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Im doing a research on metatarsus adductus aka pigeon toes.

Infants are sometimes born with their


feet turning in. It most commonly is due to being positioned in a crowded space inside the uterus before
the baby is born (www.healthychildren.org).

What are the causes of pigeon toes?


For many children, pigeon toes develop in the womb. Limited space in the uterus means some babies
grow in a position that causes the front part of their feet to turn inward. This condition is called
metatarsus adductus (Rol).

In some cases, pigeon toes occur as leg bones grow during the toddler years. Intoeing present by age 2
may be caused by a twisting of the tibia, or shinbone, called internal tibial torsion.A child age 3 or older
may experience a turning-in of the femur, or thighbone, called medial femoral torsion. This is sometimes
referred to as femoral anteversion. Girls are at a higher risk for medial femoral torsion, which is caused
by the hip turning inward (Rol).

Symptoms for pigeon toes


Stumbling (severe cases)
Clumsiness
Feet point inward, as if the toes are touching

What causes pigeon toe?


There are three common causes of intoeing. Kids under 2 years, the most common cause is a shin bone
that is twisted. Even with the twisted shin bone, the knees point straight ahead. It may result from the
baby's position in the mother's womb before being born. This problem usually gets better as the baby
starts pulling up to stand and walk. It may take another six to 12 months to completely go away. Most
children outgrow pigeon toes and do not need treatment. It may take several years before the pigeon-
toed foot is straight. In rare cases, surgery may be needed. (www.footvitals.com) (University of iowa
childrens hospital

Treating pigeon toe


Treating pigeon toe is very easy to treat. The most common treatments are time, normal growth, and
reassurance. Normally, little or no further intervention is necessary.

If more medical intervention is needed, treatment may include:

Braces for the legs that slowly correct the position of the bones or feet

Molds that correct the shape of the foot

Surgery to correct the positioning of the bones that cause pigeon toe

A doctor or therapist may recommend additional therapies that focus attention on parts of the legs and
hips if weakness in those areas may have some impact on the pigeon toe.

Because most cases of pigeon toe resolve on their own over time, most doctors do not recommend
much intervention early on. Mostly, they will recommend monitoring and observation.
(www.medicalnewstoday.com)

In
conclusion, metatarsus adductus could be fixed by wearing a brace that helps the feet turn in the right
direction. This could help many kids who have metatarsus adductus. If your child need a brace, you
could talk to your childs pediatrician about it. Pigeon toes are normally fixed during childhood but if
thats not the case then use corrective shoes, and use a brace for the ankle and foot, it should normally
be done before the child reaches 12 months of age or older. Pigeon toes are very common so parents
shouldn't worry about it.

Citations
Rol, James. "Everything You Should Know About Pigeon Toes in Children." Healthline. Healthline Media,
23 Nov. 2016. Web. 31 July 2017. N.p., n.d. Web.
<http://www.footvitals.com/toes/pigeon-toed.html>. University of Iowa Children's Hospital
https://uichildrens.org/health-library/pigeon-toe-toeing
https://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/orthopedic/Pages/Pigeon-
Toes-Intoeing.aspx
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/315061.php