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International Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Systems (IJEECS)

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Design of Decoupling Controllers for an MIMO Systems


Janani Rajaraman
Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, SCSVMV University, Tamil Nadu, India

Most of the conventional controller tuning methods


Abstract. The main objective in this paper is to do a
comparison of various decoupling techniques used to (decentralized, centralized, decouplers control
design a PID Controllers for a binary distillation column. strategies) are manual controller strategies but they fails
These decoupling controls were simulated for set point to achieve the desired stable response because of high
tracking using MATLAB/ SIMULINK. Various methods interaction affects among control loops, improper
like Least Square Optimization, Real coded Genetic pairings, random disturbance and nonlinearity of
Algorithm, Desired Dynamic Equation are compared with dynamic systems.
Ziegler Nichols Method. Performance indices values like
Integral Absolute Error, Integral Square Error are All these effects make the system response unstable.
obtained and compared. These drawbacks can be overcome by using the hybrid
expert system based tuning methods and optimization
I. INTRODUCTION tuning methods in the literature. Various auto tuning
In Industries it is necessary to control the several output control strategies are proposed to design multi variable
by selecting various manipulated variable such a process systems such as sequential auto tuning, multivariable
is called Multi Input Multi Output (MIMO System). PID controllers. To implement optimization tuning
This multivariable system is successfully operated by control strategies to multivariablesystems required
designing PID Controllers.[1] There are various knowledge of biological rules. But auto tuning
controller methods to design MIMO Systems in controllers are very easily implemented, it contain
literature such as synthesis controller, Sliding mode several pre tuning functions. In this auto tuning function
control, Model Predictive control.[2] Due to the is very important it has automatic ability to
presence of coupling between two variables however, communicate between PID algorithm and external
many well developed closed loop control methods for devices. These auto tuning controllers are also referred
SISO system with time delay can extended to MIMO as self-tuning controllers. This paper mainly organized
system with time delay. The problem of stability gets as follows, case study of distillation column, Wood and
more complex as the result of internal coupling in Berry distillation column in Section II, Decoupling
MIMO process with time delay. This time delay impacts Strategies in Section III, Performance Indices in Section
the stability causes maximum overshoot, oscillations etc. IV, Controller Methods in Section V and MATLAB
Despite all the advanced control strategies, PI/PID simulation results and comparative study of these
Controllers are being used in most of the industries. In optimization techniques is mentioned in Section VI.
this by varying the gains of PID parameters desired
II. BINARY DISTILLATION COLUMN
output response can be achieved. Still active research
isgoing on in this area because in many cases design of Distillation is one of the most common liquid-liquid
PID controllers are poorly tuned, so as a result some separation processes, and can be carried out in a
controllers are too aggressive and some controllers are continuous or batch system. Distillation works by the
giving too sluggish output response. Now advances in application and removal of heat to exploit differences in
control theory, PID control algorithms are using in relative volatility. The heat causes components with
sophisticated control algorithms such as model lower boiling points and higher volatility to be
predictive control, are built as a supervisory control vaporized, leaving less volatile components as liquids.
algorithm, which gives set points to PID controller.PID Mixtures with high relative volatilities are easier to
controller is expressed mathematically in two forms are separate. Distillation can be used to separate binary or
given below multi-component mixtures. Many variables, such as
column pressure, temperature, size, and diameter are
P s = + + ( ) determined by the properties of the feed and the desired
products. Some specialized columns perform other
1 functions, such as reactive distillation columns, which
P s = 1+ + ( )
combine reaction and separation of products into a
single unit. Distillation column mainly consists of
Where P(s) = Controller Transfer function. reboiler, condensers and vertical columns, itself called as
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ISSN (Online): 2347-2820, Volume -4, Issue-6, 2016
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International Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Systems (IJEECS)
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the shells. Within the shell trays are available. It is used Table 1: Time Integral Performance
to increase the component separations. Reboilers are
used for enhancing transfer of mass and heat energy. It ( )
is used to provide an amount of heat for the vaporization ()
from the bottom of the column. Condensers are used to 0

condense distilled vapor. This condensed vapors ( )
collected in reflux drum and required amount is 2 ()
extracted from it.Due to load fluctuations and noise it is 0

very difficult to maintain the stability of system and (
purity of outputs. Wood and Berry Distillation column ) ()
is a 2x2 binary column which separates the methanol 0

and water. It consists of a reboiler and 8 numbers of (
trays.[4] The system process function is stated below. ) 2 ()
12.8 18.9 3 0

= 16.77
+1 21 + 1
6.6 19.4 3 V. METHODS OF CONTROLLER DESIGN
10.9 + 1 14.4 + 1
Most of the industries adopting auto tuning PID control
Overhead mole fraction methanol (y1) and bottom mole strategies because of its simple nature and easy to use.
fraction methanol (y2) are considered as the controlled In the auto tuning method PID parameters are evaluated
variables, Overhead reflux flow rate (u1), bottoms steam based on the Least Square Optimization, Real coded
flow rate (u2) are taken as manipulated variables. Genetic Algorithm,[6] and Desired Dynamic
Equation[5] are compared with Ziegler Nichols Method.
III. DECOUPLING STRATEGIES These algorithms are implemented by using MATLAB
The simulation diagram of Decoupling Controller for a simulation tool directly. To design Wood-Berry
MIMO Processes is shown in the Fig. 1 below which distillation column, the PID values used in the above
uses the technique for tuning of PID Controllers mentioned control strategies are tabulated in table 2.
parameters. In the centralized control of PID both Table 2: Tuning Parameters for Various Method
diagonal elements and off diagonal elements are
designed. [7] Method Controller Kc i d
PIDC11 0.400 0.0850 0.3
Least Square
Optimization PIDC21 0.1092 0.0238 0.3
Tuning PIDC12 0.1217 0.0866 0.3
PIDC22 0.1134 0.0680 0.3
PIDC11 0.7175 0.2368 0.7134
RGA Tuning PIDC21 0.3262 0.1204 0.1957
PIDC12 0.3698 0.0120 0.0897
PIDC22 0.0143 0.0188 0.2415
PIDC1 0.1971 0.0512 0.0992
DDE Tuning
PIDC2 0.2258 0.0387 0.1589
VI. SIMULATION RESULTS
Fig.1. Block Diagram of Decoupling PID Controller for
Consider a unit magnitude step change in first reference
a MIMO Process
at t=0 and second reference at t=150 seconds with a total
IV. PERFORMANCE INDICES time period of 300 seconds. The summarized values of
performance indices of various control strategies are
Set point tracking, regulatory response and noise tabulated in Table.3. In order to determine the better
rejection in output response are the most important one among the above tuning methods are applied for the
performance characteristics for any control of decoupling PID control of the binary distillation column,
multivariable systems. The time integral performance is for the set point tracking case the performance criteria
the major consideration for designing PID controller. Integral Absolute Error (IAE) and Integral Square Error
These time integral performances are integral of squared (ISE) of the controllers were calculated with the aid of
error (ISE), integral of time weighted square error Simulink and the results are obtained are shown in Table
(ITSE), integral of absolute value of error (IAE) and 3
integral of the time weighted absolute error (ITAE).

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International Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Systems (IJEECS)
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Table3. Performance Indices 2


Time Series Plot:Y2

ISE IAE
Method
Y1 Y2 Y1 Y2 1.5

Least Square 2.957 6.788 9.546 13.51


Optimization 1

(LSO)

Y2
RGA 2.722 6.921 8.16 13.8 0.5

Fig.2 to Fig.4. Shows the closed loop response of the


0
system for various decoupling methods like Least
Square Optimization (LSO), RGA (Real Coded Genetic
-0.5
Algorithm) and Desired Dynamic Equation (DDE) 0 50 100 150
Time (seconds)
200 250 300

VII. CONCLUSION Fig.3: Closed Loop Response of Y1 and Y2 by RGA


Method
The Least Square Optimization, RGA and DDE Time Series Plot:
2
algorithms are applied to design Wood and Berry binary
distillation column. Minimum values of performance 1.8

indices are obtained when compared with each other. 1.6

Best output responses of Wood and Berry binary 1.4

distillation column is achieved. 1.2

Y1
1
Time Series Plot:Y2
2 0.8

0.6

1.5 0.4

0.2

1 0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Y2

Time (seconds)

0.5 Time Series Plot:


2

0
1.5

-0.5
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
1
Time (seconds)
Y2

Time Series Plot:Y1


2
0.5
1.8

1.6
0
1.4

1.2
-0.5
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Y1

1 Time (seconds)

0.8

0.6
Fig.4: Closed Loop Response of Y1 and Y2 by DDE
Method
0.4

0.2 REFERENCES
0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Time (seconds)
[1]. K.J. Astrom and T. Hagglund, PID Controllers:
Fig.2: Closed Loop Response of Y1 and Y2 by Least Theory, design and tuning, 2nd. ed. Instrument
Square Optimization Method Society of America 1995.
2
Time Series Plot:Y1
[2] H.E. Musch and M. Steiner, Robust PID control
1.8 for an industrial distillation column, IEEE
1.6 Control Systems, Vol 15, pp46-55, Aug 1995.
1.4
[3] W.L. Luyben, Process Modelling Simulation and
1.2
Control for Chemical Engineer. 2nd ed. McGraw-
Y1

1
Hill, New York, 1990
0.8

0.6 [4] R.K. Wood and M.W. Berry, Terminal


0.4 composition control of a binary distillation
0.2 column, Chem.Eng. Sci, Vol 28, pp. 1707-1717,
0 Sep 1973.
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Time (seconds)

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International Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Systems (IJEECS)
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[5] Zeng-Rong Hu, Dong-Hai Li, Jing Wang, optimization tuning method, IEEE international
FengXue, Analytical Design of PID Decoupling conference on computational intelligence and
control for TITO Process with Time Delay, computing research, 2014.
Journal of Computers, Vol.6, No.6, pp. 1064-
[7] K.J. Astrom, Karl Henrik Johansson, Qing-Guo
1070, 2011
Wang, Design of Decoupled PID Controllers for
[6] CH Suresh Kumar, Design PID Controller for MIMO Systems
TITO Process Based on Least square

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