HANGING - OFF AN ANCHOR

PURPOSE OF OPERATION:

To remove the anchor out of the hawse pipe and enable the vessel to be moored to a buoy or towed using the anchor chain through the hawse pipe.

MATERIALS REQUIRED FOR A 10 TONNE ANCHOR:

1. 3 Nos of30 mm wire (SWL 6.0 tonnes) - For I" Easing wire 2nd Easing wire Preventer wire

2. shackles with SWL of 6 tonnes

3. Other tools required to carry out the operation as per normal seamanship practices.

SEQUENCE OF OPERATION:

1. Walk back the anchor clear of the hawse pipe.

2. Secure one end of the 1 st easing wire on the mooring bit.

3. Pass the other end through the panama lead, through the anchor crown D shackle (as a bight) and back through the Panama lead on to the warping drum of the windlass.

4. Rig a preventer wire (as a bight) through the anchor crown D shackle, pass it through the fairlead well forward and secure it on the mooring bits.

5. Ensure there is sufficient slack on the preventer wire.

6. Slack on the anchor chain until the preventer becomes taut and the 1 st easing wire is up and down and the

anchor is under the shoulder.

7. Continue to walk back the chain until the next joining shackle is on the deck.

8. Heave on the 1 st easing wire and secure the anchor in the up and down position.

9. Rig up the 2nd easing wire forward of the joining shackle (on a bight) and take up the weight ofthe chain.

10. Break the joining shackle.

11. Walk back the 2nd easing wire to bring the end of the cable clear ofthe hawse pipe.

12. Recover this end of the cable using rope hawsers through the Panama lead.

13. Now walk back the anchor chain through the hawse pipe and the cable is now ready for towing or mooring operation.

MEDITERRANEAN MOOR

PURPOSE:

When the quay space is restricted and it is required to berth several vessels or when a stem discharge/loading is required, the Mediterranean moor is used.

ADVANTAGES:

1. A number of vessels can be moored to a single berth.

2. Stem discharge/loading can be achieved.

DISADVANTAGES:

1. Dry cargo vessels can discharge only into barges.

2. In bad weather chances of fowling cables, especially with many vessels moored close-by.

SEQUENCE OF OPERATION:

1. Vessel to approach middle of berth to its Port side.

2. Engine speed DS Ahead.

3. Vessel should be as parallel as possible to the berth.

4. Let go the offshore anchor and continue steaming round the anchor with the engine H ahead and helm hard over to Stbd.

5. Continue paying out the cable as the vessel moves ahead.

6. Let go inshore anchor and engines on H Astern, paying out on the 2nd anchor and picking up slack on the

offshore anchor.

7. The transverse thrust due to stem propulsion will swing the vessel's bow to Stbd.

8. Stop the engines and check the stem way ofthe vessel by braking on the cable.

9. Manoeuvre the vessel within to heaving line distance to the quay by use of engines and cables.

10. Pass the stem moorings to the quay.

11. Once moorings are on the quay, heave on the cables and vessel is in position.

CLEARING A FOUL HAWSE

PURPOSE:

Clearing a foul anchor.

VARIOUS METHODS AVAILABLE:

1. If the foul is only one turn this can be cleared by using the engines and steaming in the opposite direction

during the change of the tide.

2. Using a tug from the stem of the vessel, steam around till the turns are removed.

3. Hire a motorised barge, break the sleeping cable, lower into the barge and use the barge to clear the foul.

4. Use the manpower and expertise available as follows:

MATERIALS REQIDRED:

1. Natural fibre rope for lashing.

2. Preventer wire

3. Wire rope messenger

4. Temporary easing wire

5. Other equipment as required in good seamanship for carrying out this operation safely.

SEQUENCE OF OPERATION:

1. The time available for this operation is approx. 6 hours from the end of last tide to the beginning of the next tide.

2. All preparations should be done well in advance and the clearing of the foul hawse should start immediately at the end of the last tide.

3. Pick up the riding cable so as to have the foul clear of the water.

4. Lash the natural fibre rope above the foul (if the lashing is made after the turns and the tide changes before completion of the operation, the full weight of the vessel at anchor would come on the lashing which is a highly undesirable condition).

5. Rig a wire preventer from the Stbd side lead through the sleeping cable after the lashing.

6. Heave up the preventer wire and have it lashed on the mooring bitt. This will prevent the cable being lost.

7. The preventer wire should be rigged in such a manner so that it may be slipped from the deck upon clearing the foul.

8. Walk back the sleeping cable till the next joining shackle is on deck.

9. Rig up a easing wire on the shackle forward of the joining shackle and on to the warping drum and take

the weight on the easing wire.

10. Break open the kenter shackle and the weight of the sleeping cable is now on the easing wire.

11. Rig a wire rope messenger from the Port side windlass warping drum.

12. Take a half turn on the riding cable with the wire messenger in a direction opposite to the foul direction and pass the end of the wire messenger up through the hawse pipe of the sleeping cable and secure it to the end of the sleeping cable.

13. Heave away on the wire messenger and at the same time ease out on the easing wire, thus removing half a turn from the fouled cable.

14. Repeat this procedure removing half a turn at a time until the foul is cleared.

15. Heave up on the easing wire and at the same time slack on the messenger wire until the end of the sleeping cable can be re-joined.

16. Once the cable is re-joined, temporary easing wire and the wire rope messenger can be removed, the preventer wire can be slipped and cleared.

17. The lashing can be cut using a sharp knife with a man helper. Alternatively, the lashings could be soaked in inflammable liquid and set on fire and heaving on the cables to help them part.

18. Heave away on both the cables.

19. Pick any slack.

RUNNING MOOR

1. The Running moor is an anchoring operation carried out in areas of restricted manoeuvrability where the wind

and tide are strong and from different directions.

2. Stem the tide. In this case tide is 0900 and wind is 0000•

3. Let go the weather anchor with engines going ahead (at about 4-5 knots).

4. Stop the engines, maintain headway, Continue to pay anchor cable to 8 shackles (double the required shackles).

5. The vessel will stop due to the braking action of the anchor and will start falling astern. Let go the lee anchor and payout the cable, meanwhile picking up slack on the weather anchor and manoeuvring vessel away from the lee anchor towards the weather anchor.

6. The vessel may need astern propulsion to begin astern movement.

7. Once the vessel has reached the position (halfway between i.e. 4 shackles on each cable).

8. The lee anchor will be the riding cable.

STANDING MOOR

1. Stem the tide.

2. Vessel should be stopped over the ground.

3. Obtain stem way either by the effect of the tidal stream or by operating stem propulsion.

4. Let go the lee anchor (riding cable).

5. Allow the vessel to drop astern.

6. Payout the cable up to 8 shackles (double the required length).

7. Take the stem way off the vessel by use of engines ahead and by checking out the cables.

8. Order maximum helm away from the released anchor.

9. Let go the weather anchor now (sleeping anchor)

10. Continue to heave on the riding cable and payout on the sleeping cable until the vessel is brought up.

11. Continue to use engines ahead or astern as necessary to ease the weight on the cables.

BALTIC MOOR

PURPOSE:

A Baltic moor is used in ports where there is a strong onshore wind to prevent damages to the jetty or the vessel. The vessel's anchor and stem mooring wire are used to make a controlled approach to the berth.

PREPARATIONS:

The stem mooring wire is passed in bights and connected to the Ganger length of the anchor which is to be used. Light sail twine secure the mooring wire in bights.

The shackles used for the operation shall be capable of passing through the hawse pipe for easy and safe operation.

SEQUENCE OF OPERATION:

1. An approach is made with the vessel parallel to the berth with the wind on the beam OR slightly abaft of the beam.

2. The offshore anchor is let go when the vessel 3 shackles off the berth. The distance off the berth depends

upon the wind and weather conditions.

3. As the anchor cable is paid out the seizings part and the stem mooring wire is also paid out.

4. The vessel will be pushed by the wind and approaches the berth slowly.

5. The cable and the wire are evenly paid out.

6. Ship's fenders are to be used to prevent any damage.

7. Pass head and stem line as soon as possible.

8. Take the weight on the moorings before taking weight on the anchor and the mooring wire.

9. The moorings fore and aft prevent the vessel from ranging the berth.

10. This tends to harden up the inshore moorings.

11. During unberthing the achor and the stem mooring wire can be used to bodily draw the vessel off the quay.

12. Once clear of the quay engines and the helm can be used to clear the berth safely and get underway.

OPEN MOOR

PURPOSE:

The Open moor is used extensively when additional holding power is required in very strong tide or wind conditions.

SEQUENCE OF OPERATION:

1. Stem the current and/or headwind.

2. Walk back both the anchors just above water level.

3. Steam to a position where the vessel intends to let go the windward anchor.

4. Let go the port anchor and continue to steam with a minimum headway to the required number of shackles, paying out on the port anchor cable.

S. Once the second anchor position is reached, let go the stbd anchor and with minimum stemway, hold on to the port anchor and payout on the stbd anchor until both the anchors have even scope.

6. Once both the anchors have even scope additional shackles can be paid out as required, till the vessel is at the required position.

7. Once the vessel is in the final mooring position, it is necessary to check on both the cables and ensure both the anchors are embedded and holding.

STERNBORE INTO WIND

PURPOSE:

There are three tendencies of a vessel in a wind:

1. To lie across it when stopped

2. To run across it when under headway

3. To stembore into it under stemway

SEQUENCE OF OPERATION:

1. Initially the vessel is shown running with the wind on the port quarter.

2. As she loses headway, she runs across the wind.

3. Now her engines rea reversed and she gathers stemway.

4. Her bow develops a reverse swing to stbd and she bores her stem into the wind.

5. She does not reach her original position due to leeway.

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