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8065 Stock, Soups and Sauces Diploma in Food Preparation and Culinary Arts

Stocks, Soups and Sauces

8065-Food Preparation and Culinary Arts

UNIT 207

Elizabeth Theron 2008-09-07
8065 Stock, Soups and Sauces Diploma in Food Preparation and Culinary Arts


Stocks, soups and sauces are the key building blocks of many dishes and an understanding of them is
essential for any chef. The aim of this unit is equip learners with the knowledge and skills required to
prepare, cook and store stocks, soups and sauces.


On completion of this workbook you will be able to:

Prepare and cook a variety of hot and cold soups.

Prepare and cook a variety of hot and cold sauces.
Finish, garnish and present soups and sauces.

On completion of this workbook you will be able to:

Describe the main contamination hazards when storing, preparing and cooking stocks, soups
and sauces.
Identify the types of stocks available for use.
Identify basic soup types and various extensions, available for use.
Identify basic sauce types and various extensions, available for use.
Identify basic preparation and their uses in cooking.
State appropriate cooking methods and techniques applied to stocks, sauce and soups.
Identify the types and care of equipment used in the preparation of stocks, soups and sauces.
Describe methods of testing during and on completion of cooking sauces , stocks and soups.
Explain methods of serving and portion control of soups and sauces.
Describe standard procedures of quality assurance for the preparation, cooking, use and service
of stocks, soups and sauces.

Elizabeth Theron 2008-09-07
8065 Stock, Soups and Sauces Diploma in Food Preparation and Culinary Arts


Behind every great soup and behind many a sauce stands a good strong stock. Stock is a flavoured liquid,
and the basic flavour can be fish, poultry, meat or vegetable. Stock cubes and bouillon mixes are usually
over-salty and lack the intense flavour of properly made stock, making the food taste the same. As an
emergency measure, or to strengthen a rather weak stock, they are useful. But a good cook should be
able to make a perfect stock.

General information and rules when making the stock:

The secret of a stock is slow, gentle simmering. If the liquid is the slightest bit greasy, vigorous
boiling will produce a murky fatty stock.
Skimming especially for meat stocks is vital as fat and scum rise to the surface they should be
lifted off with a basting spoon.
Rich, brown stocks are made by first frying or baking the bones, vegetables and scraps of meat
until a good, dark even brown. Only then does the cook proceed with the gentle simmering.
Care must be taken not to burn the bones or vegetables: one burned carrot can ruin a pot of
Brown stocks are usually made from red meats and veal, but can be made with poultry or fish
bones and sometimes only from vegetables for vegetarian dishes.
White stocks are more delicate and are made by simmering only. They are based on white
poultry or vegetables or fish.
The longer brown meat stocks are simmered the better flavour they will be. A stockpot will
simmer all day in a restaurant, being skimmer or topped up with water as the chef passes it, and
only strained before closing time
However it is very important not to just keep adding bits and pieces to the stockpot and to keep
it going on the back burner for days, because the pot will become cluttered with cooked-out
bones and vegetables that have long since given up any flavour.
At least 3 and up to 8 hours over the gentlest flame or in the bottom of an Aga is ample cooking
Fish stocks should never be simmered for more than 30 minutes. After this the bones begin to
impart a bitter taste/ flavour to the liquid. For a stronger flavour the stock can be strained,
skimmed of any scum or fat and then boiled down to reduce and concentrate it.
Vegetable stocks do not need long cooking. As they contain very little fat, even if the vegetables
have been browned before simmering, they are easily skimmed, and can then be boiled rapidly
after straining to concentrate the flavour. 30 minutes simmering is generally enough.

The bones:

Most households rarely have anything other than the cooked bones from a roast available for stocks.
These will make adequate stock, but it will be weaker than that made with raw bones. Raw bones are
very often free from the butcher, or can be had very cheaply. Get them chopped into manageable small
pieced in the shop. A little raw meat, the bloodier the better gives a rich, very clear liquid.

Elizabeth Theron 2008-09-07
8065 Stock, Soups and Sauces Diploma in Food Preparation and Culinary Arts


The water must be cold when you start the stock, if it is hot the fat in the bones will melt immediately
and when the stock begins to boil much of the fat will be bubbled into the stock. The stock will then be
murky, have an unattractive smell and nasty flavour. Cold water encourages the fat to rise to the
surface, it can then be skimmed.

Jellied stock:

Veal bones produce a particularly good stock that will set to a jelly. A Calfs foot added to any stock will
have the same jellifying effect. Jellied stock will keep longer than liquid stock, but in any event stocks
should be re-boiled every 2 or 3 days if kept refrigerated, or every day if kept in a larder, to prevent
them going bad.


Do not add salt to stocks. It may be used later for something that is already salty, or boiled down to a
concentrated glaze (glace de viande) in which case the glaze would be over-salted if the stock contained
salt. (Salt does not boil off with the water, but remains in the pan)


A good way of storing a large batch of stock is to boil it down to a syrupy consistency, and to add water
only when using. Freeze the glaze in ice cube trays and then turn the frozen cubes into a plastic box in
the freezer. They will keep for at least a year if fat-free.


You will need a large pot that can be used for the simmering of large quantities, any size from a 10 20L
pot will be sufficient. You will need a sieve to skim the stock and remove the impurities. At the end of
the stock making process you will need a large strainer and clean container to hold the full amount of
liquid. Straining will leave you with a clear liquid, no debris or bones should be left in the liquid stock.

Convenience stocks:

You can buy ready made powdered stock in any large retailer e.g. Pick n Pay, Checkers or Shoprite ect.

These items have directions for use on all of the containers and can be used for all types of stocks, soups
and sauces.

Brown stock:

1 kg bones beef, veal or chicken marrow bones

2 medium onions unpeeled and cut into eights through the root.
2 medium carrots, peeled and cut into 2.5cm pieces
2 sticks of celery cut into 2.5cm pieces

Elizabeth Theron 2008-09-07
8065 Stock, Soups and Sauces Diploma in Food Preparation and Culinary Arts

1 turnip cut into 2.5cm pieces

small celeriac, peeled and cut into 2.5cm pieces
110g button mushrooms
1 bulb of fennel
2 tablespoons vegetable oil
1 tablespoon tomato paste
2 liters of COLD water
Hand full of fresh parsley stalks
1 Bay leave
teaspoon black peppercorns
1 sprig of fresh thyme


1. Preheat the oven to 220C

2. Trim any excess fat from the bones. Place in a roasting tray and roast in the oven for about 1 hour
until a rich russet-brown. Turn the bones occasionally to ensure that they roast and brown evenly on
all sides. During the browning process most of the remaining fat will melt and collect in the roasting
3. Shallow fry the vegetables in the vegetable oil until they are caramelized to a rich golden-brown. It is
essential that they do not burn.
4. Add the tomato puree to the vegetables just before they are fully browned to caramelize it to a
deeper red-brown colour.
5. Remove any burnt vegetable pieces as they will taint the stock with a bitter flavour.
6. Place the bones and vegetables in a deep, narrow pot and cover with cold water.
7. Bring slowly to the boil skimming the scum off occasionally as it rises to the surface.
8. There should be little fat as most of it was rendered down during the roasting and browning
9. When the water comes to poach, pour cold water into the pot to solidify the fat and scum and skim
well to remove the fat and scum, ensuring that the remaining liquid is as clear as possible.
10. Add the remaining ingredients. Add more cold water to cover the ingredients, then bring back to the
boil. Poach the ingredients for 4 5 hours for the chicken bones and 5 6 hours for the beef bones,
skimming occasionally.
11. Strain the stock but do not press the vegetables in the sieve as this could make the stock cloudy.
12. Reduce the stock to the required strength, skimming regularly.
13. To store the stock, reduce to a glaze, then cool.

Chicken stock:

Same ingredients as for the beef stock, but only use chicken bones and veal knuckle bone (forms the
Do not place the chicken bones in the roasting pan they are too soft and will become brittle.

Glace de Viande:

Use brown stock absolutely free of fat.

Elizabeth Theron 2008-09-07
8065 Stock, Soups and Sauces Diploma in Food Preparation and Culinary Arts

1. In a heave sauce pan reduce the brown stock by boiling over a steady heat until thick, clear and
2. Pour into small pots. When cold, cover with cling-film.
3. Keep in the refrigerator until ready for use.

Court Bouillon:
1.1 litre of cold water
150 ml white wine vinegar
1 carrot sliced
1 onion sliced
1 stick of celery
12 black peppercorns
2 bay leaves


1. Place half of the water with all of the ingredients in a large saucepan and simmer for 20
2. Simmer for 20 minutes add the remaining water the, allow to cool and strain.

Introduction to sauces:

including equipment required, types of sauces, ingredients required, quality points, thickeners and how
to prepare sauces. Soups follow sauces, including the same topics of discussion.


Larousse defines a sauce as a liquid seasoning for food and this covers anything from juices in a
frying pan to complicated and sophisticated emulsions.

A sauce is a fluid dressing for meat, poultry, fish, desserts and other food preparations. Sauces enhance
the flavour and appearance of the food they accompany. They may also add nutritional value.

A sauce may present contrast in flavour, colour and consistency. However, it should not over power the
food it is served with. It should be prepared so that it forms a part of the food it accompanies.

Delicate dressings are appropriate for delicately flavoured greens and heavier dressings are more
suitable with strongly flavoured greens. The weight and coating ability of different dressings should
always be considered. In most cases, a sauce should be of proper consistency to flow readily and provide
a coating for the food but not thick or heavy enough to saturate the food or cause difficulty in digestion.

A sauce must not mask or cover the flavour of a dish. Poor meat or poultry cannot be disguised by
sauce. The successful joining of a sauce with food demonstrates an understanding of the food and the
ability to judge a dishs flavours, textures and colours.

Elizabeth Theron 2008-09-07
8065 Stock, Soups and Sauces Diploma in Food Preparation and Culinary Arts

A sauce adds the following qualities to foods:

Appearance colour and shine
Interest and appetite appeal.

Equipment for making sauces

Equipment for making sauces must be clean with no visible signs of food debris or food particles.
Gather all equipment required.

Equipment may include:

1. Spoons, (plastic or wooden spoons should be used to stir sauces prepared in a metal pan
because a metal spoon, especially when used in an aluminium pan, can discolour the sauce)
2. Pans
3. Mixing bowls
4. Whisks
5. Strainers
6. Graters
7. Knives
8. Chopping boards.

Sauce ingredients should be of the required type, quality and quantity

Types of sauces

The 2 basic types of sauces you will need to prepare are hot and cold sauces.

Hot sauces include:

Roux sauces
Starch thickened sauces.

Cold sauces include:

Mayonnaise/mayonnaise based

Sauce ingredients

Sauces are made up of three kinds of ingredients.

1. A liquid the body of the sauce.
2. A thickening agent.
3. Additional seasoning and flavouring ingredients

Elizabeth Theron 2008-09-07
8065 Stock, Soups and Sauces Diploma in Food Preparation and Culinary Arts

The liquid

A liquid ingredient provides the base of most sauces. The liquids on which most hot sauces are made
White stock (chicken, veal or fish) for Velout sauces
Brown stock for brown sauce of Espangnole
Milk for Bchamel which is a white roux sauce
Tomato plus stock for tomato sauce.
The liquids on which most cold sauces are made include:
Vinegar and oil for vinaigrette
Egg yolk, vinegar and oil for mayonnaise
Clarified butter and egg yolk for hollandaise.
The most frequently used sauces are based on stock. The quality of these sauces depends on the
quality of the stock used.

Thickening agents
Starches such as flour are the most common thickening agents. Other thickening agents include egg
yolks, cream, oatmeal, rice and other cereal based products.
The role of thickening agents is to improve the appearance, concentrate flavours and make dishes

Seasoning and flavouring ingredients

The liquid in a sauce provides the basic flavour, however, other ingredients are added to make
variations to that flavour and give a finished character to the sauce.
Adding specific flavouring ingredients to basic sauces is the key to creating a range of classic sauces.

Assessing quality of ingredients

i Understanding ingredients is very important. Unless a sauce contains ingredients of the highest
quality, it will not have the best possible flavour.
Before you begin to make a sauce, check the quality of the ingredients. All ingredients should be
fresh, and free from any contamination, e.g. pest and foreign objects.
Using poor quality ingredients can create food safety problems, which may affect the health of your
Using poor quality ingredients will definitely affect the quality of the finished sauce and lead to
customer dissatisfaction.

Determining the quantity of ingredients

To work out the quantity of ingredients required you will need to consider the following factors:

Number of people served

Expected customer demand
Recipe requirements.
It is good practice to confirm numbers with your supervisor, if possible, before you begin sauce
preparation to avoid wasting valuable stock.

Elizabeth Theron 2008-09-07
8065 Stock, Soups and Sauces Diploma in Food Preparation and Culinary Arts

Preparing sauces

The preparation method used for making sauces will depend on the type of sauce you are making.
Preparation methods may include the following techniques.
Mixing - used to combine ingredients evenly through the sauce.
Chopping/slicing - used either to cut the basic ingredients that provide the flavour, or to cut
ingredients into fine pieces for garnish or final presentation.
Whisking - beating rapidly to incorporate air and increase the volume.
Grating - shredding ingredients into fine strands using a grater. This technique is appropriate for
Blending - thoroughly combining two or more ingredients.
Straining - removing solids from a liquid by passing it through a strainer.

Roux sauces
Roux is a combination of fat and flour used as a thickening agent for liquids.
There are three cooking methods that may be used to prepare roux depending on the sauce it will
be used for.

1. White roux
Equal parts by weight of flour and butter, cooked slowly for about three minutes to a sandy texture
without colour.
This will resemble fresh white breadcrumbs.
It will move from smooth to crumbly and back to smooth again this will indicate that it is cooked.
Remove from the heat and allow the roux to cool before further use.
White roux is used in bchamel, which is a blend of milk and white roux.

2. Blond roux (fawn roux)

Equal quantities of butter and flour blended together over a gentle heat until the mixture takes on a
light, fawn colour.
Cook longer than a white roux.
The roux is then removed from the heat to prevent over cooking and allowed to cool before further
Blond roux is used as a base for velout, which is a blend of blond roux and white stock.

3. Brown roux
Four parts clean, fresh melted dripping, five parts of flour added and blended over heat until the
roux takes on a distinct brown colour without scorching.
The mixture will start as a dry, crumbly mass, turning to a semi-liquid as the starch begins to break
down and browning occurs.
Dripping is used for flavour enhancement but mainly because of the high temperature needed to
brown the flour. This temperature would burn butter.
The roux is removed from the heat and allowed to cool before further use.
Brown roux is used as a base for brown sauce, which is a blend of brown roux and brown beef stock.

Elizabeth Theron 2008-09-07
8065 Stock, Soups and Sauces Diploma in Food Preparation and Culinary Arts

Evaluating quality
Correct amounts of fat and flour equal parts by weight are important in the making of a good
All the starch granules must be coated with enough fat, but not too much.
A good roux should be stiff, not runny or pourable.
A roux must be cooked so that the finished sauce does not have the raw, starchy taste of flour.

Starch thickened sauces

i Cornflour
Cornflour is a thickening agent which when mixed with water or stock, and heated, provides a
glossy, semi-clear finish to a product.
It is used in preparing sweet sauces, served with meat and poultry, and in the preparation of some
dessert sauces.
It has roughly twice the thickening power of flour.
To use, mix with cold water until smooth, stir into the hot liquid, bring to boil and simmer until the
liquid turns clear and there is no starchy taste.
Do not boil for a long period as the starch may break down and the liquid will thin out.

Arrowroot is used like cornflour, but gives an even clearer sauce. Its use is limited because of its high

Potato flour
Potato flour is used as a thickening agent, particularly in Asian cookery. The properties are similar to
those of cornflour, but are stronger when mixed.

Flour thickened sauces

The commonest English sauces are those thickened with flour, and these are undoubtedly the most
practical for the home cook. The secret is to not make then too thick (by not adding too much flour),
to beat them well and to simmer them for 2 minutes after it boiled to make them shiny. They will
also look professionally shiny if they are finished by whizzing in a blender, or if they are mounted
with a little extra butter, gradually incorporated in dice, at the end.

Other thickening techniques

Beurre mani
Beurre mani is used for a quick thickening agent.
The sauce is thickened by a smooth blend of two parts whole butter and one part flour, mixed cold.
The mixture may be added in small pieces to a simmering liquid and continually whisked to achieve
the desired consistency.
The resulting sauce must be simmered 15 20 minutes until the flour is cooked out.
Beurre mani may be used as an additional thickening agent for a sauce that is too thin.

Elizabeth Theron 2008-09-07
8065 Stock, Soups and Sauces Diploma in Food Preparation and Culinary Arts

Egg yolk and cream liaison

A liaison is a mixture of cream and beaten egg yolks that is added to sauces, to improve colour and
texture, increase flavour and bind them together.
The finished product must be held under 82C or the eggs will curdle. For this reason, a liaison is
usually added at the last minute to avoid the eggs curdling.
Part of the sauce is whipped into a liaison until all the mixture is incorporated.
To incorporate liaison:
Remove the sauce from the heat
Correct seasoning and strain if necessary
Combine beaten egg yolks and cream
Whip small amounts of sauce into liaison gradually until certain that the eggs will not curdle
Incorporate liaison - sauce mixture with balance of sauce.
Hold for service above 60C for sanitation reasons but lower than 82C.


Egg yolks are whisked over heat and the flavouring ingredients is gradually whisked in. The suspension is
temporary and most sabayons collapse after 30 40 minutes.


The term forcemeat comes from the French word = farce = and this in turn means = Stuffing. These can
be made from the following products: Uncooked minced meats, poultry, fish or shellfish, mixed with fat,
spices, herbs and generous quantity of seasoning.

They can be used either on its own or with other ingredients to make Pates and terrines

Types of forcemeats:

The texture of the forcemeats depends on how finely the ingredients are prepared. Chunky ingredients
will give you a rough, chunky texture and you will have visible pieces of meat and fat. These should be
used for country pate and en crote terrines. You can garnish these with rough cut meats or nuts.

For the smoothest forcemeat, you have to sieve the contents laboriously to ensure that all of the coarse
bits of meats and the connective tissue have been removed. These are normally used for pates and
Mousselines (delicate mixture, usually made with finely pounded shellfish or fish as the main

Forcemeat ingredients:

The main ingredient in forcemeat may be meat, poultry, fish or shellfish. When you prepare the main
ingredient you have to make sure that you remove all membranes, connective tissue and small bones to
facilitate mincing.

Elizabeth Theron 2008-09-07
8065 Stock, Soups and Sauces Diploma in Food Preparation and Culinary Arts


It normally contains minced pork as it adds moisture and smoothness. If you do not use pork,
forcemeats made from lean meats (poultry / game) tend to become dry and grainy when being cooked.
Pork is normally used for about one third () of the total meat content.

Pork and chicken livers are also being used - adds flavour and helps to bind all of the ingredients
together. The livers are minced and passed through a fine-mesh drum sieve, to remove any unwanted
membranes, before it is added to the mixture.


Mousseline forcemeats made with shellfish bind more successfully if fine-textured white fish is used e.g.
Sole can make up to 25% of the total weight If you use lobster as forcemeat you can enhance the taste
and flavour by adding the coral and the eggs.


The most commonly used fats are pork & bacon fat or double cream; these add a rich flavour and give a
smooth, moist texture. You can also use suet, butter and drippings for the same reason. For course
forcemeat you only use half the weight of fat to meat and smoother Mousseline forcemeats uses at
least 1 liter / 1 pints of double cream to 1 kg / 2 lb of meat or fish.


1. Use fresh ingredients:

All meat and fish contain the protein Albumen, this allows them to bind well with other ingredients.
With age the albumin starts to fade away, loosing its binding qualities, for this reason it is important for
the meat and fish used for forcemeats are as fresh as possible, this is especially important when making
smooth forcemeats they rely on the emulsification of albumen and fat to form a stable mixture that
will stay like that while it is cooked. If the forcemeat is made correctly it is smooth and moist, but if
made incorrectly they loose their fat, dry out, shrink and become grainy when cooked.

2. Ingredients used to make forcemeat must be kept chilled:

These items contain raw meat, liver, dairy products and eggs, all of which if incorrectly handled are
potential breeding grounds for dangerous micro-organisms.

3. The equipment must be very clean and well chilled:

Preparing these items you will use either a mincer or a food processor; both of them have different sized
mincing discs. The equipment must be extremely clean, and when possible, kept chilled below 4 C in
either the fridge or freezer. This will help to prevent the forcemeat from warming while being

Elizabeth Theron 2008-09-07
8065 Stock, Soups and Sauces Diploma in Food Preparation and Culinary Arts

4. All of the ingredients are used in the correct proportions:

The ratio of ingredients is very important, especially in regard to the emulsification and binding of
proteins and fats and the texture of the cooked forcemeats.

5. Ingredients should be cut to the appropriate size for processing, no larger than 2.5cm:

Mince the meat, pork, fat and any other ingredients to the required size. It should be minced through
once by the largest-sized disc and again through the next size for a rough textured pate, or rub through
a fine sieve after mincing for smooth- textured forcemeat.

6. Test seasoning and texture of the forcemeat by cooking a teaspoonful of the mixture:

You can fry coarse forcemeats in a little oil. Smooth Forcemeats can be poached in water. Both of them
can be cooked in a microwave for 30 seconds on MEDIUM power. 450g of minced meat requires +/-5ml
salt, but herbs and spices will make up for this. It is always best to add the seasoning by degrees to avoid

7. Adjust the texture of the forcemeat:

Forcemeat should not be dry & crumbly when cooked, or so soft that it is unable to keep its shape when
cooked. It should be firm enough to cut clean into slices or portions, but not rubbery. You can always
add some double cream if the texture is too dry. Should it be too soft, add a small amount of egg white
and test again.

Binding ingredients:

The addition of other binding ingredients may be necessary to improve the overall texture. These
ingredients hold the forcemeat together while it cooks and cools, to produce a smooth, moist texture
and a product that holds together well when sliced. Panadas and eggs are the best binding ingredients.

Panada / Panade:

This is a term given to a thick paste made of flour and water or milk and a small quantity of butter. This
is often 20% of the total forcemeat ingredients, it is used cold to bind meat and especially fish (fish
Mousseline can be grainy) and produce a stable, smooth textured, this is then passed through a fine
sieve before any other ingredients such as butter and eggs are added.


Eggs or egg whites are used to bind and set forcemeat. Should it contain large amounts of liquid or liver.
4 egg whites are required to bind and set a Mousseline made with 1 kg of meat or fish and 1 liter of
double cream. If you used too much egg white, it may have a rubbery texture when cooked, or if too
little is used, the Mousseline ingredients may not bind correctly, this will give you a grainy and crumbly

Elizabeth Theron 2008-09-07
8065 Stock, Soups and Sauces Diploma in Food Preparation and Culinary Arts


Soaked in hot milk/ cream can be used to bind forcemeats.

Flavouring forcemeats:

Sometimes these items can be very un-interesting and bland. The flavour is enhanced with a variety of
ingredients, including table salt, curling salt (combination of salt and sodium nitrate), marinades, herbs
and spices. Salt also promotes emulsification of the meat and fat for this reason is usually added in the
early stages of preparation.

Curling salt is used to inhibit bacterial growth and help retain the fresh pick colour of meat preventing it
from oxidizing. Without this the meat will go grey and unappetizing in appearance within a matter of
hours after contact with air.


Ingredients are normally marinated for about 1 hour to 2 days before mincing, to tenderize the
ingredients and enhance their flavours; Marinades for forcemeat may include herbs, citrus zest, spices,
wine, port and brandy.


Spices most commonly used to flavour forcemeats are those associated with winter food, cloves,
nutmeg, juniper, ginger, paprika, and black and white pepper. The herbs should have robust flavours
such as bay leaves, thyme, sage, rosemary, parsley, tarragon and marjoram.


Forcemeat is often garnished with small quantities of diced or chopped meat, fat and /or dried fruit to
enhance its flavour, texture and appearance. Garnishes most commonly used are pistachio nuts, diced
pork fat, truffles, diced ham and tongue. Vegetables, ham and tongue should be pricked before adding
to the forcemeat or they may shrink during cooking, leaving unsightly air pockets.

Storing uncooked forcemeats:

Once it is made it should be covered in Clingfilm, placed immediately in the fridge and used within 24
hours. Raw forcemeats may also be frozen for up to 3 months.

Butters used in industry:

We always need to make sure that we have a good knowledge of what we are about to make and how
we are going to make it. We can use different kinds of butter to give different tastes to the dish that we
are making. Here are but a few that we use regularly, lemon, garlic, parsley, ginger, chilli, black
peppercorns, and coriander butter.

Elizabeth Theron 2008-09-07
8065 Stock, Soups and Sauces Diploma in Food Preparation and Culinary Arts

Other basis:

Duxelles: Finely diced onion and mushroom, cooked dry and used in dishes for a better flavour.

Mirepoix: This is always used as a base when starting a stock or a soup. It is carrots, celery and onions
cut and sweated in a pot until all of the flavours have combined together. You can then add some salt
and pepper for taste and when you start to add the water you start the soup or the stock (bones added

Marinades: When using marinades you have to make sure that the marinade used compliments the
dish being marinated. Marinades help to flavour the meats and sometimes it contains tenderizers which
help to soften the meats. If marinades are not used correctly it can cause the meats to burn when it is
being cooked. If you use too much then you can change the flavour and taste of the meat dish and this
will not help you with customer satisfaction.

When using wine/ liquors in sauces:

Make sure that you use a wine that is not too sour / pungent. The flavour of alcohol is increased in
certain dishes and can spoil the taste of a sauce very easily. It is best to use a white wine in a white
based sauce and normally a Chablis is the best suited for this. If you use a very dry white wine please
remember to add some sugar to the sauce and taste to make sure that you have the correct taste as

If you use red wine it should be in a brown / dark sauce. Opened unfinished red wine can be used for
sauces, or if you want any house wine is sufficient, remember to let the wine breath before you use it.
Red wine changes when it is exposed to air and the flavour and taste changes, so we have to make sure
that we use the correct flavour as required.

When you use liquor in cooking sauces, go for the darker types with sweet undertones. Use the
appropriate alcohol for the appropriate dish. You can use whiskey, brandy, bourbon, rum, sweet wines
and some liquors, these liquors are mostly used in sweet sauces dessert coulis and flamb

Essences and colouring:

These can be used to change the appearance of a sauce. Be careful and test the colouring or essence
before you use it the first time so that you are sure how it changes the colours and tastes of certain
dishes. Sauces are mostly expensive to make and if you bugger it up at the end you have no way of fixing
it and it is a cost to the company and to you a time waste.

Identify when a sauce is cooked

Smell, texture, consistency, taste and colour are all used to identify a sauce is cooked or a dressing is
prepared to the required standard. If a sauce is overcooked, taste and texture will be affected and it
must be discarded. The ingredients that are wasted will increase the operating costs of your workplace.
Sauces that are either burnt, undercooked or of the wrong consistency are likely to result in customer
complaints if they are served and they definitely would not meet your organisations quality standard.

Elizabeth Theron 2008-09-07
8065 Stock, Soups and Sauces Diploma in Food Preparation and Culinary Arts

Preparing different sauces

Bchamel sauce
1. Prepare a white roux. Allow it to cool.
2. Bring to the boil with onion, clove and bay leaf. Allow infusing for 5 minutes.
3. Strain and gradually add milk to the roux. Use a wooden spatula to beat out all lumps.
4. Simmer gently for 30 minutes. Stir frequently to prevent sticking.
5. Pass through a fine strainer.
6. Cover with butter to prevent a skin forming.
7. Finish, garnish (nutmeg is optional).
8. Use or cool and store.

Evaluating quality

If prepared properly, Bchamel sauce should meet the following quality points.
Flavour creamy, reflecting its base liquid, milk. Taste the sauce using a clean spoon for each
Colour should be that of heavy cream, slightly off-white, no hint of grey.
Clarity lustrous, with a definite sheen. Should be perfectly smooth with no graininess.
Body noticeable, thick enough to coat the back of a spoon yet still quite liquid.
Aroma that of cream. A slight hint of nuttiness from the roux will be apparent, but should not
overpower the milk aroma.

Vinaigrette dressing
1. Combine the vinegar and seasonings.
2. Slowly whip in the oil until a homogeneous mixture is formed.
3. Serve the dressing immediately or store it.
4. Before dressing the salad, thoroughly recombine all of the ingredients.

Evaluating quality

The dressing should always be prepared with the proper ratios, to provide a correct balance
between acidity and oil.
The dressing should not have a sharp bite, a bitter edge, or an oily feel in the mouth, these will
indicate the balance is incorrect. Taste the vinaigrette using a clean spoon for each tasting.
Vinaigrettes are temporary emulsions, they will only stay blended for a short time. As the dressing is
allowed to stand, the oil and vinegar will gradually separate. Therefore, it is advisable to remix the
ingredients before serving.

1. Prior to preparation, all ingredients should be at room temperature for best results.
2. Beat the egg yolks until they are frothy.
3. Gradually incorporate the oil, beating constantly.
4. Add a small amount of vinegar and/or lemon juice, as the mayonnaise begins to stiffen.
5. Add any additional seasonings or flavouring ingredients.
6. Serve the dressing at once or store in the refrigerator.

Elizabeth Theron 2008-09-07
8065 Stock, Soups and Sauces Diploma in Food Preparation and Culinary Arts

Evaluating quality

A good mayonnaise is creamy and usually pale ivory in colour.

It should be thick, however not stiff enough to hold shape.
The flavour should have just a hint of vinegar or lemon juice. Taste the mayonnaise using a clean
spoon for each tasting.
If other flavours are added, i.e. mustard, it should not overpower the flavour of the mayonnaise.


These are liquids that contain tiny droplets of oil or fat evenly distributed in suspension

Stable emulsion:

Mayonnaise is the best known of cold and stable emulsion sauces, in which oil is beaten into egg yolks
and held in suspension. If the oil is added too fast the sauce will curdle.

Warm emulsions:

The most stable warm emulsions, like cold emulsions, are based on egg yolks. The best known is
Hollandaise, in which butter is beaten into egg yolks over a gentle heat. Great care has to be taken not
to allow the sauce to curdle.

Eggless emulsion:

These have become the more fashionable butter sauces. The classic is : Beurre blanc. Eggless emulsions
split very easily, so great care should be taken to follow the recipe precisely.

Unstable emulsions:

French dressing will emulsify if whizzed or whisked together, but will separate back to its component
parts after about 15 minutes.

Sauce table:
Flour thickened Emulsions Combinations and other

Mother Daughter Mother Daughter

White Anchovy, Mayonnaise Aioli, Remoulade, Apple sauce, Tomato sauce,

sauce bchamel, Tartare, Andalouse, Mint sauce, Cumberland sauce,
Cardinale, Crme, Elizabeth, Watercress Cranberry sauce, Bread sauce,
Egg, Cheese, Horseradish sauce, Onion
Onion, Parley, sauce, Red pepper sauce, Black

Elizabeth Theron 2008-09-07
8065 Stock, Soups and Sauces Diploma in Food Preparation and Culinary Arts

Green bean sauce, Pesto, Ginger and

tomato sauce, Uncooked pasta
Blond Aurore, Poulette, Hollandaise Barnaise, Choron, sauce, Exotic sauce, Salsa
(Velout) Supreme, Moutarde, Pizzaiola, salsa
Mushroom Mousseline

Brown Chasseur, Robert, Beurre Chicken, fish, orange, Savoury Butters:

Madeira, Mustard Blanc saffron
Sauce, Almond, Anchovy, Garlic,
Bordelaise, Green, Maitre dhotel, Mint
Poivrade, Diane, and Mustard

French Sabayons:
Leek and Watercress


As a Blanquette de Veau

Reductions and pan sauces:

Wild mushroom sauce


Barnaise Sauce is a recipe that can turn a well done dinner into a gourmet feast. Barnaise is one of the
worlds most classy sauces. Not only is this version rich and exquisitely flavored, it is quite easy to do
and also nearly indestructible. We used this Barnaise Sauce a lot at our restaurant "Baron's of Old
Town", and Albuquerque Magazine named me the "Baron of Barnaise" for this recipe. It will keep in
the refrigerator for at least a couple days. This Barnaise is prepared in three parts that come together
quickly at the end.

1. First, take:
1/4 Medium onion, chopped
1 1/2 tsp. dry tarragon, or good wad of fresh
Good grind of black pepper
1/2 cup Chablis
Simmer in small pan until liquid reduced to a couple tablespoons.

2. Meanwhile, in another small pan, put:

1/2 pound of butter
Melt gently and bring to gentle simmer.

Elizabeth Theron 2008-09-07
8065 Stock, Soups and Sauces Diploma in Food Preparation and Culinary Arts

3. In the blender put:

6 egg yolks
2-3 Tbl. Tarragon- vinegar

1. The trick is to have all three parts ready at the same time. When the wine has simmered down
about right the butter should just be coming to a simmer, and the blender should be ready. Then:
2. Turn on the blender and dribble in the butter, sort of slowly at first. When the butter is all added,
add the wine reduction. Let it whirl for a few seconds, then put it in a bowl and chill it for a couple
3. Barnaise is good with red meat, vegetables, egg dishes and seafood. It has a particular affinity for
asparagus, venison, filet mignon, artichokes, and lobster. There might be nothing in this world
better then a rare filet of venison, say elk or moose, topped with an artichoke heart and well
covered with Barnaise. With a bottle of red wine, a leafy salad, and good company, this paradise is
paradise enough.

Soups are an important part of any menu on which they are featured. At times, soups are used to create
an appetite and at other times, soups can be a meal within themselves. For example, a soup and
sandwich or a soup and salad combination serves as a lunch option or a hearty meal in itself for dinner.
A light soup provides a nutritious snack between meals.

Soup has appeal for every age group in every economic situation.
Soups can provide menu interest with exciting names and garnishes, both distinctive and different.

Soups can be classified as follows:

Veloute (thickened).

Soups can be hot or cold depending on the time that it is served or ingredients used.

Equipment for making soups

1. Stockpot
2. Chinois
3. Blender
4. Knives
5. Chopping boards
6. Saucepans
7. Wooden spoons
8. Soup ladles
9. Food processor

Elizabeth Theron 2008-09-07
8065 Stock, Soups and Sauces Diploma in Food Preparation and Culinary Arts

10. Storage containers.

All equipment must be cleaned and sanitised after use.

Used pots or containers should be rinsed or soaked for easy cleaning.

Soup ingredients should be of the required type, quality and quantity.

Ingredients for soup production

Soups are made up of a wide variety of ingredients. The best soups are made from the best available
ingredients. Soup should have the pronounced taste of the major flavouring components. If this is a
meat-base it should be highly flavorful and mature. Fish or shellfish should be perfectly fresh and so
should vegetables, especially when they provide the dominant flavour of soups.

Herbs and spices are added to soup to increase flavour. Bouquet garni (bay leaf, thyme, cloves, parsley
bound together in a cloth container) are included in virtually all soup preparation and should be
discarded as soon as it has contributed sufficient flavour.

Quality stock forms the basis of most soups, but water, vegetable stock cubes, fruit and vegetable juices,
and milk may also be used. Stocks need to be appropriately matched to the main ingredients in the soup
being prepared.

Thickening agents
A roux can be used as a thickening agent in soup. Alternatively a thick consistency in soup can be
achieved by pureing.
Other thickening agents that can be used include potatoes, rice, pulses and pasta. Some cream soups
are finished with a liaison (a mixture of one part egg yolk well blended into three parts cream). The soup
is then cooked only enough to thicken the egg; it is never boiled.

Preparing, cook and finish soups

Basic preparation and cooking methods are used in soup making, e.g. mixing, chopping, blending and
straining. Some soups may require you to use techniques such as:

pure using a food processor or liquidiser to transform soup ingredients into a smooth pulp
skimming using a spoon or skimmer to remove froth, scum or fat from the surface of stock or soup
dicing cutting ingredients into small cubes.

General principles for soup making

Always use fresh ingredients.

When making a beef stock, brown the meat and bones. Browning and sweating vegetables for a
vegetable stock helps improve the colour and intensify the flavour.
Bring slowly to the boil. Long, slow simmering is necessary to extract the food value and flavour.
Beef stock should simmer for 4-5 hours, chicken stock for approximately 3 hours, fish stock for 20
minutes and vegetable stock for 1-2 hours.

Elizabeth Theron 2008-09-07
8065 Stock, Soups and Sauces Diploma in Food Preparation and Culinary Arts

Remove the fat or scum from surface as the stock is cooking.

Cool stock rapidly and refrigerate. When cold, the fat can be easily removed from the top.
Vegetables may be cut roughly for pures, but diced for broths.
The soup should be stirred from time to time to prevent the starchy vegetables from sticking.
Do not store stock in metal containers as this may discolour the stock or make it cloudy.
Soup should be tasted for seasoning and flavour, before serving.
No soup benefits from hours on the stove not only will the flavour become dull and flat, but the
nutritive value will be greatly decreased.

Types of soup

Cream soups are made by adding cream in the final stages of preparation. The cream serves to
thicken the soup and gives it a rich velvety taste.

Velout soups are prepared from a blond roux and flavoured stock. Vegetables, meat, fish or poultry
are also added and later removed by sieving before serving. A velout is thickened with a liaison of
egg yolk and cream.
Broths are unstrained soups made with a stock base with the addition of cereals such as rice or
barley, diced vegetables, chopped meat or fish.
Pures are made from fresh vegetables and pulses cooked in stock. The soup is finished by passing
all cooked ingredients through a sieve or by using a food processor to form a thick smooth pulp.

Identifying when a soup is cooked

Smell, texture, consistency, taste and colour are all used to identify a soup is cooked to the required
standard. If soup is overcooked, taste and texture will be affected because vegetables and other
ingredients become soggy making them unpalatable. The soup will need to be discarded and the
ingredients that are wasted will increase the operating costs of your workplace. Soups that are either
burnt, undercooked or of the wrong consistency will not meet the quality standard of your organisation
and are likely to result in customer complaints if they are served.

Cream soup

Cream soups must be of a smooth consistency and are finished with cream. The three methods of
preparation include:

1. The traditional method using 50% bchamel, 25% puree of the appropriate cooked ingredients
and 25% of the appropriate stock, and finished with cream.
2. A puree based soup, finished with cream.
3. The velout based soup finished with cream, instead of cream and egg yolks.

Basic principles for making a cream soup:

1. Sweat the vegetables in a fat or stock.
2. Add the flour and cook out the roux.
3. Add the liquid.
4. Bring to a boil.
5. Establish a simmer.
6. Add the bouquet garni and the main ingredient.

Elizabeth Theron 2008-09-07
8065 Stock, Soups and Sauces Diploma in Food Preparation and Culinary Arts

7. Skim off fat and froth.

8. Discard the bouquet garni when the proper flavour is reached.
9. Pure the solids.
10. Reincorporate the liquid to the proper consistency.
11. Strain the soup.
12. Cool and store, or finish with cream, and garnish for service.

Evaluating quality
Cream soups should have:
Body, consistency and texture of heavy cream
A dominant flavour of the major ingredient not overpowered by the taste of cream
Relatively pale colour.
Problems that can affect the characteristics of a cream soup are:
An overly thick result caused during cooking and storage
Lack of freshness cream soups have a brief shelf life
A starchy taste soup must be simmered long enough to allow the rouxs starchy taste to cook out
Scorched taste overheating will cause scorching and the flavour to be distorted.

Thickened soups
Thickened soups are prepared from vegetables that have been cut in varying shapes and cooked in
stock. At times cereals and pieces of meat or poultry are added.

Basic principles for making a broth (e.g. minestrone)

1. Sweat the mirepoix until tender.
2. Add additional vegetables and continue to sweat for another 5 minutes.
3. Add tomatoes, stock and flavourings.
4. Bring to a boil and simmer until vegetables are cooked.
5. Add pasta and simmer until cooked.
6. Add cooked beans and bring soup back to a boil.
7. Garnish with parsley and parmesan.

Evaluating quality
A good thickened soup should be:
Aromatic and have a distinct flavour of the major ingredient
Thick bodied and not feel like water on the tongue.
Problems that can affect the characteristics of a thickened soup are:
Lack of balance between flavouring ingredient and liquid
Inadequate cooking time
Over boiling
Inadequate skimming during preparation
Improper cooling and storage.


This is a very sophisticated soup and is used for very upmarket restaurants or functions. It is time
consuming and can let you down very easily if you do not concentrate while working on this soup.

Elizabeth Theron 2008-09-07
8065 Stock, Soups and Sauces Diploma in Food Preparation and Culinary Arts

Consomms are clear soups with the main ingredient used for the flavour usually used as the
decoration. It is made by using a chicken / vegetarian stock and adding vegetables. This is simmered
together for about 30 45 minutes and a bouquet garni is used for the spices. While this is simmering
you will remove the debris floating to the top. You will then strain the soup and only use the clear liquid

These are the soups made from potatoes. Meaning that the main ingredients of the soups are, potatoes.
There are many different variations on the soups, potato and leek, potato and broccoli, potato and

This is a very flavourful soup. They are thick and creamy, with the main ingredients usually being
shellfish. The shell and meat is crushed together and simmered together for up to 1 hour. Be careful not
to let it boil and burn. If left in longer the soup will become too salty as the shells are very salty, so it
needs to be tasted often to determine you is you the correct salt level in the dish. Remember you can
always add more salt if needed but it is a bit more difficult to remove the salt once it is there.


Coulis are made from fruits which have been cooked in an sugar syrup, thickened over a medium heat.
When correct consistency reached it is then blended coarsely and served over ice cream or with a light
dessert of meringues or over a cheesecake. These can be served cold or hot, depending on what you
need to use it with.

Store sauces and soups not for immediate use

Sauces and soups not for immediate use must be allowed to cool before being stored away. It is
important to cool sauces and soups as rapidly as possible before refrigeration. This can be done by
standing the saucepan in a sink of cold water or by using a blast chiller.
Sauces and soups should be stored in a clean container (stainless steel, earthenware or plastic) and
covered with a tight fitting lid or cling wrap.
To stop a skin from forming on a sauce, you can either place plastic wrap or a film of butter on the
All sauces and soups should be stored in a refrigerator for later use.
To prevent a food safety problem, sauces being held before and during service should either be held
at above 65C or below 8C.
Most soups freeze well, however a handy tip is to add less liquid than the recipe states to reduce the
amount of soup that needs to be kept in storage. Make a note of how much liquid needs to be added
when reheating the soup.
When freezing soups use large shallow containers because this allows for quick freezing and thawing.
Do not fill the storage container completely; leave space at the top to allow some room for expansion.
Dont add cream, yoghurt or eggs before freezing because they will curdle when the soup is reheated.

Elizabeth Theron 2008-09-07
8065 Stock, Soups and Sauces Diploma in Food Preparation and Culinary Arts


Clarification is the process where we need to clean the product that we are going to be working with
from all impurities. When we clarify a soup for example a consomm, we will use egg whites. We have
to make sure that we heat up the soup part of the consomm, then we add whisked egg white, do not
stir this and allow it to form a layer on the top of the soup, we bring this to a soft simmer and as the egg
white cooks we can remove it, all of the impurities (fat, seasoning, small bones from the stock) will now
be removed when we have taken all of the egg white out.

We can use ox (beef) blood to clarify dark consomms; this works the same as the egg whites. It also
forms a layer on the soup and we can remove it and with this we also remove all of the impurities in the


This is the soft, rolling boiling of a liquid. When you want to prepare a poached egg, you can not allow
the liquid to boil, should this liquid boil you will not be able to place the egg into the liquid, it will break
the outside layer of the egg and the egg will flow around in the liquid. Using a soft boil simmer, you
can place the egg into the liquid without having to worry about it destroying the outside layer of the

When simmering we can produce various items, these items can be used when plating the dishes and
we can also use it to cover a meat product to bring out a certain taste or to make it look good on the
plate when we use a reduction we take the stock that we used to prepare the product, or if we cook
meat we use a dark stock of a good quality, we place this into a saucepan and start to heat this to a
simmer at a consistent heat. We do this until the stock becomes thick and syrupy. This produces a very
intense taste and flavour of this stock and can be used as described at the beginning of this section.

Glazes these are made to enhance the appearance of the product. Glazes can be made from clear
stocks or from sweet sauces. The perfect glaze for a ham roll is apricot jam, this helps to bring out the
taste of the pork and it also makes the product appear glossy and shiny and this makes it look more

Convenience commodities:

We normally use convenience items to safe time, few examples of this is instant soup powder, stock
powder, essences, ready made sauces (cheese, pepper, barnaise, white sauce ect.) we also get stock
blocks and onion, pepper and garlic blocks that we can add into sauces, stews that we are preparing.

We have to make sure that use these items correctly so that we get the best possible results from these
products. We also have to make sure that we store these items correctly between uses, so that we do
not loose the product. These items are very useful, but they can be expensive, it is a huge time saver and
it helps us to be able to make time consuming products quicker and get the same results as if we were
to use the properly made items.

Elizabeth Theron 2008-09-07
8065 Stock, Soups and Sauces Diploma in Food Preparation and Culinary Arts

Unexpected situations

Any injury, i.e. burns, scalds, cuts and any other accident to yourself or other staff member must be
reported to your supervisor immediately and recorded in the accident book.

Straining or pureing soups could put you at risk of burning because you are working with hot liquid. To
avoid burns:

Take care when pouring soups into a sieve or processor to avoid splashes
Do not overfill sieves or processors
Make sure lids are secure turning on the processor.
Be careful when lifting lids off stockpots or saucepans; always lift the lid away from you to avoid steam

Prepare and clean equipment, preparation and cooking areas

Hands must be washed before and after preparation to maintain a high standard of hygiene.
Areas used for the preparation of sauces must be clean with no visible signs of food debris or food
Stainless steel shelving, counters and tables need to be cleaned and sanitised daily or after each
Clean as you go is always the best policy.
The three key steps to follow when cleaning food preparation areas are:
Wipe up spilled or splashed food immediately to avoid creating a safety hazard (e.g. slips and falls)
Spray with detergent or sanitiser solution and then wipe clean dry with a clean cloth or allow to air
All work surfaces must be sanitised after use.
When cleaning equipment, special attention must be given to any equipment that contains areas
when food particles may become lodged, e.g. graters, sieves and food processor components.
Equipment and preparation and cooking areas can be sanitised using the following methods:
Hot water
Boiling water
Chemical sanitising agents.

Hot water
The temperature of the final rinse water should be at least 82C.
Equipment washed by hand should be kept under hot water for two minutes. Wear rubber gloves to
remove equipment after this time.
Equipment can be sanitised in a dishwasher with a final rinse cycle of 10 12 seconds.

Boiling water
Equipment can be sanitised by immersing it in boiling water (100C) for 30 seconds.
Large fixed equipment, such as stockpots and tilting pans can be sanitised by filling them with water
and bringing them to the boil once the cleaning process has taken place.

Elizabeth Theron 2008-09-07
8065 Stock, Soups and Sauces Diploma in Food Preparation and Culinary Arts

Chemical sanitising agents

Use according to the manufacturers instructions.
Rinse equipment carefully after sanitising to remove all chemical residues that may contaminate
food or equipment.
A cleaning routine should be established for all large pieces of equipment in use in the kitchen. As a
general rule, all equipment which comes into direct contact with food should be (taken apart and)
cleaned after every use. Other surfaces and equipment should be cleaned as necessary.

To ensure that cleaning is not neglected, it is a good idea to draw up a schedule that lists:
The items to be cleaned
How often they must be cleaned
How they must be cleaned
Who must clean them?

Develop efficient and organised work habits

A commercial kitchen is a busy and often hot environment. It is important to be organised to avoid
unnecessary physical work because this wastes time and decreases the output of the kitchen.

Always work within the specified cooking and preparation areas to avoid disturbing the workflow of
Plan your work to avoid unnecessary movement, e.g. checking the recipe and collecting ingredients
that are located in the same storage area at the same time. Collect the equipment required for
preparation and cooking.
Organise your work area to establish an efficient workflow. For example, place your ingredients on
the left of your workbench, use a board or the bench in front of you to prepare food items, and then
place prepared items in suitable containers to your right.
Clean as you go and put away equipment and ingredients no longer required.
Keep preparation areas or benches as clear as possible by stacking used equipment in the sink area.

Microbial, physical and chemical contamination:

There are various ways is which food items can be contaminated. We will look at a few examples of this
and what we should do to eliminate these from happening.

Maintain Hygiene in Food Preparation, Cooking & Storage

Hygiene when storing food

It is important to keep food storage areas clean and hygienic to eliminate the risk of contamination and
food spoilage, which will increase costs to your organisation. Food storage areas need to be kept clean
and hygienic to prevent or protect them from the following:
Harmful Bacteria Store different food types in different Cross-contamination can occur if
areas of the fridge, e.g. cooked meat food is stored unwrapped or in same

Elizabeth Theron 2008-09-07
8065 Stock, Soups and Sauces Diploma in Food Preparation and Culinary Arts

above raw meats. containers. Blood from raw products

Wrap or place food items on trays or in can drip onto cooked items.
Clean up spills or drips immediately.

Dangerous Remove all cleaning products and Chemicals can contaminate food if
Substances chemicals from food storage areas. residues or products have not been
Always rinse surfaces and equipment removed from storage areas.
after cleaning using water to remove
cleaning residue.

Pests Keep food covered above floor level and Pests are attracted to food scraps
at correct temperatures. Keep areas clean and rubbish. Any food products at
and free from rubbish or food scraps. ground level are at risk of infestation.
Pests harbour deadly bacteria on
their legs and bodies.

Unsuitable Frozen food should be stored in the Food that is not stored at the correct
Temperatures freezer at 15C. Perishable food should temperature will spoil. Spoilage
be refrigerated at 0C to 5C. Those foods occurs when bacteria grow to high
which are dry, canned, preserved or levels. Food poisoning can occur
require room temperature should be once bacteria reach these high
stored at 10 20C. levels.

Excessive humidity Ensure proper ventilation (either natural Humidity can lead to sugar becoming
or dryness or mechanical) and adequate lighting (not lumpy, bread mouldy and fruit not
direct sunlight) to your storage area. ripening properly. Direct sunlight can
cause deterioration of coloured food

Contamination of food can happen in different ways These are as follows:

- Direct
- Indirect
- Cross contamination
Contamination = Transference of any objectional material into or onto the food.

Cross contamination:

Transfer of bacteria from their sources to high risk foods, either directly or indirectly via vehicles
(humans, pest, food, milk & egg products, waste and rubbish)

Contamination hazards

Microbial bacteria

Elizabeth Theron 2008-09-07
8065 Stock, Soups and Sauces Diploma in Food Preparation and Culinary Arts

- viruses
Physical Foreign objects
Chemical Cleaning
- Pesticides
- Additives



Source Control

Aluminium pots Avoid leaving food in pots too long

Cleaning materials Separation Locked in storage, correct

labelling, training, covering foods, rinse and
clean items properly

Pesticides Washing food and vegetables, covering food


Medical use on farms too much Know the source of suppliers


Source Control

Hair Use of hats, hairnets and tie back long hair

Jewellery Must have a policy in place

Plasters Coloured plasters to be used have strict

control over this

Pests & droppings Have fly-screens and traps

Drawing pins Use a white board no pins

Glass Proper disposal throw away all of the food.

Maintenance work Remove food, clean before taking food back

into that area

Metal sources Dont use any of them

Other sources of physical contamination = stones, bones nails, insects

Elizabeth Theron 2008-09-07
8065 Stock, Soups and Sauces Diploma in Food Preparation and Culinary Arts


Source Control

People Always follow good personal hygiene


Pests Eliminate as far as possible, spray regularly and

do regular checks

Raw food Wash properly before use and make sure that
it comes from a reliable source

Soil, dust, refuse Remove as much as possible before use of

items and remove rubbish and refuse daily and
clean areas that has come into contact with

Pathogens that may cause potential food poisoning:

Various methods are used to limit potential food hazards including pasteurization, sterilization, freezing,
refrigerating, dehydrating and applying approved antimicrobial preservatives. Another method is a
method of food safety, called HACCP- Hazard Analysis and critical control point system. It is a
preventative system in which safety is built into the process of food manufacture.
Micro-organisms include bacteria, moulds and yeast. All have useful functions.

Concentrating on bacteria, these can be rod shaped or round and require more moisture than mould
and yeast. They grow best where concentrations of sugar, or salt are low and where PH about neutral.
Aerobic bacteria need oxygen, while anaerobic can grow without oxygen.

Conditions for bacteria

Oxygen Bacteria can reproduce and grow with or without oxygen

Temperature Bacteria like warm conditions, especially room temperature. Between 5
60 C.
Acidity Bacteria cannot grow in high acid levels.

Moisture All living things need moisture to grow

Time Given the right conditions, bacteria are able to double in numbers every
20 minutes.

Elizabeth Theron 2008-09-07