an angle , their resultant will be

(A) 2P sin (C) 2P tan
2 2

(B) 2P cos 2 (D) P sin 2

Answer Keys & Explanations

Assignment 1
1. [Ans. D] FBD of 2kg mass: FBD of small mass
By definition of equilibrium hanging
T = sN
2. [Ans. B] = s(Mg) (1)
Resultant force can be calculated by T = mg (2)
adding the three force vectors. By 1 and 2,
mg = s(Mg)
3. [Ans. D]
m = sM = 0.2 2 = 0.4 kg
4. [Ans. B]
8. [Ans. C]
5. [Ans. A] FBD
B
6. [Ans .D]
W T R
= =
sin 90 o sin(90 + 60 ) sin(90 + 30o )
o o o 15 m
W 200 R
Or o
= o
=
sin 90 cos 60 cos 30o 10 m w cos 60
From which, W = 400 kgf and R = 200 60 w

3 kgf, and the angle which R makes Ax


with horizontal is 60o Ay
Taking moment about A MA = 0
7. [Ans. B] W cos 60 10 B 15 = 0
Mg T 10
T
B = 300 0.5 = 100 N
15
sN Mg
N

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Free Body Diagram and Equilibrium

9. [Ans. A] 14. [Ans. C]


D C P
A 105o
45o

1.6m
105o
150o B

B 1.6m
TCD TAB
o
=
sin 105 sin 150o A
sin 150o m = 0,
TAB = TCB = 155.3 N
sin 105o P cos 45o (1.6 + 1.6 cos 45o ) + P sin 45o
(1.6 sin 45o )
10. [Ans. A]
value is 81.94 N-m
11. [Ans. D]
15. [Ans. B]
R = P2 + R2 + 2P(cos )
X2 X1 = 2P2 [1 + cos ]
Mx1 + mx2
Xcm = (1) = 2P2 [1 + 2 cos2 1]
m+m 2
When ice melts, centre of mass of water is
on surface of tray (since tray is large)
= 2Pcos
x2` = x2 L/2 2
Mx1 + m(x2 L/2)
xnew = (2) 16. [Ans. A]
M+m
(1) (2) y
mL 50g
xnew = xcm = x
2(M + m) 20o
() means comes down. P f = s N
20o
12. [Ans. A] 20o
1.8 3 + 1.4 1.2 4 + 2.4 1.4 sin 60 N
= 5.98 kNm. So change any option with 5.98 (+)Fx = 0; P cos 20o s N 50g sin 20o
=0
13. [Ans. D] (+)Fy = 0, N P sin 20o 50g cos 20o
Tsin = mg =0
15 By (1) and (2),
tan = P cos 20o 50g sin 20o = s (P sin 20o +
275
= 24.45o 50g cos 20o )
T=829.5 N s (50g cos 20o ) + 50g sin 20o
P =
R x = Tcos24.45 = 755.4 N cos 20o s sin 20o
Ry = 0 = 438.58N

B
Rx

mg

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