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Contemporary India and Education

Block 1: Philosophical Foundations of Education

INTRODUCTION

Education means training for the country and love for the nation says Kautilyathe famous
ancient Indian economist.Education has a definite role to play in the development of an enlightened and
progressive society. It forms three-fold social function by maintaining, transmitting and creating social
values, ideals, beliefs and culture. In a conservative role, it preserves heritage, values, ideals and
culture.Secondly, transmits values, ideals, beliefs and culture of the society to each succeeding
generation. For this purpose, education provides variety of skills to the budding human generation such as
social interaction, emotional growth, physical awareness, aesthetic awareness and spiritual response.

Agencies of education examine the crucial link between various agencies through which
education can be imparted. The learning of the child starts taking place just after birth.

Various schools of eastern and western philosophies and their implications for education in
curriculum,role of teacher and the nature of discipline traces the relationship between philosophy
and education.

OBJECTIVES:

The study of the units in block-1 will help the reader to understand Philosophical foundations of
education.It will provide the details on the concept of education, the role of different agencies in
helping the child to know about his environment, its influence on his growth and development
and the various schools of Philosophy and their implications in education.
Unit -1 Education: Concept, Definition and Scope

STRUCTURE
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Objectives
1.3 Education Concept, Definition
1.4 Indian Concept 0f Education
1.5 Western Concept of Education
1.6 Narrow and Broader Meaning of Education
1.7 Formal, Non- Formal, Informal, and Lifelong Education:
1.8 Modern Concept of Education
1.9 Scope of Education
1.10 Unit Summary
1.11 Check Your Progress (Self Study)
1.12 Assignments
1.13 Points for Discussion and Clarification
1.14 References

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1.1 INTRODUCTION
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The meaning, concept and definition of Education in different contexts, traces the etymological
meaning of the term are important.In this chapteran analytical discussion of those oft-quoted
definitions of education have been included and this chapter also makes conceptual distinction
between Indian and western concepts of education, modern concept of education and also the
narrow broader views of education.

1.2 OBJECTIVES

After reading this unit, the reader will be able to:

Know the role played by education in human life.


Discuss the meaning of the term education.
Define the concept of education.
Understand various definitions of education.
Distinguish between narrow and broader views of education.
Describe the scope of education.
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1.3 CONCEPT AND DEFINITION OF EDUCATION

Education is as old as the human race. It is a never ending process of inner growth and
development and its period stretchs from cradle to grave. Education, in real sense, is to
humanize humanity,and to make life progressive,cultured and civilized. It is very important for
the progress of individual and society. It is through education that man develops his thinking and
reasoning, problem solving and creativity, intelligence and aptitude, positive sentiments and
skills, good values and attitudes. It is through education that he is transformed into human,
social, moral and spiritual being. Man learns something everyday and every moment. His entire
life is education. Hence, education is continuous and dynamic process. It is concerned with ever-
growing man in an ever-growing society. Hence it is still in the process of evolution.

Education does not have a definition of universal acceptance.Thinkers, philosophers,


educationists through different periods of human civilization, have attempted to define education
and in doing so, they have left the mark of their own values and philosophies on the definitions
they have coined.Since education proceeds according to the goals, valuesand desires of
individuals and society, it is but obvious that such goals, values and desires will be reflected in
the very definitions of education.

Though the definitions of education are rich and varied, often prominently displaying the rich
cultural heritage of the human race, no single definition has been found so far that satisfies
everyone. In fact, the elusive search for an all- comprehensive definition of education is still on,
and in all probability, will continue as long as the human race maintains its diverse socio-cultural
values.

The term education has a very wide connotation. Philosophers and thinkers from Yagnavalkya
(around 1000 BC) to Gandhiji(1869-1948 AD) in the East and from Socrates( 469 - 399 BC) to
Dewey (1859- 1952 AD) have given the meaning to education in accordance with their
philosophy of life with the result there emerged divergent concepts of education and different
definitions.The concept of education is like a diamond which appears to be of different
coloursfrom different angles.

There is a great controversy in regard to the meaning and definition of the term education.
Divergent views have been expressed by different thinkers, philosophers, psychologists,
educationists, teachers, statesmen, politicians and priests according to their own outlook on life.
The word education is derived from Latin words Educare and Educere. The first one meaning
to raise and to bringup, while the second one means to to lead forth or to come out. The
narrow meaning of education is confined only to a few specific, deliberate, planned influences
that have a bearing on the development of the individual. However, education is much more than
this. It is considered to be a lifelong process,which includes all the events, experiences,
knowledge and wisdom that an individual acquires at different stages of ones life formally,
informally and incidentally.Education in ancient India was aimed at training of the mind as an
instrument of knowledge and the discharge of ones dharma.The contemporary Indian thinkers
linked it with the human and societal development. The western view on education has also
changed over time from it being the activities of mind experiences. Education is both a natural
and a social process, wherein development of the uniqueness and individuality of the child is
considered as the very essence of education, and at the same time it plays the role of initiating
into the society, for which school prepares the individuals. Education does not refer to a single
process, but to family of processes leading to the achievement of being educated. Some of the
processes are training, instruction and learning by experiences, understanding of principles, and
logical and critical thinking.

Definitions of education would reveal three major trends. One group of definitions stresses the
spiritual emancipation of the human soul, another lays emphasis on the development
of inherent human potentialities to desirable levels, while still another group gives importance to
the social context and nature of education.

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1.4 INDIAN CONCEPT OF EDUCATION
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Some of the important views regarding education given by Indians are:

Rig Veda: According to Rig Veda, education is that which makes a man self-reliant and
selfless.
Upanishads: According to Upanishads, education is that whose end product is salvation.
Yagnvalkyas view: According toYagnvalkya, education is that which makes a man of good
character and useful for the world.
Paninis view: The famous Indian gramariyan Panini, human education means the training
which one gets from nature.
Vivekanandas view: Vivekananda says,education is the manifestation of divine perfection
already existing in man. He further says, we want that education by which character is formed,
strength of mind is increased, the intellect is expanded and by which one can stand on one's own
feet.
Vedantic view: According to vedantic point of view, the essence of man is spirituality. We
need an education that quickens, that vivifies and that kindles the urge of sprituality inherent
every mind.
Shankaracharyas view: Indian philosopher Shankaracharya says, Education is realisation of
the self.
Aurobindos view: Aurobindo opines, Education is helping the growing soul to draw out that
is in itself.
Tagores view: Tagore opines, Education means enabling the mind to find out that ultimate
truth which emancipates us from the bondage from the dust gives us the wealth, not of things
but of inner light, not of power but of love, making the truth its own and giving expression do
it. Inother words, to Tagore education are that, which makes one's life in harmony with all
existence.
Gandhis view: according to Mahatma Gandhi, by education I mean an all round drawing out
of the best in child and Man- body, mind and spirit.
University Education Commission report: in the words of University Education Commission
report, education according to the Indian traditions, is not merely means of earning a living; nor
it is only nursery of thought or a school for citizenship.It is initiation into the life of spirit,
training of man souls inthe pursuit of truth and the practice of virtue; it is a second birth divityam
janma.

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1.5 WESTERN CONCEPT OF EDUCATION

Some of the most popular views of western education thinkers are as follows:

Platos view: Platoremarks,education is the capacity to feel pleasure and pain at the right
moment. It develops in the body and in the soul of the pupil all the beauty and all the perfection
of which he is capable of.
Aristotle's view: Aristotle, the disciple of Plato said, education develops mans faculty
especially his mind so that he may be able to enjoy the contemplation of supreme truth, goodness
and beauty in which perfect happiness essentially consists. He briefly explained education as
the creation of sound mind in a sound body.
Comeniuss view: Comenius characterized education as a true forging place,i.e., education
gives a new shape to man.
Pestalozzis view: Pestalozzi speaks of education as natural, harmonious and progressive
development of man's innate powers.
Adams View: Adam, a modern English educationist defines education as a conscious and
deliberate process in whichone personalityacts upon another in order to modify the development
of the other by the communication, and manipulation of knowledge.
DeweysView: John Dewey, a famous American educationist remarks, education is the process
of living through a continuous reconstruction of experiences. It is the development of all those
capacities in the individual which will enable him to control his environment and fulfill his
possibilities.
Herberts view: Herbert opines,education is the development of good moral character.

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1.6 NARROW AND BROADER MEANING OF EDUCATION
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A. NARROW MEANING OF EDUCATION

In the narrow sense, Education is confined to Schooling and University formal instruction.
Education starts when the child enters in educational institution(school) and ends when he
completes his studies or leaves the educational institution (school, college or university). It is
limited to span of time.Thesuccess of education of the individual is evaluated in terms of passing
the examination. There are deliberate, purposeful and planned efforts on the part of the teacher to
impart knowledge. A teacher is a mature person who presents and imparts the experiences of the
whole human society. Accordingto this view education is limited to class-room teaching of the
ready material. This type of education is intentional rather than incidental. It is organised through
the consciously designed institution. It has got a definite curriculum.

Professional or technical institutions impart knowledge in specific subject to pass examination


certifying the proficiency in that subject. It is confined to classroom teaching of readymade
material and it is also confined to pre-determined specific bits of knowledge which includes only
the academic subject traditionally taught in the School.

Moreover, it is restricted to that function of the community which passes on its traditions,
cultural background, itsknowledge and its attitude to the members of the rising generation
through specialised people, instruments and methods. Accordingly, education is limited to only
a few special and specific influences.Thus in the narrower sense, education may be taken to
mean any consciously directed effort to develop and cultivate our powers.

B. BROADER MEANING OF EDUCATION

In the broader sense, education is a life-long process.It starts with conception and ends with
death i.e. it is education from womb to tomb, cradle to grave.This goes beyond schooling and
instruction. Education is life, life is education. Education begins at birth and continuous
throughout life. It is all round development of human personality.Contents of education
encompass the whole life. All life thoughtfully lived is education. It includes all instances, social,
cultural, domestic and geographical. Even the soil, climate and surroundings educate us. From
broader sense whatever broadens ourhorizens, deepens our insight, refines our reactions,
stimulates our thoughts and feelings, and educates us.

According to Dumvile, Education in its widest sense includes all the influences which act upon
an individual during his passage from the cradle to the grave. Everything which influences
human behaviour and personality is education.Education includes experiences in number of
agencies like home, school, club,cinema, press, friends, playground, workshop,travel, physical
environment, social environment and the form of government. Mark Hopkins opines, Education
in its widest sense includes everything that exerts a formative influence.

Thus, in thewider sense education is life and life is education.It is really the life that educates.
Edward Thring elaborated this point and said, Education is a transmission of life, by the living,
to the living. if we take the broader sense, even an illiterate person receives education
throughout his life. The sum total of all his experiences during life-time is education.
Lodge while supporting this view, says,In the wider sense, all experience is said to be
educative. The bite of a mosquito, the taste of watermelon, the experience of being caught in a
storm in a small boat-all such experiences have a directly educative effect on us. The child
educates his parents, the pupils educate his teacher... everything we say, think or do educates us
no less than what is said or done to us by other beings, animate or inanimate.

Thus, every stage of life has its distinctive features and problems which are attended to by
education. Thus education is scattered the whole life span and consists of the systematic
development and cultivation of the normal powers of intellect, feeling, the conduct as to render
them efficient in some particular form of Living or for life in general.
C. SYNTHESIS OF THE TWO MEANINGS
Viewed separately, these meanings of education hardly serve the desired ends. There is a need of
reconciling those two meanings. Education must include knowledge and skills along with the
factors necessary for the modification of childs behaviour and development of his personality.
Both the meanings have to play an appropriate and significant role in the education of the child.

Decidedly, education is more than schooling and instruction. Although these are it's a significant
feature. Thus to conclude, we may say that education consists of acquiring knowledge, skills
and attitudes which assist one in maintaining good health, a reasonable amount of economic
security and genuine happiness in life.We can conclude in the words of Dr.Radhakrishanan
when he says Education, to be complete must be humane, it must include not only the training
of the intellect but also the refinement of the health and the discipline of the spirit.

1.7 FORMAL, NON- FORMAL, INFORMAL AND LIFELONG


EDUCATION

Formal education
It implies planned education keeping in view some definite aims, imparted through well planned
means or formal lessons having a definite course to be covered during a definite period. The
teacher and the learner are acquainted with teaching- learning process and is organised by some
private agency or government. Starting and ending has a particular age and education is
associated with a degree or certificate. Education usually associated with some sort of mental
strain on the teacher and the taught.

Non- formal education


It implies flexibility in various aspects of education ie. admissions, place of education,
curriculum, age, co curricular activities, modes of teaching, evaluation etc. It covers lifespan of
individual.Here self-growth, self-renewal are guided by motivation of the individual. Diversified
curriculum responds to diversified environmental needs. The process of sharing, analysing and
judging with minimum participation of the learner is part time education.

Informal Education
It implies unconscious learning that takes place. There is no fixed aim, curriculum and methods
of teaching. There is no organised body or institution behind this process. It is life-long learning
and its natural outcome is observed.It is acquired without any conscious effort.
Lifelong learning
An individual learns step by step every moment, every day, every month and every year, if given
an opportunity. According to UNESCO lifelong education embraces all forms of education and
especially out-of-school education.

Features

It is self education. It has no terminal stage. It is for all and it is a cooperative affair. Television
and other mass media become important allies in the educational enterprise. Computer and
internet are expected to play a significant role in lifelong education these days.

1.8. MODERN MEANING (CONCEPT) OF EDUCATION

Modern concept of education is learner- centred. The learner occupies the central place in the
educational process. Education revolves around the learner.Teach the pupil, rather than the
subject is the watchword of modern education. The pupils not to be subordinated to an external
discipline, a rigid syllabus, centrally proposed timetable or activities suiting only to the
institution or the teacher.

The modern concept of education is a means to draw out the best in the pupil- body, mind and
spirit. It is a means to develop capacities of the learner in the social environment in the best
possible manner, wholesome, balanced and all round development of personality. In the earlier
period, education was considered as a process to thrust into the mind of the learner readymade tit
bits of knowledge, as if the mind was an empty vessel.

Generally speaking, Education is utilized in three senses: knowledge, subject and a process.
When a person achieves degree up to certain level we do not call it education. For example: if a
person we say he has secured Masters degree, then we utilise his survives based on his education.
In a very narrow sense called that the person has achieved education up to Masters Level. In the
second sense, education is considered as a discipline. For example: If a person had taken
education as a paper or as a discipline during his study in any institution then we consider
education as a subject. In the third sense, education is utilized as a process. In fact, when we use
the term education, we use it in the third sense i.e. education as a process.

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1.9 THE SCOPE OF EDUCATION

a. Meaning of the term scope


Scope means the breadth, comprehensiveness and the variety of learning experiences to be
provided in the educational process. According to the dictionary meaning, scope refers to the
extent or range of view, outlook, application, operation and effectiveness. Viewed in this sense,
education is concerned with the whole life of man. His entire life comes under the purview of
education.

b. The scope of education is very wide

The scope of education is wide, its theme is life. Education in its broader meaning is very
comprehensive. It is a dynamic force in the life of every individual, influencing his physical,
mental, emotional, social and ethical development. Education becomes the process of assisting
the individual in undergoing appropriate needed experiences and in organising those experiences
into meaning of his life activities.

As such, the scope of education is very wide and long. It is as wide as the world and as long as
the history of man on the earth.

c. John Dewey's Views


While describing the scope of education John Dewey writes the function of education is to help
the growing of a helpless young animal happy, moral and efficient human being. Man has a
nature which is basically animal, and he cannot be understood apart from the natural world out of
which he has come. Education has to fit the pupil to the environment so that he may enjoy the
pleasure of satisfying his instincts in socially approved channels.

These impressions about education and the reference towards formal and informal types of
education, the narrower and broader meanings, sufficiently depict the scope of education.

d. Education is broader than obtaining knowledge


In the words of Dr S Radhakrishnan, the human mind is a product of the struggle for existence.
It is it tool-making, food-seeking instrument which learns the right adjustment by a process of
trial and error. Its working is experimental, its devices are utilitarian and its views are tentative.
Education is thus broader than formal schooling. Education must be related to the activities of
the society in which it is found. In short, education in its wider understanding is life and includes
manners, values, morals, tastes and so on.

e. Miscellaneous views
A.S. Neill observes, I want education to produce the best that is in a child. This is the only way
to improve the world. R.S.Petres considers education as initiation.

The poet, Wordsworth saw education as the full process of growth from earliest infancy. He
believed that feeling, and the quality which feeling gives to experience, must be cherished and
retained throughout life, if men are to reach the greatness of which even ordinary people are
capable.

In all we can say that the term education refers to the following connotations:
i. Education for adaptability.
ii. Education for problem- solving.
iii. Education for creative leisure.
iv. Education for family living.
v. Education for understanding the nature of the modern world and model society.

This shows that education of the whole child is more than teaching him mere knowledge of facts,
or skills. His emotions and attitudes must be included in the total process of changing his
behaviour.

This process of modification of human behaviour calls for a close contact of education with
psychology, philosophy, science, politics, economics, religion and other social sciences. It
makes education complete. This influence is a two-way traffic.

In conclusion, we can say that education is a powerful discipline and includes within its range,
different subjects, activities and factors which influence human development. Education is a
potential medium for individual security and also a powerful force for social reconstruction. It
includes everything of human life and every aspect of social structure.

1.10 Unit Summary


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Education is as old as the human race. It is a never ending process of inner growth and
development and its period stretchs from cradle to grave. Thinkers, philosophers,
educationalists, through different periods of human civilization, have attempted to define
education and in doing so they have left the mark of their own values and philosophies on the
definitions they have coined. Education in ancient India was aimed at training of the mind as an
instrument of knowledge and the discharge of ones dharma. The contemporary Indian thinkers
linked it with the human and societal development. The western view on education has also
changed over time from it being the activities of mind experiences. Definitions of education
would reveal three major trends. One group of definitions stresses the spiritual emancipation of
the human soul, another lays emphasis on the development of inherent human potentialities to
desirable levels, while the last group gives importance to the social context and nature of
education. In the words of University Education Commission report, education according to the
Indian traditions is not merely means of earning a living; nor is it only nursery of thought or a
school for citizenship. It is initiation into the life of spirit, training of man souls in the pursuit of
truth and the practice of virtue; it is a second birth divityam janma. Narrow view: Education is
confined to schooling and instruction. It is limited to span of time. Education is confined to
Schooling and University instruction. Broader view: Education is expanded from womb to tomb,
cradle the grave. It is life-long process. This goes beyond schooling and instruction. Education is
life, life is education. Education begins at birth and continuous throughout life. It is all round
development of human personality. Contents of education encompass the whole life. Modern
concept of education is learner- centred. The learner occupies the central place in the educational
process. Education revolves around the learner.
Points to remember

It is through education that man develops his thinking and reasoning, problem solving
.and creativity, intelligence and aptitude, positive sentiments and skills, good values and
attitudes.

The word education is derived from two Latin words Educare and Educere. The first
one meaning to raise and to bring up, while the second one means to to lead forth or to
come out.

According to Rig Veda Indian concept of education is that which makes a man self-
reliant and selfless.

According to Plato, western concept of education, education is the capacity to feel


pleasure and pain at the right moment. It develops in the body and in the soul of the pupil all the
beauty and all the perfection of which he is capable of.

In the narrow sense, Education is confined to schooling and university instruction.


Education starts when the child enters in educational institution (school) and ends when he
completes his studies or leaves the educational institution (school, college or university).

In the broader sense education is confined to womb to tomb, cradle the grave. It is life-
long process. This goes beyond schooling and instruction. Education is life is education.
Education begins at birth and continuous throughout life. It is all round development of human
personality.

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1.11 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS (SELF STUDY)

1. Describe the meaning and concept of education.

2. Discuss the scope of education.

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1.12 ASSIGNMENTS
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1. The spiritual and the social mould of education are actually complimentary to each other.
Comment.

3. How education helps individual development and social progress?


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1.13 POINTS FOR DISCUSSION AND CLARIFICATION

After going through the unit, you may want to have further discussion or clarifications of some
points.

1.13.1 Points for discussion

1.13.2 Points for clarification

1.14 REFERENCES

1 Walia,J.S. (2004) Education in Indian Society,Paul Publishers.Punjab.

2. Indira Gandhi National Open University School of Education: Education and Society.

3.Aggarwal,J.C.(2013) Basic Ideas in Education,Shipra Publications. New Delhi.

4. Bhatia, K.K.; Narang,C.L. (1988) First course in principles of education, Parkash Brothers
Educational Publishers.Ludhiana.
UNIT 2 - AGENCIES OF EDUCATION : SCHOOL, FAMILY,
COMMUNITY AND MEDIA

Structure

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Objectives
2.3 Agencies of Education
2.4 Classification of Agencies of Education
2.4.1 First Classification
2.4.2 Second Classification
2.4.3. Third Classification
2.5 Family as Agency of Education
2.5.1 Educational Functions of Family
2.6 School as Agency of Education
2.6.1 Educational Functions of School
2.7 Community as Agency of Education
2.7.1 Educational Functions of Community
2.8.1 Media as Agency of Education
2.8.1 Educational Functions of Media
2.9 Unit Summary
2.10 Check Your Progress (Self Study)
2.11 Assignments
2.12 Points for Discussion and Clarification
2.13 References
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2.1 INTRODUCTION
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In the total process of education, the child is at the nucleus with its innate capabilities, interacting
simultaneously, with various agencies and enriching its experiences. For the development of the
child, these agencies perhaps act in a similar fashion as the soil, water, temperature and humidity
act for the development of a seed into sapling and then in a flowering tree.
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2.2 OBJECTIVES
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After reading this unit that the reader will be able to

Distinguish between formal and informal agencies of education.


Name the different agencies through which children learn.
Understand the concepts of various agencies of education- family, school, community and
media.
Describe the functions of various agencies of education- family, school, community and media.

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2.3 AGENCIES OF EDUCATION

The education of the child starts just after his/ her birth. Before birth, however the growth of the
child is only a biological maturational process. The first encounter of the child is with the mother
and family. This facilitates the child's learning about the outside world. The other source or the
agency of childs education is the school. In the school, the child interacts with teachers, peers
and others who may have a direct or indirect effect on his thinking and behaviour. The child's
behaviour is also affected by the community and the mass media like the television, radio and
movies. All these sources through which the child directly or indirectly receives formal or
informal education are called the agencies of education. Through all these agencies the child
develops the ethos of the culture, and values of the society. In addition, through these agencies
the child gets awareness of the world around him; develops certain attitudes towards certain
things in his environment (negative, positive or indifferent) and masters certain skills, both social
and individual, which help the individual in overall mastery of the environment and of him.
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2.4 CLASSIFICATION OF AGENCIES OF EDUCATION

2.4.1 First classification

a) Formal agencies

Formal agencies of educationare those which have a pre-determined location, time, aim, plan,
curriculum or program as well as trained instructors.

b) Informal agencies

Likefamily, playgroup, gangs and youth membership groups are those in which education is
imparted informally and unconsciously.
2.4.2 Second classification

a) Active Agencies

These agencies are those which impart education through personalinteration of the individuals.

b) Passive Agencies
In passive agencies, interaction is only one way process.These agencies influence the individual
but are not influenced by him.

2.4.3 Third classification

Brown classified agencies of education as follows

a) Formal agencies: Formal agencies are setup more or less deliberately by society as
educational institutions.

b) Informal agencies: Informal agencies are organised to meet other social needs but are
having a vital educational function. Examples of informal agencies are family, peer-group,
community, society, state.

c) Commercial agencies: Radio, television, cinema, dancing hall, theatre, news paper and
press.

d) Noncommercial agencies: NonCommercial agencies have social welfare as there


objective.

According to Payne, each of those groups of educative institutions and agencies is constantly
operative in society and exerts a definite influence in social adjustment. Each contributes to the
development of social control. They are always influencing habits, knowledge and attitudes of
the people.
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2.5 FAMILY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION
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Family is the oldest and the most important informal active agency of education. It is the original
social institution from which all other institutions are developed. Mother is rightly said to be the
first teacher of the child. The childhood is the most impressionable age just like a clean slate on
which anything can be written. Home, therefore plays the most significant role in laying the
foundations of childs personality in terms of cognitive, social, emotional and moral
development.
Important functions of family
The important functions of the family include:
Socialization
Acculturation
Sense of belongingness
Propagating religious faith
Moral learning

All these are interdependent or interrelated. Every society relies upon a number of social
institutions for the performance of one or both of the social functions:

i. To help perpetuate the societys culture.


ii. To facilitate the process of social change.
Preservation of social inheritance is the most crucial function of the family. Human life is
grounded in an organised cultural history as well as cultural transformation. The child observes
his parents; learns the moral ethos and the entire value system (good or bad).

Educational functions are related to an overall development of childs personality which


comprises of development of worthwhile knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, behaviours and
above all the educability of the child. It includes: i. intellectual development, ii. Emotional
development, iii. Social development, iv moral development, v .physical development, vi.
Cultural development, VI. Spiritual development and vii. development of personality
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2.6 SCHOOLS AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION
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The school is an active and formal agency of education. It is a specialised agency which has
become quite important in the growing complexity of cultures and civilizations.

Origin of the term school: The term school is originated from the Greek word skohle which
means leisure. The reason of associating leisure with the school is that in the ancient Greece
liberal education was not meant for the masses. It was the privilege of members of upper class of
the society to enjoy liberal education who had enough leisure at their disposal to cultivate the
higher values of culture.Which were needed for his socialization and development of
personality.Later, religious places like the temple,the mosqueor the church began to serve this
purpose. But as the society grew complex and its store of knowledge enhanced, the need of a
formal agency like school was felt. The home or family and other informal agencies of education
were found inadequate for the efficient transmission of cultural heritage of future generations.

In Ottaways view: School may be regarded as a social invention to serve society for the
specialised teaching of young.

Nunns view: The school must be thought of primary not as place oflearning where certain
knowledge is learnt but as a place where young are disciplined in a certain form of activities
namely, those that are of the greatest and most permanent significance in the wider world.
2.6.1 Educational Functions of a School
1. Complete development of the individual: School is meant for the complete development of
the individual- physical, intellectual, emotional, social, aesthetic, moral and spiritual. Through its
curricular and co-curricular activities like debates, games and sports, the school helps in the all
round development of the individual.
2. Transmission and enrichment of culture: School is the Saviour of cultural traditions. It
transmits the cultural values of the society to the pupils. Moreover, it helps in the enrichment and
modification of culture by constantly reorganizing and reconstructing human experiences. Thus
it helps in the creation of better and happier society.
3. Promotion of social efficiency: School is said to be the fountainhead of all social virtues. It is
only the mirror of society but it also puts an ideal for proper functioning of society. It promotes
social efficiency by cultivating a balanced sense of rights and duties and by providing training
for effective participation in democratic government.
4. Cultivation of higher values: Another function of school is to cultivate higher values of life
in the pupils. Morality should be developed so that students may be in a position to filter right
from wrong and virtue from vice. A sense of true appreciation of Satyam, Shivam and Sundaram
(Truth, beauty and goodness) is to be developed by the schools. In the absence of moral and
spiritual values, there would be little to prevent the world from being destroyed in catastrophic
wars. The school, if it is to be worthy of its name, must strive for higher moral and spiritual
values.
5. Post- School adjustability: In the words of Brown, the school has a direct responsibility of
preparing the individual child for post-school adjustment. The school should produce citizens,
who are physically fit, intellectually enlightened, emotionally balanced, vocationally efficient
and socially well adjusted. Post-school adjustment is very essential for the welfare of the
individual as well as of the society.
6. Imparting vocational training: Another function of school is to provide vocational training.
According to John Dewey, we send children to school to learn in systematic way the
occupations which constitutes living.The school has to impart vocational training in accordance
with the needs, abilities and aptitudes of the individual. Needs and trends of the society should
also be kept in mind. Post-school adjustability is significantly facilitated by vocational training.
7. Improving National Integration: At the present time, disintegrating forces such as
regionalism, casteism, linguisim and communalism are working towards a complete
disintegration of the country. If the nation is to be saved from complete fragmentation, it is
essential to develop a sense of national integration in all men and women.It is the function of the
school to improve National Integration.
8. Developing international understanding: Another function of the school is to develop
international understanding in the minds of the pupils. International understanding implies
respect for human rights and dignity, a sense of the solidarity of mankind, international co-
operation and to live together in peace with one another.All contemporary educationists in India,
including Sri Aurobindo, Tagore and Vivekananda has stressed the importance of creating this
feeling of internationalism in all students.
9. Training for leadership: The school should discharge the function of imparting training for
leadership. A country can make progress only if it has able leaders in the social, economic,
cultural, artistic, industrial, moral, religious and political fields. Educational institutions should
provide such leaders. Hence, one of the functions of school or college is to bring forth leaders in
various fields and to train them to perform their tasks efficiently. This can be done by providing
various types of co-curricular activities in the educational institution andencouraging students to
take part in these activities.
10. Education of the parents: Another function of the school is to educate the parents so that
they may maintain better homes. The schools functions will be incomplete if the home fails to
create favourable environment for providing physical, intellectual, emotional, social and moral
development of the child.
11. Co-ordinating various agencies of education:If a school is to be successful in discharging
its functions in the present age, it must have intimate relationship with the family on the one
hand and state government on the other. Both must give their whole- hearted support and
cooperation.
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2.7 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION
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The word community is comprised of two words Com and Munis: Com means togetherness
Munis signifies to serve. Hence the word community means to serve together.
Ogburn and Nimkoff: A community maybe thought of as the total organisation of social life
within a limited area.
The characteristics of community: Community has
1. Area, Population and heritage
2. Group of human beings
3. We- feeling.
4. Co-operation.
5. Common heritage.
6. Service institutions.

Influences of community on child:


1. Influence on physical development.
2. Influence on intellectual development.
3. Influence on social development.
4. Influence on character and moral development.
5. Influence on cultural development.
6. Influence on vocational development.
7. Influence on political ideas.
8. Influence through other agencies like radio, television, social networks,cinema, museum, zoo,
newspapers, magazines, reading rooms and libraries on the development of Children.

2.7.1 Educational functions of community:


1. Providing education: It is the responsibility of the community to arrange elementary,
secondary and University education by opening schools and colleges. It helps in bringing all
round development of their children.
2. Provisions of Universal education: community make arrangements to provide free and
compulsory and universal education to all children of the community belonging to the group 6 -
14. Thus illiteracy and ignorance can be eradicated from the community.
3. Formulation of aims: The community determines the aims of education.

4: Control on education: The community supervises and guides the educational process
followed in the school and other educational and professional institutions established by it.

5. Construction of Curriculum: Suitable curriculum is constructed for the purpose of achieving


the aims of education. Therefore, the community prepares an outline of curriculum to be
followed in a school.

6. Provision of equal opportunties for all: It is the sole responsibility of the community to
provide equal opportunity for all in the field of education. No discrimination should be made and
no restriction should be imposed by the community on the basis of caste, colour, creed, sex and
religion.

7. Provision of vocational and industrial education: There is a great demand for vocational
and industrial education in modern age. Hence, the community makes the provision for
vocational, industrial and technical education by establishing vocational, industrial and technical
schools and institutes to help the members of the community to get future employment.

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2.8. MEDIA AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION
___________________________________________________________________________

Mass media may be defined as any medium, means, an agency through which ideas, attitudes
orimpressions simultaneously communicated to a large number of people. In simple words, mass
media means the media used for the masses to communicate something.

Various mass media used in education in India are:

Radio, television, films, CCTV, SITE, INSAT Programs, multimedia packages, newspapers,
magazines, books. The 20thcentury advancements in information technology led to tremendous
revolution in communication in the shape of multimedia systems which are vital for our
understanding of the modern world.With the help of multimedia new forms of socialization and
new types of individual and collective identities are being created. The expansion of information
Technology and networks tends to encourage communication with different people within
outside the country. The media which facilitate interactive communication with different people
have wider role as an agency of education.

2.8.1 Educational functions of media:


For a learning society like India which hasa huge population, the media systems based on
modern technology constitute a very potent tool for education and development. It has varied and
numerous applications with bearing on almost all aspects of individual and social life. In one
sense, all these uses of information technology basically have their impact on educating people,
giving them knowledge, skills, improving understanding and changing their attitudes. The media
in today's world performs specific educational functions in both formal and nonformal systems.
In education media can be and is being used both at individual and mass levels of learning. Use
of information and communication technologies especially in non- formal education is becoming
one of the most important delivery system of learning society. Itsuse for distance education
appears to be an avenue of promise for every country in the world. In India, IGNOU and SIET
are launching distance education programs throughout the country.

In the formal School situations though nothing can entirely replace the face- to- face learning.
Yet we can use the media to our best advantage.The Delors commission also observes that the
new technology has created a host of new tools for use in the classroom as under:

Computers and Internet


Cable and Satellite TV education
Multimedia equipments,
Inter-active information exchange system including e-mail and on-line access to libraries and
public database.

Educational Broadcasts in India:


Radio arranges talks of experts, discussions among experts and interviews of experts.
Open University program: IGNOU broadcasts lessons on correspondence courses on television.
UGC program: UGC broadcasts programme of higherlearning in morning and in the afternoon
sessionson television in English medium.
Agriculture education: Television broadcasts information on agriculture like sowing, fertilizers,
seeds and pesticides. Similarly Doordarshan also broadcasts agriculture education.
Science programs: Railways run science express with various science programs.
Yoga education: Doordarshan broadcasts programmes on Yoga.
Educational programs for children: Radio andT.V. Broadcast educational programs for children.
SITE: It is satellite instructional television experiment. SITE programmed was launched in the
country in 1975. The in-service teacher training program was also organised and trained teachers
for science teaching.
INSAT: with the coming into operation of INSAT, live television programs are available
simultaneously in all parts of the country. INSAT is harnessed for a programmeof enrichment of
students in higher studies, enrichment of teachers, increasing agricultural production, and
restricting the population growth.INSAT programmes cover national integration, communal
harmony and secularism.

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2.9 UNIT SUMMARY
_____________________________________________________________________________

The Education of the child starts just after his/ her birth. Before birth, however the growth of
the child is only a biological maturational process. The child's behaviour is also affected by the
family,school, community and the mass media. In addition, through these agencies the child gets
awareness of the world around him; develops certain attitudes towards certain things in his
environment (negative, positive or indifferent) and masters certain skills, both social and
individual, which help the individual in overall mastery of the environment and of him.Education
is imparted consciously and intentionally.

According to Payne, each of those groups ofeducational institutions and agencies is constantly
operative in society and exerts a definite influence in social adjustment. Each contributes to the
development of social control.They are always influencing habits, knowledge and attitudes of the
people.

Family is the oldest and the most important informal active agency of education. It is the original
social institution from which all other Institutions developed.Educational functions relate to an
overall development of childs personality which comprises development of worthwhile
knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, behaviours and above all the educability of the child. The
school is an active and formal agency of education. It is a specialised agency which has become
quite important in the growing complexity of cultures and civilizations.

The word community is comprised of two words Com and Munis : Com means togetherness
Munis signifies to serve. Hence the word community means to serve together.

The characteristics of community:

Community has area, population, heritage,group of human beings,we-feeling,co-


operation,common heritage andservice institutions.Mass media may be defined as any medium,
means, advertising agency through which ideas, attitudes or impressions simultaneously
communicated to a large number of people.

For a learning society like India which hasa huge population of 1.2 billions, the media systems
based on modern technology constitute a very potent tool for education and development.

Points to remember
The first encounter the childhas iswith the mother and family. This facilitates the child's learning
about the outside world.The other source or the agency of childs education is the school. In the
school, the child interacts with teachers, peers and others who may have a direct or indirect effect
on his thinking and behaviour.

All these sources through which the child directly or indirectly receives formal or informal
education are called the agencies of education.Through all these agencies, the child develops the
ethosof the culture and values of the society.

Classification of agencies of education:

First classification:
a) Formal agencies: Those which have a pre-determined location, time, aim, plan, curriculum
or program as well as trained indicators.
b) Informal agencies: Family, playgroup, gangs and youth membership groups are those in
which education is imparted informally and unconsciously.

Second classification:

a) Active Agencies: These agencies are those which impart education through personal
interation of the individuals.In these agencies education is a two way process.

b) Passive Agencies: In passive agencies, interaction is only one way process.These agencies
influence the individual but are not influenced by him.

Third classification: Brown classified agencies of education under:


a) Formal agencies: Formal Agencies are setup more or less deliberately by society as
educational institutions.

b) Informal agencies: Informal agencies, according to brown are organised to meet other social
needs but having a vital educational function.

c) Commercial agencies: They are run for profit as business concerns.

d) Non Commercial agencies: Non commercial agencies have social welfare as their objective.

Mother is rightly said to be the first teacher of the child. Family is the first social institution
which attempts to socialize the child as a social being. Developing in the child components and
capacities is essential for future role performance.

Ottaways view: The school may be regarded as a social invention to serve society for the
specialised teaching of young.

Ogburn and Nimkoff: A community may be thought of as the total organisation of social life
within a limited area.

Educational functions of a community:1. Providing education.2. Provisions of universal


education 3. Formulation of aims 4. Control on education 5. Construction of Curriculum 6.
Provision of equality opportunity for all and 7. Provision of vocational and industrial education

In simple words, mass media means the media used for the masses to communicate
something.Various mass media used in education in India areRadio, television, films, CCTV,
SITE, INSAT Programs, multimedia packages, newspapers, magazines and books.
______________________________________________________________________________
2.10 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS( SELF STUDY)

1. What are the agencies of education? Enlist different classifications of education?

2. Explain the meaning and functions family towards education?

3. Explain the meaning and functions school towards education?

4. Explain the meaning and functions community towards education?

5. Explain the meaning and functions of media towards education?

6. Discribe the functions of various agencies of Education.

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2.11 ASSIGNMENTS
__________________________________________________________________
1. The agencies of education are complimentary to each other. Justify..

2. How do you think the agencies of education help in individual development and
. social progress?

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2.12 POINTS FOR DISCUSSION AND CLARIFICATION:
__________________________________________________________________
After going through the unit,you may want to have further discussion or clarifications of some
points.

2.12.1 Points for discussion

2.12.2 Points for clarification


2.13 REFERENCES

1. Walia, J.S. (2004) Education in Indian Society, Paul Publishers.Punjab.

2. Indira Gandhi National Open University School of Education: Education and society.

3. Aggarwal, J.C. (2013) Basic ideas in education, Shipra Publications.New Delhi.

4. Bhatia, K.K.; Narang, C.L. (1988) First course in principles of education, Parkash Brothers
Educational Publishers.Ludhiana.
UNIT-3: PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION- IDEALISM, NATURALISM,
PRAGMATISM, REALISM EXISTENTIALISM, HUMANISM,
CONSTRUCTIVISM, CONNECTIONISM.
______________________________________________________________________________

STRUCTURE

3.1.Introduction
3.2. Objectives
3.3. Basic Tenets of Idealism
3.3.1 Educational implications of Idealism
3.4. Basic tenets of naturalism:
3.4.1 Educational implications of Naturalism
3.5. Basic tenets of Pragmatism
3.5.1 Educational implications of Pragmatism
3.6. Basic tenets of Realism
3.6.1 Educational implications of Realism
3.7. Basic tenets of Existentialism
3.7.1 Educational implications of Existentialism
3.8. Basic tenets of Humanism
3.8.1 Educational implications of Humanism
3.9. Basic tenets of Constructivism
3.9.1 Educational implications of Constructivism
3.10. Basic tenets of Connectionism
3.10.1 Educational implications of Connectionism

3.11 Unit summary

3.12. Check your progress (self study)


3.13. Assignments
3.14. Points for discussion and clarification
3.15. References

____________________________________________________________________
3.1 INTRODUCTION
__________________________________________________________________________

Human quest for knowledge, inquiring new realities is a continuous process. Philosophy wants to
understand man in relation to the whole universe- nature and God. Philosophy deals with the
nature of human mind and personality and with the ways in which man and his institutions can
be understood. Philosophy is not anyones belief or point of view concerning purposes or values.
Philosophy is rigorous, disciplined, guarded analysis of the most difficult problems which man
has ever faced not just anyones point of view.

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3.2. OBJECTIVES
_________________________________________________________________________

After reading this unit, the reader will be able to:

Understand the Philosophy of Idealism and its educational implications.


Understand the Philosophy of Naturalism and its educational implications.
Understand the Philosophy of Pragmatism and its educational implications.
Understand the Philosophy of Realism and its educational implications.
Understand the Philosophy of Existentialism and its educational implications.
Understand the Philosophy of Humanism and its educational implications.
Understand the Philosophy of Constructivism and its educational implications.
Understand the Philosophy of Connectionism and its educational implications.

Different schools of thought contributed to the field of education in unique ways. Before
analysing the educational implications of general philosophy, we need to know the concepts of
Philosophy as well as Education and their inter dependence.Each one of us has a personal
philosophy which we apply consciously and unconsciously in our daily life. Each philosophy
reflects a unique view of what is good and what is important.In this sense, philosophy is the
system of belief about life.The literal meaning of Philosophy is the love of wisdom which is
derived from the Greek Word Philos (love) and Sophia (Wisdom). Wisdom does not merely
mean knowledge.It is a continuous seeking of insight into basic realities-the physical world, life,
society, knowledge and values. Education is the process of receiving or giving systematic
instruction and enlightening experience. Education and Philosophy are inseperable because the
ends of education are the ends of philosophy i.e. wisdom and the means of philosophy is also the
means of education i.e.inquiry, which alone can lead to wisdom. Philosophy is the theory while
education is the practice. Practice not guided by theory is aimless.The education system of a
nation is influenced by its philosophy and its contribution to the school setting, curriculum, role
of the teacher and nature of discipline.

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3.3 BASIC TENETS OF IDEALISM

Idealism is the oldest philosophy known to man. It is the contribution of Plato, R. Descartes,
Berkeley, Fichte, Hegel, Kant and so on rooted from the word idea or ideal.Idealists believe
that ideas are the true reality, which means ideas are connected to mind.According to them, the
human spirit is the most important element in life. Reality is reduced to one fundamental
substance-spirit. Idealism is commonly known as spiritualism. The relationship between men and
universe is spirit and mind.Idealists say that the mind is central in understanding the world.

Metaphysics: (Theory of Reality)


In short, idealism assumes the following forms:
1. Universe is a great thought process. The physical is thought made visible.
2. Matter is essentially mental or spiritual. Every atom is a psychic entity and has a life,
mind and energy.
3. Things exist and have reality only when they are perceived by our mind.

Idealism believes that idea is the reality. Mind is real. Mind, ideas, thoughts are closely related.
Mind controls everything. Universe is known through mind. The outlook of idealist is
spiritual.Matter is immaterial only idea is real.Spirit is the essence of universe. Reality is
physical, immortal and unreal, whereas spiritual is real and ultimate and eternal. Ideas are the
absolute truth. Real world consists of ideas.Idealism believes in universal mind (purnamidam).
He is the creator of all the things in this universe. The ultimate purpose of human life is
realization of universal mind or thyself.They do belive in the existence of God.Universe has been
created by God.

Epistemology (Theory of Knowledge):


Knowledge is obtained through mind and mental images which are ideas. Mind itself is the
source and storehouse of knowledge. Idealists believe in intuitive knowledge which comes
through mental revelations. Knowledge acquired through activity, creativity, and exercise of the
mind is more important than the knowledge acquired through senses.

Axiology (Theory of values):


Idealism believes in absolute, universal, permanent, eternal values i.e. truth, beauty and
goodness. Idealism does not believe in material values. The very purpose of human life is to
realize the self through these eternal values.

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3.3.1 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF IDEALISM

Aims of Education in Idealism:


1. Self realization
2. Spiritual Development
3. Universal education
4. Inculcation of higher values
5. Development of mental power
6. Preservation and enrichment of cultural heritage
7. Development of morality and character
8. Holistic development

Idealism and Curriculum:


Emphasis was on ethics, intellectual, moral, spiritual values, truth, beauty and goodness and
study of humanities like literature, art, religion, morality, history and geography so on.

Idealism and Methods of teaching:


Questioning method, conversation method, discussion method, lecture, debate, dramatics,
storytelling and imitation are methods of idealism.

Idealism and discipline:


Idealism emphasised on regulated freedom and self-discipline.Child has to develop all the inner
powers through self-discipline. It is not strict military kind of imposition but self involved
analysis, rationalized disciplinary practices. Self-discipline brings out obedience, politeness,
ethical practices, moralistic behavior, being truthful etc.

Idealism and Teacher:


Teacher occupies a very important high position, it is popularly believed as. Gurdevo devo
bhava i.e. teacher occupies the place of God. It is the moral obligation and responsibility of the
teacher to lead the child in the right direction to make a complete human personality.Teacher
guides, directs, suggests and controls the nature of the child. He is like a gardener whose
function is to carefully tend the little human plants in his charge.Teacher is expected to be high
in caliber, skills, intellect, discipline, knowledge, character and personality.

Idealism and Pupil:


Idealism believes that the child is a spiritual human being. Child is not mere physical entity it is
a soul. Pupil need to follow the teacher. Respect the teacher and need to possess obedience and
humility.

3.4 BASIC TENETS OF NATURALISM:


_____________________________________________________________________________

Naturalism is based on the assumption that nature represents the wholeness of reality. Naturalism
is in a way contrary in its belief to idealism. Idealism is spiritual in nature where as naturalism is
material in nature.

Naturalists believe that natural world is the real world. Nothing exists beyond nature. Nature is
the ultimate reality. Nature creates its own laws and is governed by its own laws. Man is an off
spring of nature. Natural man is pure and real. It does not believe that there is anything spiritual.
Its ideas are limited to the physical world.

Rousseau says man is born free and is always in chains.

Metaphysics: (Theory of reality)


Nature alone is ultimate reality.Itis ready made. Reality and nature are inseparable. Nothing is
there beyond nature. Everything is created sustained by nature. Back to nature andbreak the
chains of society are their dictum.The out look of naturalists is materialistic. Ultimate reality is
physical. All the things in this physical world are created by nature and culminated back into
nature. Man is not different from matter. They do not believe in existence of God, soul, religion,
and the devinespirit. Mind and body of man are made up of matter. Mind and matter are not
different. Both mind and body perish back into nature like any other matter.Physical and natural
laws are universal.

Epistemology: (Theory of Knowledge)


Nature is the base.Follow nature is the slogan.Naturalists highlighted the value of scientific
knowledge. Senses are the gateways of knowledge is their dictum. Knowledge comes through
senses. All matter comes into mans sensory perception. Ultimate truth can be known only
through senses. Naturalists do not believe in spiritual or transcendental knowledge. Direct
contact with nature is the true knowledge. Francis Bacon emphasizes the inductive method for
acquiring the scientific knowledge through specific observation, accumulation and generalization
and also emphasized on empirical and experimental knowledge.

Axiology: (Theory of Values)


Naturalists do not believe in absolute or ultimate values. There is no place for spiritual and
eternal values. Values are innate to nature. Conditions and needs of life create values. They
believe in natural aesthetic values. Follow the Nature is their slogan. Activity which gives
happiness is moral. Happiness is the basis of morality.

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3.4.1. EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF NATURALISM:
______________________________________________________________________________

Naturalism and Aims of education:


Emphasised on self-expression, development of individuality,adjustment to environment,
perfection of human machine, sublimation of instincts, ability to struggle,able to adjust, socially
progressive and create individuality.

Naturalism and Curriculum:

Naturalists suggested that the subjects close to the nature can be learnt through nature. They also
suggested other subjects like sciences, history, mathematics and language, agriculture, carpentry,
physical education, health training and drawing. They do not prefer conventional subjects with
conventional knowledge and habits. Naturalism does not give any place for religious education
or God. They do not believe in direct moral instruction. They believe that morals need to
beattaining through natural experience.It need to be based on need, ability,the aptitude and on the
nature of the child.

Naturalism and methods:


Naturalism has brought radical child-centered methods. It advocated all such progressive
methods of teaching. Learning by doing and learning through self-experience, play-way method,
learning through observation and experimentation, sensorial experience, direct method of
teaching, direct study of natural phenomena, Dalton method and Heuristic methods have all their
routes in Naturalism. This is a very important method. Here the child is considered as a scientist
and the environment is like a laboratory.

Naturalism and Discipline:


They believed in uncontrolled freedom and that the discipline needs to be through natural
consequences. Naturalism does not believe in conventional harsh or repressionistic discipline.
They believe in giving complete freedom with no corporal punishment.

Naturalism and Teacher:


Teachers place is behind the scene. Teacher is just an observer, stage-setter; teacher need not
interfere with childs learning.Teacher need to allow the child to learn as per his interests and
motives. As per the childs psychology, theteacher need to promote learning.Teacher need to not
provide any idea to form their character.

Naturalism and Pupil:


Here the child has full freedom and can do independently without any fear. Learn on its own as
per interests, inclinations, nature and instincts of the child.

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3.5 BASIC TENETS OF PRAGMATISM
______________________________________________________________________________

This philosophy is popularly known as indigenous American philosophy. Most of the


characteristics represent American Characteristic. It is also considered as the instrumentalism
and experimentalism. The chief exponents of this philosophy are William James, Charles
Sanders Pierce, Schiller, John Dewey and Kilpatric.The word pragma derived from Greek word
literally means action or work done. This word also means activity, engagement,
commitment, encounter.

Metaphysics (Theory of Reality):


Pragmatists believe that reality lies in the process. External world is real. Reality is still in
making process. It is not fixed.The out look of pragmatists is social. Pragmatists believe in the
existence of God to an extent.Ultimate reality is utility. Man keeps creating new things and adds
through his own creation. Universe has been created by man. It is in a constant change and in
flux. It is still unfinished product. They do not believe in eternality or static or permanent aspect
of the world. They do not believe in spirituality. They believe in physical reality, bological
reality and social reality. Human experience is the centre of reality.

Epistemology (Theory of Knowledge):


Epistemology deals with problem of knowledge and truth. According to pragmatists knowledge
based on common experience is true, genuine and worthy acquisition. It is not a product; it is a
process of various actions and activities. They believe in practical knowledge. Knowledge is
gained through the interaction with the environment. They believe that there is no difference
between knowledge and truth; both are one and the same.

Axiology (Theory ofValues):


According to this philosophy, values derive from the human condition.Because man is part of the
society, so the consequences of his actions are either good or bad according totheir results.Values
are relative. The values change as per the time, space and society. They are related to social
events and circumstances. Human experience is the determinant of values. There are no
permanent or eternal values. As per the society values keep changing. They are not pre-
determined. They are the outcome of an activity and experience.

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3.5.1 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF PRAGMATISM
_____________________________________________________________________________

Pragmatism Aims of Education:


They do not believe in fixed aims of education. They believe indynamic aims.Emphasis is on
society rather than individual. Social efficiency need to be as per the educational needs
andactions. Their emphasis was also on harmonious development of the child,development of
resourceful and enterprising mind.

Pragmatism Curriculum:
Emphasis is on practical and on utilitarian subjects.Important place to science subjects and there
is no place to cultural subjects.Important subjects are hygiene, physiology, home science,
sociology, history, geography and agriculture. There is no fixed curriculum in pragmatism.
However to achieve the aims of education, the curriculum need to be designed with the following
principles.

- Principle of utility.
- Principle of childs natural interests.
- Principle of childs experience.
- Principle of activity.
- Principle of flexibility.
- Principle of integration.

Pragmatism Methods of teaching:

Pragmatists are against bookish, traditional, readymade knowledge and passive learning.
Traditional methods need to not be adopted without really being convinced with its
utility.Learning by doing,project method and method of integration are effective.The other
important method suggested by pragmatists is experimental method. Knowledge is acquired
through the experimentation. This leads to real knowledge with authority and evidence.

Pragmatism Discipline:

Pragmatists believe in restricted discipline, social discipline. It can be reared by providing


activities through free, happy, purposeful and cooperative environment. Such activities promote
moral and character training with self reliance, independence and initiative in children.

Pragmatism and Teacher:


In Pragmatism teacherhas occupies an important place in the educative process. Teacher is like a
friend, guide and controller and mentor to the child. Teacher creates self-discipline in the
children.

Teacher is expected to be an embodiment of knowledge, intelligent, efficient and practical.


Teacher need to have the knowledge about the interests of the child. Teacher needs to maintain
good sympathetic, personal relations with the child. Teacher needs to guide and help the child to
be in right place in life. The child needs to develop social interests, ethical habits and social
attitudes in children.

Pragmatism and Pupil:


Child needs to learn as per its interest, needs and psychology. School need to create suitable
environment and pupil need to get a suitable environment to develop a personality where it gets
satisfaction ofhis needs and interests.
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3.6 BASIC TENETS OF REALISM
______________________________________________________________________________

This school of philosophy emerged as a negation and refutation to idealism. The main dictum of
Realism is I feel therefore I am in the words of Jefferson, where as Descartes says I think
therefore I am (Idealism).Realism regards that the Physical world alone is objective and the
factual world is something which can be easily accepted as it is. Central thesis of realism is
that there exists reality external to and independent of consciousness, mind or
experience.There are varied schools of realism whihch came into existence negating the
existing idealistic schools.

Metaphysics (Theory of Reality):


According to realism the essence of human life is matter and the existing world.Realism regards
the worldly realities of everyday life as true.The existing world is real and true. Existing world
is visible to man and beyond the material world is unreal.Matter is permanent possibility of
perception independent of mind and it is man- made and ultimate reality is material world. They
believe in material prosperityand comfortable living. Thus reality exists outside mind, reality is
sensible, things are identical to themselves, senses data of the real world is real and absolute.
Epistemology (Theory of Knowledge):

Central thesis of all realists is that the object of knowledge is perception. Natural sciences have
contributed to the epistemology of realism. The existing world is real, true and visible.True
knowledge comes through the senses. Sences are the doors of knowledge.Psychology and
philosophy have enriched realists understanding process which involves perception, memory and
higher cognitive processes. Also they believe in scientific knowledge and experimental
knowledge through senses.

Axiology (Theory of Values):


Realism believes in the material-oriented world.Man is born out of matter. He is supreme. He is
the maker of destiny.Therefore realism does not believe in those values, ideals, rules and
principles which do not provide material prosperity and comforts to man. The dictum of realists
is to love all beauty and to hate all violence. They believe humanity as a criterion of value in
education. They believe in cultural values, generality, liberality and humanity as basis of values.

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3.6.1 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF REALISM
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Realism andAims of education:


It needs to aim at development of certain attributes, habits, skills, and sentiments andattitudes of
mind. In realism development of complete man, preparation for happy life, development and
training of senses to promote self discipline are main focus.The emphasis was also on rich
present life, adjustment with physical and social environment and attainment of happiness and
promotion of welfare of society.

Realism and Curriculum:


The emphasis was on practical and utilitarian science subjects like physics, chemistry, biology,
astrology and vocational education. They also they also emphasised on mother tongue and on
introduction of subjects like mathematics, economics, political science history and geography.

Realism and Methods of Teaching:


It is based on inductive method, learning by travelling, observation and learning by experience
and technique of correlation. Its basis is in maxims of teaching like simple to complex, concrete
to abstract, empirical to rational, psychological to logical,symposia method, lecture method,
discussion method anddemonstration method.

Realism and discipline:


It advocates self-directed discipline, restricted freedom.Especially when scientific out look in
learning is promoted; child starts its own mechanism of going by systematic way and following
basic rules and principles to understand them realistically. The environment, and men and things
themselves will create an order and emulate discipline on their own.

Realism and Teacher:


The teacher has an important place in the education process. The teacher needs to present the
facts in the real form in an intelligent manner.He is not expected to add anything of his own. He
needs toprovide opportunities for observation and experimentation.Teacher needs to help the
child to create a realistic environment of direct experiences. The role of teacher is reasonably
minimal. Contemporary and relevant knowledge is to be acquired by the teacher from time to
time to transfer the same to the child.

Realism and Student:


Child is an organismic whole with the necessary mental make up to understand the world around.
He needs to take challenge in learning things on his/her own through direct contact of world of
real things. He needs to derive happiness out of learning. Learningis expected to lead to
appreciation of critical appraisal and scientific methods.

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3.7 BASIC TENETS OF EXISTENTIALISM
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Existentialism is a philosophical theory or approach which emphasizes the existence of the


individual person as a free and responsible agent determining own development through acts of
the will.According to existentialists, philosophy is not searching for truth but a trail of truth. The
principle themes of existentialists were dim and murky with anxiety, despair, death and
alienation, which dominate the philosophy. There are a lot of contradictions and inconsistencies
in their thought. It is not a philosophy as Idealism but it is more than a literary cult.The question
of the nature of existence or being is a long time debate from the birth of western philosophy.
Many speculative systems of metaphysics came to light, and they reduced man to an abstraction.
An existentialist does not take up the problems of abstraction and essence, but deals with the
problems of any existence in this world.

The term existentialism is derived from two German words ex, sistent, which means, stands
out, that which emerges, i.e. which emerges out of problems of life. Marcel feels that existential
philosophy is a counsellor in crisis.
1. The centre of existence is man rather than truth, laws, principles, or essence. Man is
characterised by decisions, will and choice.
2. Man is not alone in the world. He cannot live in isolation. Life is a gift to live with others.
3. Man is unique in nature having emotions, feelings, perceptions and thinking. Man creates
meaning to his life. Man is responsible for his future. And he is the maker of his own destiny.
4. This philosophy does not believe in accepting readymade concepts forced upon him.
Each individual is his own centre, and the world centres in him. He gives meaning to life and
living passionately and sincerely. It is not society or religion which is responsible for the
meaning (Kierkegaard). It is a philosophy of irrationalism which stressed the dimensions of
instinct, feeling and will over and against reason. Socrates had raised a voice for protection of
individuality of the human. Kierkegaard has only re-established the ideas of Socrates.
Kierkegaards basic ideas are as below:

1. Truth is introvert and subjective.


2. Existence of individuality is reliable and it comes prior to thinking.
3. Existentialists emphasize the meaning and the nature of subjectivity.
4. Existential self-experience is necessary.

Kierkegaard came out with his philosophy as protest against Hegelian philosophy on the culture
of the West. He was against his times industrialized society and institutionalism in particular of
the church, which was against individuality, direct studies. He has suggested studying existence
directly.Know you was Socrates admonition. The unexamined life is not worth living.
Existentialism is not a systematic thought but is an approach to philosophy. On the whole
existentialists believe that instead of being helpless, and dependant, one can make himself what
he wills himself to be. Man is nothing other than what he makes himself.
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3.7.1. EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF EXISTENTIALISM
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Existentialism and Aims of education


1. Education has two aims authentic freedom of man and individual differences among people. Non
conformity is the only accepted goal of the educative process. Existentialism is a protest against
individual being reduced to number, mass society, mass religion, mass education and mass
communication. It does not tell how to change the character of society. The important thing is
not what happens to a man but how he chooses to meet it.
2. Education can only be a product of his own choosing. There is also the promise that a man can
become educated- even in spite of the school. Existentialism advocates lived reality not only
known reality.
3. Existentialism is unfolding of the individual as a whole in the situation in which he finds himself
as to take him where one is.
4. The aim of education is to make student aware of the meaning of homelessness, of being at home
and of the way returning. Existentialism is concerned with liberal education. Self is the subject of
its enquiry. The ends of education are both fixed and relative. It advocates that education should
aim at the development of unique qualities, to harness his potentialities and cultivate his
individualities.

Existentialism and Curriculum


Existentialists do not believe in prescriptive curriculum. It need to be based on childs needs and
abilities, related to immediate social, political and economic and related problems of the child.
It is not to be examination-oriented; instead it needs to be appropriate to the student. Curriculum
need to not lay stress on mere studying of the subjects, but needs to emphasize on living,
enacting and experiencing the values related and present in the subject.

More emphasis is laid on subjects of humanistic studies. Humanities enable the child to learn
about the human suffering, anguish, anxiety and death. This makes the child to look into ones
own life. Humanities also represent subjective knowledge. It is helpful to acquire self-
knowledge. Such self knowledge will lead to acquire universal knowledge.

The curriculum could be: child-centric, utilitarian, elective-based and realistic. It needs to
include literature, art, music and athletics.

Existentialism and Methods of teaching:


1. When teaching is understood as instruction, the teacher is devalued into a means for the
transfer of knowledge and the pupil is devalued into the product of this transfer.
2. Existentialist teacher presents different views and offers the pupilwhat he believes to be the
best view.
3. Existentialist does not want that the teacher to be successful but that he be honest. There is
mutual trust. Trust breeds trust in return. The debate or discussions or statements made by many
thinkers throughout history are to be encouraged.
4. There are 3 habits of mind, which the teachers need to keep eye on: discipline, criticism and
fertility. The students progress is to be judged by his sense of order, his openness to controversy
and his ability to originate ideas.
5. Some existentialists prefer Socratic Methodof transaction of knowledge as a model.

Existentialism and Teacher

Teacher needs to desist from labeling any child or abuse with objectionable words. Child needs
to be evaluated positively looking into all the dimensions. Teacher is the foreground and is the
centre of attention. Teacher need to foster individual growth.
Teachers need todesist from imposing their ideas, ideals, and values on children. Teachers need
to allow the children to think about the problems of life and make them think critically and
understand the meaning and purpose of existence. Teachers need to be sympathetic to the child
who has rebellious nature. Teacher needs todesist from thinking about children as problem
children. Instead the teacher needs tofocus on problem children by entering their emotional life
and expressing concern.

Existentialism and Discipline


Freedom is central to existentialism. Freedom to cultivate their experiences in the free
atmosphere needs to be there. Children need not conform to anybody. Child has its own personal
choice and values of its own. No restriction need to be laid from outside. Instead a child needs to
realize its own responsibility and act. It is not uncontrolled without limits. As the situation
changes their choice also changes. Sarte believed that Man is wholly free. Democratic ideals
need to be practiced in the school.
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3.8 BASIC TENETS OF HUMANISM
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The word Humanism is derived from the word humaniora which means study of human body
and surrounding nature. According to Lemon,Humanism isa philosophy of joyous service for
the greater good of all humanity in this natural world and according to the methods of reason and
democracy.

Humanism is a very old philosophy. It has been interpreted in various ways, such as -a
reasonable balance in life, vivid interest in all sides of life, freedom from religiosity and
responsiveness to all human passions. Humanism is a philosophy which holds that man is the
centre and is a measure of human activities, human problems and of universe also.

Humanism has been explained in the different ways by different philosophers:


Humanism is focus on service for the greater good of all humanity.It is a faith in all humanity
and in science as a means of attaining truth. It is quest for ethical and spiritual values of life.
Humanism raises man to his greatest height and gives him greatest satisfaction. Itfocuses on
proper adjustment in life. Itprovides for religious freedom. It is that philosophy which asserts that
man is the centre and measure of all activities in the world. He is the maker and the master of his
destiny. Humanism implies both human and humane approach to educational problems.The
purpose of Humanism is to establish national and international democracy in order that
permanent peace may be established in the world. Humanism is also called human welfarism.

Principal postulates of Humanism:


1. Humanism does not believe in supernaturalism. It regards nature as a system of constantly
changing events. Hence the universe exists independently of any mind.
2. Humanism believes in science and thinks that man being a product of nature is a part of it.
Mans body and personality are inseparable and man does not survive after death.
3. Humanism considers that human thinking is a result of the interaction between the complex
living organism and the environment.
4. Humanism thinks that man is a competent to solve all his problems on the basis of his own
reason and scientific method.
5. Humanism believes that man is the maker and master of his own destiny.
6. Humanism thinks that mans happiness lies in this world. For the achievement of this
happiness, man need to be made free in this world to progress culturally, economically and
ethically.
7. Humanism wants to make man free to have the highest aesthetic experience of art and beauty.
8. Humanism stands for national and international democracy in order to establish an everlasting
peace in the world.

The above eight points may be regarded in a nutshell what Humanism stands for today.The
central ethic of humanism is to serve ones fellow men. Humanism may be regarded as human-
being- ism. It believes in the interests of human beings. It does not tolerate any kind of
discrimination against any race, community or nature.Modern Humanism stands for
cosmopolitanism, international friendship and essential brotherhood of man.

The Universe of nature:

According to humanism, this mighty and abundant nature is our home. All marvels of life are
produced by nature. We are sustained by nature.This earth has to be accepted as good. It is here
that we can experience all worth-while and happy existence of humanity. Men on this earth may
possess all glories of art, culture and science. This life,earth and nature have to be accepted as
enough.

The conception of man:


Humanism holds that man is not an alien in this world. Today man is displaying an increasing
control over the brute forces of nature. He can even foresee some of the cataclysms that usually
took him by surprise in the past.

The concept of mind:


To Humanism, mind is a function. Human thinking is as natural as walking or breathing, and it is
indivisibly conjoined with the functioning of the brain.

Human freedom:
The reality of human freedom has to be assumed. It is necessarily grounded in natural processes.
It can prefer one thing to another and can adapt itself to all things.In fact freedom comes out as a
result of these qualities of preference and adaptability.

Ethics of Humanism:
Humanism empathetically accepts joys and beauties, the braveries and idealism of existence of
this earth. It believes in the beauty of love and the love of beauty. No human act is good or bad
by itself. Its goodness or badness is to be judged in terms of its result for the individual and
Society. Thus he draws his guiding principles from human experience and wants to test them in
human experience. Human happiness today is just as important as tomorrow and the current year
is as important as any 20 years after.
Humanism stands for modification and socialization of human motives. Hence human nature has
to be reconditioned and reshaped.This is possible because human nature is essentially flexible
and educable. The reconditioning and reshaping of human nature need to take continuously
through out the whole i.e., from birth till old age. Reconditioning, reshaping and transformation
of human nature has to be directed towards the good of the individual and society.

Humanism and democracy:

Humanism stands for the widest possible application of democracy to all relevant aspects of
human life. Humanism wants people to rule themselves according to the principles of democratic
government. The people need to be able to outline their own pattern of freedom, happiness and
progress. Humanism thinks that democracy is of permanent validity for mankind. Democracy has
not to be thought of in terms of political democracy alone. It must include within its purview, the
social, economic religious, philosophical, educational and various other aspects of human life.
Complete and true humanism implies a real fullfledged humanism.

Dangers to humanism

The following are the threats or dangers to humanism:


1. Terrorism, 2. Dictatorship, 3. Political Slavery, 4.Capitalism, 5. Communism,6 Elitism,7.
Heroism, 8.Fascism, 9. Regarding only one religion as the basis of all religions, 10. Disregard for
otherfaiths and social orders,11. Social Justice and 12.Humanism itself.
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3.8.1 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF HUMANISM
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Humanism and aims of education:


1. Liberation of mind
2. Human perfection
3. Mans happiness and material abundance.
4. Welfare of total humanity.

Humanism and curriculum:


Florian classified all subjects of instruction into 3 groups
i. relation of man to nature,ii. relation of man to himself and3. relation of man to other man other
men.The subjects included in all branches of mathematics, physics, chemistry, astronomy and
natural history, applied sciences for the first group, Latin, French and Italian, grammar, logic,
rhetoric, poetry, drawing, music and exercise for the second group and history, ancient and
modern politics, economics and biography for the third group. Humanism is the quest for Ethical
spiritual and practical values of life through philosophy, science, arts and literature.

Humanism and methods of teaching:


Direct method, method of understanding and reproduction, debate and discussion method.
Humanism and discipline:
Humanists believed in discipline of kindness.Humanists emphasized dignity of the individual
and revolted against rigorous punishment. They had great sympathy for the child. They believed
that the child need not be suppressed by authority. Discipline need to be self imposed. It need to
from within.

Humanism and teacher:


Teacher need to have the ability to understand, to direct, to stimulate and to guide the child. He
need to be endowed with insight and imagination, intuition and sympathy, clarity and wisdom,
all aroundand balanced personality.

Implications of modern humanism for education:


According to the ethics of humanism, schools, colleges, universities and research institutions will
benefit greatly from the enlarged financial resources of the state, because these units of the
society will be regarded as centres from which will flow all that is good and needed for the good
of mankind. Due facilities will be made available for the advancement of all individuals
irrespective of caste, colour, creed and sex, rich and poor, high and low, dull and brilliant. Ethics
will be included in the curriculum in order to help the youth to imbibe broad. Humanist attitudes
imply loyalty to the social group and to mankind. The teaching of science and scientific method
will be greatly emphasised. The students will be taught to learn how to think rather than to
memorize individual facts. There will be no opposition between Science and humanities. Both
will receive due attention without excluding any. In the humanistic educational program an
attempt will be made to spread in the people a fundamental awareness of literature and art so that
they may be able to appreciate and imbibe the good and beautiful in life.
The administration of all types of schools, colleges and other education institutions will be
governed according to democratic principles. There will be academic freedom to all. Teachers
and students will be free to establish and join organisations of their choice.There will be freedom
of thought in all educational institutions.
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3.9 BASIC TENETS OF CONSTRUCTIVISM
_____________________________________________________________________________
Humans construct all knowledge in the minds by participating in certain experiences. Learning
occurs when one constructs both mechanism for learning and his or her own unique versions of
the knowledge, coloured by background experiences and aptitudes.

Constructivism
Knowledge is constructed, not transmitted, students do activities that help them to generate
own ideas.
Directed instruction is teacher centred, hands on instruction is students centre.

Types of constructivism:
Various models, theories or approaches to constructivism have evolved. But all of them share
some common Core. The core characteristics of constructivism are as follows:
Knowledge is constructed rather than transmitted or aquired.
Knowledge construction takes place through the process of reflective thinking and reflective
abstraction.
Learning process or construction of knowledge is facilitated by learners cognitive structure.
Learners cognitive structures continuously develop.
Construction of knowledge or learning needs constructivistsmethod and pedagogy of
learning.

Cognitive constructivism:
Jean Piaget Research and finding is the basis of this constructivism. It discusses about the
cognitive structure of an individual and its development process. Cognitive constructivism is
about development, acquisition and construction of knowledge in the light of cognitive structure.
It is the basis of cognitive psychology and discusses the mechanism of construction and
reconstruction of cognitive structure which develops and individuals cognitive abilities and
influences the whole personality. Cognitive constructivism accepts intellectual structures as
individually constructed approaches and puts emphasis on individual meaning- made. In
cognitive constructivism, learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas and
concepts based on their current and past knowledge. This involves assimilation, accommodation,
equilibration and adaptation. Through these processes individuals drive their own meaning and
construct knowledge which is unique to them.

Social constructivism:

Social constructivism accepts that there are two parts of knowledge, individual and society.
These two cannot be seen dependently and influence each other. Social constructivism can be
divided into two approaches: 1. Situated cognition and 2. Socio- cultural cognition.

1. Situated cognition

It highlights the importance of meaningful, integrated learning in the context of environment and
believes that knowledge is always constructed within a certain social setting. Situated cognition
advocates that transmission of knowledge by an individual is done in the context of social
environment.Both the individual and environment change as a result of interaction.It focuses on
meaningful integrated teaching- learning and requires that learning tasks be developed in such a
way that it contains a variety of subject areas and their social context.

2. Socio-cultural cognition.
Socio cultural cognition is based on the metaphor, the mind as game player and strategies. It
admits social interaction and its socialcultural context and essential. It involves designed social
activities, apprenticeship, participation, and involvement of students in the learning process to
develop mastery in the desired of content. This is typical of informal learning and craft
apprenticeship and is relevant to formal education system too.

Cultural constructivism:
Culture is the prime determinant of individual development( vygotsky) . All new learning is
based on previous learning which includes various concepts of the concerned subjects such as
biological concepts. In addition to this, it also includes culturally dependent assumptions about
what the world ultimately looks like. This is called world view and according to cultural
constructivism, learning is influenced byworld viewl.In day- to-day life, different people
observing the same event report it differently. This difference is because of the different
worldview or perspective.

Radical constructivism:
This constructivism belives in the philosophy that all human knowledge does not lie outside the
knower. Everything, which can be known, is formed by the observer.

Cybernetic constructivism:
Cybernetics of self- organisation presents another kind of constructuctivism, which is called
cybernetic constructivism.This is based on the concept of autopoiesis ( self- formation) which
was formulated by the Chilean cell- biologists Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela(1980,
1987). An autopoetic (self-l formation) system is defined as a system which is organised as a
network of processes of production (transformation and destruction) of components that
produces the components (i) through the interactions and transformations continuously re-
generate and realise the network of processes (relation) that produced them;(ii) constitute it as a
concrete unity in space which they ( the components) exist by specifying the topological domains
of its realisation as such a network.

Constructivist learning design:


The constructivist learning design emphasizes the following 6 important elements in the process
of teaching and learning
1. Developing a situation: the teacher has to develop the conditions and setting for students,
facilitating the process of their learning.
2. Grouping: the teacher has to select a process for grouping of students and learning materials.
3. Bridging: the teacher has to develop a bridge between what the students already know and
what the teachers wants them to learn.
4. Questioning: the teacher needs to anticipate questions from students and needs to be prepared
accordingly. He needs to use questioning skill very intelligently.
5. Exhibiting: the teacher needs to encourage students to record the sequence and content of their
thoughts. He needs to encourage sharing of this record.
6. Reflecting: the teacher has to solicit reflection of students on their learning.

The National Curriculum Framework 2005 has proposed by NCERT Indiafocuses the following
issues:
1. Connecting knowledge to life outside
2. Shift from rote learning to constructing knowledge
3. Providing wide range of experience for overall development of a child.
4. Bringing flexibility in the examination.
In constructivism all learners need to construct their own knowledge and understanding.
Educational psychologists such as Jean piaget, Eleanor, George Hein and Horward Gardner have
explored these ideas in depth.
Five Es of constructivism: The principal investigator of biological science curriculum studies,
Roza Bybee, developed an instructional model for constructivism which is called the Five Esas
follows
1. Engage: The students first encounter and identify the instructional task. The learners are
supposed to make a link between their previous experiences and the present one they are
learning. Foundation is laid down in educational institutions for the activities and students are
stimulated to get involved in theselearning activities. This is done through questioning, creating a
problem, defining a problem, showing a surprising event and acting out a problematic condition.
2. Explore: Learners get directly involved with the phenomena and materials. As a result of this
they get field experience of the phenomenon. Each student in the team builds a base of common
experience developed as a result of sharing and communication among themselves. The teacher
acts as facilitator, guide, material provider and stage setter. The inquiry process of students
drives the instruction during exploration.
3. Explain: Explanation is multidirectional. This explanation may be at a personal level of
student, between two students, among the groupmembers, and finally the students explain the
phenomina to the facilitator who then explains in his own words with relevant and appropriate
technical terminology. For instance, a child, through his exploration, maystate that she has
noticed that magnet has a tendency to stick to certain metallic object. The facilitator, in his
discussion with the child, at this stage introduced the concept of magnetism as an attracting
force.
4. Elaborate: At this stage students make connections among various related concepts which they
had learnt in the past, and apply their understanding to the present world around them. In this
way, the students expand or elaborate the concepts they are presently learning, with those that
they have learnt in the past. They make connections oftenleading to further inquiry and new
understanding.
5. Evaluate: It allows the teacher to determine whether the learner has attained the desired level
of knowledge and understanding of the concepts. It is a diagnostic process for checking the
learning. It can occur at all points along the continuum of the instructional process. Some of the
important tools that can be used for this purpose are: rubrics that are determined hand-in-hand
with the lesson designs, observation schedule, checklist, and student interviews, portfolio
designed with specific purposes, project and problem- based assignments and learning products.
Evaluation gives the evidence of learning and serves to guide the teacher in further lesson
planning and for modification and change of direction.If a teacher perceives clear evidence of
misconception, then he can revisit the concept to enhance clearer understanding. If a student
shows profound interest in a branching direction of inquiry, the teacher can consider refocusing
the investigation to take the advantage of this high level of interest and motivation.
The continuous process evaluation gives the constructivist approach a cyclic structure. The
learning process is open - ended and open to change. There are an ongoing loop based questions
that lead to answers. But more questions and instructions are driven by both predetermined
lesson design and inquiry process.

Constructivist classroom
A constructivist classroom must have the following characteristics:
It needs tobe always a very interactive class. The interaction between teacher and students,
between two groups of students, and among various students must be encouraged in a healthy
environment and in a much disciplined manner.
The activeness of the teacher and students need to be balanced with neither of them being extra
active or extra passive.
The nature of classroom need to beknowledge sharing between the teacher and student, rather
thanknowledge imparting by the teacher to the students.
For proper class conduct and demonstration, the responsibilities must be shared among students
and teachers.
The size of the class needs to be preferably small.
There needs to be heterogeneous group in the class, which carries the concept of inclusive
education with it. A heterogeneous group will bring in more diverse ideas to the class and gives
the opportunity for constructive discussions among them.
It needs to create real-world environment that employs the context in which learning is relevant.
It needs to provide hands- on- experience to the learners.
All students need to feel the thirst for knowledge. They must be motivated to ask questions and
give responses. The students need to have the confidence to put across their ideas to the teacher
and to their classmates, without any hesitation of being irrelevant.
The classroom focus needs to be on realistic approach to solve real- world problems.
Instuctional goals and objectives need to be negotiated and not imposed.
Evaluation needs to serve as a self-analysis tool.
Classroom environment needs to be such that it helps learners interpret the multiple perspectives
of the world.

A constructivist teacher:
A constructivist teacher must have the following characteristics in his or her personality.
He/ she needs to have good subject knowledge, as is required in the conventional teaching
approach.
In addition to having good knowledge of his/ her subject, needs to also have an understanding of
other subjects that have correlation. Biology teacher, in addition to command in biology, needs
to have a considerable level of understanding of chemistry, physics, statistics, mathematics,
geography and environement.
Teachers need to correlate topics of they teach with other subjects of students choice. As the
choices of students are diverse, the teacher needs to have high potential to relate his or her
subject with most of the subjects taught in the school.
The teacher must relate the teaching content with the real environment, nature and society- that
which the students observe or encounter in their daily lives. It is the extension of learning beyond
theclass and the school.
The teacher needs to act as a guide and facilitator instruction, depending on the knowledge level
of the students.
In a constructivist model it is very important to know the previous knowledge and understanding
of the students. Students use previous knowledge to make sense of the new knowledge being
constructed.This helps pupils think critically and make informed decisions. The teacher needs to
be perfect in the skill of testing previous knowledge, eliciting students thought process and
bringing their misconception to be surface so that it can be reconstructed.
A constructivist teacher needs to becomeprime resource centre for students not just theprimary
source of information.
He needs to engage the students in experiences that challenge the conceptions of their existing
knowledge. This will help the teacher to identify students misconceptions and provide an
opportunity to rebuild them.
The teacher needs to give individual attention to all students in the class.
The teacher needs to encourage and insist that the students express their ideas without any
hesitation.
The teacher needs to allow students responses to lead lessons and support elaboration of
students initial responses.
The pupils ideas need to be sought by the teacher before presenting his own, or before studying
ideas from textbooks or other sources.
The teachers need to encourage studentsto challenge, enjoy each others conceptualization of
ideas in a very healthy environment and with the attitude of learning to learn more
The students need to be given time to think after questions are posed to them.
The spirit of questioning needs to be encouraged by asking thoughtful, open- ended questions
and becreative when framing tasks.
Student leadership, collaboration, location of information and taking action as a result of the
learning process needs to be promoted.
The teacher needs to encourage pupils autonomy and initiative.

3.10 Connectionism
Connectionism is an innovative theory about how the mind works, and it is based on the way the
brain and its neurons work. According to the theory, although each of our individual neurons has
very little computational power on its own, they have tremendous computational power when
organized in combination with one another.
Understanding the way we learn is an age old problem in psychology and according to
McClelland, questions surrounding learning motivate the connectionist position. The old-
fashioned, artificial intelligence (AI) model of learning stated that, since our brains are structured
in a particular way, from the day we are born, our thoughts must be pre-structured in particular
ways too. For example human language, it was argued, is pre-specified in our
genes. Unfortunately, McClelland argues, this AI approach does not take into consideration that
the way we talk and interact is shaped by our experiences and the things weve learned.
McClelland explains that connectionism became prominent in the early 1980s when scientists
began making better computer models of neurons and way neurons work together in
systems. The connectionist theory of learning is that neurons are interconnected, and when
neurons change connections the brain system learns.
McClelland agrees that connectionism is a modern version of associationism with one key
distinction. Associationism is the theory that associations are formed in our minds when two
events occur together; we learn by contiguity, and when something new happens we understand
it by generalizing and approximating according to our previous association. According to
McClelland, the weakness in the associationist argument is the fact that it doesnt account for
how we learn to re-associate events in our minds. We dont just approximate to understand new
information, we learn new information. The connectionist system learns by adjusting the
connections between neurons.
Connectionism in its most generic sense describes theories that postulate interconnected
networks of simple neuron-like information-processing elements (often called nodes) with
modifiable interconnections (often called weights) to explain cognitive processes or their
implementation. The neural network simulations consist of presenting a network with data in
order to have the network modify the connections between the processing elements in such a
way as to enable a network to compute a desired function.

3.11 Unit Summary:


Idealism is rooted in the word idea or ideal. Here ideas are real. Mind is the source and store
house of knowledge. Idealists believe in absolute and permanent values. Idealistic education
nurtures a child with character and personality.

Naturalists believe in the natural world as real. Nature of man is pure. By birth children are
innocent. Understanding and considering the nature of the children is important while planning
education.

Pragmatism means an action or work done. They believe that the education is for social &
economic efficiency.Education is a continuous reconstruction of experiences.

Realism has emerged as a negation and refutation to idealism. The central theme of realism is
that there exists reality external to and independent of consciousness or mind or experience.

Existentialism is profoundly in German Philosophy. It is based on three basic concepts that is


existence proceeds essence, contingency of human life and views of man (free will vs.
determinism). It looks for freedom and caters to individual differences in education.

Humanism is a very old philosophy. It has been interpreted in various ways, such as -a
reasonable balance in life, vivid interest in all sides of life, freedom from religiosity,
responsiveness to all human passions. It is a philosophy which holds that man is the centre and
measure of all activities.

Constructionism is a philosophy that humans construct all knowledge in the mind by


participating in certain experiences. Learning occurs when one constructs both mechanism for
learning and his or her own unique versions of the knowledge, coloured by background
experiences and aptitudes.

The connectionist theory of learning is that neurons are interconnected, and when neurons
change connections the brain system learns.

Points to remember:
Idealism is commonly known as spiritualism. It is about the relationship between men and
universe, spiritand mind. Ideal school and teacher are required for the personality development
of the child.
Rousseau says man is born free and is always in chains which suggests naturalistic process i.e.,
follow the nature. Naturalists believe in poi do-centric education.
Pragmatism believes in external world as real and that relative values are real. Pragmatism is
focused on child centered methods and is practical in nature.
Realism is a refutation of idealism.
Existentialism believes existence as real. Electives are the contribution of existentialism.
Humanism is a philosophy with a definite concept of man, human problems and universe.
Humanism does not believe in supernaturalism. It regards nature as a system of constantly
changing events. Hence the universe exists independently of any mind.

3.12 Check your progress (self study)

1. What is the contribution made by naturalism to education? Explain.


2. How do you think pragmatism is very relevant to the modern times educational practices?
Discuss.
3. Write about the contribution of realism to education with suitable examples
4. How do you think existentialism is different from other schools of philosophy? Discuss.
5. Discuss in detail about humanism, constructivism, and connectionism.

3.13 Assignments
1. How do you think idealism is different from other schools of philosophy? Discuss
2. Write a brief note on the important watch words of naturalism
3. Write about the educational implications of different schools of thought.

3.14 Points for discussion and clarification:

After going through the unit, you may want to have further discussion or clarifications of some
points.

3.14.1. Points for discussion

3.14.2. Points for clarification


3.15. References

1. Walia, Dr.J.S. (2004) Education in Indian Society, Paul Publishers. Punjab.


2. Indira Gandhi National Open University, School of Education, Education And society.
3. Aggarwal, J.C.(2013) Basic ideas in education. Shipra Publishers). New Delhi.
4. Bhatia, K.K. and Narang,C.L. (1988) First course in principles of education, Parkash Brothers
Educational Publishers.Ludhiana.
3. Chaube S.P., and Chaube A.,(1994) Foundations of Education, Vikas Publishing House Pvt
Ltd. New Delhi.
4. Mrunalini.T (2008) Philosophical Foundations of Education, Neel Kamal Publications Pvt.
Ltd.Hyderabad.
5. Acharya Nagarjuna University ,M.Ed.(D.M.) Material.
UNIT- 4: CLASSICALINDIANPERSPECTIVES BUDHISM, JAINISM,
VEDANTA DARSHAN, SANKYA DARSHAN

STRUCTURE

4.1. Introduction
4.2. Objectives
4.3. Basic Tenets of Budhism and educational implications of Budhism
4.4. Basic tenets of Jainism and educational implications of Jainism
4.5. Basic tenets of Vedanta Darshan and educational implications of Vedanta
Darshan
4.6. Basic tenets of Sankya Darshan and educational implications of Sankya
Darshan
4.7. Unit summary
4. 8.Check your progress (self study)
4.9. Assignments
4.10. Points for discussion and clarification
4.11. References

4.1. INTRODUCTION

The origin of classical Indian philosophical perspectives may be traced to the Vedas. Diversities
in this world are only manifestation of Supreme Brahma. He is the cause of origin, existence and
destruction of this world. As per Sankya philosophy, the domain knowledge pertains to the
knowledge about the body, soul, matter and spirit. It has enumerated 25 elements. Salvation is
possible only after attaining knowledge of the 25 elements.Buddha says freedom from worldly
fabrication provides the salvation. Vardhamana Mahaveera says that the world is made of spirit
and matter. There is no proof of existence of god.

4.2. OBJECTIVES:

After reading this unit, the reader will be able to:

Understand the philosophy of Budhism and its educational implications.


Understand the philosophyof Jainism and its educational implications.
Understand the philosophy ofVedanta Darshan and its educational implications.
Understand the philosophy of Sankya Darshan and its educational implications.

4.3. BASIC TENETS OF BUDHISM:


Buddha was very sensitive representative of humanism.His thoughts can be traced to his first
time experiences of disease, old age and death. With this he concluded that world is full of
suffering. These experiences made him restless. He went out in search of the cause for suffering
and the means to overcome the same. He propagated his philosophy through his teachings which
were essentially conversations. The followers of Lord Buddha made the collection of his
preachings 100 years after his death. This collection is known as Tripitikas. They were written in
Pali.

Tripitikas are:

1. Vinaya pitaka: is about conduct or behaviour for congregation (sangha).

2. Sutta pitaka: covers religious sermons, dialogues and examples.

3. Abhidhamma pitaka: contains descriptions of the main preachings of Lord Buddha and his
philosophical thought.After Nirvana of Lord Budha, due to differences in the perceptions and
views of disciples 2 schools of thought were formed out of Buddhism i.e Hinayana and
Mahayana.

4.3.1. Teachings of Budha

Four noble truths

1. Life is full of suffering:

There is suffering. Life is full of sorrows, sufferings and mental anguish. The sights of suffering
which upset the mind of young Siddharta included disease, old age and death. Attachments
towards birth, old age, disease, death, sorrow, grief, wish, dispair, gain of unwanted things and
loss of wanted things cause misery.

2. Cause of suffering:

There is cause of suffering. Birth is regarded as the cause of suffering.

3. Cessation of suffering:

It is possible to end or eliminate the suffering by various ways. Suffering may cease if there is no
birth.

4. Way to cessation of suffering :

Buddha formulated 8 fold pathto end suffering. It includes:

i) The Right insight ( samyak dristi)


ii) TheRight resolve (samyaksankalpa)
iii) TheRight speech (samyak vak)
iv) TheRight conduct (samyakkarmant)
v) TheRight livelihood (samyak jiva)
vi) TheRight effort (samyak vyayam)
vii) TheRight mindfulness (samyaksmriti)
viii) TheRight concentration (samyaksamadhi)

Buddhas teachings reveal in his eight fold path 3 important aspects i.e conduct (sila),
concentration (samadhi) and knowledge (prajna)

4.3.2. Ethical teachings of Budha:


Four explicitly stated views of Budha are:

a. The theory of dependant origination/conditional existence of these things.


b. The theory of karma.
c. The theory of change.
d. The theory of the non-existence of soul.

a. Dependant origination:

There is a law of causation accepted universally. Every thing depends on some condition.
Nothing happens by chance. This theory is called as pratityasamutpada by Buddha. Everything
happens with a cause and leaves an effect. Buddha does accept two extreme views i.e. the reality
exists externally on one hand (externalism) and on the other hand something that exists can cease
to exist (nihilism). So he adopts a middle view i.e. madhyam marg. This view avoids both
extremities.

b. Theory of Karma:

Karma is the principle of causation. Individuals existence is due to the operation of the doctrine
of Karma. The present existence of an individual is due to causation of past and is the cause of
future. Karma is the general causation according to Buddha.

c. The law of universal change and impermanence:

All things are subjected to change. Everything arises from some condition and therefore
impermanent. Everything which has beginning also has an end. His later followers have
developed this as the theory of momentariness or kshanika vada i.e. existence of all things is
momentary.

d. The theory of non-existence of the soul:

Buddha rejects or denies the common belief about existence of soul. He feels that nothing
remains without change i.e. the law of change is universal. Present state of soul inherits its
characters from previous ones i.e. the past continues into the present. Memory becomes
inexplicable without soul. For him the illusion of a permanent soul causes misery and
attachment. He does not agree with the concept of self which he compares with a staircase built
for a mounting place which has never been seen.

4.3.3. Schools of Budha Philosophy


Basically there are as many as 32 schools of later Buddhism. Of these schools 4 schools are
distinguished they are:

1. Nihilists/sunyavadi or madhyamika
2. Subjective idealists or vijnanavadi or yogacare.
3. Critical realists or bahyanumeyavadi or saurantika.
4. Direct realists or bhahyapratyakavada or vaithasika

The whole philosophy of Buddhism ultimately prepares its disciples to find out the truth and
overcome the suffering through 8 fold path.

Aims:

To understand noble truths of life.


To understand karma principle as cessation.
To follow 8 fold path to attain truth.
To realize that the world is full of miseries.
To realize the 12 sources of wheel of rebirth.
To understand that service to humanity and welfare of humanity is the ultimate in ones life.
To attain the state of serenity, equanimity, passionless, self-posssession, beyond wordly pains
and pleasure.
To develop self-determination, confidence, overcome passions.

Curriculum:

Tripitikas:

Vinay pitaka has rules of behavior which Budhist monks should follow
Suktra pitaka has religious sermons with examples
Abhidamma pitakahas main preachings of Budhha containing 4 arya satyog

Philosophical principles of Budhism


Pratitya samutpada which contains four truths
Ksanikuad which contains karmskarya
Arthkriyakaritva which underlies the power to do some work. Past has on impact on present.
Anatmavada doesnt believe in soul.
Five skandas or tatvas

Roopskanda has five gross elements


Vedanta skanda includes experiences of happiness.
Sangya skanda contains naming things as per its qualities.
Samskara skanda focuses on favourable or unfavourable teachings.
Vigyan Skanda is about internal feelings.

Method of transaction is direct


- Imitation.
- Recitation
- Practical experience
- Nirvana/attaining bodhisattva personally through madhyam marg mediatation.

Teacher:
- Has a status of God.
- Follow the philosophy and principles of Buddhism.
- Follow path to attain bodhisattva.

Pupil:
- Should follow the preachings of the teacher.
- Follow the 8 fold path strictly for liberation from this wordly life.
- Should learn, follow, practice the literature related to tripitikas and know about tatvas.

4.4 BASIC TENETS OF JAINISM


_________________________________________________________________

Rikhabhadeva who is the first propounder of Jainism is regarded asjin (the conqueror of all
senses) or Tirthankara. Jainism is a collection of preachings of such twenty-four tirthankaras of
who Lord Mahavir was the last.

The word Jaina etymologically means a conqueror. He is the conqueror of raga and dvesa. Every
Jain believes that every spirit (Jiva) is in the bondage. This can be implied to all the teachers, as
they have conquered all passions (raga and dvesa) and could attain liberation from their bondage.
The followers of Lord Mahavir made a collection of his various speeches.Gradually, this
collection took the form of a book. This collection is now regarded the main literature of Jain
religion. This literature is now found in many parts. These various parts are sub-grouped into two
main divisions, literature into Digambaraliterature and Svetambaraliterature.

Both groups believe in basic doctrines of Jainism. However, there are some variations in some
of the practices. The basic differences are:

Svetamabaras Digambaras

1. They follow common living. 1. They practice more rigorously.

2. They retain clothes 2. They give up all possessions


i.e. pure white clothes. including clothes.
3. They do not give up food 3. Those who want to attain complete
toattain complete perfection. Perfection need not have food.
4. They do not accept that women 4. Women cannot be liberated unlessthey
takecannot be liberated unlessthey re-birth as a man.
take re-birth as a man.

The main tenets of Jainism:

1. Worship of Tirtankaras:
They worship Tirthankaraslike gods.Tirthankaras are omnipotent, omniscient and they have
freed their souls from earthly bondage.

2. Denial of God:
Jainism does not believe in the existence of god. It does not believe that god is the creator of the
world or that he exercises any control over it.

3. Existance of Soul:

Jainism accepts the existence of the soul. It also believes that soul is immortal. So long as the
soul is in touch with matter, it remains in constant bondage. To free it from bondage, it is
necessary to free it from karma.
4. Theory of Karma and rebirth:
Jainism lays too much stress upon karma. It believes that the life in human being is shaped in
accordance with the karma of earlier birth. The result of karma is bound to come in the next
birth. As you sow, so shall you reap, is the belief of the Jainism. The cycle goes on till the soul
is ultimately emancipated from the bondage of karma.

5. Attainment of Salvation:
Ultimate aim of Jainism is the attainment of salvation. A person can get rid of the cycle of births
and deaths when once he attains salvation. He is free from sufferings and troubles of life.
Nirvana can be achieved by following three ratnas: i right faith, ii right knowledge and iii right
conduct.

6. Non violence:
The most prominent doctrine of Jainism is ahimsa or non-violence, or non-injury to any living
being. Jainism has led much stress on the observance of this principle.

7. Five vows (Panch Mahavrata):

In order to free the soul from the bondage of karma, it is the duty of the Jain to keep away from
the wordly affairs. The five vows: i. ahimsa, ii.not telling a lie (satya), iii not taking anything
which is not freely given (astheya), iv.non attachement (aparigraha) and v. celibacy or self-
control (brahmachariya).

8. PANCHA ANUVRATHAS:

Pancha mahavrata are very hard for households also, five similar vows are prescribed, which are
not so hard called pancha anuvrathas.

9. Gunavrathas:
From time to time, households should also perform three gunavrathas. To confine himself to a
particular place, not to do any work with which he is not connected, to fix the quantity of food
and should not take more than that.

10. Penance and fast:


Jainism attached special significance to penance and fast. Indefinite fast was considered good in
Jain religion. It was believed that man can free himself from the bondage of karma.

11. No caste system:


Jains have no faith in the caste system. They believe that all are equal. They do not have faith in
yagna, sacrifice, gods and goddesses.

4.4.3. EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF JAINISM


______________________________________________________________________________

Aims of Education

From the Jain philosophy, it can be understood that the monks have to undergo a rigorous
practices or observances to make an individual with good character and conduct. They spend
their time throughout their life with all observances and ultimately liberate the soul from
bondage.Basically Jains train the individuals and disciples with respect to their code of conduct
and character.

1. To adopt triratnas.
- Right Faith (samyak-darsana)
- Right Knowledge (samyak-gyana)
- Right Conduct (samyak-charitra)

2. To attain good conduct five vows are to be adopted


i) Ahimsa
ii) Satyam
IiiAsteyam
iv) Brahmacharyam.
v) Aparigraha

Curriculum:
All preachings of Jain Tritankars and saints
Triratnas
Jain religion
Knowledge about the world, spirit and matter.

Teaching Methods:
- Imitation
- Recitation
- Adopting all five vows.
- Practical and empirical method.
- Individualized method(individual involving himself to acquire all the required vows)
Teacher:

- A model
- Living exemplary with all vows.
- Train rigorously to liberate the soul from bondage.
- Gurus are considered as Gods.

Disciple:
- Should follow absolutely all 5 vows to attain good conduct (panchamahavratas).
- They must be careful in all walks of life.
- Practice ten different dharmas like, non-attachment, forgiveness, self-restraint, austerity,
sacrifice and celibacy.
- Should respect the teacher and treat them as Gods.
- Emulate all the ideal character from their gurus.
- Aim at becoming like their gurus and liberate from the bondage.

Discipline:

- Self-discipline
- Self-restraint
-
-

4.5 BASIC TENETS OF VEDANTA DARSHAN

Literally the word Vedanta means the end of Vedas. In other words Vedanta may be
considered as Upanishads. Upanishads are the last literary products of the Vedic period.
Upanishads are seeds of Indian philosophy. That is why, all the great Indian philosophers have
written commentaries on Upanishads.Upanishads means that knowledge (Vidya) which nulifies
or undos (destroys) ignorance (avidya) and desires salvation (Moksha) to Brahma or God and
helps him to understand him in the true sense and thus cut the bondage of this world (that is the
freedom from the cycle of birth and death). In otherwords, Upanishads refers to that knowledge
(vidya) which removes ones ignorance, makes him free from the worldly bondage and leads him
to attain the ultimate stage of bliss (Parampada).

The Upanishads:

Literally Upanishad means that which destroys ignorance and brings near to God. Also it means
bringing near to teacher. Upanishads are regarded as inner and secret meanings of the Vedas
(rahasya).

From the reliable sources the number of Upanishads is considered as 108 of which 11 have
special importance. Upanishads are the Jnanakanda of Vedas, which deals with Jnana and
Vijnana.
11 upanishads are:

1. Isha
2. Kena
3. Katha
4. Taittiriya
5. Aitareya
6. Prasna
7. Mundaka
8. Mandukya
9. Svetavatara.
10. Chandogya
11. Brihadaranyaka.

The first philosophical speculation is to be found in the Upanishads, where problems of self, God
and the world are discussed. Some Upanishads were written in prose. Some were written in
verse. They are written in dialogue form and also in question and answer form. They have a
profound charm and appeal.

The ultimate reality is Brahman (God),


The ultimate reality is self (Atman)
The ultimate reality is sat (Truth)

Upanishads shift the centre of interest from the Vedic Gods to the self of man. The real self is
pure consciousness. The real self is called atman. Self is concealed in all things but does not
appear (Katha Upanishad), but can be seen by keen sighted with a sharp intellect.

The realization of self i.e atma vidya or atmagnana or para vidya is the highest knowledge of all.
It can be attained through Sravana, Manana and Nididhyasana i.e study of reasoning and
repeated meditation.

The Vedic belief in sacrifice was moved and shaken by Upanishads. Mandukya Upanishad says
that these sacrifices cannot help in achieving the highest goal.

The highest good one can attain is through the knowledge of self and God. Brahman is the
ultimate source of all joy. Self realization is the greatest joy. The world is created out of
Brahman or the self.

TheVedanta conception of Godcan be perceived unanimously in two aspects i.eGod pervades


the world, but not exhausted in the world. InUpanishads all God theorywas popular i.e.
Pantheism.Whether all in God is it real or not. Brahman is the absolute reality.Belief in God
starts with the acceptance of scriptural testimony.

During Vedanta period, both schools (Sankara and Ramanuja) followed Badarayana, but rejected
other views like, they have refuted Sankyas views on creation also refuted Vaisesika view.
Where they said the conscious atoms cannot produce this world (Vedanta). And also refuted the
Buddhists view that denied external world, which is untenable i.e Buddhas nihilism is untenable
to Vedantha.

Throughout Upanishads and later Vedanta the two aspects of God persist i.e God pervades in the
world and is also beyond it. God is both immanent and transcendent.

Param tatva (Supreme truth)

The subject of Param tatva is of highest importance in Upanishads. The entire world is a
deformed appearance of this supreme of ultimate truth.

Brahma Vichar (the concept of God):

In the Upanishads, Brahma is the real truth, knowledgeis endless (Anant). There is no other
existence (Sattya) except the Brahma.

Forms of Brahma (Brahma ke Swaroop):

In the Upanishads the Brahma has been defined in two major forms - Nirguna (absolute) or
infinite and Saguna (possessing attributes).

The literature of this period can be catergorised in to 3 types:

i) Vedic hymns and mantras compiled are in different samhitas (Ruk, Yajur, Sama, and Atharva)
ii) Brahmanas the treatises that guide the Vedic rituals.
iii) Upanishads which discusses the philosophical problems.

The above three revealed texts are called as Sruthis.

Upanishads were also considered as aranyakas or forest treatises to guide men who retire into
forests and try to understand the reality of life.Upanishads are the culmination of the Vedic
speculation.

Upanishads were many and originated from various Vedic schools at different times and places.
Upanishads are many and many differences are observed in the thoughts. So, to systematize this
knowledgeBadarayana wrote Vedanta sutras or Brahma sutras or Sairaka sutras or in other words
it was called Uttara mimamsa. Badarayana wrote these sutras into 4 chapters with 550 Sutras.
These Sutras are very brief in 2-3 words. Each sage has interpreted in different ways and became
the founder of that school.
The four chapters of brahma sutras are:

Chapter I

Samanvaya of the upanisadic teachings deals with the theory ofSamanvaya, .Brahman as
supreme reality, its nature and its relation to the world and to the individual soul.

Chapter II

Non-contradiction (avirodha) in relation to established theories. Avirodha and logical rules


which is the objection against the ChapterI and deals with the dependance of world on God.

Chapter III

It is the means of realization (Sadhana). It deals with ways and means Sadhana of attaining
knowledge of Brahman (Brahmavidya) on account of rebirth.

Chapter IV

The fruit achieved. The power of creating, governing andPhaladissolving the universe, for that
belongs to God alone.

In conclusion, Badarayana affirms a monistic view of the world, while accepting the two views
of the Brahman, i.e saguna and nirguna Brahman.

Based on Upanishads and Bhagavadgita various schools of Vedanta have developed. The authors
of each school wrote the commentaries (bhasya) and have become the founders of these schools.
The popular schools are:

Sankaras - Advaitha - Monism Jiva and Brahma two are identical.


Madhvas - Dvaitha - Dualism - Jiva and Brahma two are different.
Ramanujas - Visista advaitha - Qualified dualism- two are related like whole & part
Nimbarka - Dvaitadvaita
Vallabacharya - Suddhadvaita

The background and the origin of Upanishads through Vedas.

The Vedas:

Rigveda (2000 1500 B.C): It is the earliest work of the Indo Aryans. The hymns are in praise
of the supremebeing the origin of everything and who maintains the order of the universe. The
hymns are also addressed to Gods, the natural, domestican and abstract Gods. They are
addressed to Domestic Gods - dyauathana, Aerial Gods- antharikshasthana.Rigveda emphasizes
that there is one God and one reality i.e. ekam sat.It also have the verses in praise of different
deities Agni, Mitra, Varuna, Indra and so on
Other Vedas Yajur veda means black which contains prose and verse and white with only
verse. Sama veda called as vedic traya.Atharva veda which was later addition and is
considered a part of first 3. The first three Vedas are considered as a bird with one wing where
as the Atharva veda is a bird with 2 wings.

Over a period of time many hymns were added and the most worthy of the hymns were
contributionsofsixseers.Theyare: Gowthama, Visvamitra, Vamadeva, Atri, Bharadvaja and
Vasistha.

It is said that the other 3 vedas are the outcomes of Rigveda.Each veda has developed theological
treatises called Brahmanas and Aranyakas. Vyasa is known as the arranger of 4 vedas which
were written by the seers in their super conscious states so they are called apouruseyas. Vyasa is
called as Krishna Dvaipayana also known as Bhadarayana. Many sages attributed to Vyasa the
treatises like Mahabharata, Uttara Mimansa, Brahma Sutras, and Eighteen Puranas.

Sankaras Advaitha Vedanta (Monism/ Non-Dualism)

1. Concept of world:
Sankara was not satisfied with the vedantic texts at his times and he was prompted to undertake
the task of interpreting the vedantic texts. He wrote about the Monism and Non-dualism i.e
Advaitha, to prove reality as one. He was very agonized about the pluralities. According to
Sankara Maya is the magical power of creation is indistinguishable from God. God creates all
physical worlds which is a world-show. Individuals out of their ignorance think that this world is
real, but it is illusion. For eg: the rope appears as snake in darkness because of our ignorance.
Without knowing the reality behind the appearance, we assume rope as snake. This illusion
producing ignorance (maya) is called ajnana or avidya, which makes us to see something else
than what it is really is. Sometimes the maya could positively produce some illusionary
appearance which is called as positive ignorance or bhave- rupam- ajnanam. Sometimes there
is no beginning assigned to this world i.e beginingless or anadi people who are not ignorant,
know this appearance as maya so they visualize God as everything all these appearances are
illusion and maya.

Sankaras argument that if God is the creator of the world, then whether he is a part of this
world. The other argument if the matter is a part of God then, there is other reality of God. Then
God should also be subjected to destruction like the material things. If material things are a part
of God then the God is reduced to the world and there is no God.

Ramanujas Visista Advaitha / Qualified Monism

Ramanujacharya was born in 1703 A.D. He founded the doctrine of Visistadvaitha. He believed
in the concept of Brahman as existing knowledge and bliss, eternal, infinite and omnipotent and
supreme.Brahman is All- inclusive God, which includes both a. Unconscious matter(acit)
material objects as prakriti and b. Finite spirits (cit). He says that creation is a real act of God.

He denies that the creation and created are illusionary. He agrees with the maya interpretation of
Svetavatara but he interprets maya as a wonderful power of real creation that is in God.Nothing
is illusionary, he interprets Sankaras concept of rope and snake. He says the rope and snake both
are made of the same substances the air, water and earth i.e the snake exists in a rope.

Ajnana: According to Ramanuja the ignorance and individuality are interdependant aspects of
the same fact. For instance it is like motherhood, daughtership or circle and circumference of
circle i.e maya in Brahman is ignorance.

Conception of God:

God is the absolute reality; he is possessed of both matter and finite souls/spirits. Brahman is the
only reality in the universe. There is no other reality which is independent of him. This one
absolute contains many. Thus his monism is described as visista advaita or qualified monism.

His concept of self, bondage and liberation

There is identity and difference between God and man. As man is finite who cannot be equated
with God so he is different from God. On contrary God pervades everywhere and controls men
and every other thing in the universe so, he is identical with God. In other words the part cannot
be separated from the whole i.e it is inseperable.

Dvaitadvaita: (1219) Nimbarkacarya

He wrote a commentary on Brahmasutra and he suggested both dvaita and advaita i.e dualism
and non-dualism. According to him jiva, jagat and isvara are different. However jiva and jagat
are not independent. Both of their activity is dependent on isvara. According to him liberation is
possible through bhakti/devotion. Nimbarkar disciple Kesava and others feel wrote
commentaries on cita and said Gita begins with jnana yoga but ends with bhakti yoga.

Suddhadvaita: (1536) Vallabacharya

According to Vallabacharya Brahman and pure self are one thus he on the basis of his theory,
considered as the founder of Suddhadvaita/pure non-dualism. However the Brahman and
individual soul are not one. He compares Brahman with fire and the souls as sparks which is a
part of fire. The manifested universe is considered as real. But it is a creation by the will of the
God. He believed in the grace of God and stressed on Bhakti.

Madhvacharya Dvaita (1254 1333 A.D)

Madhva considered individual soul and the Brahman as reality and are different from each other.
Thus he established the tradition of Dvaita/Dualism. According to Brahman parameswara is
supreme and everything is controlled by him. The individual soul is a part of
Brahman/parameswara.
THE NATURE OF EDUCATION DURING THE UPANISHADIC OR
VEDANTIC PERIOD:
____________________________________________________________________________
The principal aims of education for the students in the gurukul:-
1. Acquisition of the supreme knowledge.
2. Physical development.
3. Character building.
4. Complete development.
5. Individual and social development.
6. Spiritual development.
7. Education for culture.

Subjects of the study:


The students were required to study two types of the vidyas:
Paravidya and Aparavidya.

Paravidya isto study the relationship between man, world and God.
Aparavidya consisted of four Vedas and six Vedangas, subjects of phonetics, knowledge of
rituals, grammar, astronomy, itihas, Puranas, ethics and military science.

The Guru or the teacher:


The Upanishads have repeatedly asserted the preceptor (the Guru). The preceptor was said to be
wonderful as he was the propounder of the Brahmavidya. The preceptors Principal factors in
the success of his work are plain living, high thinking, mental control, humility, truthfulness.
The student was also regarded as wonderful as he received that knowledge and wonderful was he
who comprehended him, when taught by an able teacher.

The students and they discipline:


Brahmachari are a student had to go about bagging alms for his Guru. He had to guard his Guru,
his house and cattle. The student used to study Vedas daily after he had the duties belonging to
the teachers household. Student was expected to be calm in mind, self- restrained, self- denying,
and patient.

4.6 BASIC TENETS OF SANKYA DARSHAN


-

Sankya system is the great work of the sage Kapila which is known as sankya sutra and was
elaborated by him later on as sankya-pravachana sutra.
The term sankya indicates the number but for others sankya is a perfect knowledge i.e samyog-
jnana, sankya can be considered as dualistic realism i.e the two realities prakriti and purusha.

Some important works of sankya are:

- Iswarkrisnas - sankya karika (earliest and most authoritative)


- Garuda padas - karika bhaysa
- Vascapthi - tattvakaumudi
- Vijnanabhiksus - sankya-pravacana-bhaysa and sankya and sankya are
- Aniruddhas - sankya-pravacana-sutra-vritti.

The disciples followed Kapila are:


Kapila - Asuri - Panchasika

Basic tenets of sankya system of philosophy

1. Metaphysics

i) Theory of causation
ii) Prakriti and gunas
iii) Purusha and self
iv) Evolution of the world

Theory of causation: The relationship between cause and effect is, effect exits before the
cause.eg. Seed plant, claypot, milk curd
Effect exists in an unmanifested form. Effect must potentially be contained in the cause

Prakriti and Gunas: Prakriti is the ultimate cause of the world of objects.All the objects
of the world including our body and mind, senses and intellect are produced by the combination
of certain elements. Prakruti is the cause of the world. Prakriti is constituted by 3 gunas.Sattvic,
rajasic, tamasic.Every thing right from intellect to that of tables; pots etc. in this world possess 3
gunas of pleasure, pain and indifference.

The natures of any substance depend on the dominance of the Guna present in it. For instance, if
Sattva Guna is more, compared to other two Gunas it possesses moresattvic qualities.There is
nothing in the world that exist without these Gunas.

Purusha or self: Self is different from body, senses, manas and intellect. It is a pure
consciousness- Anand Swaroopa. Self as transcedent subject of experience it can be proved
through some arguments. It is transcendent subject whose essence is pure consciousness. All the
objects of the world have the nature of pleasure; pain and indifference but these pleasure and
pain are meaningful only when they are experienced by someone who is conscious of the
experience. Hence, where is in need of conscious self to experience pleasure, pain, etc.
Evolution of the world:
Purusha and Prakriti samyoga --> Mahat -->ego( ahankara) --->mind+ jnanedriyas+
Karmedriyas.

2. Epistemology:
They have accepted the 3 sources of knowledge

Perception
Inference
Testimony or Sabdha
These are similar to nayikas

3. Doctrine of liberation:
They believe that mens life on earth is a mixture of pain and pleasures. No living being can
escape them and cannot avoid the decay and death in their life. Generally men according to
Sankya are the victims of 3 kinds of pain.

1. Adhyatmika caused because of intra organic causes like bodily disorder, mental
suffering such as headache, fear, anger, greed, etc.
2. Adhiboutika caused by extra organic such as the natural like; snake bite, any
such as the pains.
3.Adhidaivika it can be due to supernatural aspets like ghosts and demons.

Sankya strives for cessation of pain, as man cannot avoid pain. Thus it tries to attain mukthi to
liberate oneself from pain. Sankya believes that the cause of all suffering is ignorance. Freedom
from suffering can be attained through acquiring right knowledge of reality i.e tattva jnana.

The ignoarance or aviveka is due to non-discrimination between self and not self. The material
self, the social self, sensitive and appetitive, the imaging and desiring self or the willing and the
thinking self is not real self. The knowledge of self as mind, body, intellect is not real self. The
direct knowledge of the truth is necessary to come out of the illusion of the body and mind as
myself. The attainment of liberation is clear recognition of the self as a reality which is beyond
space and time. Which is beyond mind and body so it is eternal, free and immortal?

It is possible for every self to liberate itself. This kind of liberation is known as videha mukti or
jivanmukti.

Videha mukti it is attained after the death of the body i.e liberated from body.

Jivan mukti: Emancipation of the soul while living in this body.

About the existence of God, some of the debates are of the view that the presence of God i.e
theistic and some debates also prove and establish i.e atheists non-existence of God.
a) The world exists with causation principle. But God cannot be cause of this world.
b) As prakriti is non-intelligent, must be controlled by intelligent agent i.e it could be God.
c) God does not exist as the prakriti is formed naturally on its own. As a cow produces milk for the
calf.
d) Vijnana bhikshu also supports the existence of god which can be supported by reason and
scriptures.

4.6.1 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF SANKYA DARSHAN

Aims:

1. To liberate the soul.


2. To trealize the self.
3. To develop the child physically, intellectually, morally to make a real human personality.
4. To train all the organs appropriately.
5. To provide knowledge and function of all the organs, process and their role in self
identification and acquiring real knowledge.
6. To provide the physical development-includes the sensory organs.
7. To provide intellectual development a clear understanding about the ego, self-
liberation, nature of self and process of liberation.
8. To provide the true knowledge about the real self.
9. To trainthe children with right proportion of gunas.

Curriculum:
It should include all the content/information regarding the evolution of the world. How scientific
is the natural and the evolution of the world. Gunas and the qualities of spirit and self.
Knowledge related to liberation.

Methods:
To acquire this self-knowledge the child should be given the skills required to acquire knowledge
through the 3 modes/pramanas of knowledge like perception, inference and sabdha.

Teacher:
Teacher should play a very crucial role in providing the guidance to acquire true knowledge and
to discriminate between the real self and non-real self.

Discipline:
As it adopts ethics of yoga it suggests individual freedom through self discipline (like yama and
niyama).
Pupil:

Pupil should develop inner motivation to liberate oneself. They should acquire the true
knowledge to get videha mukti and jivan mukti.
______________________________________________________________________________
4.7 UNIT SUMMARY
_____________________________________________________________________________

Teachings of Buddha have four noble truths:


Life is full of suffering, cause of suffering, cessation of suffering, way to cessation of suffering.
Buddha formulated 8 fold path to end suffering.

He propagated his philosophy through his teachings by conversation. His teachings were
recorded by his disciples who were very intimate to him which were popularly recorded as
Tripitikas which is considered as his philosophy written in Pali.

The word Jaina etymologically means a conqueror. Conqueror of Raga & Dvesa. Every Jain
believes that every Spirit (Jiva) is in the bondage. which can be implied to all the teachers as
they all have conquered all passions (Raga & Dvesa) and could attain liberation from their
bondage.

Five vows (Panch Mahavrata) In order to free the soul from the bondage of karma, it is the duty
of the jain, to keep away from the wordly affairs. The five vows: i ahimsa ii not telling a lie
(satya) iii no taking anything which is not freely given (astheya) iv non attachement (aparigraha)
v. celibracy or self-control (brahmachariya).

Literally the word Vedanta means the end of Vedas. In other words Vedanta may be
considered as Upanishads. Upanishads are the last literary products of Vedic period.
Based on Upanishads and Bhagavadgita various schools of Vedanta have developed. The
authors of each school wrote the commentaries (bhasya) and have become the founders of these
schools.

Sankya system is the great work of the sage Kapila which is known as sankya sutra and was
elaborated by him later on as sankya-pravachana sutra.

Prakruti is the cause of the world. Prakriti is constituted by 3 gunas.Sattvic, rajasic, and tamasic.
The nature of any substance depends on the dominance of the Guna present in it. For instance, if
Sattva Guna is more, compared to other two Gunas it possesses more sattvic qualities; there is
nothing in the world that exists without these Gunas

Purusha or self: Self is different from body, senses, manas and intellect. It is a pure
consciousness- Anand Swaroopa.
Points to remember

Buddha propagated his philosophy through his teachings by conversation. His teachings were
recorded by his disciples who were very intimate to him which were popularly recorded as
Tripitikas which is considered as his philosophy written in Pali.

Tripitikas are:

1. Vinaya pitaka: It consists of conduct or behaviour for congregation.(sangha)


2. Sutta pitaka: It contains religiou sermons and dialogues.
3. Abhidhamma pitaka: It contains descriptions of the main teachings of Lord Buddha and his
Philosophical thought.

Basically when the disciples have increased in number, they were divided into 2 groups i.e
Hinayana and Mahayana as the two relgious schools of Buddhism.
Most of the basic literature of Jains is available in Prakrata. Gradually the followers were
divided into two groups/sects which are popularized later on as Svetambara & Digambara.
Ultimate aim of Jainism is the attainment of salvation. A person can get rid of the cycle of births
and deaths when once he attains salvation; he is free from sufferings and troubles of life. Nirvana
can be achieved by following three ratnas: i Right Faith, ii right knowledge, iii right conduct.

Vedanta period both schools (Sankara and Ramanuja) followed Badarayana but rejected other
views like, they have sefuted Sankyas views on creation also refuted Vaisesika view. Where they
said the conscious atoms cannot produce this world (Vedanta).

Sankaras - Advaitha - Monism Jiva and Brahma two are identical.


Madhvas - Dvaitha - Dualism - Jiva and Brahma two are different. .
Ramanujas Visista Advaitha- Qualified dualism- two are related like whole & part
Nimbarka - Dvaitadvaita - Vallabacharya - Suddhadvaita.

The term sankya indicates the number but for others sankya is a perfect knowledge i.e samyog-
jnana, sankya can be considered as dualistic realism i.e the two realities prakriti and purusha.

4.8 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS (SELF STUDY)

1. What is the contribution made by Buddhism to education explain?


2. How do you think Sankhya philosophical thought is relevant to the modern times educational
practices? Discuss
3. Write about the contribution of Jainism to education with suitable examples
4. Discuss in detail aboutdifferent schools of thought of Vedanta.

4.9 ASSIGNMENTS

1. How do you think Vedanta is different from Hetrodox schools of philosophy? Discuss
2. Write about the educational implications of different orthodox schools of thought.

4.10 POINTS FOR DISCUSSION AND CLARIFICATION:

After going through the unit,you may want to have further discussion or clarifications of some
points.

4.10.1 Points for discussion

4.10.2 Points for clarification

4.11 REFERENCES

1. Walia,J.S. (2004) Education in Indian Society,Paul Publishers.Punjab.


2. Indira Gandhi National Open University School of Education, Education and Society.
3. Aggarwal,J.C.(2013).Basic ideas in Education, Shipra Publications. New Delhi.
4. Bhatia, K.K.; Narang, C.L. (1988) First course in Principles of Education, Parkash Brothers
Educational Publishers.Ludhiana.
3. Chaube S.P., and Chaube A.,(1994) Foundations of Education, Vikas Publishing House Pvt
Ltd. New Delhi.
4.Mrunalini.T.(2008) Philosophical Foundations of Education,Neel Kamal Publications Pvt.
Ltd.Hyderabad.
5. Acharya Nagarjuna University,M.Ed.(D.M.) Material.
6. Mrunalini.T.(2006) Yoga Education,Neel Kamal Publications Pvt. Ltd.Hyderabad.
__________________________________________________________________
UNIT V -INDIAN PHILOSOPHERS AUROBINDO, GANDHI, TAGORE,
KRISHNA MURTHY

STRUCTURE

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Objectives
5.3 Basic Tenets of Aurobindos Philosophy.
5.3.1 Educational Implications of Aurobindos Philosophy.
5.4 Basic Tenets of Gandhis Philosophy.
5.4.1 Educational Implications of Gandhis Philosophy.
5.5. Basic Tenets of Tagoress Philosophy.
5.5.1 Educational Implications of Tagoress Philosophy
5.6 Basic Tenets of Jiddu Krishhnamurthys Philosophy.
5.7. Unit Summary
5. 8. Check Your Progress (Self Study)
5. 9 Assignments
5.10 Points for Discussion and Clarification
5.11 References

5.1 INTRODUCTION

SriArobindo has set forth his philosophy in the Life Divine. His philosophy is based on the
original Vedanta of the Upanishads. Mahatma Gandhi was the great philosopher educationist and
experimentor expressed his views on everything from God to birth-control.Tagore was a multi-
splendored personality and he has left his impression on severalfacets of artistic, cultural,
educational,political and social life of India.Krishna Murthy emphasized integral education
which implies that education should encourage self-observation and the experience as a
whole.His philosophy may be summed up in 2Fs Freedom of mind and Fearlessness.

5.2. OBJECTIVES

After reading this unit, the reader will be able to:

Knowthe philosophy of Sri Arobindoandhis contribution to education.


Understand the basic philosophy of M.K.Gandhiand his contribution to education.
Explore the philosophy of Tagore and his contribution to education.
Know the Integral Education ofJidduKrishnaMurthy.
5.3 BASIC TENETS OF AUROBINDOS PHILOSOPHY

Sri Aurobindos contribution to Indian philosophy and religion is immense. He brought in new
concepts in philosophy like integral yoga, superman and supermind. Sri Aurobindo Ghoshs
synthetic vision is cosmic and has the merit of comprehensiveness and clarity. It points the way
to new creation of world culture on the sound foundation of Indian culture. He is the
embodiment of the spiritual reality which he affirms in his great works. He has contributed a
body of vast literature embodying his vision of the reality and mans destiny on earth.

Yoga is afterallprimarily a change of the inner consciousness and nature.The object of the
Sadhana can only be to live in the divine consciousness and manifest it in life.
-Sri Aurobindo
The goal is not to lose oneself in the divine consciousness. The goal is to let the divine
consciousness penetrate into matter and transform it.
-The Mother

Yoga means union with the divine, a joining of the limited human with the infinite divine
consciousness. Integral yoga(Purna yoga) is a man's union or existential contact with being
becomes integral i.e., balanced and complete. He is transformed into a dynamic
personality.Integral yoga may be defined as the art of harmonious and creative living. It stresses
the need for the balanced growth of personality; for constructive development of ones latent
possibilities of nature. This keeps them in the service of mankind to propagate higher values such
as truth, justice, freedom, peace and progress. It warns against misleading tendencies, which lead
to lopsided development.

Integral yoga : It implies healthy integration of God and the man or world, renunciation and
enjoyment, freedom of the soul and action of nature, being and becoming, the one and many,
vidya and avidya, knowledge and works, and birth and release. He says that fellowship between
god and man generates in man an idea of new birth and a new ideal of work. The fellowship
with god can be achieved only by disinterested action in society, by never ending meditation, by
self-forgettingdevotion and by feeling a kind of unity of all things in god.

Super Mind: Super mind is key word of Sr Aurobindos philosophy. Mans mind is not so
perfect, as to grasp all the integral truths. The integral truth can be grasped by the super mind.
The errors of the conceptual mind must be corrected by the super mind. Super mind is the
intermediary link between sathchitanand and universe, knowledge and ignorance. It is a dynamic
aspect of God himself. It is self-force of God. It is a state of self-awareness which one has to
achieve gradually for transforming his entire self-body, mind and soul. It can resolve the conflict
between oneness and diversity, between the individual and the universal and between being and
becoming.

Sri Aurobindo believes that super mind is the divine gnosis which creates, governs and upholds
the world. It is the creator. It is the omnipotent, onmicient, and omnipresent. It is all inclusive. It
is the Lord within. In it, there is no distinction of knowledge, knower and known. Acquisition of
such a mind is the chief task of education.

Super Man: When the man attains the super mind he becomes the super man. He transcends his
own nature by rising above the qualities of sattva, rajas and tamas. He surrenders himself
completely to God. He attains union with God in body, mind and soul. He becomes a gyani or
gnostic individual. The gnostic individual in the words of Sri Aurobindo is the consummation
of spiritual man; his whole way of being, thinking, living and acting is governed by the power of
a vast universal spirituality. He feels the presence of the divine in every center of his
consciousness. All beings are to him his own-selves. The gnostic individual is in the world and
out of the world, but also excceds it in his consciousness and lives in his life of transcendence
above it.

Sat, chit, anada:Sri Aurobindo translates the three vedantic terms viz., sat chit ananda, as pure
existence, consciousness coupled with force and delight of existence. Thus he does not interpret
chit as consciousness alone. He adds force to it because to him, force is inherent in the eternal
being and this force may be immobile or mobile. All creations are nothing but the manifestation
of this sat chit ananda.

Yoga: Sri Aurobindo finds a wide gulf between the ordinary mind and the supermind. He
suggests this gulf should be bridged by yoga. The integral view of life culminates in synthetic
yoga. Sri Aurobindo defines yoga as a methodized effort towards self-perfectionby the
expression of potentialities latent in the being, and a union of the individual with the universal
and the transcendent existence we see partially expressed in man and in the cosmos. To him, all
life is yoga. He says that the human and the cosmic evolution will follow the same line. It is with
an idea of integral divine that he speaks about his integral yoga. Thus, the integral yoga is based
on the integral philosophy, but it is not subordinated to philosophy. However, in a way, he finds
yoga and philosophy correlative to each other.In order to find a true basis of harmony and peace,
man must rise to the consciousness higher than the limited and ignorant mind and reason. It is in
the silent mind that higher consciousness can be built.

Life: Aurobindo regards life as universal. It is everywhere whether it is a secret manifest,


organised elemental, involved or evolved. Life is a form of the one cosmic energy, a dynamic
movement or current of it, positive and negative, a constant act play of the force which builds up
forms, energises them by increasing process of disintegration and renewal of their
substance.Thus disintegration and renewal, status change, birth and death are all the processes of
the same life. He finds three stages in the process of life material life, vital life and mental life.
Life is a connecting link between matter and mind.

Law of Karma: He believes that man is the maker of his own destiny. Man reaps the
consequences not his actions alone, but sometimes he shares the results of the actions of others
and vice versa, because all existence is continuous.

Philosophy of rebirth: rebirth is indispensable machinery for working outer spiritual


evaluation. It is through the human life that the secret spirit in the universe fulfills
its purposegradually by the enlarging and descending individual soul- consciousness in the
body. Soul is not by product of body, life or mind. It has its pre- human past and super- human
future.

5.3.1 EDUCATIONALIMPLICATIONS OF AUROBINDOS HILOSOPHY.

Aims of education:

Physical development and purity


Development of senses
Mental development
Development of conscience
Development of morality
Spiritual development
Emphasis on individual aim
Natural education and Indian rennaisence
Training of senses
Education of the mind
Training of the logical faculty

Curriculum:

Sri Aurobindo prescribed free environment for maximum development of all the latent faculties
of the child and suggests all the subjects and activities of Childs interest to be included in the
curriculum. Such subject should possess elements of intellectuality, creativity, spirituality and
educational expression. He wished to infuse a new life of spirit into each subject and activity
through which the development of super human being could become possible.

Principles and Methods of teaching:

1. Nothing can be taught, he means nothing can be imposed upon the mind of learner from
outside.
2. Mind has to be consulted - he advocates education according to 3 As: age, ability, aptitude.
3. Interests of the child
4. Freedom of the child
5. Self- experience
6. Learning by doing
7. Education through mother tongue
8. Education through incorporation
9. Education through love and sympathy
10. Education according to nature of the child.
11. Education through training the senses and mind.
12. Education through training the logical facility.

Place of teacher:
The position of the teacher is of a guide, helper, and stimulator. He enables the child to educate
his self, develop practical, intellectual, moral, aesthetics and capacities. Teacher is not an
instructor or task master.He is emphasized on intuitive power and allows the child to grow into
the way of his own perfection.Teacher is to help the pupil in training of senses, training of
mental faculties and training of logical facility.

5.4 BASIC TENETS OF GANDHIS PHILOSOPHY

Mahatma Gandhi, the great philosopher, educationist and experimenter expressed his views on
everything from God to birth-control.He was deeply influenced by the humanist idealism of
Indiass past. It is difficult to present his philosophy which may run into volumes. However let
us try to make an attempt to understand his philosophy in general and educational philosophy in
specific.

Though he played a major role is in politics and his contributions as a great social reformer,
statesman, educational philosopher with an eclectic philosophy (realists, idealists, pragmatists,
etc) is well known.

Inspiration/influences in his life:

While staying in South Africa the kind of humiliation the Indian citizens were experiencing gave
his direct entry into political arena.

He was also influenced in 1903 when he left for Transvaal and had educational experiences on
the Tolstoy farm. He was involved there in educating his own children and also other children.
His mother taught him puranas and epics.He derived inspiration from Upanishads, Patanjali yoga
sutras, Lord Buddha, Lord Mahavira, Gita, Ramayana, Bible and Quran.

From Ruskin Basically he has learnt the principle of dignity of labor.


From Henry David Thoreau, he has learnt about the concept of civil disobedience.
From Bible/religion, the service for humanity as service to God

General philosophy

Important principles of his philosophy are as follows:

1. Truth/satyam, Ahmisa/ Non-violence, Love


2. His belief and faith in God.
3. Brotherhood of man.
4. Service to humanity.

Truth:
It is the ultimate goal of life. He says that I have no God to serve but truth. Denying truth is
equal to denial to God. Truth leads to goodness in life. He suggests following truth in all walks
of life including personal and social life. He was an exemplary in practicing truth throughout his
life. Many incidents and events in his life reflect his truthfulness and his staunch belief in truth.
Many incidents from his autobiography my experiment with truth reveals the same.

Non-violence:

He believed in non-violence as a means of realization of God and truth. Both are closely
interrelated and inseparable. This makes an individual self very strong and self supporting in his
life and to become a true human being.

Love:
He believed love as a true religion which is universally approved in all religions. He had
influence from Bible which made him to reflect on this principle of love, which also creates
harmony in ones life and provide happiness all the time.

Brotherhood:

His major focus was to treat fellow men as equal, and should love them without any
discrimination of class, caste, creed, etc. His life and practices reflect his service to untouchables,
lepers and many poor people. There are reflections of his staunch belief and practice of
brotherhood of men. He visualized a Ramarajya a sarvodaya society.

- He was a personification of self-disciplined individual with high qualities and absolute control
on his deeds.
- He had utmost respect for dignity of labor the true reflection from his belief in Gita and karma
siddantha and a true karmayogi throughout his life and practices. He believed in selfless karma
or action and deeds without expecting any fruits or result. He was true practitioner of karma yoga
which he believed.

Gandhi as a Naturalist

- He advocated freedom for the child.


- Educating in natural surroundings. To educate children in their villages.
- He minimized the importance of text book and emphasized on practical learning. According
to him true text is the teacher.
- Activity approach was advocated by him.

As an Idealist
- Goal of life is self-realization. It is not through withdrawing from the world but through
service to the beings in this world.
- Dharma by training the spirit which can be achieved through purity in daily life.
- To develop spirit is to train the character.
- Education with cultural base/training.
- Harmonious development of personality.
- Advocated various cultural, physical activities.

As a pragmatist

- Introduction of basic craft or the focus of education.


- Correlation and coordination of content and methods of teaching.
- Experimental approach towards life. A clear reflection can be seen from his autobiography
my experiments with truth.
- Child should learn from the real life.
- Advocated project method where social relationships are developed.

His educational philosophy: Education according to Gandhi:


By education I mean an all round drawing out of the best in child and man-body, mind and
spirit.
Education is for the all round development of the child, harmonious development of the child,
drawing out the potential of the child.

In his view education is for life and through life. Basic concepts of his education system are:

Education for sarvodaya


Free and compulsory education
Craft based, self supporting education
Mother tongue should be the medium of instruction.
Cult of non-violence
Ideal citizenship
Dignity of labour as a personal value

Wardha Basic principles of education:-


- Boys and girls should be taught together.
- Mostly the time should be spent on manual work.
- Teacher supervision is necessary.
- As per the ability and interest of the child the work should be assigned to boys and girls.
- General knowledge should also be imparted.
- Geometrical figures should be given as practice before going for hand writing.
- Reading should be given before writing.
- Oral methods till the age of 8 years.
- By nine years child should be self supporting.
- They should not be compelled to learn.
- Mother tongue as the medium of instruction.
- Learning while doing.
- Manual labour should be given importance (dignity of labour).
- Both boys and girls should know working and stitching by the 16th year.
- Basic knowledge about the history, geography, botany, astronomy, arithmetic, geometry
and algebra should be given.

5.4.1 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF GANDHIS PHILOSOPHY

Aims of Education:

By education I mean all round drawing out of the best in child and man- body, mind and spirit.
- Self-reliance/self-supporting.
- For physical, intellectual and spiritual and moral development of an individual (all round
development).
- Individual and social aim of education.
- Inculcation of higher values in life.
- Character building/personality development.
- Cultural aim of education.
- Craft based education/vocational education/manual skills.
- Sarvodaya aim.

Curriculum:

He advocated craft-based curriculum.

- Integrated curriculum.
- Work oriented curriculum.
- Self/activity based curriculum.
- Utilitarian curriculum.
- Balanced curriculum.
- Vocational skills,crafts
He wanted a more practical, useful, productive education to be provided to the child to
bring in a balanced and harmonious development of an individual.
And also some subjects like
- Social studies
- Mathematics } through mother tongue as a medium
- General sciences } of instruction
- Crafts.

Methods:

He also advocated natural methods of teaching for harmonious development of an individual


through natural environment and direct experience and as a creative, productive member of a
society.

The important methods are:

Learning by doing.
Learning by living.
Participative learning.
Learning through service.
Self-learning through experiences/experience based learning.
Correlation method (by relating principles of basic methods).
Also other conventional methods like
Lecture method.
Discussion method.
Questioning method.
Discipline:
He believed in self-discipline through disciplining of mind, thought, feelings and action in all
aspects of living. Social discipline is being as a member of a society working for the welfare of
all beings.Creating brotherhood is through discipline.

Teacher:

According to him teacher should be a complete and humanistic individual.Teacher should be a


guide, friend and philosopher. He needs to be an apostle of peace. He needs to be an ideal model.
He needs to be a dedicated, proficient, enthusiastic teacher.He should be a karmayogi or person
with action. He should be able to establish a heart to heart contact with the studentsand should be
patriotic, devotional and responsible. He should have concern for making students with great
personalities.

Gandhiji wanted teacher to be a practical karmayogi who also worked for the welfare of all the
humanity with utmost love and feeling of brotherhood and with a vision of sarvodaya samaj to
liberate from poverty and to develop self-reliance and to lead a complete and harmonious life.
5.5. BASIC TENETS OF TAGORESS PHILOSOPHY

His philosophy reflects him as an individualist, naturalist and an internationalist. As an


individualist Tagore believed god is the creator of man & Nature. He found a unity between man
and man and man & Nature. His philosophy reflects Indian Universalism.

As a Naturalist he created a special place for Nature and he loved Nature profoundly. He
connoted nature with the:

World of innate physical world like the sky, river mountain, sun, the moon, stars, wind rain,
seasons, day & night. It includes the non-human world of plants trees, flowers, fruits, animals
and insects.

The original nature of man by the potential innate nature of man is not influenced by the material
world of civilization.

For Tagore this whole nature is a manifestation and creation of Brahman. It is the whole beauty
of nature in terms of its colors and rhythms. Brahmans original nature is reflected more through
natures beauty than man.

Tagores childhood experience made him to think and provide to children what he was deprived
the natural things as a part of their learning experiences.

Tagore also reflects realistic ideas by focusing Indian traditional culture. A complete life should
be provided which takes into account all directions such as economic, intellectual, aesthetic,
social and spiritual. Education should show the organic relationship between man & his
surroundings.

He also proved as an internationalist. His internationalism reflected in a spiritual way not in an


economic or political dimension. He considered all human beings as one family without any
discrimination of caste, creed or colour. He tried to create a synthesis of East and West. He was
sensitive towards every influence from west. However his outlook was grounded in Indian
philosophy like that of the ancient seers. The whole world was appreciated in terms of dignity of
labour.

Tagores Educational thought:


He believed that learning occurs where a stimulating atmosphere is provided for children. He
never encouraged beaten track filling of minds with ideas and stuff with content and information.
It should be caught by the child on his/her own. He says education is not a conscious process of
filling but the sub-conscious process of absorption.
A school should be like a family living close to nature as family members. The teachers &
students should maintain natural relations. For him education is freedom of mind.

Education should make a man realize the importance of living like a man.
The basic cardinal principles of Tagores philosophy are:

1. Freedom for the child.


2. Creative self-expression.
3. Active communication with man and nature.
4. Harmony with all things.

1. Freedom for the child :

He is a staunch believer and practitioner of giving freedom to the child. In his view freedom in
education means:

Freedom from ignorance about the laws of universe.


Freedom from passion and prejudice while communicating with the human world.
Freedom is not mere independence from control and right to self-will.

2. Creative self-expression:

Tagore believes that the fine arts provide a space for self-expression of the child. The child
should be provided with suitable environment with freedom which enables them to come out
with real self-expression, Hand work.

3. Active communication with man and nature :

Education should not take away from natural life or isolated from life. It should never be
restricted only to classroom four walls and become artificial.

Tagores education brings the child into direct contact with nature. Child will be happy and feels
free. Educational content and quality must be natural. Child can develop potential to
communicate with the nature. Tagore believed that there is spiritual relationship between Man,
Nature and God. Education should become a gift for a child to be natural and to be with the
nature & human society.

4. Harmony with all things :


According to Tagore that is called to be highest education this makes human life in harmony
with all existence. Since Tagores philosophy reflects naturalism, humanism, internationalism
and realism, it is a self reflection of showing a harmony with every thing.

5.5.1 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF TAGORESS PHILOSOPHY

Aims of Education:
Physical development
Intellectual development
Harmonious development
Moral and spiritual development
Utilitarian aim
Harmony between individual and social life

Curriculum:

Tagores view of curriculum is also very broad and holistic in nature.He suggested.

Broad based curriculum:

In order to achieve the aims as he suggested it needs a broad curriculum to develop whole
individual. The curriculum should meet the day to day needs of the child and also societys
needs. It should also help in developing national and international understanding with peace and
harmony.

He suggested the subjects for various purposes as follows:

Subjects: Language and Literature, Indian Languages along with mother tongue as an essential
language. Also Foreign languages like, Russian, German, French, Latin, and Chinese.

Other subjects like Mathematics, Natural Sciences, Social Sciences (History, Civics, Economics
and Sociology), Agriculture and Technical subjects, Arts, Music and dance etc. Also other
subjects like Philosophy, Religion and Psychology.

He suggested activities and occupations for the harmonious development of child like, dancing,
music, games, sports, drawing, painting, agriculture & gardening, excursions, regional studies,
laboratory work, social service and self-governance.

At shantiniketan he provided space for actual living & community service where his main focus
was rural reconstruction.
Education through emotions:

He felt music, dance and other fine arts are very useful in developing emotional balance and self
expression.

He advocated mother tongue as medium of instruction.

Manual training was advocated for physical development and also spiritual development.

Methods of Teaching:

He negated all that is mechanical, beaten track, stereotyped, bookish, foreign, imaginary and
lifeless and irrelevant education. He suggested individuality to develop through learning as per
the interests, curiosity, spirit & emotions of the child.

- Teaching while walking.

Through field trips, excursions, child observes & learns about many subjects on its own.

- Debate and discussion method


- Heuristic method
- Activity method

Discipline:

He never emphasized harsh treatment or strict disciplinary practices. He suggested education


through freedom of mind (where the mind is without fear). Natural & through and by Nature
learning should take place.

Teacher:

Teachers role is very important. Teacher should take the responsibility of these children, by
giving guidance & keeping them on tract; teacher should understand the child very well. He
rightly statedA teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. A lamp never
lights another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame.

He also gave much importance to education of women and masses. His zeal was to provide
universal education which is reflected in his shantiniketan.

Tagores philosophy and educational thought were realistically practiced through shantiniketan.
The purpose of Viswa Bharathi is to bring out cultures of the East, rural reconstruction, synthesis
between east & west.

The departments of shantiniketan are self explanatory to understand his concern for school
education and higher education.

Various departments under Viswa Bharathi

- Sisu Bhavan - Nursery School


- Path Bhavan - School Matriculation
- Shiksha Bhavan - Higher Secondary
- Vidya Bhavan - Under & post graduate studies & research in Pali, Sanskrit,
Hindi, Bengali Indian Philosophy and religion.
- Vinaya Bhavan - Teachers Training College
- Kala Bhavan - College of fine arts & crafts
- Sangeet Bhavan - College of Music & dance
- Sriniketan - Department of Rural Reconstruction
- Siksha Satra - Rural High School
- Silpa Sadan - College of industrial Training
- Cheena Bhavan - School of languages related to Chinese & Tibetan.

His philosophy and education is a message to mankind. In the words of H.B. Mukerjee, Tagore
was the greatest prophet of educational renaissance in modern India. He was a living legendary
to create an ideal model before humanity to make human beings in true sense.

5.6 BASIC TENETS OF JIDDU KRISHHNAMURTHYS PHILOSOPHY

Jiddu Krishnamuthy used to say I desire those who seek to understand me, to be free, not to
follow me, not to make me a cage, which will become a religion or sect.

His message to mankind was first understand the purpose of your life, the purpose of this
individual existence, understand what is it towards which you are thriving, then utilize every
emotion and every thought to strengthen you.

He initiated no new faith or dogma. He claimed no authority, no religion and initited no program
of socal reform. He postulated nothing more than total transformation for the individual self as a
cure for conflict and suffering in the world. He encouraged his audience to think on their own, to
feel passionately, to shed the burdans of the past or the future and to free their minds from fears.

Education: Integral Education and Creation of Integrated Individuals: In the words of J.Krishna
Murthy, without an integrated understanding of life, our individual and collective problems will
only deepen and extend. The purpose of education is not to produce mere scholars, technicians,
and job hunters, but integrated men and women who are free of fear, for only between such
human beings can there be enduring peace. To understand life is to understand ourselves, and
that is both the beginning and end of education.

Intergral Education: Characteristics:

1. Development of the capacity to face challenges: If the individual is to grapple with life from
moment to moment, if he is to face its intricacies, its miseries and sudden demands, he must be
infinitely practical and free of theories and particular patterns of thought.
2. Development of Self-Knowledge: Education should not encourage the individual to conform
to society or to be negatively harmonious to it, but help him to discover the true values which
come with unbiased investigations and self awareness. Understanding comes only through self
knowledge which is awareness of ones total psychological process.
3. Helping to have Integrated Experience: The right kind of education, while encouraging the
learning of a technique, should accomplish something which is of far greater importance; it
should help men to experience the integrated process of life.
4. Freedom from Ready-made Ideals: Ideals have no place in education, for they prevent the
comprehension of the present. Surely, we can be aware of what is only when we donot escape
into the future. To look to the furure, to strain after an ideal indicates sluggishness of mind and
desire to avoid the present.
When one follows an ideal, a pattern, when one has a formula for what should be, does one not
live a very superficial automatic life! We need, not idealists, or entities with mechanical minds
but integrated human beings who are intelligent and free.
5. Development of Maturity to be Free: The right kind of education is not concerned with any
kind of ideology. However, much it may promise a utopia, it is not based on any system,
however, carefully thoughtout, nor is it a means of conditioning the individual in some special
manner. Education in the true sense of helping the individual to be mature and free to flower
grately in love and goodness.
6. Re-education: Right education comes with the transformation of us. We must re educate
ourselves not to kill one another for any cause, however righteous, for any ideology, however
promising it may appear to be for the future happiness of the world.
7. Development of Consideration for Others: The right kind of education will encourage
thoughtfulness and consideration for others without enticements or threats of anykinds.
8. Development of right understanding of our Environment:We are not only conditioned by
environment, but that we are the environment We are not something apart from it. Our
thoughts and responses are conditioned by our values which society of which we are a part has
imposed upon us.
9. Development of Wisdom and Not Acquiring Knowledge: In our search for knowledge, in
our acquisitive desires, we are loosing love, we are bluting the feeling for beauty, the sensitivity
to cruality, becoming more and more specialized and less and less integrated. Wisdom cannot be
replaced by knowledge and no amount to explanation, no accumulation of facts will free man
from suffering. Knowledge is necessary, science has its place but if the mind and heart are
suffocated by knowledge, and if the cause of suffering is explained away, life becomes vain and
meaningless.
10. Development of Attitude of Love towards Others: Only love and right thinking can bring
in true revolution. The revolution within ourselves.
11. Development of Right Relationship: The purpose of education is to cultivate right
relationship not only between individuals but also between the individual and the society.
12. Development of Simplicity: To educate a child is to help him to understand freedom and
integration. To have freedom, there must be freedom, which virtue alone can give; and
integration can take place when there is a great simplicity.
13. Development of Creative Intelligence: It is constant inquiry, true dissatisfaction, that
brings creative intelligence; but to keep inquiry and discontent awake is extremely arduous, most
people do not want their children to have this kind of intelligence, for it is very uncomfortable to
live with someone who is constantly questioning accepted values.
14. Freedom from Ideology: The conditioning of the childs mind to fit a particular ideology,
whether political or religious, breeds enmity between man and man.
15. Freedom and Discipline: It is only in the individual freedom that love and goodness can
flourish; and the right kind of education can alone offer this freedom.
16. Rewards and Punishments: Sensitivities can never be awakened through compulsion. It
breads antagonism and fear. Rewards and punishments in any form only make the mind sub
servient and dull; and if that is what we desire, then education through compulsion is an
excellent way to proceed.
17. Spiritual Training and Not Religious Education: Dogmas, mysteries and rituals are not
conducive to a spiritual life. Religious education in the true sense is to encourage the child to
understand his own relationship to people, to things and to nature.True religious education is to
help the child to be intellectually aware, to discern for himself the contemporary and the real, and
to have a disinterested approach to life.
18. Methods of Teaching: We should not teach the child what to think, but how to think, each
child should have the freedom to think for himself. The student should be treated as equal
partner. Repetition encourages the mind to be sluggish. A shock is needed to awaken it, which
we then call a problem.
19. Role of Teacher:

Understand the child and not thrust him with ideals. The right kind of education consists in
understanding the child as he is without imposing upon him an ideal of what we think we should
be.

Observing the child:To understand a child we have to watch him in play, study him in different
moods.

Integration of the Educator himself: Human beings must be integrated if they are to come out of
any crisis, especially the world crisis, without being broken; therefore, to parents and teachers
who are really interested in education, the main problem is how to develop an integrated
individual. To do this, the educator must himself obviously be integrated.
A True Teacher: An educator is not merely a giver of education. He is one who points the way to
wisdom, to truth. Truth is far more important than the teacher. The search for truth is religion and
the truth is of no country, no creed, it is not to be found in any temple, church or mosque.
Without the search for truth, society soon decays.

Krishna Muthys conception of methods of teaching, school organisation and role of teacher is
ruely progressive in nature and based on sound philosophy of education. His emphasis on the
development of an integrated personality thorugh integral approach is highly commended by
almost all thinkers.

5.7 Unit Summary:

Sri Aurobindos contribution to Indian philosophy and religion is immense. He brought in new
concepts in philosophy like integral yoga, superman and supermind. Sri Aurobindo Ghoshs
synthetic vision is cosmic and has the merit of comprehensiveness and clarity.

Integral yoga implies healthy integration of God and the man or world, renunciation and
enjoyment, freedom of the soul and action of nature, being and becoming, the one and many,
Vidya and avidya, knowledge and works, and birth and release.

Super Mind - Mans mind is not so perfect, as to grasp all the integral truths. The integral truth
can be grasped by the super mind.

Super Man -When the man attains, the super mind, he becomes the super man. He transcends his
own nature by rising above the qualities of sattva, rajas and tamas. He surrenders himself
completely to god. He attains union with god in body, mind and soul.

M.K. Gandhiji said, by education I mean an all round drawing out of the best in child, and man-
body, mind and spirit. Important principles of his philosophy are; Truth / Satyam,
Ahmisa/Nonviolence, Love, belief and faith in God, Brotherhood of man, Service to humanity.

Education is for the all round development of the child, drawing out the potential of the child. In
his view education is for life and through life. Basic concepts of his education system are
education for sarvodaya, free and compulsory education, craft based, self supporting education;
mother tongue should be the medium of instruction, cult of non-violence, and ideal citizenship
anddignity of labour as a personal value.

Tagore was a great philosopher, saint, poet, educationist and a karma yogi. He is an artist,
spiritual being. Love of man was his religion. He started his own school at the age of 40 in the
year 1901 at Bolpur near Calcutta which has grown into an International University
Viswabharathi in 1921.

In 1909 Gitanjali was published. An Irish poet W.B. Yeats spoke very high about its quality and
value of this work of supreme culture. In the year 1913 he was awarded noble prize. His view
of curriculum is also very broad and holistic in nature. Tagore advocated subjects; Language and
literature, Indian Languages along with mother tongue as an essential language along with
foreignlanguages like, Russian, German, French, Latin and Chinese.

Jiddu Krishnamuthy used to say I desire those who seek to understand me, to be free, not to
follow me, not to make me a cage, which will become a religion or sect.

In the words of J.Krishna Murthy, without an integrated understanding of life, our individual
and collective problems will only deepen and extend. The purpose of education is not to produce
mere scholars, technicians, and job hunters, but integrated men and women who are free of fear,
for only between such human beings can there be enduring peace. To understand life is to
understand ourselves, and that is both the beginning and end of education.

Points to remember:

Aurobindo is the embodiment of the spiritual reality which he affirms in his great works. He has
contributed a body of vast literature embodying his vision of the reality and mans destiny on
earth.

Sri Aurobindo finds a wide gulf between the ordinary mind and the supermind. He suggests this
gulf should be bridged by yoga. The integral view of life culminates in synthetic yoga.

Gandhi was a true karma yogi and satyagrahi. He believed in truth, non violence and love.He
believed in dignity of labour.His ideal was Ramarajya and village self sufficiency.

Tagore was a great philosopher, saint, poet, educationist and a karma yogi. A personified
humane personality. He won noble prize for Gitanjali in the year 1913.

He found a relationship between man and man, man and nature.His philosophy reflects Indian
Universalism.He loves freedom.

The basic cardinal principles of Tagores philosophy are: Freedom for the child, creative self-
expression, active communication withy man and nature and harmony with all things. He was the
the first Indian to receive noble prize in literature.

Jiddu Krishnamuthys message to mankind was first understand the purpose of your life, the
purpose of this individual existence, understand what is it towards which you are are thriving,
then utilizing every emotion and every thought to strengthen you.

5.8 Check your progress( self study)

1. What is the basic philosophy ofAurobindo Ghosh andwhat are its implications to education?
2. How do you think Gandhian philosophy and Gandhian education are suitable to the
contemporary times?
3. Write about the basic tenets of Tagores philosophy and his contribution to education?
4. Write about Krishna Murthys contribution to education?
5.9 ASSIGNMENTS

1. Why do you think Aurobindos philosophy has contemporary relevance? Discuss.


2. Write a comparative note and a critical review of Tagore and Gandhian Philosophy?

5.10Points for discussion and clarification:


After going through the unit, you may want to have further discussion or clarifications on
some points.

5.10.1 Points for discussion

5.10.2 Points for clarification

5.11 REFERENCES

1 Walia, Dr.J.S. (2004) Education in Indian Society, Paul Publishers.Punjab.


2. Indira Gandhi National Open University School of Education, Education and society.
3. Aggarwal, J.C. Basic Ideas in Education,
4. Bhatia, K.K.; Narang, C.L. (1988) First course in Principles of Education, Parkash Brothers
. Educational Publishers.Ludhiana.
3. Chaube S.P., and Chaube A.,(1994) Foundations of Education, Vikas Publishing House Pvt
. Ltd. New Delhi.
4.Mrunalini.Dr.T.(2008) Philosophical Foundations of Education,Neel Kamal Publications Pvt.
Ltd.Hyderabad.
5. Acharya Nagarjuna University,M.Ed.(D.M.) Material.
6. Mrunalini.Dr.T.(2006) Yoga education,Neel Kamal Publications Pvt. Ltd.Hyderabad.
Course Code: B.Ed. A2: Contemporary India and Education
BLOCK 2: UNDERSTANDING DIVERSITY

BLOCK INTRODUCTION IS NOR THERE

______________________________________________________________

UNIT-6: CONCEPT OF DIVERSITY

______________________________________________________________

STRUCTURE

6.1: Introduction

6.2: Objectives

6.3: Meaning of Diversity

6.4: Definition of Diversity

6.5: Diversity Consciousness

6.6: Problems and Benefits of Diversity

6.7: Misconceptions about Diversity

6.8: Categories of Diversity

6.9: Unit Summary

6.10: Check Your Progress

6.11: Assignments

6.12: Points for Discussion and Clarification

6.13: References
_______________________

6.1: INTRODUCTION
_______________________

In recent years, diversity has become a widely used and discussed concept, which has

acquired great significance in human relations, education, business and industry,

national and international issues, and in global perspective. The concept of diversity has

enormous implications and importance in the field of teaching and learning.

This unit attempts to introduce and describe the meaning of diversity, diversity

consciousness, and benefits of diversity and lists the categories of diversity.

___________________

6.2: OBJECTIVES

___________________

After completion of this unit, the student will be able to:

Define diversity.

Understand the meaning of diversity.

Comprehend the meaning of diversity consciousness.

List the important categories of diversity.

Critically view the misconceptions about diversity.

__________________________
6.3: MEANING OF DIVERSITY
__________________________
The simplest meaning of diversity is `differences. The term diversity can be

defined as the quality or state of having many different forms, types, ideas, etc.

Diversity refers to the variety and variability of any parameter. The concept of

diversity applies to all aspects such as life forms, nature and environment,

human beings, societies etc. For example, Biodiversity generally refers to the

variety and variability of life on Earth. The natural world exhibits a tremendous diversity

in the form of plants and animals, variability within species, in between species and

between ecosystems.

Enormous diversity exists in the non-living physical world also, such as elements,

minerals, materials.

In the case of human beings, diversity has a much larger and wider connotation. It

involves variations and variability in all aspects of human life, such as gender, religious

beliefs, political beliefs, or other ideologies, race, martial status, ethnicity, parental

status, age, education, physical and mental ability, income, socio-economic status,

sexual orientation, occupation, language, geographic location, and many more

components. Study of diversity is the exploration of these differences in a safe, positive,

and nurturing environment.

In recent years, the term diversity has grown in use. The term regularly appears in the

popular media, professional magazines, trade books, and scholarly literature.

Nevertheless, there is no single, agreed upon definition of diversity. To some it means

tolerance, acceptance, or perhaps an attitude. To others, diversity may mean inclusion,

numbers, or racial and gender differences. Still others see diversity as a code word for
affirmative action or laws designed to ensure representation of minority groups. Unlike

affirmative action, diversity is not a legal concept. Nor does it include only some people.

Diversity refers to all of the ways in which people are different. This includes individual,

group, and cultural differences.

_________________________________
6.4: DEFINITIONS OF DIVERSITY
_________________________________

Diversity is defined in the dictionary as a state of unlikeness or the condition of being

different. Because we are all different, diversity includes everyone.

Wellner (2000) defined diversity as a multitude of individual differences and similarities

that exist among people.

Gardenswartz & Rowe (1994) described diversity as being like an onion possessing

layers that once peeled away revealed the core. The four layers of diversity, according

to him, are organizational dimensions, external dimensions, internal dimensions, and

personality.

_____________________________

6.5: DIVERSITY CONSCIOUSNESS

_________________________________

Diversity among individuals and groups is manifested as a number of demographic,

physical, psychological and emotional differences. In the context of education or work

environment, it is necessary to identify these differences, to tolerate them and to create


an atmosphere of equity and mutual respect. Our ability to recognize, understand, and

adapt to these differences is a major focus of Diversity Consciousness.

The concept of diversity consciousness encompasses acceptance and respect. It

means understanding that each individual is unique, and recognizing our individual

differences.

Individual differences can be along the dimensions of race, ethnicity, gender, socio-

economic status, age, physical abilities, religious beliefs, political beliefs, or other

ideologies. Diversity consciousness is the exploration of these differences in a safe,

positive, and nurturing environment. It is about understanding each other and moving

beyond simple tolerance to embracing and celebrating the rich dimensions of diversity

contained within each individual or group.

Acknowledging and supporting the diversity in any society require conscious efforts on

the part of all the concerned people of that society, as outlined below:

Respecting the qualities and experiences that are different from our own.

Understanding that diversity includes not only ways of being but also ways

of knowing.

Respecting individual rights to self-identification.

Recognizing that no one culture is intrinsically superior to another.

Recognizing that personal, cultural and institutionalized discrimination

creates and sustains privileges for some while creating and sustaining

disadvantages for others.

Building alliances across differences so that we can work together to

eradicate all forms of discrimination.


Diversity includes, therefore, knowing how to relate to those qualities and conditions

that are different from our own, which are present in other individuals and groups.

Another characteristic of diversity is that categories of difference are not always fixed

but also can change in space and time.

________________________________________________

6.6: PROBLEMS AND BENEFITS OF DIVERSITY

_________________________________________________

When people's differences are not recognized and are not accepted, those differences

will manifest as problems, sources of conflict, obstacles in the path of harmony and

progress, reasons to not participate etc. Some psychologists call this situation `co-

stupidity.

Diversity has a broader positive side. When people's differences are recognized and

respected, the differences contribute to the development of new insights, solutions,

activities, experiences, possibilities and relationships that enrich a group or community.

This is described as `co-intelligence. Trudy and Peter Johnson-Lenz coined the term

"groupware" for this positive dimension of diversity.

Diversity brings together individuals from various backgrounds having important skills

which in turn stimulates competitiveness and healthy growth.

In a diverse environment, the exchange of ideas among its members of diverse qualities

creates an atmosphere of cultural acceptance and it leads to improvements in their


relations. When individuals perceive that their ideas, strengths and weaknesses are

valued in the group, they become more involved in the group.

Diversity leads to superior outcomes in decision making because the `diverse approach

to a problem provides alternative views and perspectives, leading to a wider range of

possibilities than by a homogenous group. Diversity brings together different

experiences and perspectives that serve as the catalysts for innovation and productivity.

___________________________________________

6.7: MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT DIVERSITY

____________________________________________

Diversity is a concept that is understood differently by different people, and hence

misunderstood by many. Some of the common misconceptions about diversity are as

follows:

1. Diversity Is a New Phenomenon. Diversity is not a new concept. It existed

always, in all societies and in all ages. But, it is receiving more attention now in

the new technological and globalization era.

2. Diversity is Deficiency. This is based on the premise that diversity in work

environment is the root cause of lower standards. However, in modern times

diversity is considered as a resource rather than a deficit.

3. Diversity is the cause of Divisiveness. Many people assume that our society is

divided because of our differences. Divisiveness emerges not from diversity in

society but from the inability to respect and learn from these differences.
4. Diversity Creates Fear. Fear may be generated when only differences are

recognized and rejected. If we accept and respect the differences and approach

with a sincere desire to learn more about others and ourselves, diversity leads to

good relations.

__________________________________

6.8: CATEGORIES OF DIVERSITY

___________________________________

As we have seen earlier, diversity is defined as any and all differences between and

among people. In order to understand which of these differences are at play and which

are significant, we have to identify types or categories of difference. For example,

scientists have established tremendous diversity in the natural world by classifying

plants and animals into groups on the basis of their physical characteristics and have

given these groups names, such as birds and mammals, reptiles and amphibians.

Similarly, the diversity in human beings can be described in terms of several categories.

Normally people discuss human diversity in terms of some specific group differences,

most of which are rooted in some form of oppression or discrimination. These

differences have become most common types of diversity studied because people

belonging to a particular group of this diversity have been hurt by another group. These

categories of diversity are:

Race
Nationality
Culture
Gender
Socio-economic Class
Languages
Disability
Sexual preference
Religion
Political ideology

The meaning of the term diversity is expanding continually. Roosevelt Thomas, a

leading expert on diversity, states that diversity encompasses a variety of other

dimensions, such as age, personal and corporate background, education, job function

and position, geographic origin, lifestyle, sexual orientation, and personality. Ancestry,

national origin, creed, religion, social class, leadership style, personality, family

background, marital status, military background, and disability can be added to this list.

It includes whatever people think distinguishes them.

Thus, hundreds of other types of diversity are identified which are far more significant in

contributing to collective intelligence. These differences include:

personality
Preferences
interests
o what people are interested in
o the different stakes they have in what's happening
needs
abilities, skills, capacities
perspectives and ways of seeing the world
ideas
feelings, emotions, mood
opinions, positions
attitudes
beliefs
assumptions about what's real
ego involvements
values - assumptions about what's good or important
dreams, visions, desires, wishes
connections
resources
habits
lifestyles
cognitive styles, ways of sensing and knowing the world
communication styles
stories, histories, myths (both personal and collective/group)
experience - capacities developed through life
stages of development
responses - how they respond to what's going on or what's being talked about
tolerance levels
physical appearances
roles - in society, in the group, in some narrative
families - what was their family of origin like
education - both formal and informal, past and ongoing
information - information they have, and their relationship to information as such
health
status - in society, in the immediate group or relationship, and many more.
______________________

6.9: UNIT SUMMARY

___________________

In recent years, diversity has become a widely used and discussed concept, which has

acquired great significance in human relations, education, business and industry,


national and international issues, and in global perspective. The concept of diversity has

enormous implications and importance particularly in the field of teaching and learning.

The diversity is the quality or state of having many different forms, types, ideas,

etc. It represents `differences.

With reference to human beings, diversity involves variations and variability in all

aspects of human life, such as gender, religious beliefs, political beliefs, or other

ideologies, race, martial status, ethnicity, parental status, age, education, physical and

mental ability, income, socio-economic status, sexual orientation, occupation, language,

geographic location, and many more components. Study of diversity is the exploration

of these differences in a safe, positive, and nurturing environment.

Recognizing the dimensions of diversity in any social context, such as education or

work environment, tolerating them and creating an atmosphere of equity and mutual

respect is referred to as Diversity Consciousnes . Our ability to recognize, understand,

and adapt to the differences is a major focus of Diversity Consciousness.

Acknowledging and supporting the diversity in any society require conscious efforts on

the part of all the concerned people of that society.

The phenomenon of diversity has both negative and positive connotations. When there

is lack of diversity consciousness in any social system, diversity will result in a state of

`co-stupidity manifested by social problems, sources of conflict, obstacles in the path of

harmony and progress, reasons to not participate etc.

Diversity is not a new phenomenon as it existed always, in all societies and in all ages.

It is neither a deficiency nor a cause of divisiveness or fear. On the other hand, with
proper understanding, acceptance, respect and adaptation, diversity can be harnessed

into a resource for developing harmony, creativity and innovation in all human activities.

The major categories of diversity in any society are gender, race, culture and language.

However, diversity encompasses a large number of other dimensions, such as age,

personal and corporate background, education, job function and position, geographic

origin, lifestyle, sexual orientation, and traits of personality. Ancestry, national origin,

creed, religion, social class, leadership style, personality, family background, marital

status, military background, and disability and many more categories can be added to

this list

_________________________________

6.10: CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

_____________________________

1. Define the term diversity.

2. Explain the meaning of diversity in the context of human beings.

3. What are the negative and positive aspects of diversity?

4. Define Diversity Consciousness.

5. Discuss the need for and importance of Diversity Consciousness in the modern

world.

6. List the major categories of diversity.

7. Write a brief note on misconceptions about diversity.

_______________________
6.11: ASSIGNMENTS

____________________

1. Write an essay on diversity of students in a class with which you were or are

associated or with which you are familiar.

_______________________________________________________

6.12: POINTS FOR DISCUSSION AND CLARIFICATION

_______________________________________________________

After studying the unit, if you have any points for further discussion or clarifications, list

them below:

6.12.1 Points for discussion:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.12.1 Points for clarification:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
_____________________

6.12: REFERENCES

_____________________

1. Pearson: Diversity: An Overview.

http://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter

/0321952294.pdf

2. Diversity Consciousness: Opening our Minds to People, Cultures and Opportunities,

3rd Edition; By Richard D. Bucher; Publisher: Prentice Hall

3. Cultural and Linguistic Diversity: Issues in Education by Nicole Patton Terry and

Miles Anthony Irwing; From Special Education for all Teachers, 5th Edition, by Colarusso

and ORourke, 2010


______________________________________________________________

UNIT-7: TYPES OF DIVERSITY

______________________________________________________________

STRUCTURE

7.1: Introduction

7.2: Objectives

7.3: Gender Diversity

7.4: Linguistic Diversity

7.5: Cultural Diversity

7.6: Socio-Economic Diversity

7.7: Disability Diversity

7.8: Unit Summary

7.9: Check Your Progress

7.10: Assignments

7.11: Points for Discussion and Clarification

7.12: References

_______________________

7.1: INTRODUCTION
_______________________
As we have seen earlier, diversity is defined as any and all differences between and among

people. The number of types or categories of such differences is quite large. However, the most

common types of diversity that have significance in human relations, education, business

and industry, are considered here.

This unit describes the meaning and salient features of the main categories of diversity,

namely, gender diversity, linguistic diversity, cultural diversity, and socio-economic

diversity.

The concept of disability as a diversity is also discussed.

___________________

7.2: OBJECTIVES

___________________

After completion of this unit, the student will be able to:

Explain the main characteristics of gender diversity and its implications in

education.

Explain the meaning of linguistic diversity and its relation to cultural diversity.

Discuss the linguistic diversity of the world and India..

Explain the meaning of culture and cultural diversity and its importance.

Define socio-economic diversity and describe its components.

Define the meaning and nature of disability.

Discuss the concept of disability as a functional diversity.

_______________________
7.3: GENDER DIVERSITY
__________________________
Historically, human diversity has been mostly described in terms of physical differences

sex and race being the main categories.

Sex is an important type of biological diversity, which is linked to gender.

The term Sex refers to biological make-up of human beings, based on which individuals

are identified as male or female. Biological differences between males and females are

manifested by differences in hormones, chromosomes, physical characteristics such as

physique, sexual organs etc. Biological diversity between males and females means

the differences of genes. The genetic diversity enables a population to adapt to its

environment and to respond to natural selection

Gender, on the other hand, is a social construct that determines masculine and feminine

personalities. Gender as a social construct impacts attitudes, roles, responsibilities and

behavior patterns of males and females in all societies.

Gender diversity refers to the social ideas and assumptions about what it means to be

male or female in a given place at a given time. It is what the society expects from

males and females with regard to appearance, behavior and attitudes. .

It is always debated as to which of the two, the biological make-up or the social and

cultural factors, determines the maleness and femaleness of individuals. According to

the biological determinist approach, it is the biological make-up which plays a

predominant role in deciding the behavior of males and females. According to the

cultural deterministic approach, it is the society and culture in which one is brought up

that decides masculinity and femininity of individuals. The most prevailing view is that
although certain biological differences exist between males and females, the social and

cultural factors have greater influence in determining the notion of masculinity and

femininity. Feminist writers argue that it was the social and cultural constructions of

gender that led to discrimination and oppression of women and their inferior position in

society.

Gender diversity has been the most significant form of discrimination operating across

cultures in developed and developing societies. Education has the inbuilt potential of

initiating social change in the context of gender relations. Therefore, issues of gender

diversity need to be addressed at all levels of education. Irrespective of age and

class, gender impacts a students experience at school. It is established that students

ability to succeed in school is strongly related to their sense of safety, and gender is one

of the factors that greatly impacts perceptions of safety.

Preventing people from pursuing their passions and interests simply based on their

gender, we lose access to an incredible source of human potential. Studies show that

greater the gender diversity in an organization, greater is the possibility for innovation

and problem solving. Research indicates that females have higher emotional

Intelligence and that emotional intelligence leads to excellence in any activity.

Gender differences are both similar to and different from cultural differences. The

physiological differences between males and females do not extend to inherent

differences in the ability to succeed at school or work. The effect of gender on learning

and achievement is constructed by culture. In most societies, girls are expected to

behave more passively than boys. Boys are expected to be active and curious, often to

the point of getting into trouble, which is considered normal and acceptable (Schrum &
Geisler, 2003). Typically, our culture describes male behavior as aggressive,

assertive, and competitive. Female behavior is described as collaborative and

supportive. Boys are encouraged to develop skills in fields like engineering and

computer science; girls are often discouraged from participation in these fields. Subjects

that focus on personal aesthetics such as fashion and interior design are considered a

female realm.

Honey et al. (1991) suggests that males view technology as a means to gain power and

control over the physical universe, while females envision technology as a means to

improve communication and collaboration.

_________________________________
7.4: LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY
_________________________________
We all know that language is a means of communication among members of a society.

Language imparts cultural and personal identity and socializes one into a cultural group

(Gollnick & Chinn, 2006). Language can be nonverbal and verbal. The former consists

of facial expressions, gestures, while the latter involves actual speech used in

conversations. Language communication also takes place in two other modes oral

and written. Listening and speaking constitute oral form of the language and reading

and writing represent written form.

Linguistic diversity has been defined in a broad sense as the range of variations

exhibited by human languages. It is generally considered that there are about 7000

languages in the world today, but most of the languages included are only dialects.
Linguistic diversity is generally described in terms of the number of languages spoken in

a society: the more number of languages, the more linguistic diversity. For example, we

can say that India with over 200 languages is linguistically more diverse than Europe.

The linguistic diversity in the world has important implications for individuals and

societies. There are only about 200 independent states in the world in which 7000

languages are spoken. This shows that multilingualism is very common in the world.

The countries where more languages are spoken, which have high linguistic diversity,

are: Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, Nigeria, India and Mexico.

India has large linguistic diversity, It is said that India is a Veritable tower of Babel. In

the words of A.R. Desai, India presents a spectacle of museum of tongues.

This linguistic diversity notwithstanding, there was always a sort of link language,

though it has varied from age to age. In ancient times, it was Sanskrit, in medieval age it

was Arabic or Persian and in modern times there are Hindi and English as link

languages for the entire country.

It is impossible to separate language and culture. One cannot be defined without the

other. In order to participate fully in a culture, one must learn that cultures language.

Conversely, in order to be fluent in a language, one must learn the culture which that

language represents. Thus, linguistic and cultural diversities go together.

School students coming from diverse language backgrounds encounter difficulty in

learning and in communicating with fellow students. As language and culture are closely

related, students whose mother tongue is different from the main language of the school

are expected to learn and use a new language and new cultural dispositions effectively.
While the diversity of world languages is amazing in terms of the total number of

languages, it is also proven that this diversity is diminishing very rapidly. It is estimated

that 90% of the existing world languages may become extinct in the coming century.

According to UNESCO, 96% of the languages are spoken by just 4% of the world

population, mostly by native and tribal people. It is reported that on an average one

language disappears every two weeks. It is feared that rich world heritage preserved in

songs, stories, art and handicrafts of indigenous people may be lost forever as a result

of expanding globalization.

_________________________________

7.5: CULTURAL DIVERSITY

_________________________________

Culture of a group of people or society refers to the totality of beliefs, behaviors,

objects, and other characteristics common to the members of that society. People

define themselves, through culture of the society and conform to its values. Thus,

Culture is a broad and comprehensive concept that refers to the entire way of life of the

members of a society, and includes many societal aspects viz., language, custo//ms,

values, norms, mores, rules, tools, technologies, products, organizations, and

institutions (Banks, 2006). Common institutions of a society are the family, education,

religion, work, etc. Members of a society learn culture throughout life as they participate
in social institutions (Gollnick & Chin, 2006). Cultural practices are shared within a

specific group and may or may not be shared across groups.

In every culture, subgroups form which may differ in any of the components of culture,

such as ethnicity, language, class, religion, and geography. These subgroups can be

quite different from one another, even though they share some common characteristics.

Cultures undergo changes continuously because individuals, groups, and the

surrounding environment change.

The differences in the cultural characteristics between the groups and subgroups can

be described as the cultural diversity of a social system. For example, students who

may be distinguished from one another by ethnicity, social class and language (Perez,

1998) are referred to as culturally diverse students.

Cultural diversity can be defined as the quality of diverse or different cultures. It also

refers to having different cultures respect each other's differences.

The term "cultural diversity" is also used to mean the variety of human groups

or cultures in a specific region or in an institution.

The culturally destructive action of globalization is often said to have a negative effect

on the world's cultural diversity.

India, with its multiple religions, languages, castes and people of many racial

backgrounds, presents enormous cultural diversity.

Movement of people from one region to another or across borders leads to increase in

cultural diversity within societies. The co-existence of groups of people who differ in

behavior, traditions and customs is referred to a cultural diversity of a society.


The importance of Cultural Diversity can be understood from the the Universal

Declaration on Cultural Diversity (UDCD) adopted by General Conference of UNESCO

in 2001. The Declaration, the first of its kind within the international community, elevates

cultural diversity to the rank of common heritage of humanity. The salient features of the

Declaration are briefly presented below.

Article 1 of UDCD emphasizes the principle that culture takes diverse forms across

time and space. This diversity is embodied in the uniqueness and plurality of the

identities of the groups and societies making up humankind. As a source of exchange,

innovation and creativity, cultural diversity is as necessary for humankind as biodiversity

is for nature. In this sense, it is the common heritage of humanity and should be

recognized and affirmed for the benefit of present and future generations."

Article 2 of UDCD underlines the importance of moving from cultural diversity to cultural

pluralism. "In our increasingly diverse societies, it is essential to ensure harmonious

interaction among people and groups with plural, varied and dynamic cultural identities

as well as their willingness to live together. Policies for the inclusion and participation of

all citizens are guarantees of social cohesion, the vitality of civil society and peace.

Thus defined, cultural pluralism gives policy expression to the reality of cultural diversity.

Cultural pluralism is conducive to cultural exchange and to the flourishing of creative

capacities that sustain public life."

Article 3 of the Declaration delineates cultural diversity as a factor in development.

"Cultural diversity widens the range of options open to everyone; it is one of the roots of

development, understood not simply in terms of economic growth, but also as a means

to achieve a more satisfactory intellectual, emotional, moral and spiritual existence."


Article 4 emphasizes the relation between cultural diversity and respect for human rights

by stating that "The defence of cultural diversity is an ethical imperative, inseparable

from respect for human dignity. It implies a commitment to human rights and

fundamental freedoms, in particular the rights of persons belonging to minorities and

those of indigenous peoples. No one may invoke cultural diversity to infringe upon

human rights guaranteed by international law, nor to limit their scope."

________________________________________________

7.6: SOCIO-ECONOMIC DIVERSITY

The terms socioeconomic class and socioeconomic status mean the economic and

social conditions under which people live, which can determine their access to financial

security and to social institutions. However, the boundaries between different socio-

economic classes are not distinct, as peoples socioeconomic circumstances change

over time, and mixed-class experiences are very common. The economic resources of

a family do not determine how much they love their children or whether they are skilled

at childrearing. However, families access to quality food, housing, health care, and

quality education affects childrens development. In addition, even very young children

learn value-based, biased messages about socioeconomic class. These influence their

ideas and feelings about where and how they live, what they own or do not own, how

they speak and behave, and what they eat and wear.

In India, caste diversity is an important component of socio-economic diversity.


India is a country of castes. Caste refers to a hereditary, endogamous status group

practicing a specific traditional occupation. It is estimated that there are more than 3,000

castes in India. These are hierarchically graded in different ways in different regions.

It may also be noted that the practice of caste system is not confined to Hindus alone.

We find castes among the Muslims, Christians, Sikhs as well as other communities.

In addition to the caste diversity, we have diversity of many other sorts like tribal, rural,

urban and religious variations, which also contribute to socio-economic diversity.

In schools socioeconomic diversity develops due to a mix of students from different

income levels, social backgrounds, and in some cases, racial and ethnic backgrounds.

This type of diversity offers many benefits to schools.

Socioeconomic diversity is viewed as beneficial to schools. Many upper-income families

send their children to private schools because they view the education and security as

superior to that of government schools. The problem is that when schools lack a diverse

array of students from different socioeconomic backgrounds, parents may be less likely

to get involved and to work with the schools to help them improve. Research shows that

socioeconomic diversity in schools can improve student test scores among students of

all backgrounds, as well as reduce the number of students who learn undesirable and

unsocial behaviors.

_________________________________________

7.7: DISABILITY DIVERSITY

____________________________________________
A disability means a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more

major life activities. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines disability as any

restriction or lack of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range

considered normal for a human being. The degree of disability may range from mild to

moderate, severe, or profound. A person may also have multiple disabilities

According to UNESCO, defining disabilities is problematic since there are many

different groups of disabilities, and vast individual differences exist within these groups.

Many people with impairments do not consider themselves as disabled. For example,

deaf persons who communicate with other deaf persons using sign language may

describe themselves as members of a language minority the sign language. Such

persons may prefer the term differently able to disabled.

The International Classification of Functioning (ICF) describes disability as the

outcome of the interaction between a person with impairment and the environmental

and attitudinal barriers that the person may face.

According to this definition, a child with physical impairment who moves with the help of

a wheelchair and who goes to a school without ramps for free wheelchair movement

clearly has a disability as a result of the environmental barriers he faces. However, a

child who is blind and has access to books and other learning material in Braille, and

has support of teachers trained in Braille, has impairment, but not necessarily a

disability because he faces no environmental and attitudinal barriers.

Different terms have been used for disability in different times and places. Most

commonly, three terms are used depending on the degree or level of difficulty, viz.,
impairment, disability, and handicap in the increasing order of severity of inability

to perform an activity.

Impairment is the lowest level of inability which can generate a disability, which in turn

can grow to a handicap. A handicap may often result in further social and economic

exclusion. The more the exclusion, the less aware and concerned the community will

become of the needs of persons with disabilities and the barriers they face.

The World Health Organization (WHO) has defined impairment, disability and handicap

as the following:

Impairment: Any temporary or permanent loss or abnormality of a body structure or

function, whether physiological or psychological. An impairment is a disturbance

affecting physical or mental functions.

Disability: A restriction or inability to perform an activity in the manner or within the

range considered normal for a human being, mostly resulting from impairment.

Handicap: The result of an impairment or disability that limits or prevents the fulfillment

of one or several roles regarded as normal, depending on age, sex, social and cultural

factors

The above definitions are still being used and referred to by many governments and

organizations. However, many people consider the term handicap as discriminatory.

In order to eliminate the discriminatory attitude towards disabled persons, some people

have advocated replacement of the term disability by the term Functional diversity

which was first used in 2005 in Spain.


This term is intended to replace all the terms associated with disability. It proposes a

shift towards non-negative, non-disparaging and non-patronizing terms. The formal

justification of the term is given in the book El Modelo de la Diversidad by Agustina

Palacios and Javier Romaach, 2007, ISBN 978-84-96474-40-6.

Some examples of usage of the term functional diversity are:

"people with functional diversity" instead of "people with special needs"

"physical functional diversity" for physically disabled

"visual functional diversity", for visually disabled

"auditory functional diversity" for hearing impaired

"mental functional diversity" for mentally challenged

"person with a functional diversity" instead of disabled person

"Persons without functional diversity" rather than "normal" or "healthy".

Generally, people with disabilities constitute a large minority in any country. People with

disabilities may be present in all racial, gender, educational, socioeconomic, and

organizational groups. Discussion regarding diversity has often focused only on gender

and culture, but limited attention is given to people with disabilities.

Several activists affirm that people with disabilities bring a valuable source of diversity to

classrooms and to professional organizations. In recent years, the concept of disability

as diversity has received considerable attention from teachers and scholars who

advocate that disability be included within the various diversity issues in education and

employment.
`The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 protects qualified individuals with

disabilities from unlawful discrimination in the workplace, including access to training

and career development. It considers a qualified individual with a disability as someone

who can perform the essential functions of the job with or without reasonable

accommodation.

Including Disability as Diversity in education involves a number of factors, such as

making mainstream classes accessible to students with disabilities, treating them

equally with other students, and incorporating disability studies in teacher education

course content.

Ian Langtree (2015) [http://www.disabled-world.com/definitions/disability-pride.php] has

listed the following Problems faced by persons of disability diversity:

People with disabilities from culturally diverse backgrounds experience twice the

discrimination experienced by non-disabled people.

There is disparity in rehabilitation services provided to minority persons with disabilities.

Educational opportunities are less available and affordable to individuals with disabilities

from culturally diverse backgrounds.

Inadequate transportation and housing in disadvantaged communities intensify the

education and employment barriers for people with disabilities in these communities.

There is a lack of mentors and role models for individuals with disabilities in the

workplace.
______________

7.8: UNIT SUMMARY

___________________

Gender Diversity: Gender is a social construct that determines masculine and feminine

personalities. It impacts attitudes, roles, responsibilities and behavior patterns of males

and females in all societies.

Gender diversity refers to the social ideas and assumptions about what it means to be

male or female in a given place at a given time. It is what the society expects from

males and females with regard to appearance, behavior and attitudes.

Gender diversity has been the most significant form of discrimination operating across

cultures in developed and developing societies. Education is the potential tool for

bringing in social change in gender relations. Therefore, issues of gender diversity need

to be addressed at all levels of education.

Linguistic diversity: Linguistic diversity is the range of variations exhibited by human

languages. It is generally described in terms of the number of languages spoken in a

society: the more number of languages, the more linguistic diversity.

With nearly 7000 languages spoken by world population in 200 countries, the world has

an amazing linguistic diversity. India also has large linguistic diversity.

School students coming from diverse language backgrounds encounter difficulty in

learning and in communicating with fellow students. As language and culture are closely
related, students whose mother tongue is different from the main language of the school

are expected to learn and use a new language and new cultural dispositions effectively.

The linguistic diversity is diminishing very rapidly as many languages are becoming

extinct. It is feared that rich world heritage preserved in songs, stories, art and

handicrafts of indigenous people may be lost forever as a result of expanding

globalization.

Cultural Diversity: Culture is a broad and comprehensive concept that refers to the

entire way of life of the members of a society, and includes language, customs, values,

norms, mores, rules, tools, technologies, products, organizations, and institutions.

Cultural diversity refers to the differences in the cultural characteristics between the

groups and subgroups of a society. The term "cultural diversity" is also used to mean

the variety of human groups or cultures in a specific region or in an institution

According to UNESCO, cultural diversity is a source of exchange, innovation and

creativity, and it is as necessary for humankind as biodiversity is for nature. It is the

common heritage of humanity and should be recognized and affirmed for the benefit of

present and future generations.

Cultural diversity is one of the roots of development, understood not simply in terms of

economic growth, but also as a means to achieve a more satisfactory intellectual,

emotional, moral and spiritual existence. It implies a commitment to human rights and

fundamental freedoms, in particular the rights of persons belonging to minorities and

indigenous peoples.
Socio-economic Diversity: Socioeconomic status means the economic and social

conditions under which people live, which can determine their access to financial

security and to social institutions.

Socioeconomic diversity results from differences in social status, economic conditions,

education etc. of people.

In schools socioeconomic diversity develops due to a mix of students from different

income levels, social backgrounds, and in some cases, racial and ethnic backgrounds.

Disability Diversity: A disability means a physical or mental impairment that

substantially limits one or more major life activities. It is defined as any restriction or lack

of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a

human being.

In order to eliminate the discriminatory attitude towards disabled persons, some people

have advocated replacement of the term disability by the term Functional diversity.

People with functional diversity bring a valuable source of diversity to classrooms and to

professional organizations. Including Disability as Diversity in education involves a

number of factors, such as making mainstream classes accessible to students with

disabilities, treating them equally with other students, and incorporating disability studies

in teacher education course content.


_________________________________

7.9: CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

_____________________________

1. Explain the meaning of gender diversity.

2. Define linguistic diversity and explain its implications in education.

3. What is cultural diversity? Briefly explain the need for preservation of cultural

diversity.

4. Define Socio-economic diversity.

5. Explain the concept of functional diversity..

6. List the major categories of diversity.

7. Write a brief note on misconceptions about diversity.

_______________________

7.10: ASSIGNMENTS

____________________

1. Discuss the inter-relationship between linguistic diversity and cultural diversity.

2. Give your views on inclusive classroom with normal students and disabled

students.

_______________________________________________________

7.11: POINTS FOR DISCUSSION AND CLARIFICATION


_______________________________________________________

After studying the unit, if you have any points for further discussion or clarifications, list

them below:

7.11.1 Points for discussion:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.11.2 Points for clarification:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

_____________________

7.12: REFERENCES

_____________________

1. Pearson: Diversity: An Overview.

http://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter

/0321952294.pdf
2. Diversity Consciousness: Opening our Minds to People, Cultures and Opportunities,

3rd Edition; By Richard D. Bucher; Publisher: Prentice Hall

3. Cultural and Linguistic Diversity: Issues in Education by Nicole Patton Terry and

Miles Anthony Irwing; From Special Education for all Teachers, 5 th Edition, by Colarusso

and ORourke, 2010

4. Disabled People International. (2005) DPI Position Paper on the Definition of

Disability page on URL: http://v1.dpi.org/lang-en/resources/details.php?page=74 [15

Nov. 2007].

5. Jump up^ Javier Romaach and Manuel Lobato. "Functional diversity, a new term in

the struggle for dignity in the diversity of the human being" (PDF). Independent Living

Forum (Spain) May 2005.

6. http://www.ncte.org/cccc/resources/positions/disabilitypolicy
______________________________________________________________

UNIT-8: DIVERSITY IN LEARNING AND PLAY

______________________________________________________________

STRUCTURE

8.1: Introduction

8.2: Objectives

8.3: Social and Cultural Diversity in Learning

8.4: Linguistic Diversity in Learning

8.5: Gender Diversity in Learning

8.6: Other factors of Diversity in Learning

8.7: Diversity in Play

8.8: Unit Summary

8.9: Check Your Progress

8.10: Assignments

8.11: Points for Discussion and Clarification

8.12: References
_______________________

8.1: INTRODUCTION
_______________________

This unit describes the situations and characteristics of various categories of diversity in

classroom learning environment, with special reference to Indian schools.

Other factors of diversity in learning and diversity in play are mentioned briefly.

___________________

8.2: OBJECTIVES

___________________

After completion of this unit, the student will be able to:

Understand the characteristics of social and cultural diversity in classroom

learning.

Appreciate the problems faced by linguistically diverse students in learning

environment.

Understand the problem of gender discrimination in learning in India.

Explain the role of play in addressing diversity in learning.

___________________________________________________
8.3: SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN LEARNING
___________________________________________________
A typical classroom in general consists of diverse students with different backgrounds,

sets of experiences and cultural contexts. One can recognize in a class room almost all

forms diversity described Unit-7.

The broad range of experiences and perspectives brought to school by culturally,

linguistically, socially and ethnically diverse students offers a powerful resource for

everyone to learn more in different ways, in new environments, and with different

types of people.

In India, the number of learners from diverse backgrounds entering elementary

classrooms is increasing rapidly. This greater variation in the talents, and social,

cultural, economic and political backgrounds of the learners, poses challenges to the

schools to develop effective learning environment for using this diversity constructively

and achieving the larger goals of social justice. In this regard, implementation of the

concept of inclusive education becomes important and imperative.

The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009 will not be

successful unless the interests of the children of social, cultural diversity and in

particular the marginalized communities are made active participants of the learning

process in the classroom.

Most of these children are from socially and economically disadvantaged sections, such

as Scheduled Caste (SC) and Scheduled Tribe (ST) communities; ethnic and religious

minorities, economically weaker sections (EWS), migrant laborers, urban poor and

differently able children with special needs. They are mostly from low socio-economic

groups and face a serious threat to their universal rights, such as school education.
Although RTE, 2009 provides a legal framework to make school admission, attendance

and completion compulsory, it is not adequate. Making the learning environment free of

anxiety, fear and stress for the diverse learners is more important. It is generally

recognized that the main factor for making learning process `stress free and `child

friendly is the teacher and teaching practices (GOI, 2009, p. 9).

____________________________________________
8.4: LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY IN LEARNING
____________________________________________
The linguistic diversity in India is very complex as a number of languages are spoken

even within a small geographical area along with link or contact languages. As a result,

diverse students in a classroom face learning disadvantage on account of the language

used at school. Some factors that pose difficulty to linguistically diverse students are:

- Usually, a classroom consists of students of at least two or three different mother

tongues or first language.

- Official medium of instruction prescribed for teaching and in text books is

different from the mother tongue of the child.

- Language used for instruction by the teacher may be different from the language

in which the child is fluent.

- Language background of the teacher may be different from the medium of

instruction or from the first language of the student.

- Teachers attitudes towards students who do not speak the standard school

language.
- Low literacy level (in the schools standard language) at home and neighborhood

of marginal families.

- The curriculum and teaching process are generally based on the assumption of

monolingual classrooms.

___________________________________________
8.5: GENDER DIVERSITY IN LEARNING
____________________________________________
As one of the most fundamental aspects of self, gender impacts everybody. Regardless

of a students age, gender impacts a childs experience at school across the

grades. There is abundant research about the relationship between students sense of

safety and their ability to succeed in school, and gender is one of the factors that greatly

impacts perceptions of safety. As a primary socializing agent, schools have a

tremendous opportunity and responsibility to be inclusive of all students, regardless of

their Gender identity or expression. In this role, educational institutions and the

professionals associated with them can significantly impact the degree to which gender

diversity in children and teens is viewed either positively or negatively.

Beyond supporting our young people as individuals, we cannot afford to have any of our

students cut off from interests, talents, or intellectual pursuits that may ultimately

contribute to our society. School is the place where our children should be exploring

ideas and discovering new skills. It is inexcusable that any child might be prevented

from pursuing their passions simply based on others perceptions of their gender,

language, cultural background, socio-economic status or disability. By sending a

message that certain pursuits are off limits simply because of a persons diversity, we
lose access to an incredible source of human potential. How many great discoveries,

new inventions, cures for disease, or works of art have we lost simply because people

believed they couldnt, or shouldnt, do something because of their diversity?

With regard to gender diversity, NCERTs position paper states as follows:

Gender diversity has been the most significant form of discrimination operating across

cultures in developed and developing societies. Education has the inbuilt potential of

initiating social change in the context of gender relations. Therefore, conscious and

pluralistic interventions have been put forward by the Government of India to address

gender equality in education at the centre and state level. A landmark initiative was

undertaken in 1986, with the enactment of the National Policy on Education (NPE) and

its revised POA 1992. This philosophy has also been reflected in the National Policy on

Empowerment of Women 2001. The policy focuses on promoting gender sensitive

curriculum for addressing gender discrimination at all levels of education. The new

National Policy lays emphasizes on Encourage, Educate and Employ all irrespective

of their socio-economic background.

Gender concerns in education have also been reflected in curriculum frameworks

developed by apex national organization like National Council of Educational Research

and Training (NCERT). In this regard curriculum frameworks of 1975, 1988, 2000 and

2005 have made specific efforts to focus attention on gender disparities in education.

While a lot of efforts have been made on integrating gender concerns in education;

globalization, liberalization and developments in information and communication

technology (ICT) have once again made it mandatory for revisiting gender concerns in

education in a proactive manner as an important developmental agenda.


_____________________________________________________
8.6: OTHER FACTORS OF DIVERSITY IN LEARNING
_____________________________________________________

However, diversity is an issue that plays a role in the classroom beyond these

categories. For example, much educational and psychological literature demonstrates

that students have diverse ways of learning. Some learn visually, through charts,

graphs, tables and drawing; others may learn primarily through aural means i.e. through

listening to lecture; and others still may be primarily kinesthetic, i.e. learning by doing,

project work, etc.

Additionally, issues of diversity play a role in how students and teachers view the

importance of the classroom and what should happen there. For example, assumptions

about what a typical student should know, the resources they have and their prior

knowledge are extremely important.

Students of diversity may perceive that they do not belong in the classroom setting

a feeling that can lead to decreased participation, feelings of inadequacy, and other

distractions. Teachers may make flawed assumptions of students capabilities or

assume a uniform standard of student performance.

Identifying and thinking through notions of differences and how they affect the

classroom allow both students and teachers to see the classroom as an inclusive place.

In a learning environment, every student is unique. Differences among the students may

be small or large. Some differences are considered advantageous (the gifted student)
and give the student an advantage in the classroom. Other differences can be a

challenge to the individual (the disadvantaged or differently able student).

Inclusive education:

Inclusion is the process of involving and valuing all people in an environment

regardless of their differences. Inclusion requires a proactive strategy that reflects

a conscious decision to respect individuals by affording them the opportunity to

become a valued part of the organization. In order for inclusion to occur, the

school environment must reflect these values, promote cohesion, and ensure

equal physical and social access.

Inclusion is especially important as the diversity in schools is gradually increasing

with the educational reforms (such as RTE), and teachers are experiencing a

more diverse student base than ever before.

________________________
8.7: DIVERSITY IN PLAY
________________________

One of the most common elements of childhood across cultures is play. Early childhood

educators must recognize the importance of play in the lives of young children and

make use of play as a means of promoting cultural awareness. An examination of the

relationship of play and diversity is important for at least three reasons. First, a rapidly

growing population of young children from culturally diverse backgrounds is entering

schools. Second, play is a way for children to learn about the world around them and to
learn cultural values. They not only learn about themselves but also about differences in

other people. And finally, early education programs must work to enhance a positive

awareness of individual differences and cultural diversity as a whole. Play experiences

may serve as an excellent way to help teach children about the differences in other

people and that these differences are not bad.

Creating a learning environment through play that respects diversity and sets the scene

for fostering childrens positive self-concept and attitudes. Such an environment assists

children in developing positive ideas about themselves and others, creates the

conditions under which children initiate conversations about differences, and provides

the setting for introducing activities about differences and creating fair and inclusive

communities

______________________

8.8: UNIT SUMMARY

___________________

The broad range of experiences and perspectives brought to school by culturally,

linguistically, socially and ethnically diverse students offers a powerful resource for

learning environment in schools.

This diversity of students also poses challenges to the schools to develop effective

learning environment achieving the larger goals of social justice.

In India, social and cultural diversity in schools is caused by children from socially and

economically disadvantaged sections, such as Scheduled Caste (SC) and Scheduled


Tribe (ST) communities; ethnic and religious minorities, economically weaker sections

(EWS), migrant laborers, urban poor and differently abled children with special needs.

Although RTE, 2009 provides a legal framework to make school admission, attendance

and completion compulsory, it is not adequate. Making the learning environment free of

anxiety, fear and stress for the diverse learners is more important. It is generally

recognized that the main factor for making learning process `stress free and `child

friendly is the teacher and teaching practices.

The very complex linguistic diversity in India, with a number of languages spoken even

within a small geographical area, makes diverse students in a classroom face learning

disadvantage on account of the language used at school.

Gender diversity has been the most significant form of discrimination operating across

cultures in developed and developing societies. Education has the inbuilt potential of

initiating social change in the context of gender relations. Conscious and pluralistic

interventions have been put forward by NPE for promoting gender sensitive curriculum

for addressing gender discrimination at all levels of education.

Different ways of learning and attitudes, such as learning through visual or aural means

by doing, project work, etc., also contribute to diversity in classroom learning.

Play experiences may serve as an excellent way to help teach children about the

differences in other people and that these differences are not bad. A learning

environment through play that respects diversity sets the scene for fostering childrens

positive self-concept and attitudes.

_________________________________
8.9: CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

_____________________________

1. Explain causes of social and cultural diversity in learning environment..

2. Discuss the disadvantages faced by linguistically diverse children in learning..

3. Write briefly about observations of RTE (2009) the role of education in addressing

gender discrimination in schools..

4. Write a brief note on the role of play in addressing diversity in learning.

_______________________

8.10: ASSIGNMENTS

____________________

3. Write an essay on various categories of diversity in a classroom situation.

_______________________________________________________

8.11: POINTS FOR DISCUSSION AND CLARIFICATION

_______________________________________________________

After studying the unit, if you have any points for further discussion or clarifications, list

them below:

8.11.1 Points for discussion:


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.11.2 Points for clarification:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

_____________________

8.12: REFERENCES

_____________________

1. Pearson: Diversity: An Overview.

http://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter

/0321952294.pdf

2. Diversity Consciousness: Opening our Minds to People, Cultures and Opportunities;

3rd Edition; By Richard B. Bucher, Publisher: Prentice Hall.

3. Cultural and Linguistic Diversity: Issues in Education by Nicole Patton Terry and

Miles Anthony Irwing; From Special Education for all Teachers, 5 th Edition, by Colarusso

and ORourke, 2010


4. GOI. (2009). The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, Ministry of

Law and Justice (Legislative Department).

5. Sanjay Kumar: Inclusive Classroom and Social Diversity in India: Myths and

Challenges. Jornal of Indian Research, Vol 2, No.1, Jan-March, 2014. P. 126-140.

6. Dhir Jingran: Hundreds of Home Languages in the Country and many in most

classrooms: Coping with Diversity in Primary Education in India. Web article


___________________________________________________________________________

UNIT-9: ADDRESSING DIVERSITY IN LEARNING AND PLAY

___________________________________________________________________________

STRUCTURE

9.1: Introduction

9.2: Objectives

9.3: Diversity of Learners

9.4: Inclusive Education

9.5: Curriculum for Diverse Learners

9.6: Text books for Diverse Learners

9.7: Teacher Training for Diverse Learning Needs

9.8: Classroom Strategies for Diverse Learners

9.9: Addressing Needs of Diverse Children in Play

9.10: Unit Summary

9.11: Check Your Progress

9.12: Assignments

9.13: Points for Discussion and Clarification

9.14: References
_____________________

9.1: INTRODUCTION
_____________________

This unit describes the various measures required for addressing the diverse learning

needs of children in schools. The importance of Inclusive education in this context is

highlighted. Principles of developing curriculum and teaching learning materials and

teacher training for diverse learning needs are presented. Some important classroom

strategies to be adopted by teachers suggested. Ways of addressing needs of children

in play are outlined.

________________

9.2: OBJECTIVES

________________

After completion of this unit, the student will be able to:

Understand the importance of Inclusive education in addressing the diverse

learning needs.

Understand the principles of developing curriculum for students of diverse

learning needs..

Prepare and use appropriate teaching learning materials for inclusive classroom.
Understand the classroom strategies to be adopted by teachers for learning and

play in inclusive classroom.

______________________________
9.3: DIVERSITY OF LEARNERS
______________________________

9.3.1. Acceptance of Diversity

As described in previous sections, diversity refers to differences in race and ethnicity,

language, gender, socio-economic status and abilities. Diversity consists of all the

qualities that make us dissimilar. These differences play a major role in how we respond

to our world and in how we educate ourselves and others.

Our collective differences bring strength to the teaching and learning process and each

of us is enriched through the cultural, language and ethnic diversity of others. Expecting

differences means that we acknowledge the fact that we are all made differently and

each of us has talents, skills, and abilities to contribute to society. Those traits may be

dissimilar to those around us, but they are truly of value in our learning processes.

These traits can be considered as funds of knowledge which are the historically

accumulated and culturally developed bodies of knowledge and skills essential for

household or individual functioning and well-being. They are the basic foundations

upon which all future learning is built.


By accepting the differences of others, we openly acknowledge and affirm the validity of

those differences. We understand that all people have a heritage and that heritage is

rooted in beliefs, customs and behaviors that shape who we are. Through acceptance,

we learn to listen to every voice with the same level of interest until each voice is heard.

Our demonstration of how we respect differences in others is shown in how we respond

to the difference they display. The varying perspectives that individuals bring to our

learning environments are assets in effective decision making, teaching and learning.

If diversity is expected, respected and accepted, educational professionals can begin to

meet the education goals of our democratic society.

9.3.2: Dimensions of Addressing Diverse Learning Needs

Addressing diverse learning needs in schools comprises three dimensions: (i)

Institutional, (ii) Personal and (iii) Instructional.

The institutional dimension refers to the administration that organizes physical structure

of the school and determines the policies and procedures as related to learning needs

of diverse students.

The personal dimension refers to the cognitive and emotional preparation of the

teachers to become responsive to diversity in schools.

The instructional dimension includes the materials, strategies and activities employed

for instruction in diverse class rooms.


_____________________________
9.4: INCLUSIVE EDUCATION
_____________________________

Today in the context of increasing number of learners from diverse backgrounds

entering elementary classrooms, the agenda of inclusive education has gained

importance. With a large variation in the talents, and social, cultural, economic and

linguistic backgrounds of the learners, the elementary class-room in India faces a

challenge to use this diversity constructively in order to democratize the teaching-

learning processes and practices, and achieve the larger goals of social justice.

With this background the Government of India has enacted the Right of Children to Free

and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009, which makes provides a legal framework

to make school admission, attendance and completion compulsory.

However, the implementation of this Act will be successful only if it addresses the needs

of the children of marginalized communities in the classroom.


Many of these children, across the country come from socially disadvantaged

backgrounds, such as Scheduled Caste (SC) and Scheduled Tribe (ST) communities;

ethnic and religious minorities, economically weaker sections (EWS), migrant laborers,

urban poor and children with special needs. Though the children of these communities

are enrolled in school, they face the danger of dropping out. Many of them live in

extremely vulnerable socio-economic conditions and face a serious threat to their

universal rights, such as a school education.

Mere ensuring physical access to school is not enough but more important is to make

school education free of anxiety, fear and stress for the diverse learners. In this context,

the quality of teaching-learning practices and processes elementary education has to be

improved. It is now widely recognized that the most important factor for making school

education stress free and child friendly for diverse learners is the teacher and

teaching practices (GOI, 2009, p. 9).

Recognizing the complexity of issues regarding teacher-based practices the RTE Act,

2009 makes it obligatory to change the general perception of children as passive

receivers of knowledge, and to move beyond the convention of using textbooks as the

basis of examinations.

______________________________________________
9.5: CURRICULUM FOR DIVERSE LEARNERS
______________________________________________
The unique characteristics, interest and attitudes of children and diversity in learning

demand differential teaching methods to be used by a teacher in the classroom to

facilitate learning. In order to meet the diversity, there is a need to develop an inclusive

curriculum. NCF 2005 also emphasizes the need of inclusive curriculum keeping in view

the diversity of learners. An inclusive curriculum aims to provide quality education that

will enable all children to learn effectively and participate equally in class. It also

provides to children the dignity and confidence to learn. As per the NCF 2005,

assessment of functional ability of learners calls for broad-based curriculum to

accommodate diversity of teaching approaches and use of Teaching Learning Materials

(TLM) in a given class room.

The guiding principle of school curriculum should be based on the theme of RTE Act-

2009 to include and retain all children in school. The curriculum must be inclusive as

envisioned in NCF 2005. The same curriculum should be followed for children with and

without special needs. The RTE 2009 has mandated entry of diverse learners in the

existing classrooms. For example, learners with and without special needs have a right

to inclusive learning environment. This calls for appropriate modification in conventional

curriculum models.

Within the context of facilitating entry and retention of learners with and without special

needs, flexible approaches become necessary. This refers to introducing creative

strategies to introduce inclusive learning environments along with systemic changes in

teacher preparation. Diversity among learners demands appropriate mechanisms that

facilitate optimal learning through curriculum adaptations that includes need based

teaching strategies, inclusive TLMs and flexibility in evaluation methodology. Curricular


adaptations aim to facilitate learning in every possible manner to maximize learning or

to provide opportunities in such a way, where all children of socio-cultural and linguistic

diversity, including children with disabilities, can learn.

Guidelines for developing an inclusive curriculum for all children:

Include child centered pedagogy keeping in mind the childs psychological

development, interests and specific learning needs.

Ensure equal access in every possible manner (physical, attitudinal, academic and

social) to maximize learning.

Facilitate learning in an inclusive learning environment with accessible material,

positive attitude and relevant/adaptive teaching strategies.

Incorporate required adaptation in curriculum (learning content, learning approach,

learning aids and evaluation) to address and accommodate individualized learning

styles,

Prescribe for use of all available educational / assistive technologies to ensure equal

participation of and effective learning in all children specifically for children with special

needs

Include all children with and without special needs by providing differential

opportunities to demonstrate learnt skills according to their learning abilities,

Include components of life skills through transitional stages working towards

independent living

Include locally available conditions/ opportunities/ situations to develop prevocational

and vocational competencies


Integrate work pedagogy in education and include broad-based work experiences

taking care of the needs of children with special needs

Ensure participation of children with special needs in play, games, social and cultural

activities to improve the physical and mental health by developing appropriate

adaptations

Provide flexibility in school and class time tables to address individual needs of

Children

Create opportunities for facilitated social interaction

Construct knowledge by connecting new ideas to existing ideas on the basis of

materials/ activities.

________________________________________________________________
9.6: TEXT BOOKS FOR DIVERSE LEARNERS
________________________________________________________________

Curriculum has to be transacted through text books. Hence, while developing text

books, it would be important to make them inclusive. The text books would have to be

developed in a way so that a particular concept can be understood by a diverse group


of learners in a classroom. The following should be borne in mind while developing text

books for inclusive classrooms:

- Providing every student with a textbook is not enough if the print medium is

inaccessible to students with various disabilities due to physical, sensory, or

cognitive barriers. For example, providing textbooks in print format is a barrier for

students who are dyslexic and are totally inaccessible to blind students.

Technology now enables textbooks to be accessible through conversion to

accessible electronic formats. These formats provide great flexibility for meeting

the needs of all students with disabilities since the digital format can be read out

loud by a computer or screen reader or printed on a Braille printer.

- Developing teaching learning materials like pictorial form of all the text books for

the students with hearing disabilities, which is ultimately helping ALL students.

- Developing and providing access to e-text versions of the print material.

- Electronic textbooks can also be developed that have animation and sound and

provide links to several items and suggest associations among ideas. This allows

the students to interact with the material, which is especially helpful for children

with special needs.

- Text books should allow children to hear text spoken out loud. Text books should

also be displayed in custom color combinations, in different fonts, in larger sizes,

or in any of these combinations.

____________________________________________________________
9.7: TEACHER TRAINING FOR DIVERSE LEARNING NEEDS
____________________________________________________________

Teacher Education stands out as a key factor in bringing out change towards inclusive

schools. With more and more children from the disadvantaged groups being a part of

the mainstream education system, the classroom teacher has to assume greater

responsibility in the implementation of inclusive practices. Hence, in this context, the

teacher education programmes need to be revised and should reflect the relevant

teacher learning strategies. All in service teachers, therefore, need to be trained

accordingly. Teacher education programs need to be revised in the light NCF 2009,

especially from the perspective of special needs of diverse learners.

Training for Classroom Teaching Practice:

The teacher trainees should be trained to adopt appropriate teaching practices in the

classroom with diverse learners. The following points need to be addressed:

Build on students diversity as an educational resource by positively using different

characteristics, backgrounds, knowledge, prior experiences, and skills of all children,

including children with special needs.

The teaching in the class room must facilitate equal and diverse participation of all

students in the learning activities to avoid advantages or disadvantages to a particular

student or a group of students.

Teaching in the classroom must facilitate collaborative learning by using appropriate

techniques like peer tutoring, group learning, etc.


Incorporate teacher facilitated and structured learning environment with appropriately

designed routines in context of children requiring individual support.

As and when necessary specially designed furniture and fixtures may be provided for

minimizing physical and mobility barriers and appropriate seating/ positioning

arrangements.

Sensitivity may be exercised in designing/ equipping class rooms for children with

sensory challenges in order to minimize disruptions in learning.

Teachers need to be familiarized with the existing Exemptions/concessions in the state

for children with special needs.

Medium of instruction should support childs everyday/ functional language.

Sign/total communication must be used in class as an additional medium of

instruction.

The learning process (Knowledge Construction) of children with special needs may

require intense interventions through well-chosen task and materials (TLMs).

Support of Resource Teachers/ Caregivers/ parents/ volunteers may be sought for

identifying and understanding learning needs, communication needs, use of assistive

devices and therapeutic management. Resource room may be used in this regard.

Teachers need to be more flexible and creative in building knowledge in all children,

including children with special needs and not ridicule anyone for lack of prior

experiences.

While planning school and class room experiences the teachers must take into

account specific learning needs of children.


The purpose of assessment is necessarily to improve the teaching-learning process

and materials, and to be able to review the objectives that have been identified. Hence it

needs to be continuous, simple and realistic, and set those standards and goals that

can be achieved in terms of diversity of children.

The assessment should:

- Different test items / questions should be graded in accordance to learner base-

line and difficulty level in terms of providing successful experiences to all children

so that they gain confidence in their ability to answer and solve problems.

- Be comprehensive including multiple sources like- routine activities,

observations, documenting daily dairies, reviewing work samples and compiling

test (verbal, non-verbal, performance and written) scores and report cards.

- Be effective by means of alternative modes (like computers, communication

boards, scribe, sign language etc) and organizers (like calculators, dictionaries

etc).

- Allow flexible timings and settings for effective assessment.

____________________________________________________________
9.8: CLASSROOM STRATEGIES FOR DIVERSE LEARNERS
____________________________________________________________
Research studies indicate that the differences in achievement observed between

students of culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds and students of mainstream

backgrounds are not the result of differences in ability to learn. Rather, they are the

result of differences in the quality of the instruction these young people have received in

school. Moreover, many students who are at risk of failure have styles of learning that

are different from traditional instructional practices.

Some important strategies to be adopted for effectively addressing the learning needs

of culturally diverse students are suggested below:

1. Maintain high standards and demonstrate high expectations for all

ethnically, culturally, and linguistically diverse students.

Students learn more when they are challenged by teachers who have high expectations

for them, encourage them to identify problems, involve them in collaborative activities,

and accelerate their learning (Burris & Welner, 2005). Teachers who express high

expectations convey the belief that their students have the ability to succeed in

demanding activities. Such teachers avoid repetitive rote learning; instead, they involve

young people in novel problem-solving activities. They ask open-ended questions

requiring students to use their judgment and form opinions. They choose activities

where students must use analytic skills, evaluate, and make connections. They expect

students to conduct research, complete their homework, and manage their time

effectively.
2. Show students you care by getting to know their individual needs and

strengths and sharing their concerns, hopes, and dreams.

Students show enthusiasm and interest to actively participate in learning and do their

best when a teacher is nurturing and caring. Teachers should care the children

genuinely and teach them to care. Academic achievement will not be possible unless

children believe that they themselves are cared for and learn to care for others.

3. Encourage active participation of parents or guardians.

Parents and guardians are childs first teachers, but they are not always aware of the

ways in which they mould children's language development and communication skills.

Children learn their language at home; the more interaction and communication they

have at home, the more children learn. Teachers can support this crucial role by sharing

information about the link between home communication and children's learning.

Teachers can assist parents in understanding the expectations of the school and their

classroom as they elicit from parents their own expectations of teachers and students.

Teachers also can suggest ways in which parents might converse more often with their

children to prepare them for communication in the classroom.

4. Tap into students' backgrounds to enhance learning.

Students' self-esteem and motivation are enhanced when teachers elicit their

experiences in classroom discussions and validate what they have to say. Young

people become more engaged in lessons when they are brought into the initial dialogue

by being asked what they know about the topic and what they want to know. If their

questions are written down and used to form a guide for inquiry into the topic, students
are far more likely to be interested in doing further study than if the questions simply

come out of a text. The teacher also obtains a better understanding of students'

previous knowledge about a subject that can guide the planning of the subsequent

lesson.

5. Choose culturally relevant curriculum and instructional materials that

recognize, incorporate, and reflect students' heritage and the contributions

of various ethnic groups.

Students' self-esteem is strengthened when they see and read about the contributions

made by their own ethnic or cultural groups to the history and culture of the society.

Whenever possible, teachers should adapt the curriculum to focus lessons on topics

that are meaningful to students. This kind of focus allows students to practice language,

thinking, reading, and writing skills in real, meaningful, and interactive situations.

6. Create culturally compatible learning environments.

Research has shown that students learn more when their classrooms are compatible

with their own cultural and linguistic experience. When the norms of interaction and

communication in a classroom are very different from those to which students have

been accustomed, they may experience confusion and anxiety, be unable to attend to

learning, and not know how to appropriately seek the teacher's attention or participate in

discussions. By acknowledging students' cultural norms and expectations concerning

communication and social interaction, teachers can appropriately guide student

participation in instructional activities.


7. Use cooperative learning strategies.

One of the most difficult issues faced by teachers in multiethnic classrooms is that

students, particularly those from ethnic groups suffering social discrimination, tend to

cluster in cliques based on ethnicity. Students may observe that one peer group draws

itself apart and, in reaction, may come to feel that they must do so as well.

To break down this defensive withdrawal into ethnic groups, teachers need to give

students time to get to know each other and to find that they share common ground,

common problems, and common feelings. One way to break down artificial barriers

between students is to encourage them to participate in a small group over an extended

period of time, collaborating on a shared activity with a shared goal that can only be

achieved by working together.

Children who have an opportunity to work in cooperative learning groups with fellow

students of other races and ethnicities get to know those students as real people rather

than as stereotypes. As students learn together and get to know one another, mutual

respect and friendships can develop.

8. Teach language through subject matter rather than specific linguistic skill

exercises.

The learning of language cannot be separated from what is being learned. Too

often, students with limited proficiency in English are required to learn the

abstract or grammatical aspects of language as opposed to the functional and


communicative aspects. These more important functional skills are best

developed in conjunction with the learning of content.

When students learn a second language in a functional way, similar to the way

they learned their first language, learning becomes more effective. Learning

makes sense and is more interesting. Students also benefit by learning cross-

cultural skills. Learning greetings in a second language, for example, as well as

the polite behavior associated with that language enables young people to

communicate more easily in a new culture.

9. Integrate the arts in the curriculum.

Nothing makes learning come alive more than engaging students in arts activities that

encourage dialogue on issues that are important to them. Providing opportunities for

students to express themselves through the visual and performing arts enables them to

learn about and develop their talents and multiple intelligences: not only verbal and

mathematical intelligences but also visual, spatial, musical, interpersonal, and

intrapersonal intelligences.

Young children benefit from being encouraged to make sense of their world and their

relationships through drawing and painting graphic images. Encouraging students to

use their imaginations and taking time to elicit their interpretations of visual arts through

open-ended questions in a classroom setting is valuable in itself. Yet these

conversations also enable students to understand, as they listen to other classmates,

the multitude of interpretations that are possible when viewing the same work of art.

10. Promote students' health.


Caring for students include positively influencing their decisions related to their physical

well-being. Such caring should include goals for nutrition education and ways to

increase the physical activity of all students.

_____________________________________________________________
9.9: ADDRESSING NEEDS OF DIVERSE CHILDREN IN PLAY
_____________________________________________________________

In today's world of increased time constraints and pressures on children's play, teachers

need to take a more active and deliberate role in ensuring children's ability and right to

play. In the long run, efforts to help children learn about themselves, about others, and

about their diverse world through play, can help them become more competent,

knowledgeable and resourceful members of society while teachers have a more

effective and fulfilling teaching experience.

It should be remembered that no two children play in quite the same way, nor do they

learn the same things from their play experiences. Each child brings something different

to the play different family backgrounds, different experiences and concerns, different

dispositions, different strengths and needs.

Time and Space for Play:

- Make sure there is ample time for sustained play to occur. Frequent interruptions

and brief opportunities for play diminish the value of play in children's eyes and
will discourage them from developing the sustained involvement that helps them

get the most from play.

- Provide well-organized space that children can use independently. For example,

store play props in dear bins with labels so that children can easily see the

materials available to them.

- Take an active role in facilitating children's play, but do not take control of the

play away from them give them the room they need to work things at their own

level of thinking and understanding.

Play materials:

- Supply materials that represent the diverse experiences of the children and

support working through an appreciation of similarities and differences. These

can include multiracial dolls, plastic human figures children can use to represent

their family members, and plastic animals to represent children's pets.

- Avoid materials that are highly structured, stereotyped, or promote antisocial or

competitive behavior. Refrain from offering toys that are replicas of television and

movie characters and electronic toys that perform just a few, highly repetitive

functions.

- Choose materials and props that help children create their roles around various

themes in which they express interest.

- Teach children how to use a wide range of open-ended materials and toys

such as blocks, play dough, cardboard boxes, and dress-up items in their play.

Home School Connection


- Help children bring the content from their own lives into their play where they can

meaningfully work on and learn from it.

- Observe children as they play to identify their interests and themes that you can

use to build curriculum.

- Use play as an opportunity for building meaningful connections between home

and school. As you do, help children develop an appreciation of the similarities

and differences among them.

______________________

9.10: UNIT SUMMARY

___________________

The collective differences of diverse students bring strength to the teaching and learning

process. The first and foremost step in addressing the diverse learning needs is

accepting this fact. If diversity is expected, respected and accepted, educational

professionals can meet the education goals of our democratic society.

Addressing diverse learning needs in schools comprises three dimensions: (i)

Institutional, (ii) Personal and (iii) Instructional.

The Government of India has enacted the Right to Education (RTE) Act, 2009, to make

school admission compulsory for all children irrespective of their social, cultural, ethnic

or linguistic diversity. In the context of increasing number of learners from diverse

backgrounds entering elementary classrooms, the agenda of inclusive education has

gained importance.
However, the implementation of this Act will be successful only if it addresses the needs

of the children of marginalized communities in the classroom.

The unique characteristics, interest and attitudes of children and diversity in learning

demand differential teaching methods to be used by a teacher in the classroom to

facilitate learning. In order to meet the diversity, there is a need to develop an inclusive

curriculum. NCF 2005 also emphasizes the need of inclusive curriculum keeping in view

the diversity of learners. An inclusive curriculum aims to provide quality education that

will enable all children to learn effectively and participate equally in class.

The text books would have to be developed for inclusive education in a way so that a

particular concept can be understood by a diverse group of learners in a classroom.

Developing teaching learning materials like pictorial text books, electronic textbooks can

with animation and sound, helps all the diverse students in learning.

With more and more children from the disadvantaged groups being a part of the

mainstream education system, the classroom teacher has to assume greater

responsibility in the implementation of inclusive practices. The teacher education

programmes need to be revised and should reflect the relevant teacher learning

strategies.

Teachers should adopt appropriate classroom strategies to make the learning process

stress-free for all students of diverse learning needs.

In today's world of increased time constraints and pressures on children's play, teachers

need to take a more active and deliberate role in ensuring children's ability and right to

play. In the long run, efforts to help children learn about themselves, about others, and
about their diverse world through play, can help them become more competent,

knowledgeable and resourceful members of society while teachers have a more

effective and fulfilling teaching experience.

_________________________________

9.11: CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

_____________________________

1. What do you understand by Inclusive Education?

2. Explain the basic principles of developing curriculum for diverse learning needs.

3. Write briefly about teaching learning materials for inclusive education..

4. Explain the need and importance of teacher training for teaching in diverse students.

5. Enumerate some important classroom strategies to be adopted by teachers for

students of diverse learning needs.


6. Write brief note on addressing diverse needs of children in play.

_______________________

9.12: ASSIGNMENTS

____________________

4. Participate in an inclusive classroom in an elementary school and record your

observations and comments on how effectively the learning needs of diverse

children addressed..

_______________________________________________________

9.13: POINTS FOR DISCUSSION AND CLARIFICATION

_______________________________________________________

After studying the unit, if you have any points for further discussion or clarifications, list

them below:

9.13.1 Points for discussion:


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----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.13.2 Points for clarification:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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_____________________

9.14: REFERENCES

_____________________

1. Richards, H.V., Brown A.F., Forde T.B.: Addressing Diversity in Schools: Culturally

Responsive Pedagogy; Teaching Exceptional Childre, Vol. 39, No. 3. (Taken from

Internet)

2. scholarworks.calstate.edu/bitstream/

3. https://www.teachervision.com/teaching-methods/resource/6039.html
4. Guidelines for addressing Special needs concerns while developing State Curriculum

(Internet article)

5. GOI. (2009). The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, Ministry of

Law and Justice (Legislative Department).

6. Sanjay Kumar: Inclusive Classroom and Social Diversity in India: Myths and

Challenges. Jornal of Indian Research, Vol 2, No.1, Jan-March, 2014. P. 126-140.

7. Dhir Jingran: Hundreds of Home Languages in the Country and many in most

classrooms: Coping with Diversity in Primary Education in India. Web article

BLOCK- 4: EDUCATION COMMISSIONS AND POLICY


(SCHOOL EDUCATION)

INTRODUCTION

Education is now considered as fundamental right of the child. United Nations


Organizations child rights convention (CRC) clearly states that right to survival (Article 6) and
Right to Education (Article 28) of the child. Education is prime need for survival of the child in
better and healthy manner. Indian constitution considered significant importance of education in
progress of society. Education is a weapon in solving all kinds of social problems. Now the
slogan is qualitative education for all. Article 21A Indian Constitution says education is
fundamental right of every citizen.

Are we really providing quality education to each child in our schools? Is our education
system responsive to the individual needs of all children in the classroom? What are we doing
to achieve this goal, is a matter of great concern for all educationists and policy makers of
governments of all nations.

Education and training are the cornerstones in the development of the potentialities of
children. Several policies and programmes have been undertaken in this field in our country.
This block briefly describes education commissions and policies.

OBJECTIVES

The study of the Units in Block IV will help the readers to understand constitutional
provisions of education and national commissions and policies. It develops awareness on various
National acts, programmes& schemes. And also it helps in understanding the International
conventions and policies.
UNIT 16: CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS ON EDUCATION THAT
REFLECT NATIONAL IDEALS: EQUALITY, LIBERTY, SECULARISM
AND SOCIAL JUSTICE.

STRUCTURE

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Objectives

16.3 National Ideals according to Indian Constitution

16.5 Constitutional Provisions for Education

16.5.1 Salient features of educational goals enshrined in the constitution

16.5.2 Educational roles of Union and State governments

16.5.3 Other constitutional provisions of education

16.6 Unit Summary

16.7 Check your progress (Self-study)

16.8 Assignments

16.9 Points for discussion and clarification

16.10 References

16.1 INTRODUCTION

India became a Sovereign Democratic Republic in 1950. The Constituent Assembly has
earlier developed the constitution of India which came into force since 26 January 1950, which
we celebrate as the Republic Day every year.

The Indian constitution has spelt out various provisions on education. It has also clearly
prescribed the different roles to be played by the Center and the State in the matter of education.
The constitution of India has rightly upheld the democratic values of equality, liberty, fraternity
and social justice, which have their due impact on the educational policies, programmes,
planning and goals of our country.

16.2 OBJECTIVES

After reading this Unit, the reader will be able to:

Describe the salient features of educational goals.


State the educational roles of Union and State governments.
Know various constitutional provisions of education.
State the national ideals enshrined in the constitution.

16.3 NATIONAL IDEALS ACCORDING TO THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION

The ideals of the Indian Constitution are reflected in the Preamble to the Constitution of
India. Our Constitution may be said to be an expansion and explanation of the Preamble.
Supreme Court Chief Justice, Justice Subba Rao opined, Preamble contains, in a nutshell, its
ideals and its aspirations. To understand the philosophy and ideals of the Indian Constitution,
we must know the Preamble in the first place. Let us define and analyze the Preamble to the
Indian Constitution. The philosophy and ideals of the Indian Constitution are discussed as
follows:

India as a Sovereign state: The Preamble declares India as a sovereign state. It is free from any
external control. No foreign power can interfere in the internal affairs of India. India can
determine her foreign affairs according to her free will. The Constitution is regarded as the
supreme law of the state, but the supreme power of the state is vested upon the people of India.

India as a Socialist state: The word Socialist has been added in the Preamble by the 42nd
Amendment in 1976. It means the Constitution of India has a great objective to secure social and
economic equality and fair distribution of wealth among all sections of people in the country.

India as a Secular state: The word Secular has been included in the Preamble by the 42nd
Amendment in 1976. The characteristic of Indian secularism is that India does not recognize any
religion as the official or state religion and treats all religions equally. Moreover, different
communities in India have the right to practice their own faiths. Thus, secularism is one of the
ideals of the Indian Constitution.

India as a Democratic state: The Preamble describes India as a democratic state. The prime
philosophy and ideal of the Indian Constitution is to make India a democratic state. India is
regarded as the largest democratic state in the World. According to Abraham Lincoln,
Democracy is by the people, for the people and of the people.

India as a Republic: The Preamble declares India to be a republic. What it means is that the
Head of the State in India, that is the President of India, is an elected head. He is not a hereditary
ruler. The President of India who is the Chief Executive and nominal head of our country is
indirectly elected by the people.

To ensure Justice: Justice implies that the Government will try to promote the welfare of all the
sections of the people. The Preamble embraces three types of Justice- social, economic and
political.

To ensure Liberty: The other important philosophy and ideal of the Indian Constitution is to
ensure liberty to its citizens for the all-round development of their personality. Accordingly, the
Preamble provides for liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship. The Constitution
of India provides a number of Fundamental Rights to the citizens and also protects theses rights.

To ensure Equality: Equality is the basis of a democratic state. Equality has been guaranteed by
the Rule of Law. To establish equality, our Constitution has provided for the Right to Equality
as a Fundamental Right. Equality means equal respect or dignity of individual and providing
equal educational opportunity. The Indian Constitution ensures equality before the eyes of law
to all persons, citizens and non- citizens. The Constitution also prohibits discrimination on
grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, and place of birth or any of them.

To promote Fraternity among the people: The term fraternity has been incorporated in the
Preamble as a means of assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the
nation. To promote fraternity and a feeling of brotherhood among the people, certain attempts
have been made for the removal of social distinctions and inequalities based on caste, class,
creed, language, religion, region, etc.

India as a Welfare state: India is committed to the ideal of a welfare state and must establish
socio- economic justice. The Preamble lays the foundation of a welfare state in India.

The Preamble to the Indian Constitution has a great significance. It is important to


mention here that, in the Biruberi Case (AIR1960 SC 845) the Supreme Court held that the
Preamble is not a part of the Constitution. But the famous Keshavananda Bharti vs. - State of
Kerala (AIR 1973 SC 1461) has held that the Preamble is a part of the Constitution. It was also
held in this case that, the Preamble could be amended by the Parliament under Article 368 but
the Basic Structure of the Constitution could not be changed. Thus, the Preamble can be
amended but our Parliament cannot amend the Constitution in a way that it damages or destroys
the objectives specified in the Preamble.

16.5 CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS FOR EDUCATION

16.5.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF EDUCATIONAL GOALS ENSHRINED IN THE


CONSTITUTION

Education is chiefly a state subject.


Educational efforts should be to provide quality of opportunity for all.
Primary education should be universalized and the medium should be the mother tongue
of the child.
Scientific and technical education should be a central subject.
Official language of the union should be Hindi in Devanagari Script.
Religious instruction is now permissible in public institutions, which should be run on
secular basis.
Minority communities have a right to establish and administer education institutions.
No discriminations should be made in allocation of grants.

16.5.2 EDUCATIONAL ROLES OF UNION AND STATE GOVERNMENTS

Education in the nation is a state subject. Yet union government has some role to play.
Education has been transferred to the concurrent list.
The Union list contains 97 subjects.

Entry 13 says to provide Educational and Cultural relations with foreign countries.
Entry 62 states the institutions known at the commencement of the Constitution as National
Library, The Indian Museum, the Imperial War Museum, the Victoria Memorial, and Indian War
Memorial. Any other such institutions financed by the Government of India wholly or in part and
declared by the Parliament by law to be an institution of national importance. Entry 63
focus on an institutions of national importance. The institution known at the commencement of
this Constitution as the BHU, AMU and Delhi University etc. declared by Parliament by law to
be an institution of national importance. Entry 64 says the
institution of scientific and technical education financed by the Government of India wholly or in
part and declared by law to be institutions of national importance like IITs and IIMs
Entry 65 states Union agencies and institutions for: (i) Professional, vocational or technical
training, including the training of police officers. (ii) The promotion of special studies or
research. (iii) Scientific or technical assistance in the investigation of detection of crime.
Entry 66 states coordination and determination of standards in the institution of higher
education or research and scientific and technical institutions.

State list consists of 66 entries.Entry 12states all libraries, museums and other similar
institutions controlled or financed by the state, ancient and historical monuments and records
other than those declared by or under law made by the Parliament to be of the national
importance.

Concurrent List comprises 47 entries.


Entry 20 states economic and social planning.
Entry 25 says education, including technical education, medical education and universities
subject to provision of entries 63,64,65,66 of list (Union List). Entry
34 focuses newspapers, books and printing presses.

16.5.3 OTHER CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS OF EDUCATION

Under the Constitution the disabled have been guaranteed the following fundamental rights:

1. The Constitution secures to the citizens including the disabled, a right of justice, liberty
of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship, equality of status and of opportunity and
for the promotion of fraternity.
2. Article 15(1) enjoins on the Government not to discriminate against any citizen of India
(including disabled) on the ground of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.
3. Article 15 (2) States that no citizen (including the disabled) shall be subjected to any
disability, liability, restriction or condition on any of the above grounds in the matter of
their access to shops, public restaurants, hotels and places of public entertainment or in
the use of wells, tanks, bathing Ghats, roads and places of public resort maintained
wholly or partly out of government funds or dedicated to the use of the general public.
Women and children and those belonging to any socially and educationally backward
classes or the Scheduled Castes & Tribes can be given the benefit of special laws or
special provisions made by the State.
4. There shall be equality of opportunity for all citizens (including the disabled) in matters
relating to employment or appointment to any office under the State.
5. Article 17 No person including the disabled irrespective of his belonging can be treated
as an untouchable. It would be an offence punishable in accordance with law as provided
by the Constitution.
6. Article 21 Every person including the disabled has his life and liberty guaranteed under
of the Constitution.
7. Article 23 There can be no traffic in human beings (including the disabled), and beggar
and other forms of forced labor is prohibited and the same is made punishable in
accordance with law.
8. Article 24 prohibits employment of children (including the disabled) below the age of 14
years to work in any factory or mine or to be engaged in any other hazardous
employment. Even a private contractor acting for the Government cannot engage children
below 14 years of age in such employment.
9. Article 25 guarantees to every citizen (including the disabled) the right to freedom of
religion. Every disabled person (like the non-disabled) has the freedom of conscience to
practice and propagate his religion subject to proper order, morality and health.
10. No disabled person can be compelled to pay any taxes for the promotion and maintenance
of any particular religion or religious group.
11. No Disabled person will be deprived of the right to the language, script or culture which
he has or to which he belongs.
12. Article 32. Every disabled person can move the Supreme Court of India to enforce his
fundamental rights and the rights to move the Supreme Court is itself guaranteed
13. No disabled person owning property (like the non-disabled) can be deprived of his
property except by authority of law though right to property is not a fundamental right.
Any unauthorized deprivation of property can be challenged by suit and for relief by way
of damages.
14. Every disabled person (like the non-disabled) on attainment of 18 years of age becomes
eligible for inclusion of his name in the general electoral roll for the territorial
constituency to which he belongs.
15. Article 29(2) The right to education is available to all citizens including the disabled.
Constitution provides that no citizen shall be denied admission into any educational institution
maintained by the State or receiving aid out of State funds on the ground of religion, race, caste or
language.
16. Article 45 of the Constitution directs the State to provide free and compulsory education for all
children (including the disabled) until they attain the age of 14 years. No child can be denied
admission into any education institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of State
funds on the ground of religion, race, caste or language.

16.6 UNIT SUMMARY

Indian constitution considered significance importance of education in progress of


society. Education is a weapon in solving all kind of social problems. Now the slogan is
qualitative education for all. The constitution of India has rightly upheld the democratic values
of equality, liberty, fraternity and social justice, which have their due impact on the educational
policies, programmes, planning and goals of our country.

The preamble to the Constitution of India is a brief introductory statement that sets out
the guiding purpose and principles of the document. The hopes and aspiration of the people as
well as the ideals before our nation are described in the preamble in clear cut words. It may be
considered as the soul of Constitution. The preamble can be referred to as the preface which
highlights the essence of the entire Constitution. The Constitution secures to the citizens
including the disabled, a right of justice, liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship,
equality of status and of opportunity and for the promotion of fraternity.

Points to Remember
Article 15(1) enjoins on the Government not to discriminate against any citizen of India
(including disabled) on the ground of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth. Article
29(2) of the Constitution provides that no citizen shall be denied admission into any educational
institution.
Article 45 of the Constitution directs the State to provide free and compulsory education for all
children (including the disabled) until they attain the age of 14 years. No child can be denied
admission into any education institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of State
funds on the ground of religion, race, caste or language.

16.7 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS (SELF-STUDY)

1. Soul of the constitution is --------------------------. The Preamble of Indian Constitution has


rightly upheld the democratic values of---------------------- ------------------------- -----------------
------------------------- --------------------------.

2. List out the constitutional provisions for education?

16.8 ASSIGNMENTS

I. Write about national ideals according to an Indian constitution?

16.9 POINTS FOR DISCUSSION AND CLARIFICATION

After going through the unit, you may want to have further discussion or clarifications of some
points.

16.9.1 Points for discussion

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16.9.1 Points for clarification
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16.10 REFERENCES

1. J.C. Agarwal (2001), Basic Ideas in Education, Shipra Publications, New


Delhi.

2. B.N.Dash (2004), Teacher and Education in Emerging Indian Society,


Neelkamal Publications, Hyderabad.

3. Kashyap, S.C. (2009), The constitution of India National Book Trust, New
Delhi.

UNIT 17: NATIONAL COMMISSIONS AND POLICIES.

STRUCTURE

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Objectives

17.3 Education Commission (1964)


17.3.1 Objectives

17.3.2 Recommendations

17.4 National Policy on Education (NPE 1986)

17.4.1 Objectives

17.4.2 Recommendations

17.5 Programme of Action (POA 1992)

17.5.1 Revised National Policy on Education 1992

17.5.2 Programme of Action 1992

17.6 National Policy for Persons with Disabilities (2006)

17.6.1 Objectives

17.6.2 Recommendations

17.7 Unit Summary

17.8 Check your progress (Self-study)

17.9 Assignments

17.10 Points for discussion and clarification

17.11 References

17.1 INTRODUCTION

After independence there were many problems faced by India. Poverty, Illiteracy, Blind
faiths, social ill practices and many problems are obstacle for progress of Indian society. Our
national leaders were recognized the importance of education in the progress of society.
Transformation of education is key instrument for upward change in the society. Indian
Government established many commissions and committees to study the conditions of education
in Indian society and expected favorable suggestions for progress of society.

17.2 OBJECTIVES
After reading this Unit, the reader will be able to:

Understand the recommendations of Kothari commission 1964.


State the recommendations of National Policy on Education 1986.
Comprehend the Programme of Action 1992.
Understand the National Policy for Persons with Disabilities (2006)

17.3 EDUCATION COMMISSION (1964)

The Education Commission was appointed by the Government of India by a Resolution,


dated 14 July 1964, to advise the Government on the national pattern of education and on the
general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects.

Prof. D.S. Kothari, Chairman, University Grants Commission, New Delhi was appointed
as the Chairman of the Commission. Hence it is also known as Kothari commission. The
Commission included eminent educationists in diverse fields from India and abroad.

The unique features of the Education Commission (1964-66) were: i)


All the earlier commissions did not deal with education as a whole but focused attention on
different levels of education. But this commission was not to limit its enquiry to specific sectors
or aspects of education, but to have a comprehensive review of the Entire Education System. ii)
Another unique feature of the Commission was its conviction that education is the most powerful
instrument of the national development. The crucial role of education in national development
appears in all its vividness on every page of the report. iii) The
international composition of the commission is also significant. Education in India must
necessarily emerge from Indian experience, through culture and local conditions. But as
education remains the common quest of mankind, it was found profitable to draw upon the
experience and thinking of educationists and scientists from other countries and to take
advantage of the latest developments in the educationally advanced countries.

17.3.1 Objectives of Kothari Commission:

Kothari commission felt, The destiny of India is now being shaped in her classrooms.
This, we believe, is no mere rhetoric. In a world based on science and technology it is education
that determines the level of prosperity, welfare and security of the people. On the quality and
number of persons coming out of our schools and colleges will depend our success in the great
enterprise of national reconstruction the principal objective of which is to raise the standard of
living of our people. In this context, it has become urgent

- to re-evaluate the role of education in the total programme of national development;

- to identify the changes needed in the existing system of education if it is to play its proper role,
and to prepare a programme of educational development based on them; and

- to implement this programme with determination and vigor.

The Commission will advise the Govt. on national pattern of education and on the
general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all its
aspects. It need not, however, examine the problems of medical or legal education, but such
aspects of these problems as are necessary for its comprehensive enquiry may be looked into.

17.3.2 Recommendations of Kothari Commission:

1. Kothari commission was recommended the following educational objectives :


1.To Increase in Productivity.
2. Promoting social and National Integration.
3. Education and Modernization
4. Developing social, moral and spiritual values.
2. Proper Education should be provided to the handicapped children:

Kothari commission was the first education commission which suggested that the
education of handicapped children has to be organized not merely on humanitarian grounds, but
also on grounds of utility. Commission says proper education generally enables a handicapped
child to overcome largely his (or her) handicap, and makes him a useful citizen. Social justice
also demands hence it has to be remembered that the Constitutional Directive on compulsory
education includes handicapped children as well.

2. Prepare handicapped children for adjustment in the socio-cultural environment:


It was further emphasized that the primary task of education for a handicapped child is to
prepare him for adjustment to a socio-cultural environment designed to meet the needs of the
normal.

3. Develop various methods and techniques to teach special children in inclusive schools:

According to Kothari commission, the education of handicapped children should be an


inseparable part of the general educational system. The differences lie in the methods employed
to teach the child and the means the child uses to acquire information. These differences in
methodology do not influence the content or the goals of education. This form of education is,
therefore, conveniently referred to as `special education'. Hence develop various methods and
techniques to teach them.

4. Need to be improved educational facilities to handicapped children:

The commission felt that existing educational facilities are extremely inadequate by two
main considerations; teachers and financial resources and suggested educational facilities to be
extended to four groups i.e., the Blind, the Deaf, the Orthopedically Handicapped, and Mentally
Retarded.

5. There should be one good institution for the education of handicapped children in each
district:

Commission also felt that as a part of the programme, at least one good institution should
have for the education of handicapped children in each district.

6. Adoption of two programmes for the education of handicapped children:

The Education Commission 1964-66 suggested for adoption of two programmes-the


special and the integrated. Special programmes: Where the handicapped children are isolated
from the normal ones and placed in special institutions. And Integrated programmes: Where
the handicapped children are included in normal schools with regular children.

7. Commission emphasized on inclusive education:


There is a great deal of stress now being laid on the integration of handicapped children
into the regular school programmes. Commission felt that experimentation with the integrated
programmes is urgently required and every attempt should be made to bring in as many children
into integrated programmes as possible.

8. There should be facilities for training teachers for the education of handicapped
children:

Commission also felt that even the facilities for training teachers are very inadequate.
Commission suggestedthat the preparation of teachers will need emphasis and attention.
Assuming a pupilteacher ratio of 10:1, about 16,500 teachers will be needed for the blind, deaf
and mentally retarded children only. This will necessitate a considerable increase in the capacity
of the existing training institutions and the establishment of new ones.

9. Coordination of efforts of various agencies working for the education of handicapped


children:

It is necessary to coordinate the efforts of different agencies working in the field such as
the Ministry of Education, the Central Social Welfare Board, voluntary organizations interested
in the problem and the Ministry of Health. Similar coordination will also be needed at the State
levels.

10. Develop adequate research for the education of handicapped children:

Commission felt that it is also necessary to develop adequate research in the problem.
Commission recommended that the Ministry of Education should develop a programme for this
and allocate the necessary funds. The NCERT should have a cell for the study of handicapped
children. The principal function of this cell would be to keep in touch with the research that is
being done in the country and outside and to prepare materials for the use of teachers.

17.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986)

The Parliament during the Budget Session in 1986 discussed and adopted the "National
Policy on Education 1986".In the first place, 23 Task Forces were constituted and each was
assigned a specific subject covered by the National Policy on Education (N.P.E.). Eminent
educationists, experts and senior representatives of Central and State Governments were
associated with these Task Forces. One of the task force constituted to study the Education of
the Handicapped Task Forces were requested to examine the present situation in respect of the
subjects assigned to them and to elaborate the implications of the specific statements contained
in the N.P.E. The Task Forces were also expected to project the actions that would be necessary
and indicate the broad targets and the phasing of the programmes.They submitted their reports in
July 1986.

17.4.1 OBJECTIVES

The concept of National System of Education lays the greatest emphasis on elimination
of disparities in the educational system and on improvement in the quality of publicly funded
schools so that, ordinarily, parents may not feel the need to send their children to private high fee
charging institutions. This National Policy on Education is a direction towards which we shall
have to organize teaching learning activities and move system of education proper manner with
speed and determination. This is a kind of action plan to implement the suggestions and
guidelines which given by Kothari Commission 1964-66.

The objective should be to integrate the physically and mentally handicapped with the
general community as equal partners, to prepare them for normal growth and to enable them to
face life with courage and confidence. The objectives of NPE 1986 as follows:

Universal access and enrolment


Universal retention of children up to 14 years of age and
A sustainable improvement in the quality education to enable all children to achieve
essential levels of learning.

17.4.2 RECOMMENDATIONS

The NPE stipulates that wherever possible education of children with loco motor
handicap and other mild handicaps will be common with that of others.
The children with severe handicaps are proposed to be enrolled in special schools with
hostels at district headquarters.
Appropriate arrangements for pre-school preparation for the handicapped children and
vocational preparation in common with others as well as in special vocational centers
have also been envisaged.
The implication is that there will be a system for identification, diagnosis and assessment
of the handicapped for placement in schools.
Special schools should be established and only those children whose needs cannot be met
in common schools are enrolled in these schools. As soon as the disabled children
enrolled in special schools acquire the communication skills and study skills, they will be
integrated into common schools. It is further assumed that with the improved efficiency
of the common school system as a consequence of the implementation of National Policy
on Education 1986, the capacity of the common schools to cater to the needs of the
disabled children will also improve.
The ideal scenario for education of the handicapped is universalization of primary
education along with other children by 1990 (6-11 years) and 1995 (6 to 14 years).
Special schools will be established at the district and sub- district levels. It was felt that
composite special schools may be established to start with.
In each of the districts where a special school is set up, a vocational training center either
as a part of the school or as an adjunct to it will also be developed. This institution will
provide vocational training to the students from the special schools and other severely
handicapped persons for job. The emphasis will be on training craftsmen for locally
available jobs. The Rehabilitation Council should be requested to give recognition to this
training programme so that the incumbents can get job throughout the country. Wherever
necessary recognition from the NCTVT and NCTE may be obtained.
Separate hostels will be provided for boys and girls. The capacity for the boys hostel
should be 40 and that of the girls about 20. These hostels will cater to the students in the
school as well as in vocational training centers.
Training of special teachers disability-wise has to be taken up immediately. This task
may be undertaken by the Ministry of Human. Resource Development and Ministry of
Welfare through UGC, NCERT, Regional Colleges of Education, National Institutes of
Handicap and selected University Departments of Special Education. This task of training
teachers is in addition to clearing the backlog of untrained teachers in special schools.
The in-service training courses may be organized by the National Institute through its
regional centers and the Regional Colleges of Education in collaboration with SCERTs.
It has been observed that the voluntary agencies do not depute untrained teachers for
training. The grant may be made contingent on appointing trained teachers or getting
them trained within three years of appointment. The delay in this may be accompanied by
proportionate reduction in the grant. The grant-in-aid may be linked to the quality of the
service provided.
Besides teachers, 400 psychologists and at least 2 doctors in each district needs to be
specially oriented to the task of assessment and rehabilitation of the handicapped
children. The efforts may be coordinated through the Rehabilitation Council of India.
Orientation training for the vocational teachers may be organized by the National
Institutes and Regional Colleges of Education on regional basis.
The curriculum of these schools should be modified taking into account the specific
learning problems arising out of a particular handicap. The National Institutes of
Handicap and NCERT should develop the curriculum and make available curriculum
guides and teacher's handbook to special schools.
Flexibility in examinations is a must for severely disabled children. Evaluation guides
and tools for educational assessment should be made available to these schools. NCERT
which has the expertise in the technology of development of such tools and the National
Institutes which have the expertise in disability may collaborate to produce this material.
The use of technology in special education should receive attention. It involves
modification, adjustment and adaptation of the equipment and material in the learning
resource center.
The Ministry of Welfare and Ministry of Human Resource Development may
cooperatively develop an infrastructure for developing supervisory services to the special
schools. A panel of supervision may be introduced. The three members of the staff at
district level who are to be oriented to education of the handicapped may be provided the
knowledge and competencies for carrying out such supervision. The members of staff
from the District Rehabilitation Centers may also be associated with this work.
Research in education of the handicapped in the Indian socio-cultural milieu is to be
taken up immediately. The NCERT, ICSSR, UGC and the National Institutes for
Handicap should promote research.
The data base regarding education of the handicapped is very weak. Steps will be taken
for strengthening the information system. An integrated information system will be
located in the Ministry of Human Resource Development. The data regarding the
institutions for educating the handicapped will also be included in the statistical reports of
the MHRD. The Ministry of Welfare will also provide information from special schools

17.5 PROGRAMME OF ACTION (POA 1992)

The Central Advisory Board of Education, a committee set up in July 1991 under the
chairmanship of Shri N. Janardhana Reddy, Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh; considered some
modifications in NPE taking into considerations the report of the Rammurti Committee and other
relevant development having a bearing on the policy. This Committee submitted its report in
January 1992, which is known as National Programme of Action of 1992. This policy aimed to
promote national progress, a sense of common citizenship and culture, and to strengthen national
integration. It laid stress on the need for a radical reconstruction of the education system, to
improve its quality at all stages, and therefore gave much greater attention to science and
technology, the cultivation of moral values and a closer relation between education and the life
of the people.

17.5.1 REVISED NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1992)

The main objective of the National Policy of Education of 1992 and its Programme of
Action was to establish a national system of education implies that all students irrespective of
caste; creed, sex, and religion have access to education of a comparable quality. Actually, the
objectives of this policy had been divided into the several aspects. The objective should be to
integrate the physically and mentally handicapped with the general community as equal partners,
to prepare them for normal growth and to enable them to face life with courage and confidence.

The following measures will be taken to achieve above objective:

Wherever it is feasible, the education of children with motor handicaps and other mild
handicaps will be common with that of others.
Special schools with hostels will be provided, as far as possible at district headquarters,
for the severely handicapped children.
Adequate arrangements will be made to give vocational training to the disabled.
Teachers' training programmes will be reoriented, in particular for teachers of primary
classes, to deal with the special difficulties of the handicapped children; and
Voluntary effort for the education of the disabled, will be encouraged in every possible
manner.

17.5.2 PROGRAMME OF ACTION 1992

1. People should be made aware of the problems of the handicapped. The media should be
effectively used to develop awareness among people.
2. Every family with handicapped child should be provided support through incentives,
dialogue and periodic training and evaluation. Parents groups and community education
group should be formed.
3. The educational system of the handicapped should be flexible. It should offer a range of
educated in general schools, special classes in general schools and integrated education
for the disabled, vocational centers, etc.
4. Educational packages should be offered for hearing impaired children in a differentiated
way.
5. Bharati Braille has been developed, at the National Institute for Visually Handicapped
(NIVH), Dehradun. This should be utilized maximally.
6. Special curriculum should be developed for the moderately mentally retarded children.
7. Education of the handicapped should be made part of the pedagogy and methodology in
the pre service teacher training programme.
8. Teacher training colleges should have special courses for teaching handicapped children.
9. The role of the special schools should be clearly redefined as:
Early identification of children with handicaps and formulation of stimulation programme
for them.
Education of the handicapped children who cannot be educated in general schools up to
the point when they can be integrated- thus breaking the insulation between the general
and special schools.
Providing service as resource agencies for implementing the integrated education
programmes in general schools.
10. Sustained researches should be undertaken to determine the needs of the physically
handicapped and produce technological aids capable of helping in overcoming handicaps.

17.6 NATIONAL POLICY FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES (2006)

The Government of India formulated the National Policy for Persons with Disabilities in
February 2006 which deals with Physical, Educational & Economic Rehabilitation of persons
with disabilities. In addition the policy also focuses upon rehabilitation of women and children
with disabilities, barrier free environment, social security, research etc.

The Constitution of India ensures equality, freedom, justice and dignity of all individuals
and implicitly mandates an inclusive society for all including persons with disabilities. In the
recent years, there have been vast and positive changes in the perception of the society towards
persons with disabilities. It has been realized that a majority of persons with disabilities can lead
a better quality of life if they have equal opportunities and effective access to rehabilitation
measures.

The National Policy recognizes that Persons with Disabilities are valuable human
resource for the country and seeks to create an environment that provides equal opportunities,
protection of their rights and full participation in society.

The focus of the policy is on the following:

I. Prevention of Disabilities - Since disability, in a large number of cases, is preventable, the


policy lays a strong emphasis on prevention of disabilities. It calls for programme for prevention
of diseases, which result in disability and the creation of awareness regarding measures to be
taken for prevention of disabilities during the period of pregnancy and thereafter to be intensified
and their coverage expanded.

II.Rehabilitation Measures - Rehabilitation measures can be classified into three distinct


groups:
i. Physical rehabilitation, which includes early detection and intervention, counseling & medical
interventions and provision of aids & appliances. It will also include the development of
rehabilitation professionals.
ii. Educational rehabilitation including vocational education and
iii. Economic rehabilitation for a dignified life in society.

II A PHYSICAL REHABILITATION STRATEGIES

(a) Early detection of disability and intervention through drug or non-drug therapies helps in
minimization of impact of disability.

(b) Counseling & Medical Rehabilitation: Currently, rehabilitation services are largely
available in and around urban areas. Since seventy five percent persons with disabilities live in
rural areas, the services run by professionals will be extended to cover uncovered and un-served
areas. Privately owned rehabilitation service centers shall be regulated for maintenance of
minimum standards which shall be laid down.

(c) Assistive Devices: The Government of India has been assisting persons with disabilities in
procuring durable and scientifically manufactured, modern aids and appliances of ISI standard
that can promote their physical, social and psychological independence by reducing the effect of
disabilities.

(d) Development of Rehabilitation Professionals: Human resource requirements for


rehabilitation of persons with disabilities will be assessed and development plan will be prepared
so that the rehabilitation strategies do not suffer from lack of manpower.

II B.EDUCATIONAL REHABILITATION FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES

Education is the most effective vehicle of social and economic empowerment. In keeping
with the spirit of the Article 21A of the Constitution guaranteeing education as a fundamental
right and Section 26 of the Persons with Disabilities Act, 1995, free and compulsory education
has to be provided to all children with disabilities up to the minimum age of 18 years. Sarva
Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) launched by the Government has the goal of eight years of elementary
schooling for all children including children with disabilities in the age group of 6-14 years by
2010. Children with disabilities in the age group of 15-18 years are provided free education
under Integrated Education for Disabled Children (IEDC) Scheme.

Government of India is providing scholarships to students with disabilities for pursuing


studies at post school level. Government will continue to support the scholarships and expand its
coverage.Facilities for technical and vocational education designed to inculcate skills among
disable children.Persons with disabilities will be provided access to the Universities, technical
institutions and other institutions of higher learning to pursue higher and professional courses.

II C.ECONOMIC REHABILITATION OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES

Economic rehabilitation of Persons with disabilities comprise of both wage employment


in organized sector and self-employment. Supporting structure of services by way of vocational
rehabilitation centers and vocational training centers will be developed to ensure that disabled
persons in both urban and rural areas have increased opportunities for productive and gainful
employment. Strategies for economic empowerment of persons with disabilities would be the
following.

III. WOMEN WITH DISABILITIES

Women with disabilities require protection against exploitation and abuse. Special
programmes will be developed for education, employment and providing of other rehabilitation
services to women with disabilities keeping in view their special needs. Special educational and
vocation training facilities will be setup.

IV. CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES

Children with disabilities are the most vulnerable group and need special attention. The
Government would strive to: -

a. Ensure right to care, protection and security for children with disabilities;
b. Ensure the right to development with dignity and equality creating an enabling
environment where children can exercise their rights, enjoy equal opportunities and full
participation in accordance with various statutes.
c. Ensure inclusion and effective access to education, health, vocational training along with
specialized rehabilitation services to children with disabilities.
d. Ensure the right to development as well as recognition of special needs and of care, and
protection of children with severe disabilities.

V. BARRIER-FREE ENVIRONMENT

Barrier-free environment enables people with disabilities to move about safely and freely,
and use the facilities within the built environment. The goal of barrier free design is to provide an
environment that supports the independent functioning of individuals so that they can participate
without assistance, in everyday activities.

VI. ISSUE OF DISABILITY CERTIFICATES

The Government of India has notified guidelines for evaluation of the disabilities and
procedure for certification. The Government will ensure that the persons with disabilities obtain
the disability certificates without any difficulty in the shortest possible time by adoption of
simple, transparent and client-friendly procedures.

VII. SOCIAL SECURITY

Disabled persons, their families and care givers incur substantial additional expenditure
for facilitating activities of daily living, medical care, transportation, assistive devices, etc.
Therefore, there is a need to provide them social security by various means. Central Government
has been providing tax relief to persons with disabilities and their guardians. The State
Governments / U.T. Administrations have been providing unemployment allowance or disability
pension. The State Governments will be encouraged to develop a comprehensive social security
policy for persons with disabilities.

VIII. PROMOTION OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOS)

The National Policy recognizes the NGO sector as a very important institutional mechanism
to provide affordable services to complement the endeavors of the Government.
IX. COLLECTION OF REGULAR INFORMATION ON PERSONS WITH
DISABILITIES

There is a need for regular collection, compilation and analysis of data relating to socio-
economic conditions of persons with disabilities. The National Sample Survey Organization has
been collecting information on Socio-economic conditions of persons with disabilities on regular
basis once in five years since 1981. The Census has also started collection of information on
persons with disabilities from the Census-2001.

X. RESEARCH

For improving the quality of life of persons with disabilities, research will be supported
on their socio-economic and cultural context, cause of disabilities, early childhood education
methodologies, development of user-friendly aids and appliances and all matters connected with
disabilities which will significantly alter the quality of their life and civil society's ability to
respond to their concerns.

XI. SPORTS, RECREATION AND CULTURAL LIFE

The contribution of sports for its therapeutic and community spirit is undeniable. Persons
with disabilities have right to access sports, recreation and cultural facilities. The Government
will take necessary steps to provide them opportunity for participation in various sports,
recreation and cultural activities.

XII. AMENDMENTS TO EXISTING ACTS DEALING WITH THE PERSONS WITH


DISABILITIES

Ten years have passed since the Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities,
Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995 came into operation. With the experience
gained in the implementation of the Act and developments in the disability sector, certain
amendments to the Act have become necessary. These amendments will be carried out in
consultation with the stakeholders.

17.7 UNIT SUMMARY


The Education Commission was appointed under the chairmanship of Prof. D.S. Kothari
by the Government of India by a Resolution, dated 14 July 1964, to advise the Government on
the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development
of education at all stages and in all aspects.It is a comprehensive review of the Entire
Educational System.

NPE 1986 is given importance to provide education for handicapped children. Education
of children with motor handicaps and other mild handicaps would be common with the others.
National policy also discussed about vocational training would be given to disabled children. It is
also stressed on provision of teacher training programmes to deal with special difficulties of
handicapped children.

The main objective of the National Policy of Education of 1992 and its Programme of
Action was to establish a national system of education implies that all students irrespective of
caste; creed, sex, and religion have access to education of a comparable quality.

The Government of India formulated the National Policy for Persons with Disabilities in
February 2006 which deals with Physical, Educational & Economic Rehabilitation of persons
with disabilities. In addition the policy also focuses upon rehabilitation of women and children
with disabilities, barrier free environment, social security, research etc.The focus of the policy is
on 1. Prevention of disabilities and 2. Rehabilitation measures.

Points to Remember

Kothari commission was the first education commission which suggested that the
education of handicapped children has to be organized not merely on humanitarian
grounds, but also on grounds of utility.
NPE 1986 & POA 1992 focused on establishment of special schools in every districts and
provide facilities to rehabilitees the handicapped children.
National Policy for Persons with Disabilities in February 2006 which deals with Physical,
Educational & Economic Rehabilitation of persons with disabilities.

17.8 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS (SELF-STUDY)


1. The National Policy recognizes that Persons with Disabilities are --------------- resource for the
country.

2.What is the significance of Kothari commission 1964-66 for handicapped children?

3. Write about Educational provisions ofProgramme of Action 1992.

17.9 ASSIGNMENTS

1. Write various educational provisions which suggested by national policy on education 1986.

2. National policy for persons with disabilities (2006) focuses on what?

17.10 POINTS FOR DISCUSSION AND CLARIFICATION

After going through the unit, you may want to have further discussion or clarifications of some
points.

17.10.1 Points for discussion

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17.10.2 Points for clarification

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17.11 REFERENCES

1. J.C. Agarwal (2001), Basic Ideas in Education, Shipra Publications, New Delhi.

2. B.N.Dash (2004), Teacher and Education in Emerging Indian Society, Neelkamal


Publications, Hyderabad.
3. K.C.Panda (2003), Education of Exceptional Children, Vikas Publishing House PVT Ltd,
New Delhi

4. Annual Report 1992-93, Ministry of Human Resource Development.


5. Dr.R.A.Sharma (2030) Fundamentals of Special education, R.Lal Book Depot, Meerut,
(U.P).
UNIT 18: NATIONAL ACTS.

STRUCTURE

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Objectives

18.3 RCI Act (1992)

18.4 PWD Act (1995)

18.5 NT Act (1999)

18.6 RTE Act (2009 & 2012)

18.7 Unit Summary

18.8 Check your progress (Self-study)

18.9 Assignments

18.10 Points for discussion and clarification

18.11 References

18.1 INTRODUCTION

Education is fundamental right of every child. Article 21A clearly says education is very
important instrument for survival of every individual in a better way. Education is mean for
sustainable development and progress of society. Irrespective of gender caste, religion, region
and disability, it is the responsibility of State, provide education to an every individual.

18.2 OBJECTIVES

After reading this Unit, the reader will be able to:

Know the Rehabilitation council of India Act 1992.


Know the Provisions of PWD Act 1995.
Know the National Trust Act 1999.
Develop awareness on provisions of Right to Education Act 2009 & 2012.

18.3 REHABILITATION COUNCIL OF INDIA(1992)

The Rehabilitation Council of India was set up as a registered society in 1986. However,
it was soon found that a society could not ensure proper standardization and acceptance of the
standards by other Organizations. Be it enacted by Parliament in the Forty-third Year of the
Republic of India, passed RCI Act in 1992. The Parliament enacted Rehabilitation Council of
India become a Statutory Body on 22nd June 1993. The RCI Act was amended by the Parliament
in 2000 to work it more broadly.

The organizational structure of RCI is very strong in the form of General Council,
Executive Committee, Chairman, Member Secretary, Expert Committees and Zonal
Committee.The chairman is the supreme authority of the RCI.

18.3.1OBJECTIVES OF REHABILITATION COUNCIL OF INDIA:

To regulate the training policies and programmes in the field of rehabilitation of


persons with disabilities.
To bring about standardization of training courses for professionals dealing with
persons with disabilities.
To prescribe minimum standards of education and training of various categories of
professionals/ personnel dealing with people with disabilities.
To regulate these standards in all training institutions uniformly throughout the
country.
To recognize institutions/ organizations/ universities running master's degree/
bachelor's degree/ P.G.Diploma/ Diploma/ Certificate courses in the field of
rehabilitation of persons with disabilities.
To recognize degree/diploma/certificate awarded by foreign universities/ institutions
on reciprocal basis.
To promote research in Rehabilitation and Special Education.
To maintain Central Rehabilitation Register for registration of professionals/
personnel.
To collect information on a regular basis on education and training in the field of
rehabilitation of people with disabilities from institutions in India and abroad.
To encourage continuing education in the field of rehabilitation and special education
by way of collaboration with organizations working in the field of disability.
To recognize Vocational Rehabilitation Centers as manpower development centers.
To register vocational instructors and other personnel working in the Vocational
Rehabilitation Centers.
To recognize the national institutes and apex institutions on disability as manpower
development centers.
To register personnel working in national institutes and apex institutions on disability
under the Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment.

18.3.2FUNCTIONS OF THE REHABILATION COUNCIL OF INDIA:

RCI Act 1992 clarified about functions of council. The following are various functions of
council prescribed in the RCI act:

(i) Standardization, approval and regulation of training Courses for various categories of
professionals dealing with persons with disabilities;
(ii) Reciprocal recognition of various foreign degrees/diplomas/certificate courses vis--vis
India degrees/diplomas/certificate courses;
(iii) Maintenance of Central Rehabilitation Register of rehabilitation professionals possessing
recognized rehabilitation qualifications; and
(iv) Prescribing the standards of conduct, etiquette and ethics for rehabilitation professional.

18.3.3 NATIONAL PROGRAMMES OF RCI

i. Scheme of Assistance to Organizations for the Disabled for Manpower Development:


The broader objectives of this scheme are to promote the training and to strengthen the
existing as well as new organizations.

ii. Bridge Course:

RCI launched a National programme of Bridge Course for all in-service Special
Teachers and Rehabilitation Workers who have no formal training but they have been working in
the field of disability for a long time i.e. prior to RCI came into existence in June 1993.

iii. Training of the Medical Officers Working in PHCs:

RCI has planned to train about 30,000 medical Doctors of Primary Health
Centers/Community Health centers all over the country. The objective of the programme is to
enhance the awareness amongst medicos regarding the problems and potential of people with
disability.

iv. Fellowship and Research Schemes:

The Council is planning to introduce RCI Fellowship Scheme to enable academicians and
practitioners both from India and abroad to undertake short term training/study programmes in
the field of specialization of rehabilitation, to enrich their knowledge, acquire skills or undertake
a short term research project. The RCI would also consider providing grant in-aid for sponsoring
research proposals on any significant theme oriented towards the welfare, empowerment and
rehabilitation of the disabled persons.

This RCI Act (1992) provides guarantees so as to ensure the good quality of services
rendered by various rehabilitation personnel. Following is the list of such guarantees:

1. To have the right to be served by trained and qualified rehabilitation professionals whose
names are borne on the Register maintained by the Council
2. To have the guarantee of maintenance of minimum standards of education required for
recognition of rehabilitation qualification by universities or institutions in India.
3. To have the guarantee of maintenance of standards of professional conduct and ethics by
rehabilitation professionals in order to protect against the penalty of disciplinary action
and removal from the Register of the Council
4. To have the guarantee of regulation of the profession of rehabilitation professionals by a
statutory council under the control of the central government and within the bounds
prescribed by the statute

18.4 THE PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (1995)

The Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full
Participation) Act, 1995 has come into enforcement on February 1st, 1996. This law is an
important landmark and is a significant step in the direction to ensure equal opportunities for
people with disabilities and their full participation in the nation building. The Act provides for
both preventive and promotional aspects of rehabilitation like education, employment and
vocational training, reservation, research and manpower development, creation of barrier-free
environment, rehabilitation of persons with disability, unemployment and establishment of
homes for persons with severe disability, etc.

18.4.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE PWD ACT (1995):

To spell out the responsibility of the state towards the prevention of disabilities,
protection of rights, provision of medical care, education, training, employment and
rehabilitation of persons with disabilities;
To create a barrier free environment for person with disabilities in the sharing of
development benefits, vis-a vis non-disabled persons;
To counteract any situation of abuse and exploitation of persons with disabilities; and
To make special provision of the integration of persons with disabilities into the social
mainstream.

18.4.2 MAIN PROVISIONS OF THE PWD ACT (1995):


In order to achieve its aims and objectives the act imposes obligations on the appropriate
governments (central, state and local governments) in the following areas:

I.Prevention and Early Detection of Disabilities:

In order to prevent the occurrence of disabilities, the appropriate government authorities


have to undertake surveys, investigations and research concerning the cause of occurrence of
disabilities, promote various methods of preventing disabilities, screen all the children at least
once in a year for the purpose of identifying at risk cases, provide facilities for training to the
staff at the primary health centers, sponsor awareness campaigns,take measures for pre-natal and
post-natal care of mother and child, educate the public through the pre-schools, schools, primary
health centers, village level workers and anganwadi workers and create awareness amongst the
masses through television, radio and other mass media on the causes of disabilities and the
preventive measures to be adopted. (Section 25).

II. Providing Equality in Education:

In order to provide equal opportunities for the disabled in education, the appropriate
government and local authorities have been entrusted with ensuring that every child with
disabilities have access to free education in an appropriate environment till 18 years of age.
Promoting the integration of students with disabilities in normal schools. Promoting setting up of
special schools in government and private sector in such a manner that children with disabilities
living in any part of the country have access to such schools and equip these schools with
vocational training facilities.Imparting education through open schools or open universities.
Conducting class and discussions through interactive electronic or other media. Providing every
child with disability free of cost special books and equipment needed for his education.
(Section 27)

III. Providing Equality in Employment:

At least 3 percent of vacancies in every government establishment are to be reserved for


persons with disabilities. Out of which 1 per cent each shall be reserved for persons suffering from
blindness or low vision and the other 2 percent for persons with hearing impairment and loco
IV. Providing Non-discrimination by Removing Physical Barriers:

In order to create a physical barrier free environment for disabled persons, the appropriate
governments or local authorities have to take special measures to public building, rail
compartments, buses, ships and designed to give easy access to disabled people. In all public
places and in waiting rooms, toilets shall be wheel chair accessible. Braille and sound symbols
are also to be provided in lifts. All the places of public utility shall be made barrier-free by
providing.

V.Providing Research Manpower Development:

The appropriate government and local authorities are entrusted with sponsoring and
promoting research in following areas: Prevention of disability; Rehabilitation including
community based rehabilitation; Development of assistive devices including their psycho-social
aspects; Job identification; on site modifications in offices and factories. (Section
48)Universities, other institutions of higher learning, professional bodies and non-governmental
organizations that undertake research on special education, rehabilitation and manpower
development are to be provided financial assistance by appropriate governments for undertaking
research for education, rehabilitation and manpower development. (Section 49)

VI. Providing Affirmative Action Programmes in Providing Aids:

The appropriate governments have to frame schemes to provide aids and appliances to
disabled persons. (Section 42) Special schemes are to be notified for the preferential allotment of
land at confessional rates for housing, setting up business, setting up special recreational centers,
establishment of special schools, establishment of research centers, establishment of factories by
entrepreneurs with disabilities (Section 43). Transport facilities to the children with disabilities
or in the alternative financial incentives to parents or guardians to enable their children with
disabilities to attend schools. The supply of books, uniforms and other materials to children
with disabilities attending school. The grant of scholarship to students with disabilities.
Restructuring of curriculum for the benefit of children with disabilities. Suitable modification in
the examination system to eliminate purely mathematical questions for the benefit of blind
students and students with low vision.
VII Providing Social Security for the Disabled:

While formulating rehabilitation policies the appropriate governments have to consult


non-governmental organizations working in the field of disability. Within their economic
capacity and development they are to undertake rehabilitation of all disabled persons for which
financial assistance shall be given non-governmental organizations working in the fields of
disability. (Section 66)Insurance schemes or alternate security schemes are to be framed by the
appropriate government for the benefit of its employees with disabilities. (Section 67)Schemes
are also to be framed for payment of an unemployment allowance to persons with disabilities
that are registered with the special employment exchange for more than two years and have not
been placed in any gainful occupation. (Section 68)

VIII Institution for persons with severe disabilities

The concerned government may establish and maintain institutions for persons with
severe disabilities at such places it thinks fit or recognize any private institution. (Section 56)

IX Grievance Redressal:

In case of violation of rights as prescribed in the Act people with disabilities may move
an application to Chief Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities in the center.

18.5 NATIONAL TRUST ACT (1999)

The National Trust is an autonomous organization of the Ministry of Social Justice and
Empowerment, Government of India, set up under the National Trust for the Welfare of Persons
with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation and Multiple Disabilities Act (Act 44 of
1999). The Act received the assent of the President on 30th December, 1999 and extends to the
whole of India. The National Trust was set up to find an answer to the worries of parents -"What
will happen to my child when I am no more?The National Trust works for the welfare of
persons with any of the four disabilities i.e. Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation, and
Multiple Disabilities.
18.5.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE NATIONAL TRUST ACT:

The basic objectives of the National Trust are:-

To enable and empower persons with disability to live as independently and as fully as
possible within and as close to the community to which they belong;
To strengthen facilities to provide support to persons with disability to live within their
own families;
To extend support to registered organizations to provide need based services during
period of crisis in the family of persons with disability;
To deal with problems of persons with disability who do not have family support;
To promote measures for the care and protection of persons with disability in the event of
death of their parent or guardian;
To evolve procedures for the appointment of guardians and trustees for persons with
disability requiring such protection;
To facilitate the realization of equal opportunities, protection of rights and full
participation of persons with disability; and
To do any other act which is incidental to the aforesaid objects.

18.5.2 REGISTRATION OF ASSOCIATIONS WITH THE BOARD

Any Association of persons with disability or any association of parents of disabled


persons or voluntary organizations can apply to the Board for registration. If application is
genuine and is accompanied with necessary documents and fees, the association will be
registered. Upon registration, the association can have access to or obtain copy of any book and
documents maintained by the Board. The Board will determine the pre-funding status of
registered organizations seeking financial assistance in accordance with regulations. The Board
will also hold every year a meeting of registered organizations.

18.5.3 LOCAL LEVEL COMMITEES


The Board will have to constitute Local Level Committees for different areas comprising
of District Magistrate or the District Commissioner along with one representative from a
registered organization and a person with disability for a period of three years to act as a Local
Level Committee. These Local Level Committees have to meet at least once in three months.

18.5.4 APPOINTMENT OF GUARDIANS FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITY

A parentor relativeof a person with disability may apply to the Local Level Committee
for appointment of a guardian / or a person with disability. A registered organization can also
make such an application with consent of the natural guardian of the disabled person. The Local
Level Committee will examine whether the person with disability needs a guardian and for what
purpose and also lay down the duties of the guardian. The guardian will be responsible for the
maintenance of the person with disability. The guardian will also submit to the Local Level
Committee inventory and annual accounts of the property and assets, claims and liabilities in
respect of such person with disability. A guardian so appointed can be removed for negligence or
for misappropriating the property of the person with disability.

18.6 RIGHT TO EDUCATION ACT (2009 & 2012)


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The landmark passing of the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE)
Act 2009 marks a historic moment for the children of India. For the first time in Indias history,
children will be guaranteed their right to quality elementary education by the state with the help
of families and communities. Few countries in the world have such a national provision to ensure
child-centered, child-friendly education to help all children develop to their fullest potential.
There were an estimated eight million six to 14 year-olds in India out-of-school in 2009. The
world cannot reach its goal to have every child complete primary school by 2015 without India.

First time Gopal Krishna Gokhale, the resolution moved in Imperial Legislative
Council on 18th march, 1910 for seeking provision of Free and Compulsory Primary Education
in India. In the words of Gopal Krishna Gokhale,I beg to place the following resolution before
the council for its consideration.the state should accept in this country the same responsibility
in regard to mass education that the government of most civilized countries are already
discharging and that a well-considered scheme should be drawn up and adhered to till it is
carried out.. The wellbeing of millions upon millions of children who are waiting to be brought
under the influence education depends upon it...

The 86th Constitutional amendment making education a fundamental right was passed
by Parliament in 2002. Right to Education Bill 2005 was preparedby UPA government. The bill
was approved by the cabinet on 2 July 2009. Rajya Sabha passed the bill on 20 July 2009.The
Lok Sabha passed the bill on 4 August 2009.The act was passed by the Indian parliament on 4
August 2009, describes the modalities of the provision of free and compulsory education for
children between 6 and 14 in India under Article 21A of the Indian Constitution.

Article 45 of Directive Principles of the Constitution says, Having made it the duty of
the State to provide free and compulsory education to all children up to age fourteen in ten years
(1960). Article 21A says, The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all
children of the age of six to fourteen years in such manner as the State may, by law, determine.
It received Presidential assent and was notified as law on 3 Sept 2009 as The Children's Right to
Free and Compulsory Education Act. The law came into effect in the whole of India except the
state of Jammu and Kashmir from 1 April 2010.

Dr.Manmohan Singh, Indian Prime Minister said in the Parliament, "I read under the
dim light of a kerosene lamp. I am what I am totally because of education." "So I want that the
light of education should reach to all".

18.6.1 PROVISIONS OF RIGHT TO EDUCATION ACT 2009:

Every child of the age of six to fourteen years shall have a right to free and compulsory
education I a neighborhood school till completion of elementary education.

No child shall be liable to pay any kind of fee or charges or expenses.

Provided that a child suffering from disability shall have the right to pursue free
and compulsory elementary education.

A child above six years of age either has not been admitted or admitted but could
notcomplete elementary education, then shall be admitted in a class appropriate to his or
her age.
There is a no provision of completion of EE, then a child shall have a right to seek
transfer to any other school.
Where a child Is required to move from one school to another, either within a State or
outside for any reason whatsoever, such child shall have a right to seek transfer to any
other school.

For seeking admission, the Head- teacher or in-charge of the school shall immediately
issue the TC.

Delaying issuance of TC shall be liable for disciplinary action.

Delay in producing TC shall not be a ground for either delaying or denying admission in
such other school.

Duties of Government: Government shall establish school within limits of neighborhood,


within a period of three years from the commencement of this act. It is the Central and State
responsibility for providing funds for implementing the act.

Responsibility of Central Government:Develop a frame work of national curriculum with the


help of academic authority. Develop the enforce standers for training of teachers.Provide
technical support and resources to the State Government for promoting innovations, researches,
planning and capacity building.

Responsibility of State Government: Provide free elementary education to every child of the
age of six to fourteen years. Ensure compulsory admission, attendance and completion EE by
every child of the age of 6 to 14 years. Ensure availability of a neighborhood school as specified.
Ensure that the child belonging to weaker section and disadvantaged group are not discriminated
in pursuing and completing EE on any grounds.Provide infrastructure including school building,
teaching staff and learning equipment. Provide special training facility. Ensure and monitor
admission, attendance and completion of EE by every child. Ensure good quality EE conforming
to the standers and norms specified in Schedule. Ensure timely prescribing of curriculum and
courses of study for EE.Provide training facility for teachersGovernment may make necessary
arrangements for providing free pre-school education for 3 to six years aged children
Responsibility of Parents:It shall be the duty of every parent and guardian to admit or cause to
be admitted their children to an EE in the neighborhood school.

School Responsibilities: Provide free and compulsory EE to all children admitted. Private
education institutions shall admit in class I and complete till EE, to the extent of at least 25% of
the strength of that class, children belonging to weaker section and disadvantaged students. Shall
be reimbursed expenditure so incurred by it to the extent of per-child expenditure incurred by the
State. Every school shall provide such information as may be required by the appropriate
Government or local authority. No school or person shall collect any capitation fee while
admitting a child and any screening procedure for admission. Any school or person receives
capitation fee or conducting screening procedure shall be punishable. Punishable with fine which
may extend to ten times the capitation fee charged and subjects a child screening procedure,
twenty-five thousand rupees for first contravention and 50 thousand rupees for each
contraventions. For the purposes of admission to EE, the age of child shall be determined on the
basis of birth certificate. No child shall be denied admission in the school for lack of age proof.
Provided that no child shall be denied admission.Prohibition of holding back and expulsion
from school till the completion of EE. No child shall be subjected to physical punishment or
mental harassment. No school to be established without obtaining certificate of recognition.

School Management Committee: Shall constitute a School Management Committee of the


elected representatives of the local authority, parents or guardians and teachers. At least three-
fourth of members shall be from parents.Proportionate representation shall be given parents
those who are belongs to disadvantaged group and weaker section.Fifty percent of members shall
be women. Qualified teachers should be appointed. Based on the need the Govt. may relax
minimum qualifications not exceeding 5 years.Shall acquire such minimum qualifications within
a period of 5 years. The salary and allowances payable to teachers shall be prescribed.

Functions of SMC:Monitor the working of school. Prepare and recommend school development
plan.Monitor the utilization of grants.Perform such other functions as may be prescribed.

Duties of Teachers: Maintain regularity and punctuality in attending school. Conduct and
complete the curriculum within specified time. Assess the learning ability of each student. And
accordingly supplement additional instructions. Hold regular meetings with parents about
regularity in attendance, ability to learn, progress made in learning and any other relevant
information about the child. Perform such other duties as may be prescribed. No teacher shall be
deployed for any non-educational purposes other than the census duties, disaster relief duties or
duties relating to elections. No teacher shall engage in private tuition or private teaching activity.

Curriculum and evaluation procedure: Conformity with the values enshrined in the
constitution. All round development of the child.Building up child's knowledge, potentiality and
talent.Development of physical and mental abilities to the fullest extent. Learning through
activities, discovery and exploration in child friendly and child- centered manner. Medium of
instruction shall be in childs mother tongue. Making the child free of fear, trauma and anxiety
and helping the child to express views freely.Comprehensive and continuous evaluation of
childs understanding of knowledge and his or her ability to apply the same.No child shall be
required to pass any Board examination till completion of EE. Every child completing his EE
shall be awarded a certificate.
Protection of Right of Children:The National Commission for Protection of Child Rights
constituted and the State Commission for Protection of Child Rights constituted under the
section 3 & 17, of the Commissions for protection of Child Rights act, 2005. National Advisory
Council shall constitute for advice the Central Govt. on implementation of RE Act and State
Advisory Council shall constitute for advice the State Govt. on implementation of RE Act.

Number of teachers:

For I class to V class, Up to 60 2 teachers,Between to 61 to 90- 3 teachers, Between to


91 to 120- 4 teachers,Between to121 to 200- 5 teachers,Above 150 children's 5 teachers + one
Head teacher. Pupil -Teacher ratio (excluding Head- teacher) shall not exceed forty.

For VI to VIII Class, At least one teacher per class so that there shall be at least one
teacher each for- Science and Mathematics; Social Studies; Languages. At least one teacher for
every 35 children. Above 100 students: one full time Head Teacher, Part time instructor for a)
Art Education b) Health and Physical education c) Work Education.

Government of India has since aligned the SarvaShikshaAbhiyan (SSA) norms with the
provisions of Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 and has committed
a funding of Rs. 2,31,233 crore for implementation of the combined RTE-SSA program during
the next five years in partnership with the States.SSA ensures that every child with special needs,
irrespective of the kind, category and degree of disability, is provided meaningful and quality
education. Hence, SSA has adopted a zero rejection policy. This means that no child having
special needs should be deprived of the right to education and taught in an environment, which is
best, suited to his/her learning needs.

18.6.2 Right to Education Act 2012:Central government reviewed the RTE act 2009 and this
act was amended by parliament in the year 2012. This was known as Right of Children to Free
and Compulsory Education (Amendment) Act 2012. This was subject to articles 29 and 30 of
the constitution. This act shall apply to Madrasses, Vedic Pathsalas and educational institutions
primarily imparting religious instruction.

Section 2 & 3 of RTE act 2012 states about application of compulsory free education to
disable children. This is clearly says Every handicapped / disable child of the age of six to
fourteen years shall have the right to free and compulsory education in a neighborhood school till
the completion of his / her elementary education.

18.7 UNIT SUMMARY

Indian Parliament passed RCI Act in 1992. The Parliament enacted Rehabilitation
Council of India become a Statutory Body on 22nd June 1993. The RCI Act was amended by the
Parliament in 2000 to work it more broadly. The objectives of Rehabilitation Council of India is
to regulate the training policies and programmes in the field of rehabilitation of persons with
disabilities. To bring about standardization of training courses for professionals dealing with
persons with disabilities.

The Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full
Participation) Act, 1995 hascome into enforcement on February 1st, 1996. This law is an
important landmark and is a significant step in the direction to ensure equal opportunities for
people with disabilities and their full participation in the nation building. The Act provides for
both preventive and promotional aspects of rehabilitation like education, employment and
vocational training, reservation, research and manpower development, creation of barrier-free
environment, rehabilitation of persons with disability, unemployment and establishment of
homes for persons with severe disability, etc.

The National Trust is an autonomous organization of the Ministry of Social Justice and
Empowerment, Government of India, set up under the National Trust for the Welfare of Persons
with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation and Multiple Disabilities Act (Act 44 of
1999). The Act received the assent of the President on 30th December, 1999 and extends to the
whole of India. The basic objectives of the National Trust are to enable and empower persons
with disability to live as independently and as fully as possible within and as close to the
community to which they belong.

The Right of Children to Free & Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009 has come into
force w.e.f. 1st April, 2010. The RTE Act provides for free & compulsory education to children
in the age group of 6-14 years at elementary level in a neighborhood school.RTE Act 2012
provided that a child suffering from disability shall have the right to pursue free and
compulsory elementary education.

Points to Remember

Indian Parliament passed RCI Act in 1992. The Act casts norms responsibility on the
Council. The Council is responsible for regulating training policies and programmes for
various categories of professionals in the area of disability.
PWD (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act,
1995 hascome into enforcement on February 1st, 1996. This law is an important in an
ensure equal opportunities for people with disabilities and their full participation in the
nation building.
The National Trust is an autonomous organization. The basic objectives of the National
Trust are to enable and empower persons with disability to live as independently.

RTE Act 2009 & 2012 provided that a child suffering from disability shall have the right
to pursue free and compulsory elementary education.
18.8 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS (SELF-STUDY)

1. The Council is responsible for regulating -------------- policies and programmes for various
categories of professionals in the area of -----------------.

2. PWD ACT (1995) is a significant step in the direction to ensure ------------------ for people
with disabilities and their full participation in the nation building.

3. Write about provisions of National Trust Act 1999.

18.9 ASSIGNMENTS

1. Write functions of Rehabilitation Council of India.

2. What are the provisions mentioned in the RTE Act (2009) for disabled children?

18.10 POINTS FOR DISCUSSION AND CLARIFICATION

After going through the unit, you may want to have further discussion or clarifications of some
points.

18.10.1 Points for discussion

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18.10.2 Points for clarification

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18.11 REFERENCES

1. Krishna Maitra&VandanaSaxena (2014), Inclusion, Issues and Perspectives,


Kanishka Publishers, Distributors, New Delhi.

2. "Provisions of the Constitution of India having a bearing on Education". Department of


Higher Education. Retrieved 1 April 2010.

3. AartiDhar (2010). "Education is a fundamental right now". The Hindu.

4. "India launches children's right to education". BBC News. 1 April 2010.

"India joins list of 135 countries in making education a right". The Hindu News. 2 April 2010.

5. Selva, G. (2009). "Universal Education in India: A Century of Unfulfilled Dreams".


PRAGOTI. Retrieved 2010.

6. Seethalakshmi, S. (2006). "Centre buries Right to Education Bill India The Times of
India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2010.
UNIT 19: PROGRAMMES AND SCHEMES.

STRUCTURE

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Objectives

19.3 IEDS (1974 &1983)

19.4SSA (2000, 2011)

19.5 RMSA (2009)

19.6 IEDSS (2009)

19.7 Unit Summary

19.8 Check your progress (Self-study)

19.9 Assignments

19.10 Points for discussion and clarification

19.11 References

19.1 INTRODUCTION

Education provides the surest instrument for attaining sustainable development of a high
order in a country. In this regard, primary education acts as the basic enabling factor for
participation, freedom and overcoming of basic deprivation; whereas secondary education
facilitates economic development and establishment of social justice. Over the years,
liberalization and globalization have led to rapid changes in scientific and technological world
and have prompted the general needs of improved quality of life and reduced poverty. This
undoubtedly necessitates the school leavers to acquire higher levels of knowledge and skills than
what they are essentially imparted with throughout the school education. Following the
recommendations of New Education Policy of 1986 and Programme of Action, 1992 the
Government of India initiated different schemes to support children of secondary and higher
secondary schools at different points in time.

19.2 OBJECTIVES

After reading this Unit, the reader will be able to:

Explain the scheme of Integrated Education for the Disabled Children (1974).
Know the contribution of SarvaShikshaAbhyan.
Explain RMSA 2009 programme.
Explain the IEDSS 2009.

19.3 INTEGRATED EDUCATION FOR THE DISABLED CHILDREN (1974 & 1983)

The Integrated Education of Disabled Children (IEDC) launched in 1974 and revised in
1992 by the Central Government was one of the first schemes in this area. It aims to provide
educational opportunities for the moderately disabled children in the general school system.

The program provided children with disabilities financial support for books, school
uniforms, transportation, special equipment and aids, with the intention of using these aids to
include children in mainstream classrooms. However, the government of India realized that
providing structural changes to the classroom, such as adapted equipment, would not be enough
to integrate children with disabilities into the classroom. IEDC provides for one special teacher
for every eight disabled children and also resource room in every cluster of eight to ten schools.
The scheme is implemented in 15,000 schools of 26 States and Union Territories covering
65,000 disabled children.

The scheme that has made a major impact is the District Primary Education Programme
(DPEP).The advantage of the scheme is that it takes care of all areas from identification,
assessment, enrolment and provision of appliances to total integration of disabled children in
schools with resource support, teacher training and parental counseling. Replicating interventions
of DPEP in integrated education, many other schemes like Janshala, the joint programme of the
Government of India and five UN agencies, has included this as an important component. The
newly launched scheme of SarvaShikshaAbhiyan (SSA), aimed to universalize elementary
education, recognizes the right of every disabled children to education.

Sharma, an Indian scholar, found three major problems with the IEDC. There was a lack
of training and experience that the teachers had, a lack of orientation among regular school staff
about the problems of disabled children and their educational needs, and the lack of availability
of equipment and educational materials.

By 1979-80, only 1,881 children from 81 schools all over the country had benefited from
this program. This program stressed that students with mild to moderate disabilities needed to
be integrated, but not moderate to severe. Therefore, it was not fully inclusive, and created
tensions between mainstream and segregated special education schools.

UN World Programme of Action Concerning Disabled Persons (1983):

There are several international statements and conventions which proclaim the right of
all disabled children to education. The UN World Programme of Action Concerning Disabled
Persons (1983) was one of the earliest statements of the UN which called up on all States to
adopt policies that recognize the rights of the disabled to equal educational opportunities. It also
recommended that the education of the disabled persons should as far as possible take place in
the general school system.

19.4. SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN (SSA 2000 &2011)

SarvaShikshaAbhiyan is an Indian Governmentprogramme aimed at the


universalization of elementary education "in a time bound manner", as mandated by the 86th
Amendment to the Constitution of India making free and compulsory education to children
between the ages of 6 to 14 (estimated to be 205 million children in 2001) a fundamental right.
The programme was pioneered by former Indian Prime MinisterAtal Bihari Vajpayee.

SarvaShikshaAbhiyan is an effort to universalize elementary education by community-


ownership of the school system. It is in response to the demand for quality basic education all
over the country. The SSA programme is also an attempt to provide an opportunity for
improving human capabilities to all children, through provision of community-owned quality
education in a Mission mode.

A programme with a clear time frame for universal elementary education.


A response to the demand for quality basic education all over the country.
An opportunity for promoting social justice through basic education.
An effort at effectively involving the Panchayati Raj Institutions, School Management
Committees, Village and Urban Slum level Education Committees, Parents' Teachers'
Associations, Mother Teacher Associations, Tribal Autonomous Councils and other grass
root level structures in the management of elementary schools.
An expression of political will for universal elementary education across the country.
A partnership between the Central, State and the local government.
An opportunity for States to develop their own vision of elementary education.

The SarvaShikshaAbhiyan was launched to achieve the goal of Universalization of


Elementary Education. This adopts a ZERO rejection policy and uses an approach of
converging various existing schemes and programmes.

It covers the following components under education for children with disability:

Early detection and identification.


Functional and formal assessment.
Educational placement.
Aids and appliances.
Support services.
Teacher training.
Resource support.
Individual Educational Plan (IEP).
Parental training and community mobilization.
Planning and management.
Strengthening of special schools.
Removal of architectural barriers.
Research.
Monitoring and evaluation.
Girls with disability.

19.4. 1. MISSION:

1. The SarvaShikshaAbhiyan Mission strives to secure the right to quality basic education
for all children in the 6-14 years age group. The goals of the SSA Mission are:

Enrolment of all children in school, Education Guarantee Centre, Alternate school,


Back- to- School camp by 2005.
Retention of all children till the upper primary stage by 2010.
Bridging of gender and social category gaps in enrolment, retention and learning.
Ensuring that there is significant enhancement in the learning achievement levels of
children at the primary and upper primary stage.

2. Each State and district would set target dates by which the super goals of SSA would
be achieved in their specific context, but not later than 2010.

3. National Norms would be developed for expected learning outcomes in certain


essential skills. The progress towards enhancement in achievement levels on these norms would
be assessed regularly on a sample basis at national level. In addition, States would evolve a
mechanism for regular objective assessment of students learning levels.

19.4.2. THE MISSION PROMOTES:

1. Empowering of children to be active participants in a knowledge society.

2. A result oriented approach with accountability towards performance and output at all
levels.

3. A people centered mode of implementation of educational interventions with


involvement of all stakeholders, especially teachers, parents, community and Panchayati Raj
Institutions and voluntary organizations.
4. An equity based approach that focuses on the needs of educationally backward areas
and disadvantaged social groups including children with special needs.

5. A holistic effort to ensure convergence of investments and initiatives for improving the
efficiency of the elementary education system.

6. Institutional reforms and capacity building to ensure a sustained effort for UEE.

19.4.3. ASPECTS

1. It provides a wide convergent frame work for implementation of Elementary


Education schemes.
2. It is also a programme with budget provision for strengthening vital areas to achieve
universalization of elementary education.

Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat

Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat is a nationwide sub-programme of SarvaShikshaAbhiyan is


for thechildren who fail to read in early education lag behind in other subjects.The programme is
designed to improve comprehensive early reading, writing and early mathematics programme for
children in Classes I and II. Under this programme, 762 crore (US$110 million) was approved
to States.

The Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat programmewill not only provide print rich environment,
timely distribution of books but will also include new teacher mentoring and appraisal system.
SSA has been operational since 2000-2001 to provide for a variety of interventions for universal
access and retention, bridging of gender and social category gaps in elementary education and
improving the quality of learning.

SSA interventions include inter alia, opening of new schools and alternate schooling
facilities, construction of schools and additional classrooms, toilets and drinking water,
provisioning for teachers, regular teacher in service training and academic resource support, free
textbooks& uniforms and support for improving learning achievement levels / outcome. With the
passage of the RTE Act, changes have been incorporated into the SSA approach, strategies and
norms. Equity, to mean not only equal opportunity, but also creation of conditions in which the
disadvantaged sections of the society children of SC, ST, Muslim minority, landless
agricultural workers and children with special needs, etc. can avail of the opportunity.

Gender concern, implying not only an effort to enable girls to keep pace with boys but to
view education in the perspective spelt out in the National Policy on Education 1986&92; i.e. a
decisive intervention to bring about a basic change in the status of women. Centrality of teacher,
to motivate them to innovate and create a culture in the classroom, and beyond the classroom,
that might produce an inclusive environment for children, especially for girls from oppressed and
marginalised backgrounds. Moral compulsion is imposed through the RTE Act on parents,
teachers, educational administrators and other stakeholders, rather than shifting emphasis on
punitive processes. Convergent and integrated system of educational management is pre-
requisite for implementation of the RTE law. All states must move in that direction as speedily
as feasible.

SSA 2011

SSA has been operational since 2000- 2001. With the passage of the RTE Act changes
need to be incorporated into the SSA approach strategies and norms. The changes are not merely
confined to norms for providing teachers or classrooms, but encompass the vision and approach
to elementary education as evidenced in the shift to child entitlements and quality elementary
education in regular schools. The revised SSA (2011) Framework for Implementation is derived
from there commendations of the Committee on Implementation of RTE Act and the Resultant
Revamp of SSA, and is intended to demonstrate the harmonization of SSA with the RTE Act. It
is also based on child centric assumptions emerging from the National Policy on Education,
1986/92 and the National Curriculum Framework (NCF), 2005. The revised SSA Framework for
Implementation provides a broad outline of approaches and implementation strategies, within
which States can frame more detailed guidelines keeping in view their specific social, economic
and institutional contexts.

19.5. RASHTRIYA MADHYAMIK SHIKSHA ABHIYAN (RMSA 2009)


This Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan scheme was launched in March, 2009
with the objective to enhance access to secondary education and to improve its quality. The
implementation of the scheme started from 2009-10 to generate human capital and provide
sufficient conditions for accelerating growth and development and equity as also quality of life
for everyone in India.

It is envisaged to achieve an enrolment rate of 75% from 52.26% in 2005-06 at


secondary stage of implementation of the scheme by providing a secondary school within a
reasonable distance of any habitation. The other objectives include improving quality of
education imparted at secondary level through making all secondary schools conform to
prescribed norms, removing gender, socio-economic and disability barriers, providing universal
access to secondary level education by 2017, i.e., by the end of 12th Five Year Plan and
achieving universal retention by 2020.

The scheme involves multidimensional research, technical consulting, implementation


and funding support. RMSA covers 50,000 government and local body secondary schools.
Besides this, an additional of 30,000 aided secondary schools can also access the benefits of
RMSA; but not infrastructure and support in core areas.

19.5.1 IMPLEMENTATION MECHANISM OF THE RMSA SCHEME:

Ministry of Human Resource Development is the nodal central government ministry to


coordinate RMSA with the help of RMSA State Implementation Societies (SIS) in each state.
However, there are a lot of support arrangements and institutions available for better
implementation of RMSA. A National Resource Group (NRG) provides guidance for bringing
about reforms in teaching learning processes, curriculum, teaching learning material, ICT
education and mechanisms of monitoring and evaluation. The Technical Support Group (TSG)
supported by MHRD, is a constituent of the NRG and has a direct reporting relationship with the
ministry. TSG provides technical and operational support and expertise to national and state level
teams.

Besides this, various sub-committees like Curriculum Reform Subcommittee, Teacher


and Teacher Development Subcommittee, ICT Subcommittee and Planning and Management
Subcommittee have been constituted under NRG. These subcommittees comprise members from
the TSG and meet thrice a year to apprise themselves of the progress made on mutually set goals
and commitments. In addition, NCERT and NUEPA support through dedicated RMSA units.
RMSA-TCA has also been set-up for capacity building support with the assistance of DFID. In
terms of financial inputs, the central share is released to the implementing agencies directly,
whereas the applicable state share is also released to the agencies by the respective State
Governments

19.5.2PHYSICAL FACILITIES PROVIDED UNDER THE RMSA SCHEME ARE:

(i) Additional class rooms, (ii) Laboratories, (iii) Libraries, (iv) Art and crafts room, (v) Toilet
blocks, (vi) Drinking water provisions and (vii) Residential Hostels for Teachers in remote areas.

Quality interventions provided under the RMSA scheme are:

(i) appointment of additional teachers to reduce PTR to 30:1, (ii) focus on Science, Math and
English education, (iii) In-service training of teachers, (iv) science laboratories, (v) ICT enabled
education, (vi) curriculum reforms; and (vii) teaching learning reforms.

Equity interventions provided in the RMSA scheme are:

(i) special focus in micro planning (ii) preference to Ashram schools for upgradation (iii)
preference to areas with concentration of SC/ST/Minority for opening of schools (iv)
special enrolment drive for the weaker section (v) more female teachers in schools;
and (vi) separate toilet blocks for girls.

19.6. INCLUSIVE EDUCATION FOR DISABLED AT SECONDARY STAGE

(IEDSS-2009)

The Scheme of Inclusive Education for Disabled at Secondary Stage (IEDSS) has been
launched from the year 2009-10. This Scheme replaces the earlier scheme of Integrated
Education for Disabled Children (IEDC) and provides assistance for the inclusive education of
the disabled children in classes IX-XII. This scheme now subsumed under Rashtriya Madhyamik
Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) from 2013. The States/UTs are also in the process of subsuming
under RMSA as RMSA subsumed Scheme.

19.6.1. AIMS OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION FOR DISABLED AT SECONDARY


STAGE SCHEME:

Enable all students with disabilities completing eight years of elementary schooling an
opportunity to complete four years of secondary schooling (classes IX to XII) in an
inclusive and enabling environment
Provide educational opportunities and facilities to students with disabilities in the general
education system at the secondary level (classes IX to XII).
Support the training of general school teachers to meet the needs of children with
disabilities at the secondary level.

19.6.2. OBJECTIVES INCLUSIVE EDUCATION FOR DISABLED AT SECONDARY


STAGE SCHEME:

The scheme covers all children studying at the secondary stage in Government, local
body and Government-aided schools, with one or more disabilities as defined under the Persons
with Disabilities Act (1995) and the National Trust Act (1999) in the class IX to XII, namely
blindness, low vision, leprosy cured, hearing impairment, locomotors disabilities, mental
retardation, mental illness, autism, and cerebral palsy and may eventually cover speech
impairment, learning disabilities, etc. Girls with the disabilities receive special focus to help
them gain access to secondary schools, as also to information and guidance for developing their
potential. Setting up of Model inclusive schools in every State is envisaged under the scheme.
The following are objectives of IEDSS scheme:

Every child with disability will be identified at the secondary level and his educational
need assessed.
Every student in need of aids and appliances, assistive devices, will be provided the same
All architectural barriers in schools are removed so that students with disability have
access to classrooms, laboratories, libraries and toilets in the school.
Each student with disability will be supplied learning material as per his/ her requirement
All general school teachers at the secondary level will be provided basic training to teach
students with disabilities within a period of three to five years.
Students with disabilities will have access to support services like the appointment of
special educators, establishment of resource rooms in every block.
Model schools are set up in every state to develop good replicable practices in inclusive
education.

19.6.3. COMPONENTS INCLUSIVE EDUCATION FOR DISABLED AT SECONDARY


STAGE SCHEME:

Student-oriented components, such as medical and educational assessment, books and


stationery, uniforms, transport allowance, reader allowance, stipend for girls, support
services, assistive devices, boarding the lodging facility, therapeutic services, teaching
learning materials, etc.
Other components include appointment of special education teachers, allowances for
general teachers for teaching such children, teacher training, orientation of school
administrators, establishment of resource room, providing barrier free environment, etc.

19.6.4. IMPLEMENTING AGENCY INCLUSIVE EDUCATION FOR DISABLED AT


SECONDARY STAGE SCHEME:

The School Education Department of the State Governments/Union Territory (UT)


Administrations are the implementing agencies. They may involve NGOs having experience in
the field of education of the disabled in the implementation of the scheme.

19.6.5. FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE INCLUSIVE EDUCATION FOR DISABLED AT


SECONDARY STAGE SCHEME:

The School Education Department of any State Government/Union Territory (UT)


Administration acts as the implementation agency and 100 percent Central assistance is provided
for all items covered in the scheme. The prerogative to involve NGOs having experience in the
field of education of the disabled, in implementing the scheme, completely lies with the
implementing agency. The State Governments are only required to make provisions for a
scholarship of Rs. 600 per disabled child per annum.

19.7 UNIT SUMMARY

The Integrated Education of Disabled Children (IEDC) programmelaunched in 1974


and revised in 1992 by the Central Government was one of the first schemes in this
area.Theprogram provided children with disabilities financial support for books, school
uniforms, transportation, special equipment and aids, with the intention of using these aids to
include children in mainstream classrooms.

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is an Indian Government programme aimed at the


universalization of elementary education. It provides a wide convergent frame work for
implementation of Elementary Education schemes. It is also a programme with budget provision
for strengthening vital areas to achieve universalization of elementary education.

Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat is a nationwide sub-programme of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan.


Children who fail to read in early education lag behind in other subjects. The programme is
designed to improve comprehensive early reading, writing and early mathematics programme for
children in Classes I and II. Under this programme, 762 crore (US$110 million) was approved
to States.

Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan scheme was launched in March, 2009 with
the objective to enhance access to secondary education and to improve its quality.The scheme
involves multidimensional research, technical consulting, implementation and funding support.

The Scheme of Inclusive Education for Disabled at Secondary Stage (IEDSS) has
been launched from the year 2009-10. This Scheme replaces the earlier scheme of Integrated
Education for Disabled Children (IEDC) and provides assistance for the inclusive education of
the disabled children in classes IX-XI

Points to Remember

IEDC programmelaunched in 1974 and revised in 1992 by the Central Government was one of
the first schemes in this area.
SSA Programme provides a wide convergent frame work for implementation of Elementary
Education schemes.This adopts a ZERO rejection policy and uses an approach of converging
various existing schemes and programmes.

This RashtriyaMadhyamikShikshaAbhiyan scheme was launched in March, 2009 with the


objective to enhance access to secondary education and to improve its quality.

The Scheme of Inclusive Education for Disabled at Secondary Stage (IEDSS)scheme


replaces the earlier scheme of Integrated Education for Disabled Children (IEDC).

19.7 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS (SELF-STUDY)

1. The ------------------------ programme was launched to achieve the goal of Universalization of


Elementary Education. This adopts a ------------- rejection policy.

2. Write about provisions of Inclusive Education for Disabled at Secondary Stage (IEDSS
scheme?

19.8 ASSIGNMENTS

I. Write about various government programmes and schemes in the welfare of disable children?

19.9 POINTS FOR DISCUSSION AND CLARIFICATION

After going through the unit, you may want to have further discussion or clarifications of some
points.

19.9.1 Points for discussion

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19.9.1 Points for clarification

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19.10 REFERENCES

1."SarvaShikshaAbhiyan". Department of School Education and Literacy, MHRD, Government


of India. Retrieved 26 October 2013.

2."District Primary Education Programme, DPEP". Archived from the original on 29 October
2013. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
3."District Primary Education Programmes (DPEP)". Retrieved 28 October 2013.
4. Jalan, Jyotsna; Glinskaya, Elena. "Improving Primary School Education in India: An Impact
Assessment of DPEP I" (PDF). World Bank. Retrieved 29 November 2013.
5."Will RTE fulfil the SSA dream?". The Times of India. 5 April 2010. Retrieved 26 October
2013.

6. "Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat"(PDF). www.ssa.nic.in. Retrieved 4 December 2014.


UNIT 20: INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS AND POLICIES

STRUCTURE

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Objectives

20.3 Salamanca Declaration and Framework 1994

20.4 UNCRPD 2006

20.5 MDG 2015

20.6 INCHEON Strategies

20.7 Unit Summary

20.8 Check your progress (Self-study)

20.9 Assignments

20.10 Points for discussion and clarification

20.11 References

20.1. INTRODUCTION

Globally, children with disabilities count for one-third of all children out-of-school. In
developing countries, the numbers are even more staggering, with 90% of all children with
disabilities out-of-school. Although it is imperative that children with disabilities receive an
education, it is also being recognized by bodies around the world that the type of education that
children with disabilities receive is just as important. There are three basic types of Special
Education, although many different models of classroom organization and teaching are available
within each type.

Segregated education occurs when students with disabilities learn completely separate
from their peers. Often, especially in developing countries, segregated education takes place in
the form of special schools created specifically for the education of students with disabilities, or
in completely separate classrooms for students with disabilities. Segregated education pinpoints
the child as the problem in the system, the impediment to learning, and as a result, these students
will often receive a completely different curriculum and different methods of testing, rather than
being taught the same curriculum as their peers.This separation in school often creates separation
within other areas of life as well.

Integrated education is similar to inclusive education, but without any ideological


commitment to equity. Integration places students in a mainstream classroom with some
adaptations and resources. However, students are expected to fit in with pre-existing
structures, attitudes and an unaltered environment.Integration is often mistaken for inclusion
because students are placed in a mainstream classroom, which is a step towards
inclusion.However, if there has not been a paradigm shift within the school and these students
are not perceived as equals, if curriculum is not taught for the understanding of all instead of
some, then the students are integrated, but not included in the school.

Inclusive education is a process of strengthening the capacity of the education system to


reach out to all learners.ix It involves restructuring the culture, policies and practices in
schools so that they can respond to the diversity of students in their locality.

Currently, the United Nations is the agency that best attempts to embody the goals and
ideals of the majority of countries across the globe. Due to its unique international character,
and the powers vested in its founding Charter, the Organization can take action on a wide range
of issues, and provide a forum for its 193 Member States to express their views, through the
General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council and other bodies and
committees.

19.2. OBJECTIVES

After reading this Unit, the reader will be able to:

Explain the Salamanca Declaration and Frame Work 1994.


Know the UNCRPD 2006
Explain MDG 2015.
State the INCHEON Strategies.

20.3.SALAMANCA DECLARATION AND FRAMEWORK 1994

This report from the UNs education agency calls on the international community to
endorse the approach of inclusive schools by implementing practical and strategic changes. In
June 7 to 10,1994 representatives of 92 governments and 25 international organizations formed
the World Conference on Special Needs Education, held in Salamanca, Spain. They agreed a
dynamic new Statement on the education of all disabled children, which called for inclusion to
be the norm. In addition, the Conference adopted a new Framework for Action, the guiding
principle of which is that ordinary schools should accommodate all children, regardless of their
physical, intellectual, social, emotional, linguistic or other conditions. All educational policies,
says the Framework, should stipulate that disabled children attend the neighborhood school 'that
would be attended if the child did not have a disability.'

Its purpose is to inform policy and guide action by governments, international


organizations, national aid agencies, non-governmental organizations and other bodies in
implementing the Salamanca Statement on Principles, Policy and Practice in Special Needs
Education. The Framework draws extensively upon the national experience of the participating
countries as well as upon resolutions, recommendations and publications of the United Nations
system and other inter-governmental organizations, especially the Standard Rules on the
Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities.

20.3.1. EDUCATION FOR ALL

The Statement begins with a commitment to Education for All, recognizing the necessity
and urgency of providing education for all children, young people and adults 'within the regular
education system.' It says those children with special educational needs 'must have access to
regular schools' and adds.

Regular schools with this inclusive orientation are the most effective means of combating
discriminatory attitudes, creating welcoming communities, building an inclusive society and
achieving education for all; moreover, they provide an effective education to the majority of
children and improve the efficiency and ultimately the cost-effectiveness of the entire education
system.

20.3.2. CALL TO GOVERNMENTS

The World Conference went on to call upon all governments to:

Give the 'highest policy and budgetary priority' to improve education services so that all
children could be included, regardless of differences or difficulties.
'Adopt as a matter of law or policy the principle of inclusive education' and enroll all
children in ordinary schools unless there were compelling reasons for doing otherwise.
Develop demonstration projects and encourage exchanges with countries with inclusive
schools.
Ensure that organizations of disabled people, along with parents and community bodies,
are involved in planning decision-making.
Put greater effort into pre-school strategies as well as vocational aspects of inclusive
education.
Ensure that both initial and in-service teacher training address the provision of inclusive
education.

20.3.3. INCLUSIVE SCHOOLING

The Statement also calls on the international community to endorse the approach of
inclusive schooling and to support the development of special needs education as an integral part
of all education programmes. In particular it calls on UNESCO, UNICEF, UNDP and the World
Bank for this endorsement. It asks for the United Nations and its specialized agencies to
'strengthen their inputs for technical co-operation' and improve their networking for more
efficient support to integrated special needs provision. Non-governmental organizations are
asked to strengthen their collaboration with official national bodies and become more involved in
all aspects of inclusive education.

20.3.4. EQUALIZATION OF OPPORTUNITY


The Framework for Action says 'inclusion and participation are essential to human
dignity and to the enjoyment and exercise of human rights.' In the field of education this is
reflected in bringing about a 'genuine equalization of opportunity.' Special needs education
incorporates proven methods of teaching from which all children can benefit; it assumes human
differences are normal and that learning must be adapted to the needs of the child, rather than the
child fitted to the process.

20.4. UNITED NATIONS CONVENTIONS ON THE RIGHT OF PERSONS WITH


DISABILITIES (UNCRPD-2006)

United Nations Conventions on the Right of Persons with Disabilities was


adopted by the General Assembly in 13 December 2006at the United Nations Headquarters in
New York. Purpose of UNCRPD-2006 is to promote, protect and ensure the full and equal
enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by all persons with disabilities and to
promote respect for their inherent dignity. The convention was came into force in May 2008.
There were 82 signatories to the Convention, 44 signatories to the Optional Protocol, and 1
ratification of the Convention. This is the highest number of signatories in history to a UN
Convention on its opening day. It is the first comprehensive human rights treaty of the 21st
century and is the first human rights convention to be open for signature by regional integration
organizations.

20.4.1. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OFCONVENTION:

The principles of the present Convention shall be:

Respect for inherent dignity, individual autonomy including the freedom to make ones
own choices, and independence of persons;
Non-discrimination;
Full and effective participation and inclusion in society;
Respect for difference and acceptance of persons with disabilities as part of human
diversity and humanity;
Equality of opportunity;
Accessibility;
Equality between men and women;
Respect for the evolving capacities of children with disabilities and respect for the right
of children with disabilities to preserve their identities.

20.4.2.EQUALITY AND NONDISCRIMINATION

Article 5 of this convention states in order to promote equality and eliminate discrimination,
States Parties shall take all appropriate steps to ensure that reasonable accommodation is
provided.

20.4.3.EDUCATION

Article 24 states that the parties shall:

1. States Parties recognize the right of persons with disabilities to education. With a view to
realizing this right without discrimination and on the basis of equal opportunity, States Parties
shall ensure an inclusive education system at all levels.

2. States shall ensure that:

Persons with disabilities are not excluded from the general education system on the basis
of disability, and that children with disabilities are not excluded from free and
compulsory primary education, or from secondary education, on the basis of disability;
Persons with disabilities can access an inclusive, quality and free primary education and
secondary education on an equal basis with others in the communities in which they live;

3. States shall enable persons with disabilities to learn life and social development skills to
facilitate their full and equal participation in education and as members of the community. To
this end, States Parties shall take appropriate measures, including:
Facilitating the learning of Braille, alternative script, augmentative and alternative modes,
means and formats of communication and orientation and mobility skills, and facilitating
peer support and mentoring;
Facilitating the learning of sign language and the promotion of the linguistic identity of
the deaf community;

4. In order to help ensure the realization of this right, States Parties shall take appropriate
measures to employ teachers, including teachers with disabilities, who are qualified in sign
language and/or Braille, and to train professionals and staff who work at all levels of education.

20.4.4. HEALTH

Article 25 states Parties recognize that persons with disabilities have the right to the
enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health without discrimination on the basis of
disability. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure access for persons with
disabilities to health services that are gender-sensitive, including health-related rehabilitation.
States shall provide free or affordable health care including in rural areas. Prohibit discrimination
against persons with disabilities in the provision of health insurance, and life insurance where
such insurance is permitted by national law, which shall be provided in a fair and reasonable
manner;

20.4.5. FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION AND OPINION, AND ACCESS TO


INFORMATION

Article 21 states Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that persons with
disabilities can exercise the right to freedom of expression and opinion, including the freedom to
seek, receive and impart information and ideas on an equal basis with others and through all
forms of communication of their choice.

20.4.6.WORK AND EMPLOYMENT

Article 27 says, Right to work on an equal basis with others. Work freely chosen or accepted in
a labor market and work environment that is open, inclusive and accessible to persons with
disabilities. States shall safeguard the right to work by taking appropriate steps.Promote
employment opportunities and career advancement for persons with disabilities in the labor
market, as well as assistance in finding, obtaining, maintaining and returning to employment.
Promote opportunities for self-employment, entrepreneurship, the development of cooperatives
and starting ones own business.

20.5.MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS (MDG)

The United Nations Millennium Development Goals are eight goals that all 191 UN
member states have agreed to try to achieve by the year 2015. The United Nations Millennium
Declaration, signed in September 2000 commits world leaders to combat poverty, hunger,
disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation, and discrimination against women. The MDGs are
derived from this Declaration, and all have specific targets and indicators.

The Eight Millennium Development Goals are:

to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger;


to achieve universal primary education;
to promote gender equality and empower women;
to reduce child mortality;
to improve maternal health;
to combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases;
to ensure environmental sustainability; and
to develop a global partnership for development.

The MDGs are inter-dependent; all the MDG influence health, and health influences all
the MDGs. For example, better health enables children to learn and adults to earn. Gender
equality is essential to the achievement of better health. Reducing poverty, hunger and
environmental degradation positively influences, but also depends on, better health.

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20.6. INCHEON Strategies

The Incheon Strategy to Make the Right Real for Persons with Disabilities in Asia and
the Pacific provides the Asian and Pacific region, and the world, with the first set of regionally
agreed disability-inclusive development goals. Governments of the ESCAP region gathered in
Incheon, Republic of Korea, from 29 October to 2 November 2012 to chart the course of the new
Asian and Pacific Decade of Persons with Disabilities for the period 2013 to 2022. They were
joined by representatives of civil society organizations, including organizations of and for
persons with disabilities. Also in attendance were representatives of intergovernmental
organizations, development cooperation agencies and the United Nations system. The High-level
Intergovernmental Meeting on the Final Review of the Implementation of the Asian and Pacific
Decade of Disabled Persons, 20032012, was organized by ESCAP and hosted by the
Government of the Republic of Korea. The Meeting marked the conclusion of the second Asian
and Pacific Decade of Disabled Persons, 20032012, and launched the new Decade.

The Governments at the High-level Intergovernmental Meeting adopted the Ministerial


Declaration on the Asian and Pacific Decade of Persons with Disabilities, 20132022, and the
Incheon Strategy to Make the Right Real for Persons with Disabilities in Asia and the Pacific.
The Incheon Strategy provides the Asian and Pacific region, and the world, with the first set of
regionally agreed disability-inclusive development goals. Developed over more than two years of
consultations with governments and civil society stakeholders, the Incheon Strategy comprises
10 goals, 27 targets and 62 indicators. The Incheon Strategy builds on the Convention on the
Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the Biwako Millennium Framework for Action and
BiwakoPlus Five towards an Inclusive, Barrier-free and Rights-based Society for Persons with
Disabilities in Asia and the Pacific.

The Incheon Strategy will enable the Asian and Pacific region to track progress towards
improving the quality of life, and the fulfilment of the rights, of the regions 650 million persons
with disabilities, most of whom live in poverty. The ESCAP secretariat is mandated to report
every three years until the end of the Decade in 2022, on progress in the implementation of the
Ministerial Declaration and the Incheon Strategy.

20.6.1. INCHEON STRATEGY

Incheon Strategy comprises 10 goals to make the right real for persons with disabilities in
Asia and the Pacific, 2013-2022:
Goal 1. Reduce poverty and enhance work and employment prospects.

Goal 2. Promote participation in political processes and decision-making.

Goal 3. Enhance access to the physical environment, public transportation, knowledge,


information and communication.

Goal 4. Strengthen social protection.

Goal 5. Expand early intervention and education of children with disabilities

Goal 6. Ensure gender equality and womens empowerment

Goal 7. Ensure disability inclusive disaster risk reduction and management

Goal 8. Improve the reliability and comparability of disability data

Goal 9. Accelerate the ratification and implementation of the Convention on the Rights of
Persons with Disabilities and the harmonization of national legislation with the Convention

Goal 10. Advance sub-regional, regional and interregional cooperation

20.7. UNIT SUMMARY

The Salamanca Conference on Special Needs Education was held in Spain from June 7-
10th, 1994, by the United Nations and the Government of Spain, with participants from
governmental and nongovernmental organizations spanning across the globe, as well as various
UN agencies. This conference was solely about inclusive education. In addition, the Conference
was adopted a new Framework for Action, the guiding principle of which is that ordinary
schools should accommodate all children, regardless of their physical, intellectual, social,
emotional, linguistic or other conditions.

United Nations Conventions on the Right of Persons with Disabilities was adopted by the
General Assembly in 13 December 2006at the United Nations Headquarters in New York.
Purpose of UNCRPD-2006 is to promote, protect and ensure the full and equal enjoyment of all
human rights and fundamental freedoms by all persons with disabilities and to promote respect
for their inherent dignity.
The United Nations Millennium Development Goals are eight goals that all 191 UN
member states have agreed to try to achieve by the year 2015. The United Nations Millennium
Declaration, signed in September 2000 commits world leaders to combat poverty, hunger,
disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation, and discrimination against women.

The Incheon Strategy provides the Asian and Pacific region, and the world, with the first
set of regionally agreed disability-inclusive development goals. Developed over more than two
years of consultations with governments and civil society stakeholders, the Incheon Strategy
comprises 10 goals, 27 targets and 62 indicatorsto make the right real for persons with
disabilities in Asia and the Pacific, 2013-2022.
Points to Remember

The Salamanca Conference was solely about inclusive education. The Conference
adopted a new Framework for Action, the guiding principle of which is that ordinary
schools should accommodate all children.
UNCRPD was adopted by the General Assembly in 13 December 2006 at the United
Nations Headquarters in New York.
The United Nations Millennium Development Goals are eight goals that all 191 UN
member states have agreed to try to achieve by the year 2015.
The Incheon Strategy comprises 10 goals to make the right real for persons with
disabilities in Asia and the Pacific, 2013-2022.

20.8. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS (SELF-STUDY)

1. The ------------------------ Conference was adopted a new Framework for Action.

2. Write about United Nations Millennium Development Goals?

20.9. ASSIGNMENTS

I. Write about 10 goals of Incheon Strategy to make the right real for persons with disabilities?

20.10. POINTS FOR DISCUSSION AND CLARIFICATION

After going through the unit, you may want to have further discussion or clarifications of some
points.
20.10.1. Points for discussion

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20.10.1. Points for clarification

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20.11. REFERENCES

1. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and Optional Protocol, New York:
United Nations, 2007, Print.

2. Despouy, Leandro, Human Rights and Disabled Persons. New York: United Nations. 1993.
Print.

3. The Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Needs Education.
UNESCO, the United Nations. 10 June 2012. Web. 2 November, 2011.

4.Jangira, N.K.,Special Educational Needs of Children and Young Adults: An Unfinished


Agenda, Sage Publications Inc., 1997. Print.
22. INCLUSIVE EDUCATION AS A RIGHT BASED MODEL

UNIT STRUCTURE

22.1 Introduction
22.2 Objectives
22.3 Rights-based model
22.4 Principles for underpinning a rights-based approach to education
22.5 Brief information of CRC and CRPD
22.6 Obligations to ensure the right to education for children disabilities
22.7 Unit summary
22.8 Implications of the unit
22.9 Check your progress (self study)
22.10 Points for discussion /clarification
22.11 Assignments
22.12 Reference

22.1. Introduction

Internationally accepted monitoring and reporting mechanisms to monitor and track progress in
countries, and to investigate and report on specific issues. While necessary requirements to
ensure that schools are rights-based and inclusive are fairly well developed at the school level
(i.e. that schools are child-seeking, child and teacher-friendly, and have a learning environment
of good quality) the same cannot be said about the system level. Therefore, when analysing entry
points for intervention in the entire education sector, there is a need to follow a more systemic
approach. The following list is particularly useful, as it identifies key thematic areas that must be
looked at when trying to transform the education system to become more inclusive and rights-
based

22.2 . Objectives

After reading this unit, the reader will be able to:


Understand various rights of CRC and CRPD,
principles , and obligations of inclusive education as right based education

22.3 RIGHTS-BASED MODEL

It is a conceptual analytical and methodological framework for identifying, planning,


implementing and monitoring development activities based on international human rights
standards.
This rights-based framework described as particularly meaningful for promoting inclusive
education of good quality, since its own core definition includes strong elements such as gender
sensitivity, non-discriminatory curricula and learning environments, child-centered teaching and
learning methods, enhanced participation of all stakeholders, and a holistic approach to
education, which can largely benefit from applying a rights-based framework. However, the
education system can act as a double-edged sword - which help to reduce inequalities and
discriminatory practices in a society, but can also increase them if no safeguards are in place and
enforced. Shifting the focus from viewing education in terms of service delivery to viewing it in
terms of human rights can not but contribute to developing the necessary safeguards. As
exemplified through the words of UNICEF: Using a human rights model to ensure that all girls
are educated means that the world has to address the issue of gender discrimination.
A rights-based approach is comprehensive in its consideration of the full range of indivisible,
interdependent and interrelated rights: [civil, cultural, economic, political and social]. The norms
and standards are those contained in the internationally agreed treaties and conventions. Equally
important is that a rights-based approach applies guiding principles to ensure an acceptable
development programming process.

The main principles followed may be summarized in the simple acronym PANEL that stands for:
participation, accountability, non-discrimination, empowerment and linkages to human rights
standards. A rights-based approach requires a high degree of participation from the targeted
beneficiaries, including local communities, civil society, minorities, indigenous peoples, women
and others. Participation must be active, free and meaningful; mere formal or ceremonial
consultations with beneficiaries are not sufficient.
The approach gives attention to issues of accessibility, including access to development
processes, institutions, information, and redress or complaints mechanisms. This also means
situating development projects close to partners and beneficiaries. Such approaches necessarily
select process-based development methodologies rather than externally created or imported
models.
Another principle of a rights-based approach focuses on raising the levels of accountability and
transparency by identifying the rights-holders and the corresponding duty-bearers. This
should contribute to the enhancement of the capacities of duty-bearers to meet their obligations.
In this regard, it looks both at the positive obligations of duty-bearers (to protect, promote and
provide) and at their negative obligations (to abstain from violations). It takes into account the
duties of the full range of relevant actors, including individuals, governments, local organizations
and authorities, private companies, aid donors and international institutions.

While the primary responsibility lies with the individual states and governments, the
international community is also duty bound to provide effective cooperation in response to
shortages of resources and capacities in developing countries. The approach also provides for the
development of adequate laws, administrative procedures/practices, and mechanisms of redress
and accountability that can deliver both on entitlements and respond to denials or violations of
rights.

In brief, realising rights-based education requires:


i) knowledge of the international human rights standards that should inform education
programmes; and
ii) ii) development of necessary skills and capacity to adapt these standards to national
contexts. When applying a rights-based approach to education programming in practice,
22.4 PRINCIPLES FOR UNDERPINNING A RIGHTS-BASED APPROACH TO
EDUCATION

A rights-based approach to education is informed by seven basic principles of human rights.


These principles need to be applied in the development of legislation, policy and practice relating
to the right to inclusive education:

Universality and inalienability: Human rights are universal and inalienable, the
entitlement of all people everywhere in the world. An individual cannot voluntarily give
them up. Nor can others take them away.

Indivisibility: Human rights are indivisible. Whether civil, cultural, economic, political
or social, they are all inherent to the dignity of every person.

Interdependence and interrelatedness; The realization of one right often depends,


wholly or in part, on the realization of others.

Equality and non-discrimination: All individuals are equal as human beings, and by
virtue of the inherent dignity of each person, are entitled to their rights without
discrimination of any kind.

Participation and inclusion: Every person and all people are entitled to active, free and
meaningful participation in, contribution to and enjoyment of civil, economic, social,
cultural and political development.

Empowerment: Empowerment is the process by which people's capabilities to demand


and use their human rights grow. The goal is to give people the power and capabilities to
claim their rights, in order to change their own lives and improve their communities.

Accountability and respect for the rule of law: A rights-based approach seeks to raise
levels of accountability in the development process by identifying 'rights holders' and
corresponding 'duty bearers' and to enhance the capacities of those duty bearers to meet
their obligations.

These principles need to underpin all actions to promote the right of children with disabilities
to education. In addition, it is necessary to take account of all other relevant rights.

22.5. BRIEF INFORMATION OF CRC AND CRPD


The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities was drafted, not to
introduce new rights - the rights of persons with disabilities are exactly the same as those of
every other person - but to re-affirm those rights and introduce additional obligations on
governments to ensure their realisation. Within the region, as of May 2012, 17 countries had
ratified the CRPD: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzogovenia, Croatia, Czech Republic,
Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Serbia,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Turkey and Turkmenistan. The remaining countries have all signed, except
Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. The CRPD includes detailed provisions on the right to education,
stressing more explicitly than in the CRC the obligation of governments to ensure "an inclusive
system of education at all levels". It also introduces a range of obligations to remove the barriers
that serve to impede the realisation of rights for people, including children, with disabilities, and
to ensure more effective protection and a stronger voice for children with disabilities to claim
their rights.
The following box elaborates the key relevant articles in both Conventions which, given
the numbers of signatories and ratifications, can legitimately be applied as a framework to
underpin and guide legislation and policy across the region, towards the goal of a right to quality
inclusive education for every child with a disability

CRC CRDP
Article 24 - affirms the right of people with
Education disabilities to inclusive education, at all levels,
Article 28 - education must be provided to without discrimination and on the basis of
every child equality of opportunity. States must ensure that
on the basis of equality of opportunity. children with disabilities:
States must: are not excluded from the general education
* make primary education compulsory and free system and can access inclusive, quality and
to all; free primary and secondary education on an
* make secondary school available and equal basis with others in the communities in
accessible to every child and take measures to which they live;
make it free; * are provided with reasonable
* make higher education accessible to all on accommodation of their needs; receive the
basis of capacity; support they need within the general
* make vocational information available and education system;
accessible to all children; * are provided with individualised
* take measures to increase attendance and support measures, consistent with full
reduce drop-outs. inclusion.
States must also take measures to enable
All appropriate measures must be taken to people with disabilities to participate equally in
ensure that school discipline respects children's education and their communities by supporting
dignity and complies with other rights in the learning of all alternative forms of
UNCRC, and States must encourage communication, and enabling deaf, blind and
international cooperation. Article 29 - deafblind children to learn in the most
Education must be directed to the development appropriate languages and modes and in
of children to the fullest potential, respect for environments that maximise their
human rights, respect for the child's parents development.
and their values, the values of their own and The education system must enable people with
others' societies, preparation of the child for disabilities to achieve the full development of
life in a free society and respect for the natural their personality, talents, creativity and mental
environment. and physical abilities, a sense of dignity and
self-worth, respect for human rights and
effective participation in society
Non-discrimination Article 2 - defines discrimination on the basis
Article 2 - the right to non-discrimination on of disability as any exclusion or restriction that
any ground, including disability, and the prevents the realisation of rights on an equal
obligation of States to take all appropriate basis with others.
measures to protect children from all forms of Article 3 - non-discrimination, equality of
discrimination. opportunity and equality between men/boys
and women/girls are general principles of the
CFPD.
Article 4 - duty on States to eliminate
discrimination,
Article 5 - prohibition of discrimination on
grounds of disability, and obligation on States
to provide reasonable accommodation to
promote equality and eliminate discrimination.
Article 6 - obligation to take measures to
address the multiple discrimination faced by
women and gifls with disabilities.
Article 7 - guarantees children with disabilities
respect for rights on an equal basis with other
children.
Article 8 - States must adopt wide-ranging
measures to raise awareness of the rights of
people with disabilities, combat prejudice and
discrimination, promote positive images of
disability, encourage respect for people with
disabilities in the education system and provide
awareness training on disability.

Best interests Article 7 - reaffirms that the best interests of


Article 3 - the best interests of the child must the child with disabilities must be a primary
be a primary consideration in all actions consideration
concerning children taken by public and Article 16 - all facilities and programmes for
private bodies. Services, facilities and people, including children with disabilities,
institutions caring for children must comply must be monitored by independent authorities.
with ; appropriate standards in respect of
health, safety, quality of staff and proper
supervision.

Participation Article 3 - full and effective participation is a


Article 12 - the right of every child capable of general principle of the CRPO.
forming a view, to express views and have Article 7 - affirms the right of children with
them given due weight in accordance with age disabilities to express views and have them
and maturity. given due weight in accordance with age and
Article 23 - right to active participation within maturity, on an equal basis with other children.
the community. They must be provided with disability- and
age- appropriate support to realise this right

Support for parents Article 23 - States must provide appropriate


Article 18 - both parents have equal assistance to parents with disabilities to help
responsibilities for their children and should them care for their children. Children with
have children's best interests as their primary disabilities have equal rights to family life and
concern. States must provide assistance, States must provide early information, services
support and services to help parents bring up and support to children with disabilities and
their children. their families to prevent concealment,
abandonment, neglect and segregation.

Protection from all forms of violence Article 16 - affirms the right to protection from
Article 19 - children have the right to violence, and requires States to provide forms
protection from all forms of violence, neglect, of support to people with disabilities to help
exploitation and abuse, and States must take all them avoid violence and abuse, and it must be
appropriate measures to protect them from accessible and appropriate to children with
such violence, disabilities, as well as gender sensitive. All
protection services must be age-, gender- and
disability-sensitive. States must introduce
child-focused legislation and policies to ensure
that violence against children with disabilities
is identified, investigated and prosecuted where
appropriate.

Article 31 - the right to play and recreation and Article 30 - ensures that children with
to participate in cultural and artistic life disabilities have equal opportunities with
others to play, recreation, leisure and sporting
activities.
Implementation Article 4 - sets out detailed obligations to take
Article 4- obligation on States to take all all appropriate measures to implement the
appropriate legislative, administrative and CRPD, including:
other measures to implement the UNCRC. * legislation;
With social, economic and cultural rights, * protection of rights of people, including
measures must be taken to the maximum extent children, with disabilities in all policies and
of available resources. programmes;
* avoidance of actions inconsistent with the
CRPD;
* measures to eliminate discrimination;
* promotion of universal design, research into
new technologies and provision of information
and services on available aids and devices;
* training professionals on the CRPD;
* consulting with people with disabilities,
including children, on all legislation and
policies to implement the CRPD;
* with regard to economic, social and cultural
rights, implementation to the maximum of
available resources {education is a social
right).
Article 31- obliges States to collect data on the
number of persons with disabilities and to
disaggregate data in their national statistics.
Article 33 - requires States to designate a focal
point for implementation of the Convention
and to fully involve organizations of persons
with disabilities and their representative
organizations to participate fully in this
process.

22.6. OBLIGATIONS TO ENSURE THE RIGHT TO EDUCATION FOR CHILDREN


DISABILITIES

Fulfillment of the obligation to ensure the equal right of all children with disabilities to education
necessitates an approach based on a holistic understanding of the CRC. The Committee on the
Rights of the Child has identified four rights which must also be understood as general principles
to be applied in the realisation of all other rights: non-discrimination, the best interests of the
child, the optimum development of the child and the right of the child to be heard and taken
seriously in accordance with age and maturity
When governments across the region ratified the CRC and signed or ratified the CRPD, they
undertook to take all necessary measures to ensure that the rights they contain are realised. This
involves action:

To fulfill the right to education: For example, by ensuring that quality education is
available for all children, promoting inclusive education, and introducing positive
measures to enable children to benefit from it, such as by making physical adaptations to
buildings, providing accessible transport, adapting the curricula to the needs of all
children, and providing necessary equipment and resources.

To respect the right to education: For example, by avoiding any action that would
serve to prevent children accessing education, such as legislation that categorizes certain
groups of children with disabilities as uneducable, or school entry testing systems that
serve to categorise children with disabilities as not ready for school.
To protect the right to education: For example, by taking the necessary measures to
remove the barriers to education posed by individuals or communities, such as resistance
by teachers to accepting children with disabilities, or violence, abuse or bullying in the
school environment.

However, in order to achieve inclusive education, action is needed, beyond national


governments, to involve stakeholders at every level.

For local authorities: The development of local policies for implementation of


inclusion; appropriate support for individual schools; provision of funding; securing the
necessary building adaptations and the provision of resource centers.

For individual schools: The introduction of an inclusive educational environment which


addresses the culture, policies and practices of the school to ensure that the basic
conditions exist in which all children can participate and learn,

For parents: Sending all their children to school, and supporting them both in their
education, and in helping ensure that schools comply with the principles of an inclusive
approach.

For children: To take advantage of opportunities to participate and learn, support their
peers and co-operate with the values of inclusive schooling.

For civil society: Supporting the development of community-based inclusive education


and contributing to an environment of respect and acceptance.

22.7. UNIT SUMMARY

Inclusion begins with recognising that all children and their families have the right to
access high quality early childhood education. This right is not affected by disability. Inclusive
practices are intended to identify and remove barriers to full acceptance, participation and
learning for all children. Inclusion recognises that many challenges associated with disability are
embedded in socio- cultural attitudes and practices. All governments in the region have ratified
the Convention on the Rights of the Child, a holistic human rights treaty addressing the social,
economic, cultural, civil, political and protection rights of children. It emphasises both the right
to education on the basis of equality of opportunity and the broad aims of education in terms of
promoting the fullest possible development of the child. In its General Comment on the aims of
education, the Committee on the Rights of the Child has emphasised that "the education to which
every child has a right is one designed to provide the child with life skills, to strengthen the
child's capacity to enjoy a full range of human rights and to promote a culture which is infused
by human rights values". Article 2 of the CRC introduces, for the first time in an international
human rights treaty, an explicit obligation on governments to assure the realisation of all rights to
every child without discrimination, including on grounds of disability. In addition, Article 23 of
the CRC specifically addresses the right of children with disabilities to assistance to ensure that
they are able to access education in a manner that promotes their social inclusion. The
Committee on the Rights of the Child, in a General Comment on children with disabilities, has
further stressed that inclusive education must be the goal of educating children with disabilities.

22.8. IMPLICATIONS OF THE UNIT

The following outline provide useful guidance to understand Who has to do what to ensure this
right? What, then, is the value added in applying a rights-based approach?
It focuses on the individual as a subject of rights who has claims on those with duties and
obligations.
It implies clear accountabilities and transparencies, not just promises.
It requires attention to both outcome and process, and both are considered to be equally
important.
It can be used to challenge power imbalances and inequality.
It promotes the rule of law to stop impunity, and corruption, and ensures equal access to justice.
It gives more attention to issues of exclusion, disparities and injustice, and addresses the basic
causes of discrimination.
It focuses on institutional reform and national policy review.
It emphasizes that development assistance no longer means charity or service delivery, but is an
obligation of the international community.

Understanding learning meaningful, flexible, non-discriminatory and gender responsive, and


link contents to the learners life situation. Support teaching and learning friendly environments,
and promote child-centered teaching.

Build effective, transparent and accountable support mechanisms, and mobilize local resources.
Community involvements: Create space for meaningful participation and means for
empowerment.

___________________________________________________________________________

22.9 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS (SELF STUDY)

1. Article ---------- affirms the right of people with disabilities to inclusive education
2. List out CRPD rights
_________________________________________________________________________
22.10 ASSIGNMENTS
_________________________________________________________________

1. What rights are violated and why?


2. Who should do what to protect, promote and fulfill the right to education?
3. What are the basic principles of human rights ?
22.11. POINTS FOR DISCUSSION /CLARIFICATION

After going through the unit, you may write down points for further clarifications

22.11.1 Points for discussion


______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

22.11.2.Points for clarifications


______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

22.12. Reference
1. Johnson, T. (1993). Toward an Inclusive School, Geneva: UNDP.
2. UNESCO (1994). The Salamanca Statement and Framework on Special Needs Education.
Paris: UNESCO
3. UNESCO (2001a) Including the Excluded: Meeting diversity in education. Example from
Romania. Paris: UNESCO.
4. UNICEF/South Asia. (2003). Examples of inclusive education. Kathmandu: UNICEF
Regional Office for South Asia.
5. UNESCO (2005) Towards Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities: A Guideline,
Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok, 2009. 154 p
23. COMPLIMENTARITY OF INCLUSIVE AND SPECIAL EDUCATION

UNIT STRUCTURE

23.1 Introduction
23.2 Objectives
23.3 What is inclusion: together we learn better
23.4 Inclusive vs integrated education
23.5 Myths and realities of inclusive education
23.6 Inclusive schools benefit all children
23.7 Overall benefits in the present era
23.8 Unit Summary
23.9 Implications of the unit
23.10 check your progress
23.11. Assignments
23.12. points for discussion /clarification
23.13. Reference

23.1. INTRODUCTION

Indian Society is naturally more inclusive than segregationist in nature. Starting from Gurukul
System to western model of day-care system efforts has been made to bring people in, rather
than to keep them out. An integration of students with disabilities into general education
classrooms with inclusion out of separate special education indicates that all children irrespective
of their strengths and weaknesses shall be a part of the mainstream education. The feeling of
belongingness among all teachers, students and other functionaries is envisaged through
inclusive education. Inclusive education is for all, irrespective of any community, caste and
class, gender and (dis-) ability of the child. Every child is special for his/her parent and, every
child has a special need for love, acceptance and a feeling of belongingness.

23.2 . OBJECTIVES

After reading this unit, the reader will be able to:


Understand the inclusion education, and its benefits,
Differentiate between integration and inclusion.

23.3. WHAT IS INCLUSION: TOGETHER WE LEARN BETTER


Inclusion is an educational practice in which children with disabilities are educated in classrooms
with children without disabilities. The purpose of inclusion is to make sure that students with
special needs are integrated in the general education setting for as much of the day as possible,
with the supports they need to be successful. Inclusion strategies can include co-teaching,
consultative services, paraprofessional support, modifications to curriculum or testing,
accommodations for specific dis (diffent)abilities, and other services an individual student needs
in order to access the district curriculum in a general education classroom.

23.3.1. USING SPECIAL EDUCATION TO BUILD SKILLS

The idea of using special schools or classes for several years to build learners' specific skills,
such as Braille, Sign Language and other language skills, before including them in mainstream
classes.
This transitional approach could draw on the positive characteristics of special schools - such as
ensuring children with disabilities can interact with and support each other - as well as on those
of inclusive education. This approach can be particularly useful if the special classes are located
within mainstream schools, and all children share break times, recreation and other activities.
Such a process can help prepare the mainstream school for the inclusion of children with
disabilities. However, effective planning for this transition is essential, to ensure that inclusion,
and not merely integration, takes place.

23.3.1.2. NEED AND JUSTIFICATION FOR INCLUSION


However, the traditional response has been to promote special schools for special needs children,
the presumption being that special needs children slow down the rest of the class. People got
used to the idea that Special Education meant separate education. But special schools are dead-
ends for special needs children. They promote isolation, alienation and social exclusion. Special
schools are good medical interventions. Some argue that isolating students with special needs
may lower their self-esteem and may reduce their ability to deal with other people. Children
wont learn unless they are happy and included; therefore teachers must be taught to practice
inclusion and respect disabilities. Inclusive education is a human right, it is good education and it
makes good social sense

23.3.2. DEVELOPING SPECIALISED INCLUSIVE SCHOOLS

The idea of developing mainstream schools that specialise in the inclusion of children with a
particular impairment has been debated (e.g. a mainstream school that specialises in including
children with visual impairments). This would not exclude children with other (or without)
impairments from attending the school, nor prevent children with that particular impairment
attending other schools.
This approach could build on a positive aspect of special schools; the fact that some are centers
of excellence in a particular area of education. However, every child has the right to attend
school close to their home, and specialisation can be expensive. So, specialised inclusive schools
need also to be resource centers that support 'non-specialised' inclusive schools to educate
children with specific impairments in their community school.
23.3. 3. CREATIVE, FLEXIBLE SOLUTIONS

The need for constant creativity and flexibility in developing education systems that cater for the
needs of all learners. Every approach developed in a particular situation must be constantly re-
evaluated and altered to ensure it really addresses every learners needs - and it may not work the
same in another situation.If inclusion is not done well it can cause more problems for the
children we are trying to assist.

There is no need to draw a hard line between special schools and inclusive approaches to
education. Both systems have benefits, and drawbacks. Some felt that inclusive education is not
about inclusion at all costs (i.e. putting children into a situation where they are not able to learn).
Inclusive education is about ensuring the best education, both socially and academically, for all
children, including, but not limited to those with disabilities.

23.4. INCLUSIVE VS INTEGRATED EDUCATION

Assumptions of inclusive education are opposite to integrated education. Inclusive Education


assumes the changes in the system to fit the child. It is essential to addresses all types of
individual needs not just disability. It focuses on flexibility of curriculum, teacher training and
change in environment. It is quite essential to assumes that all children can learn and that all
children need their learning to be supported in diverse ways. The placement of differently abled
children in a regular school is generally referred to as integration. Inclusive education differs
from the concept of integration tends to focus more on ensuring disabled children attend
mainstream schools rather than on ensuring that these children are learning. Inclusion is about
the childs right to participate and benefit on an equitable basis to their peers. Inclusive
approaches stress the duty of schools to adapt and in principle accept all children. A premium is
placed upon full participation by all students including disabled children and upon respect for
their educational and wider social, civil and cultural rights. Basic explanation of the conceptual
differences between inclusive and integrated education can be as given below.

Traditional (Integrated)Approach Inclusive Approach


Education for some Education for all
Static Flexible
Collective teaching Individualized Teaching
Learning in isolated areas Learning in Integrated areas
Emphasis on subject-orientated teaching Emphasis on child-centered learning
Diagnostic / prescriptive Holistic
Opportunities limited by exclusion Equality of opportunities for all
Disability view Curricular view
Labels children disability wise Opposes all kinds of labeling
23.5. MYTHS AND REALITIES OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION

Myth 1: Separate is better.

Reality: Segregation doesnt work. Whether children are separated based on race, ability, or any
other characteristic, a separate education is not an equal education. Research shows that typical
children and children with disabilities learn as much or more in inclusive classes.

Myth 2: Children must be ready to be included.

Reality: All children have to the right to be with other children their own age. A child with
disabilities does not have to perform at a certain grade level or act exactly like the other children
in their class to benefit from being a full-time member in general education.

Myth 3: Parents dont support inclusive education.

Reality: Parents have been and continue to be the driving force for inclusive education. The best
outcomes occur when parents of children with disabilities and professionals work together.
Effective partnerships happen when there is collaboration, communication and, most of all, trust
between parents and professionals.

23.6. INCLUSIVE SCHOOLS BENEFIT ALL CHILDREN

The journey to becoming an Inclusive School may be long and challenging at times, but
ultimately this journey can strengthen a school community and benefit all children. "Inclusion"
does not simply mean the placement of students with disabilities in general education classes.
This process must incorporate fundamental change in the way a school community supports and
addresses the individual needs of each child. As such, effective models of inclusive education not
only benefit students with disabilities, but also create an environment in which every student,
including those who do not have disabilities, has the opportunity to flourish. Here are some ways
in which inclusive educational practices build a school's capacity to educate all learners
effectively.

23.6.1 Differentiated instruction increases student engagement.

One of the most important principles of inclusive education is that no two learners are alike, and
so inclusive schools place great importance on creating opportunities for students to learn and be
assessed in a variety of ways. Teachers in inclusive schools therefore must consider a wide range
of learning modalities (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, etc.) in designing instruction. Certainly this
enhances the way in which educators provide supports and accommodations for students with
disabilities, but it also diversifies the educational experience of all students.

23.6.2. Academic supports help each student access the full curriculum.

In this age of accountability and high-stakes testing, it is important for educators to ensure that
every student is addressing the appropriate standards and objectives across the curriculum. As
such, inclusive schools provide academic supports (flexible pacing and grouping, reading and
literacy specialists, tutoring, etc.) that create a supportive environment for all learners. It is
immediately clear how these supports help students with disabilities and English Language
Learners, but inclusive schools can also better challenge and engage gifted and talented learners
by bunding a more responsive learning environment.

23.6.3. Behavioral supports help maintain a positive learning environment for everyone.

Another important factor in effective inclusive education is the implementation of consistent


behavioral supports throughout the learning environment. This consistency is essential for the
success of students with emotional or behavioral disabilities in the general education
environment, but school-wide behavioral supports also help to establish high expectations
throughout the school community as a

23.6.4. Respect for diversity creates a welcoming environment for all.

Inclusive education for students h disabilities can only be successful, when those students fee,
that they are truly a part of the school community. This requires open and honest discussion
about difference and an institutional, respect for people of all backgrounds and abilities. In
inclusive schools the establishment of such a climate benefits everyone by fostering an
environment's and their families are valued for who they are.

23.6. 5. Inclusive practices make effective use of a school's resources.

In the past special education often involved the segregation of students with disables for the
purpose of specialized instruction. Not only does that mode, of special education in a separate
setting deprive students with disabilities of interaction with their peers and full access to the
curriculum, it can also involved duplicate systems and resources that are costly for schools to
maintain. Inclusive education can make more efficient use of a school's resources by the
availably of staff and maternal for all students.

Promoting an inclusive approach to education, including: the social and education benefits for
children with and without disabilities; and the support that inclusive education gives to the
development of an inclusive society. It acknowledged the need to not simply ignore special
schools in this process, but to find creative ways of uniting special and inclusive education
systems.
23.7. OVERALL BENEFITS IN THE PRESENT ERA

In the age of information technology and globalization inclusive education is a mission and
challenge for the professions to tap the hidden talents and potentialities buried in the children
with special needs and canalize it in a desired direction. It can develop confidence, sense of
freedom, self-respect and dignity to stand on their own leg as well as contribute their service to
the society and nation. To nurture inclusive education it is the responsibility of one and all.

Inclusion is more than reconfiguring special education services. It involves an "overhaul" of the
entire educational system. Special education and regular education faculty/staff roles and
relationships will change, as will the traditional rules under which "things" happen within the
classroom, campus, and district. Therefore, understanding the issues and ramifications prior to
undertaking such a restructuring effort will be useful.

In the case of implementing a more inclusive approach to providing special education and other
specialized services in the regular classroom, several of these leader actions are important.
School leaders must work diligently to develop and impart a clear vision of what an inclusive
classroom looks like and how it functions.

They must give significant attention to providing the kinds of ongoing staff development that
expands the capacity of both regular and special education teachers to serve students with a
variety of disabilities in a mainstream setting (e.g., cooperative learning strategies, team teaching
skills, collaborating/team-building skills, individualizing instruction, mastery learning,
identifying and adapting to different learning styles).

Resources must be provided, including time for collaborative planning, support personnel that
might be necessary, materials, and assistive technologies. Finally, school leaders must be
mindful of the changing concerns that their staff, parents, and others have as greater inclusion
begins to be implemented. By attending to these issues, a more inclusive educational system is
possible.

It is also a means of bringing about personal development and building relationships among
individuals, groups and nations.
It is vital that those working in rural areas find their own solutions to the problems they face and
so become as self-sufficient as possible. In every barrier lies a potential solution. Barriers and
solutions can be seen as the 'flip sides of the same coin'. And it is largely a question of attitude
whether people decide to focus on what they are able to do, rather than on what they do not have.
The greater the barrier, the more creative and imaginative the solution tends to be. Children
who learn together, learn to live together

23.8. UNIT SUMMARY

Inclusive education is a new approach towards educating the children with physical and
learning disability with that of normal children. It involves systematic effort and gives need
based support; counseling, evaluation, modifications in curriculum and remedial teaching. A
small beginning has already been made but the goal will be achieved only when the word is
spread across the country and there is pressure on the authorities concerned, to take notice and
action. Teachers need to build competencies in their areas i.e. foundational competencies, skill
competencies and reflective competencies. It could be an investment in people and that
educating disabled children can transform them into net contributors to the national economy.
Therefore it is imperative that our budget have more allocation of funds to pacify the growth,
more qualified and special trained teachers should be recruited to effectively implement
inclusive education program nationwide. So to handle the education of children with special
needs in a regular classroom, it is essential to recognize and respect to the potentialities of all
children with their individual strengths, weaknesses and expectations. We must however realize
that students diversity in a classroom is not a liability but an asset to improve ones teaching.

23.9. IMPLICATIONS OF THE UNIT

The purpose of inclusion is to make sure that students with special needs are integrated in the
general education setting for as much of the day as possible, with the supports they need to
be successful
The best outcomes occur when parents of children with disabilities and professionals work
together.

Effective models of inclusive education not only benefit students with disabilities, but also
create an environment in which every student, including those who do not have disabilities,
has the opportunity to flourish.

Inclusive schools provide academic supports( i.e flexible pacing and grouping, reading and
literacy specialists, tutoring,) that create a supportive environment for all learners. It is
immediately clear how these supports help students with disabilities and English Language
Learners.

23.10. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS (SELF STUDY)

1. ------------- education is a human right, it is good education and it makes good social sense
2. Denote some important points of inclusive education

23. 11. ASSIGNMENTS

1. What are the differences between inclusion education and special education.?

2. Write the direct benefits from the inclusive education.?


23.12 .POINTS FOR DISCUSSION / CLARRIFICATION
After going through the unit, you may write down points for further clarifications

23.12.1 Points for discussion


______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

23.12.2.Points for clarifications


______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

23.13 Reference

6. Handbook on Inclusive Education for Elementary School Teachers (2006). Distance


Education Programme - Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (DEP-SSA), An IGNOU-MHRD, Govt. of India
Project, March.
7. Jayantibhai Patel (2007). Cooperative Learning For Sustainable Development,
Experiments in Education, E-Journal of the S.I.T.U. council,
http://www.experimentsineducation.150m.com, Vol. 35, No. 9.
8. Johnson, T. (1993). Toward an Inclusive School, Geneva: UNDP.
9. National Curriculum Framework Review (2005). National Council of Educational
Research and Training, New Delhi.
10. Rao Indumathi,(2003). Inclusive Education in the Indian Context,
Link:http://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/docs/inclusive_education_indian.phphttp://www.educat
ion.nic.in/INCLUSIVE.asp
11. UNESCO (1994). The Salamanca Statement and Framework on Special Needs
Education. Paris: UNESCO
12. Mohanty, Jagannath. And Mohanty, Susandhya.(2011).Inclusive Education- Its
Evolutionary Growth. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publishers Pvt. Ltd
13. Richard Rieser (2011)Implementing Inclusive Education:A Commonwealth Guide to
Implementing ,Article 24 of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities;UK