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Members Subjected to

Axial Tension

Introduction

Where do tension members live in a steel structure?

Geschwindner (2012)

Geschwindner (2012)

Geschwindner (2012)

1

4/20/2016

Introduction

Typical Shapes Used for Tension Members

Geschwindner (2012)

Geschwindner (2012)

2

4/20/2016

Chapter D in the AISC specifications covers tension members.

Yielding (on gross-cross section)

Rupture (on effective net area)

computed as;

LRFD ASD

Design Tensile Strength Allowable Tensile Strength

Tn

Td Tn Ta

Yielding

Uniformly distributed stress throughout the entire cross-

section of the tension member reaches the yield stress

over the entire member length.

The yielding limit state is attained with large

deformations and thus, warning of failure is present.

Tn, yield Fy Ag

Area of Gross

Yield Stress

Cross-Section

3

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Rupture

Significant stress concentrations develop at holes in tension members

Geschwindner (2012)

hole until the material yields over a very small length

Further straining at these locations results in strain hardening

and eventual rupture

The very small length over which yielding occurs results in NO

WARNING before rupture.

Rupture (continued)

Tn,rupture Fu Ae

Stress of Member

warning of impending failure is not present with rupture limit

state.

4

4/20/2016

Computation of Areas

Gross Area

Gross area can be thought of as the full cross-sectional area

without deduction for bolt holes.

For structural steel shapes commonly used in construction, the

AISC Manual Part 1 contains gross areas for shapes.

The gross-area for HSS shapes is computed using 93% of the

nominal wall thickness (AISCS B4.2). (Side Bar. this is likely to

change as the result of work by Foley and Marquez 2010).

Computation of Areas

Net Area

Computed by subtracting the area of holes made within the members cross-

section from the gross cross section area.

Holes considered are those used for mechanical fasteners (e.g. bolts) and

welds (e.g. plug or slot welds).

Standard Holes that are DRILLED are 1/16 greater in diameter than the

nominal dimension of the mechanical fastener passing through it (AISCS

B4.3b).

Punched Holes result in some damage to the material surrounding the holes.

are utilized, material in

damaged area might not

be effective. As a result, a

hole diameter 1/8 larger

than the nominal bolt

diameter is used.

Geschwindner (2012)

10

5

4/20/2016

Computation of Areas

Oversize and Slotted Holes

When bolt diameters of 5/8 and 3/4 (common in buildings) are utilized,

oversize (OVS), short-slotted (SSL), and long-slotted (LSL) hole dimensions are

as shown below (AISCS J3.2).

Geschwindner (2012)

OVS, SSL and LSL bolt hole dimensions for bolt diameters larger than 3/4

are provided in the Specifications J3.2.

11

Computation of Areas

Short Connecting Elements

The previous discussion regarding yielding prior to rupture implied that it is

better to have a longer member where yielding over the members cross-

section can occur over a long length thereby generating larg(er) deformations

prior to rupture.

When the connecting elements are short, there is limited opportunity for

large deformations to develop and therefore, when splice plates and other

short connection elements are used (AISCS J4.1),

Ae 0.85 Ag

12

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Computation of Areas

There is often a need to fit a significant number of bolts within connection

elements. As a result, bolt lines often involve stagger in these larger

connections.

Angle gage

dimensions, g, can

be found in the

AISC Manual.

Geschwindner (2012)

13

Computation of Areas

When the net area is computed for bolt groups with stagger, the Specifications

(AISCS B4.3b) require that every potential failure line be addressed with the full

area of each intersected hole deducted and consideration of the potential for

failure along diagonal paths.

s2

4g

14

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4/20/2016

EXAMPLE 1

Data:

Consider the L6x6x3/4 angle below with 7/8 diameter bolts used in the

tension member connection.

Geschwindner (2012)

Determine:

Compute the gross and net areas of the angle tension member. Assume

that standard holes (could be punched or drilled) are created in each leg.

15

EXAMPLE 1 (continued)

Solution:

Gross Area

This is relatively easy, as gross cross-sectional areas are provided in

the AISC Manual.

Net Area

The bolt lines do not include stagger. Furthermore, we are not sure if

the holes will be punched or drilled. Thus, we will assume punched.

Section 2-2 would control the design because two bolt holes can be

deducted from the rupture failure line.

16

8

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EXAMPLE 2

Data:

Consider the L6x4x1/2 with staggered bolt pattern below.

Geschwindner (2012)

The bolts to be used are 7/8 nominal diameter and punched holes.

Determine:

Compute the gross and net areas for the angle.

17

EXAMPLE 2 (continued)

Solution:

We can treat the angle as a folded flat plat, or we can use the AISC

Manual Table 1-7 to compute the gross area.

Multiplying by the angle thickness gives,

We will look at the flattened angle shown in the previous figure and will

evaluate fracture (failure) paths 1-1, 2-2, and 2-1-2.

We will look at net areas along each of the failure paths and will select the

smaller of the three.

18

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EXAMPLE 2 (continued)

Failure Path (chain) 1-1:

An 2 bn 2 t (7.50")(0.50") 3.75 in 2

(2.50") 2 (2.50") 2

bn 3 9.5" (3)(0.875" 0.125") 7.49 in

4(2.50") 4(4.25")

19

EXAMPLE 2 (continued)

An An 2 An 3 3.75 in 2

20

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When tension members are finally

connected to other components there Ineffective Area

is a portion of the tension member that (shaded area)

becomes ineffective in transferring

force.

defining the:

Effective Net Area

Geschwindner (2012)

the tension member

(shaded area) is

generated through a

structural mechanics

phenomena called

shear lag.

Geschwindner (2012)

21

results from the stress

flowing to the portions of the

cross-section that are

anchored at the ends of the

tension member.

(Vinnakota 2006)

22

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break the member up into segments

that are away from the

connection and those that are at

the connection.

effective net area defined using,

Ae U An

Cross-Section Efficiency Factor

Table D3.1 in AISC Spec.

(Vinnakota 2006)

23

The shear lag factor is defined as the ratio of effective connection

length to actual connection length,

L L x x

U 1

L L L

L - length of connection

The length of the connection is similar when bolts and welds are utilized

(refer to Slide 20 in this section).

24

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Connection eccentricities for common connection configurations: x xcon

(Vinnakota 2006)

25

EXAMPLE 3

Data:

The angle shown below is connected to the gusset plate via one leg. The

bolts used in the connection are 3/4 diameter (nominal) and the angle is

made of A36 steel. Assume holes are punched.

Geschwindner (2012)

Determine:

Compute the design strength (LRFD) and allowable strength (ASD) of the

L4x4x1/2 angle tension member shown below

26

13

4/20/2016

EXAMPLE 3 (continued)

Solution:

There is only one bolt line (i.e. no stagger, etc) so the net area is

relatively easy to compute.

Since only one leg of the angle is connected, the shear lag factor

needs to be determined and applied.

Three fasteners in one leg of angle leads us to Case 8 in AISC

Manual Table D3.1;

U 0.60

27

EXAMPLE 3 (continued)

In Case 8, we also have the option of computing the shear lag factor.

We will do this below.

x

U 1

L

x 1.18" (AISC Manual Table 1-7)

1.18"

U 1 0.80 0.60 U 0.80

6"

Ae 0.80 3.31 in 2 2.65 in 2

28

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4/20/2016

EXAMPLE 3 (continued)

Nominal Tensile Strength of Angle

We consider two limit states: tensile yielding and tensile rupture.

Tensile Yielding:

Tensile Rupture:

Td 1 0.90(135 kips) 122 kips

Td 2 0.75(154 kips ) 116 kips

29

EXAMPLE 3 (continued)

Allowable Tensile Strength of Angle - ASD

135 kips

Ta1 81 kips

1.67

154 kips

Ta 2 77 kips

2.00

Rupture Controls: Ta 77 kips

30

15

4/20/2016

EXAMPLE 4

Data:

The WT shown below is composed of A992 steel. The flange of the WT

is connected to the gusset plate via fillet welds that are 6 inches long.

Geschwindner (2012)

Determine:

Compute the design strength (LRFD) and allowable strength (ASD) of the

WT6x32.5 tension member shown below

31

EXAMPLE 4 (continued)

Solution:

Compute the Gross Area and Net Area

The force is transmitted to the gusset plate via fillet welds. Thus,

there is no need to deduct bolt holes.

An Ag

Since only the flange of the WT is connected, the shear lag factor

needs to be determined and applied.

Case 7 and Case 2 in the AISC Manual Table D3.1 can be applied;

b f 12.0"

(AISC Manual Table 1-8)

d 6"

32

16

4/20/2016

EXAMPLE 4 (continued)

Compute the Effective Net Area (continued)

2

b f 12.0" (12.1") 8.07"

3

U 0.90

Case 2 in the AISC Manual Table D3.1;

x 0.985"

U 1 1 0.836 Case 7 controls: U 0.90

L 6"

33

EXAMPLE 4 (continued)

Nominal Tensile Strength of WT

We consider two limit states: tensile yielding and tensile rupture.

Tensile Yielding:

Tensile Rupture:

Td 1 0.90(477 kips ) 429 kips

Td 2 0.75(559 kips) 419 kips

34

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4/20/2016

EXAMPLE 4 (continued)

Allowable Tensile Strength of WT - ASD

477 kips

Ta1 286 kips

1.67

559 kips

Ta 2 279 kips

2.00

Rupture Controls: Ta 279 kips

35

Block Shear

There is a rather interesting scenario that can occur in the connection

region of a tension member. This phenomena called block shear is shown

below.

(carried by

bolts)

Geschwindner (2012)

Geschwindner (2012)

The basic behavior is for part of the tension member to tear out and remain

connected, while the rest of the member moves away from the connection.

36

18

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There are two portions of the tension member to consider in defining the

block shear strength: (a) tension area; and (b) shear areas.

(carried by

bolts)

Geschwindner (2012)

The nominal strength of the tension member considering block shear is defined

by the Specification in Section J4.3.

37

The nominal strength of a tension member defined by the limit state of

block shear rupture is computed using,

Fy - tensile yield stress of material

Anv - net area in shear

Agv - gross area in shear

Ant - net area in tension

U bs 1.00 (uniform tension stress)

38

19

4/20/2016

EXAMPLE 5

Data:

The gusset plate shown below has a thickness of 1/2 inch. The steel plate is

composed of A36 steel. Bolts are 7/8 diameter with punched holes.

Geschwindner (2012)

Solution:

The required strength for LRFD is 225 kips and the require strength for ASD is

150 kips. Does the gusset plate have sufficient capacity with regard to block

shear?

39

EXAMPLE 5 (continued)

Solution:

Compute Needed Areas

Compute the Block Shear Strength

Design (LRFD) and Allowable (ASD) Strengths

1

Ta

2.00

40

20

4/20/2016

EXAMPLE 6

Data:

Two W14x43 wide flange shapes are spliced together using two 1/2 thick

flange cover plates as shown below. The W14 are composed of A992 steel.

2

Geschwindner (2012)

Solution:

The LRFD design strength of (6) 7/8 diameter bolts in single shear as used in

the connection is 227 kips. The cover plates will not define the strength limit

state. What is the design strength (LRFD) for the connection?

41

EXAMPLE 6 (continued)

Solution:

Design Strength for Limit State of Yielding: W14x43

Ag 12.6 in 2

t f 0.530 in

Compute the Net Area. It is computed by deducting 2 bolt hole areas

at 2 locations (one in each of two flanges) . Assume punched holes.

10.5 in 2

42

21

4/20/2016

EXAMPLE 6 (continued)

Design Strength for Limit State of Tensile Rupture (continued)

Compute the Effective Net Area: The W14x43 is treated as two

WT7x21.5 sections.

x 1.31"

U 1 1 0.782 WT Data from AISC Manual Table 1-8

L 6"

2

b f 8.0" (6.00") 4.00" U 0.90 CONTROLS

3

Ae 0.90 10.5 in 2 9.45 in 2

43

EXAMPLE 6 (continued)

Design Strength for Limit State of Block Shear Rupture

Computation of block shear limit state strength will be computed by

considering the strength of one block (as shown below) and adding up

the results for each of the four flanges.

Geschwindner (2012)

44

22

4/20/2016

EXAMPLE 6 (continued)

Design Strength for Limit State of Block Shear Rupture (continued)

Rupture on the Tension Plane (1/2 of a bolt hole deducted)

U bs Fu Ant (1.00)(65 ksi ) 2.00" (1 / 2) 0.875" 0.125" (0.530")

51.7 kips

Yield on the Shear Plane

0.6 Fy Agv (0.60 50 ksi)(8.00")(0.530") 127 kips

0.6 Fu Anv (0.60 65 ksi ) 8.00" (2.5)(0.875" 0.125") (0.530")

114 kips

Tn1 0.6 Fu Anv U bs Fu Ant 165.7 kips

Tn 3 165.7 kips

Tn 2 0.6 Fy Agv U bs Fu Ant 178.7 kips

45

EXAMPLE 6 (continued)

Design Strength for Limit State of Block Shear Rupture (continued)

Td 3 4(124 kips ) 496 kips

Design Strength for Limit State of Bolt Failure (given for problem)

Td 454 k

46

23

4/20/2016

EXAMPLE 7

Data:

Consider the diagonal tension member within a truss shown below. The

diagonal member is composed of a single L4x3x3/8.

diameter. The bolt allowable

shear strength in this

connection is 35.7 kips.

angle is made is A36.

Determine:

Determine the allowable

tension strength of the angle

truss member (ASD).

Geschwindner (2012)

47

EXAMPLE 7 (continued)

Solution:

Allowable Strength for Limit State of Yielding: (one L4x3x3/8)

Ag 2.48 in 2

89.3 k

Ta1 53.5 kips

1.67

t 0.375 in

An 2.48 in 2 (0.375")(0.75" 0.125") 2.15 in 2

x 0.775"

U 1 1 0.871 WT Data from AISC Manual Table 1-7

L 6"

Ae 0.871 2.15 in 2 1.873 in 2

48

24

4/20/2016

EXAMPLE 7 (continued)

Allowable Strength for Limit State of Tensile Rupture: L4x3x3/8 (continued)

108.6 k

Ta 2 54.3 kips

2.00

Allowable Strength for Limit State of Block Shear Rupture

Rupture on the Tension Plane (1/2 of a bolt hole deducted)

U bs Fu Ant (1.00)(58 ksi ) 1.50" (1 / 2) 0.75" 0.125" (0.375")

23.1 kips

Yield on the Shear Plane

0.6 Fy Agv (0.60 36 ksi )(7.25")(0.375") 58.7 kips

49

EXAMPLE 7 (continued)

Rupture on the Shear Plane (2-1/2 bolt holes deducted)

0.6 Fu Anv (0.60 58 ksi ) 7.25" (2.5)(0.75" 0.125") (0.375")

66.1 kips

Tn1 0.6 Fu Anv U bs Fu Ant 89.2 kips

Tn 3 81.8 kips

Tn 2 0.6 Fy Agv U bs Fu Ant 81.8 kips

81.8 k

Ta 3 40.9 kips

2.00

Allowable Strength for Limit State of Bolt Failure (given for problem)

Ta 4 35.7 kips

50

25

4/20/2016

EXAMPLE 7 (continued)

Td 35.7 k

51

References

Steel Construction, Chicago, IL.

Wiley & Sons, New York, NY.

Education, New York, NY.

52

26

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