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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)

Volume 8, Issue 6, June 2017, pp. 160170, Article ID: IJCIET_08_06_018


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ISSN Print: 0976-6308
6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316
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ECOLOGICAL CONCRETE A REVIEW


Dr. A. Vijayakumar
Professor, Department of Civil Engineering,
GMR Institute of Technology, Andhra Pradesh, India

Dr. J. Raja Murugadoss


Professor, Department of Civil Engineering,
GMR Institute of Technology, Andhra Pradesh, India

C. Bharathi
Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering,
Government College of Engineering,
ineering, Srirangam, Tamilnadu, India

ABSRACT
In the last decennary, the use of industrial waste in civil
vil construction, especially
in replacement of coarse and fine aggregate in concrete has been studied by many
researches related to problem improvements of the concrete properties,
properties besides to
reduce the environmental problems. From last few decades, other byproducts have
been successfully used in concrete. By-product
By product materials can be utilized for raw
materials such as SAW Flux Waste,
Waste copper slag, Ground Granulated Blast Furnace
Slag, Foundry sand and Foundry slag as substitute for basic ingredients of concrete,
and for additional ingredient that may impart better strength and durability
properties. Within the construction
con industry, the most successful examples have been
using foundry sand as fine aggregate to make good pavement blocks and recycling
old, demolished concrete as aggregate for new concrete. In this paper comprehensive
review of foundry sand and foundry slag are are discussed briefly. Finally, general
concluding remarks are made along with possible future direction of research.
Key words: SAW Flux Waste, Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag, copper slag,
Foundry sand, Foundry slag.
slag
Cite this Article: Dr. A. Vijayakumar, Dr. J. Raja Murugadoss and C. Bharathi.
Bharathi
Ecological Concrete A Review.
Review International Journal of Civil Engineering and
Technology,, 8(6), 2017, pp. 160170.
160
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1. INTRODUCTION
Concrete industry is the single largest consumer of the natural resources available in the
world. It has become clear that the availability of good quality natural sand is decreasing. On
the other hand, enormous quantity of by-product
by product materials is generated
generate from industries,
domestic, and agricultural activities. These by-products
by or so-called
called waste materials possess

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Ecological Concrete A Review

lots of environmental problems. Large amounts of by-products generated from industrial and
domestic sources are currently land filled due to non-availability of economically attractive
use options. Land filling is undesirable because it causes not only huge financial burdens to
producers of by-products, but also makes them responsible for unknown future environmental
liabilities. Recycling of by-product materials generated from various sources, for their
utilization in concrete industry provide one of the innovative solutions to the above problems.
By-product materials can be utilized for raw materials, substitute for basic ingredients of
concrete, and for additional ingredient that may impart better strength and durability
properties. Many of the research studies on using foundry waste in construction sector were
referred and all the results highlighted the performance benefits such as improved extrusion
properties during forming lower water absorption, significant reduction in Co2 & No2
emissions during firing and improvements in potential leachability, increased modulus of
elasticity. Marginal increase in strength properties of plain concrete by using foundry slag as
partial replacement of fine aggregate is also observed. Compressive & tensile strength
improvement and better acid resistance was achieved. This paper on the use of industrial
waste/by product of foundry sand & Foundry slag as a partial or complete replacement of
natural fine and coarse aggregate in traditional mortars and concretes based on Portland
cement. Fresh properties, hardened properties and durability of these mortars and concretes
are reviewed.

2. RECLAIMABLE MATERIALS
2.1. Foundry Sand
Mahima Ganeshan (2016) studied the making of commercially available solid masonry
blocks to high strength so that it can be used in load bearing structures and replacement of
fine aggregate in these blocks with waste foundry sand. Although many studies have been
formulated using waste foundry sand in concrete, no such study has been reported so far with
solid masonry blocks.It was inferred that about 20 to 30 percent of replacement of fine
aggregate to waste foundry sand gave good results for all practical purposes. Incorporation of
waste foundry sand increases the strength of blocks and optimum percentage of replacement
was found between 20 to 30 %.
Janardhanan Thaarrini (2016) presented a feasibility study on the manufacture of
geopolymer concrete at low concentrations of alkaline solutions and lower densities and
incorporating waste products like Foundry sand without compensating for the strength
properties. Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) and Bottom ash (BA) were used
as source materials. Test results show that satisfactory strength properties of geopolymer
concrete using Foundry sand can be achieved even with lower con- centrations of NaOH
solution under ambient curing conditions. This would pave way for creating a greener
environment by the ecient use of byproducts and waste materials in concrete. The addition
of Foundry sand up to 50% replacement for river sand does not aect the strength of
geopolymer concrete.
Kewal (2015) analyzed the effect of fly ash based Geo polymer concrete with
replacement of foundry sand by different percentages. For a specific mix designmore than 30
MPA, Different mix proportions shall be prepared by using different molarity of sodium
hydroxide solution, and then replace with the foundry sand in the different proportion. Tests
will be performed for the compressive strength of concrete, Compressive strength test will be
performing for at 7 and 28 days.

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Dr. A. Vijayakumar, Dr. J. Raja Murugadoss and C. Bharathi

Kewal (2015) discussed that the partially replacement of fine aggregate in Geopolymer
paver block by used foundry sand for determining the change in the compressive strength of
paver blocks and cost of paver block. Partial replacement of fine aggregate in different
percentage as like 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%,80% and 100%. The compressive strength has been
determined at the end of 7, 14 and 28 days and water absorption test has been determined at
28 days. The Compressive strength of Geopolymer Paver Block was found to be decreasing
with replacement of foundry sand. Up to 60% replacement of fine sand by foundry sand gives
slightly high compressive strength was found to be optimum.
Chinmay Buddhadev (2015) investigated the effect of waste foundry sand as partial
replacement of fine aggregates in various percentages, on concrete properties such as
mechanical (compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength) and
durability characteristics (rapid chloride penetration and deciding salt surface scaling) of the
concrete. For M 20 and M 25 grade concrete, the optimum sand replacement proportion is
generally 20- 25%. Moreover, generally the sand can be replaced till 30-40% by foundry sand
in concrete. Replacement of sand by foundry sand beyond 40% leads to decrease in strength
and causes bleeding in concrete.
Dixit N. Pate (2014) evaluated the partial replacement of Cement (PPC 53 grade cement)
in paver block by used foundry sand for determining the change in the compressive strength
of paver blocks and cost of paver block. Partial replacement of cement (PPC 53 grade
cement) in bottom layer in different percentage as like 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%. The
compressive strength, flexural strength has been determined at the end of 7, 14 and 28 days
and water absorption test has been determined at 28 days. Even though at extent of 50 %
replacement of cement we got compressive strength 23.48 N/mm2. So its beneficially for
general application as like footpath, parking, and street road.
Yogesh Aggarwal (2014) examined the effect of waste foundry sand and bottom ash in
equal quantities as partial replacement of fine aggregates in various percentages (060%), on
concrete properties such as mechanical (compressive strength, splittingtensile strength and
flexural strength) and durability It was observed that the greatest increase in compressive,
splitting tensile strength, and flexural strength compared to that of the conventional concrete
was achieved by substituting 30% of the natural fine aggregates with industrial by-product
aggregates. The mixes can be developed by varying the water content at constant rate as
specified in the study till 30% and thereafter till 50% replacement of fine aggregates.
Hanan A. El Nouhy (2013) described the effect and possibility of using Portland slag
cement in the production of interlocking paving units. The first mix was the control mix, in
which Portland cement was used in the two layers. In the second mix, Portland slag cement
was used in the upper layer, Portland cement was used in the backing layer. In the third mix,
Portland cement was placed in the upper layer, while Portland slag cement was used in the
backing layer. Finally, in the fourth mix, Portland cement was fully replaced by Portland slag
cement in both layers. Tests were carried out in order to investigate the properties of the
manufactured specimens at ages 28 and 180 days, respectively. The results indicate that it is
feasible to use Portland slag cement in the manufacture of paving blocks as the conditions of
the conducted tests were satisfied at age180 days except for the minimum splitting tensile
strength test. Compressive strength requirement was almost met when slag cement was used
in the upper layer at age 180 days.
Rafat Siddique (2011) presented an overview of some of the research published on the use
of WFS in concrete. Effect of WFS on concrete properties such as compressive strength,
splitting tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, freezing-thawing resistance, and shrinkage are
presented. Waste foundry sand is by-products from foundries. It exhibits lower unit weight,
higher water absorption, and higher percent void compared to regular concrete sand. Strength

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properties results indicate that waste foundry sand could be very conveniently used in making
good quality concrete and construction materials.
Rafat Siddique (2009) carried out the mechanical properties of concrete mixtures in which
fine aggregate (regular sand) was partially replaced with used-foundry sand (UFS). Fine
aggregate was replaced with three percentages (10%, 20%, and 30%) of UFS by weight.
Tests were performed for the properties of fresh concrete. Compressive strength, splitting-
tensile strength, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity were determined at 28, 56, 91,
and365 days. Test results indicated a marginal increase in the strength properties of plain
concrete by the inclusion of UFS as partial replacement of fine aggregate (sand) and that can
be effectively used in making good quality concrete and construction materials. Increase in
compressive strength varied between 8% and 19% depending upon UFS percentage and
testing age, whereas it was between 6.5% and 14.5% for splitting-tensile strength, 7% and
12% for flexural strength, and 5% and 12% for modulus of elasticity.

2.2. Foundry Slag


Pruthviraj L. Kadam (2016) evaluated the effect of Steel Slag as partial replacement of Fine
Aggregate with 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%. The Specimen cubes having size (150mm X
150mm X 150mm) are tested after 14 and 28 days water curing. The result graph shows that
variations in compressive strength for Fine aggregate replaced by Steel slag for 14 and 28
days water curing. The 30% replacements are desirable replacements of fine aggregate by
steel slag.
Vrunda D.Thaware (2016) studied the effect of blast furnace slag on the mechanical
properties of concrete, when fine aggregates is replaced by blast furnace slag in different
percentages i.e. 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% cube were also prepared. From this study it
is observed that Blast furnace slag can be used as an alternative to fine aggregate up to 25%
in concrete. The compressive strength decrease with the increase in percentage of blast
furnace slag.
S.T. Borole (2016) examined the steel slag is a waste product generated during the
production of steel. These wastes are disposed in the form of landfills causes an enormous
amount of land pollution. The M30 concrete with high volume steel slag replacement for fine
aggregate are examined in the present study. According to material properties compressive
strength, flexural strength and split tensile strength were found experimentally. The results
were compared with conventional concrete property. The results showed that replacing about
0%, 25 % and 50% of steel slag aggregates by volume for natural aggregates will not do any
harm to concrete and also it will not have any adverse effects on the strength and durability.
K.Jegan Mohan (2016) described the grade of concrete M20 is used further proportion of
1:1.5:3.The possibility of using saw dust ash (SDA) as construction materials was
experimentally investigated. Saw dust was burnt and the ash sieved using 90 micron sieve.
The grades of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) 53 as grade cement are commonly used in
construction industry. Percentage replacement of OPC with SDA was 0, 10, 20 and 30% and
percentage replacement of coarse aggregate with steel slag was 0, 5, 10 and 15% respectively.
The compressive strength, water absorption, shrinkage, split tensile stress and durability of
concrete were mainly studied. The research papers are provided that the sawdust ash and steel
slag concrete can be used at a structural concrete at suitable replacement percentage and also
affects the cost of the construction. Concrete acquires maximum increase in compressive
strength at 20% cement replacement for sawdust ash and10% coarse aggregate replacement
for steel slag. When compared with concrete with only river sand, the amount of increase in
strength is M20.

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Savita Devi (2016) investigated the performance of foundry slag as partial replacement of
cement and sand in concrete mixtures in terms of Compressive strength, Flexural strength and
splitting tensile strength of M-20 grade concrete. The cement and sand is replaced by
Foundry Slag from10% to 30 %( at the interval of 10%) by weight. Water- cement ratio was
kept 0.43 for all cases. Partial replacement of cement in M-20 concrete from Foundry Slag
may increase in all strength (Compressive, Flexural & Splitting Tensile strength) and
durability of vibrational mix of concrete on all age when compared to normal concrete.
Strength of the different mix proportion of foundry slag has to be check. It will concludes that
by utilization of foundry slag as partial replacement of cement and sand in concrete , there is
a lot of positive consequences interms of strength , durability etc.
Sarvesh Pratap Singh Rajput (2016) presented study an attempt has been made with
mortar cubes of 1:4 and 1:6, with alternative i.e. Blast Furnace Slag (BSF) (20, 40, 60, 80 and
100% replacement of sand) were prepared and determined their compressive strength for 3
and 7 days. Also, M-20 and M-30 concrete mixes were prepared using alternative (20, 40, 60,
80 and 100% replacement of sand). Compressive strength of standard concrete cubes (7 days
and 28 days) was determined. Thus this suggested that the use of Blast- Furnace Slag (BFS)
as fine aggregate in cement concrete and cement mortar provides economic as well as
environmental benefits.
T.Yuvaraj (2015) studied using foundry solid waste (slag) and quarry dust as a
replacement for normal coarse and fine aggregate, the fine aggregate used in M20 concrete
mix ratio is completely replaced by use of quarry dust which is a cheaper material when
compared to sand. Ratio of fine and coarse aggregates replacement are prepared and
accordingly the cubes are casted as per IS:456-2000 M20 mix ratio .The leachate analysis is
carried out by taking water samples for every consecutive four days till the 28th day and the
samples are analyzed for metals which are of high environmental concern. After the curing
process the cubes are taken out and tested for compressibility. The compressive strength of
concrete mixtures with 16.67%,33.33% and 50% of foundry slag for gravel replacement was
higher than the standard value i.e.20N/mm and concrete mixtures with 66.6% , 83.33% and
100% of replacement of coarse aggregate with slag is more or less equal to the standard
value.
T.Subramani (2015) analysed the waste material was substituted for replacement of
coarse aggregates and for the preparation of concrete blocks. Followed Indian standard
methods and arrived at the mix design for M35 grade concrete. The preliminary studies were
conducted by mixing the slag with the cement concrete cubes of standard sizes. . This
research aims to study the effect of furnace Slag as partial replacement of coarse Aggregate
with 50%, 60%, and 70%.The Strength of concrete containing furnace slag of 60 % was high
compared with that of the conventional mix.
K.Thangaselvi (2015) described the replacement was done with coarse aggregate by steel
slag for different proportions of 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and for a M40 grade of concrete is
used for a water cement ratio of 0.40.Tests on compressive strength, split tensile strength,
flexural strength at 7 days and 28 days are conducted on specimens. The optimum strength is
obtained on 60% replacement of coarse aggregate by steel slag. The replacement of coarse
aggregate with steel slag has increased the compressive strength, split tensile strength and
flexural strength of concrete.
Akarsh (2015) discussed that the two types of concrete mixes were prepared with the
different mixes for each type i.e. low strength and high strength concrete namely M25 and
M50 respectively. The compressive, split tensile and flexural properties of concrete
containing steel slag are compared with that of concrete containing river sand and also
manufactured sand. But in this paper only the effect of using granulated steel slag in concrete

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Ecological Concrete A Review

mixes as a fine agate on compressive strength and workability is discussed. The properties of
steel slag are also verified with the addition of GGBS (Ground Granulated Blast Furnace
slag) as a replacement for cement. For M25 and M50 it can be observed that for M25
concrete the workability is low as compared to the river sand concrete. This can be attributed
to the flakiness of the slag aggregates.
M.Praveen Kumar (2015) carried out to make comparative studies of mechanical
properties of concrete mixes prepared by using ultra tech brand Portland cement , Fly ash
in10%, 20% and 30% proportions of replacement, silica fume in 10%, 20% and 30% of
replacement and also 10%, 20% and 30% addition of steel slag as a compound mixes. The
fine aggregate used is natural sand belongs to zone II as per IS 383- 1982.The coarse
aggregate used is of 20 mm size. The ingredients are mixed in 1: 1.274: 2.99 proportions. The
properties studied for 90 days of durability, capillarity and permeability. This study shows
reduction in cement content by 30% than conventional concrete, in durability aspect and it is
more than 1.311 times than conventional concrete. In the capillarity aspect we observed the
decremental change which is 0.5 times the conventional concrete. In permeability aspect we
observed the decremental change, which is 0.65 times the actual conventional concrete.
Alan Sekaran (2015) evaluated the physical, mechanical, and durability properties of
concrete made with EAF oxidizing slag in addition to supplementary cementing material fly
ash. This study investigation carried out on concrete grades of M20 and M30 grade concretes
was designed. Based on overall results and observations concrete made with EAF oxidizing
slag and fly ash exhibited greater strength and durability characteristics compared to
conventional concrete mix considered. Thus EAF oxidizing slag, a logical choice for
sustaining the environment, eliminates quarrying of natural aggregates and avoids landfill of
slags. It could be recommended for all construction activities in India. Result is 30%
replacement of cement with fly ash and 50% replacement of coarse aggregate with EAF
oxidizing slag gives desirable strength.
P. Murthi (2015) evaluated the concrete of M20 and M30 grade were considered for a
W/C ratio of 0.45 and 0.5 for the replacements of 50 % of coarse aggregates by slag. The
investigation revealed improvement in compressive strength, split tensile strength, durability
properties and Non-destructive test. Based on the overall observations, it could be
recommended that slag could be utilized as coarse aggregate in all the concrete applications.
This study investigates the performance of concrete mixtures containing steel slag in terms of
Compressive strength, Water absorption, Sorptivity, Alkalinity, Ultrasonic pulse velocity,
Rebound hammer and carbonation depth at 7, 14 and 28 days. Results show that concrete
incorporating steel slag had higher compressive strength and durability of concretes.
V.Ganga (2015) discussed that the recycling of fused submerged-arc welding (SAW) Flux
Waste in the civil construction. It is used as a replacement of Coarse Aggregate in the
production of Concrete. Fused SAW Flux Waste was mixed with Concrete by replacing
coarse aggregate in 10%, 20%, 30% & 40%. The results revealed that up to 30% replacement
of Fused Submerged-Arc Welding Flux Waste concrete is giving an average compressive
strength of 32.89 N/mm2 for M25 Grade Concrete.
J. Selwyn Babu (2014) studied the blast furnace slag from two sources were replaced with
fine aggregate and the properties of concrete were studied. The optimum percentages of
replacement of these materials were found out. The result obtained encourages the use of
these materials as a replacement material for fine aggregate. The results obtained encourage
the use of blast furnace the maximum compressive strength of 40.69 N/mm2 was obtained by
replacing 25% of fine aggregate with BFS.
V. Subathra Devi (2014) analysed the strength and durability properties of concrete, by
using the mix design of M20 grade. Compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength

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Dr. A. Vijayakumar, Dr. J. Raja Murugadoss and C. Bharathi

and durability tests such as acid resistance, using Hcl, H2SO4, and Rapid chloride
penetration, are experimentally investigated. Deflection in the RCC beams gradually
increases, as the load on the beam increases, for both the replacements. The optimum
percentage of replacement for fine aggregate is 40% and for coarse aggregate is 30%, beyond
which the compressive strength decreases on further replacement.
Sultan A. Tarawneh (2014) presented an evaluation of the physical and mechanical
properties and characteristics of steel slag aggregate concrete in comparison with the typical
crushed limestone stone aggregate concrete. Thorough investigation of the results have
indicated that the amount of increase in compressive strength at age of 7 days are much more
than that of age 28 days for all types of aggregate replacement. This indicates that the added
slag could work as accelerator at early age while at 28 days age, the effect is reduced. The
fine slag replacement scores the highest effect. According to ASTM D5106 experiments, steel
slag meets the requirements to be used in concrete mixes, whether partly or totally.
Safaa Hashim Radhi (2013) described the effect of three slags powder (cast iron slag,
cement dust) on some mechanical and physical properties of unsaturated polyester were
studied. The results showed that the hardness and modulus of elasticity, increased with
increasing of the powder. The hardness was (24.43 MPa) for pure unsaturated polyester,
while was (44.83 MPa) at percentage of powder (25 wt %).The results encourage to use any
waste material is not useful lonely but may be very useful as reinforced material to create a
new composite material has good properties and cheap, and to reducing the environmental
pollutions. The compressive strength and hardness went up with increasing of filler addition.
The impact strength declines with increasing of filler loading.
P.S.Kothai (2013) carried out to assess the possibility of using such steel slag waste
materials as coarse aggregate in concrete. Coarse aggregate is partially replaced by steel slag
in concrete at different replacement proportions like 10%, 20%, 30% up to 100%. Strength
parameters like compressive, split tensile, modulus of rupture are ascertained and compared.
Compressive strength of different mixes shows reasonable improvement of about 10%.
Chemical content of slag imposes the improvement in strength. Modulus of rupture, modulus
of elasticity and splitting tensile strength for steel slag aggregates concrete were similar to
conventional concrete.
Dhanasri K (2013) studied the effect of blast furnace slag and crusher dust on the
mechanical properties of concrete, when coarse aggregates is replaced by blast furnace slag
and crusher dust is replaced with fine aggregate in different percentages i.e. 0%, 10%, 20%,
30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90% and 100%. The main parameters investigated were
cube compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength. The tests were
conducted on concrete with ratio 1:1.86:3.77. At 30% replacement of coarse aggregate with
blast furnace slag and fine aggregate with crusher dust that shown only marginal increase in
split tensile strength and flexural strength was observed.
J. Gokul (2012) analyzed mild steel slag is used as replacement for aggregate or stone,
which has highest content in concrete mixture. This method can be implemented for
producing hollow blocks, solid blocks, paver blocks, concrete structures, etc. Accordingly,
advantages can be achieved by using mild steel slag instead of natural aggregates.
Compressive strength and the other tests show that mild steel slag is superior to the natural
aggregates. High strength and durable concrete blocks at low cost.
I. Netinger (2012) discussed that steel slags are made at the temperatures up to 1600C,
utilisation in concretes with improved properties after the exposure to high temperatures is
considered in this paper. To study properties of four steel slags based concrete mixtures with
different types of cement pastes prior and after heating up to 800C. Dolomite based concrete
mixture was studied as a reference mixture. This research was performed within the scientific

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Ecological Concrete A Review

project The Development of New Materials and Concrete Structure Protection Systems
(0820822161-2159), funded by Croatian Ministry of Education, Science and Sport, and
within the project E! 4166 EUREKABUILD FIRECON. Residual mechanical properties
(namely compressive strength and modulus of elasticity) of steel based mixtures are
comparable with dolomite based mixture up to the temperature of almost 600C.
Atul Dubey (2012) examined the concrete property can be maintained with advanced
mineral admixtures such as blast furnace slag powder as partial replacement of cement 5 to
30%. Compressive strength of blast furnace slag concrete with different dosage of slag was
studied as a partial replacement of cement. From the experimental investigations, it has been
observed that, the optimum replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag Powder to
cement without changing much the compressive strength is 15%.
Eleftherios Anastasiou (2010) presented that the concrete with steel slag by- products is a
cost effective and advantageous material for pavement construction. Strength of 40-60MPa
and high resistance to abrasion can be achieved, improving considerably pavement
performance. This research work aimed at the proposal of an alternative mixture for industrial
concrete pavement construction using EAF slag aggregates and LF slag as binder. The use of
slag compared to limestone aggregates showed a significant increase in the mechanical
strength of the produced concrete. The use of coarse LF slag aggregates increased
compressive and flexural strength by more than 40%, compared to the reference concrete
with limestone coarse aggregates. Also, the abrasion resistance of concrete with EAF slag
aggregates increased by more than 50% compared to the reference concrete.

3. CONCLUSION
Based on the above literature following conclusions are worn out

3.1. Foundry Sand


Many guidelines are reviewed regarding partial replacement of fine aggregate by foundry
sand of different cases. Some of the researchers discussed the various concrete properties
such as compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength. For concrete
30% replacement of fine aggregate to waste foundry sand in concrete is optimum, it gave
good results for all practical purposes. For paver block up to 60% replacement of fine sand by
foundry sand gave high compressive strength was found to be optimum. All these topics
required for further research, as it is essential for replacement of different materials.

3.2. Foundry Slag


Many guidelines are reviewed regarding replacement of cement, fine aggregate and coarse
aggregate of different cases. Some of the researchers discussed the various materials used for
replacement. The replacement of coarse aggregate with steel slag has increased the
compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength of concrete. The optimum
percentage of replacement for fine aggregate by slag is 40% and for coarse aggregate by slag
is 30%, beyond which the compressive strength decreases on further replacement. 30%
replacement of cement with fly ash and 50% replacement of coarse aggregate with EAF
oxidizing slag give desirable strength. For M35 and M40 the optimum strength is obtained
60% replacement of coarse aggregate by steel slag. All these topics require further research,
as it is essential for replacement of different materials.

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