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International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)

Volume 4 Issue 5, May 2017, ISSN 2348 8050



Anand K Pandey1, Ritesh Kumar Rai2

JSS Academy of Technical Education, Noida1
JIMS Engineering Management Technical Campus, Greater Noida2

Abstract 1.1 Cycloconverter:

This research paper presents the complete modelling and
simulation of single phase step-down cycloconverter. A cycloconverter is a type of power controlled in which
Basically single phase cycloconverter generates double, an alternating voltage at supply frequency is converted
triple and fourth times of the output frequency. A directly to an alternating voltage at load frequency without
Cycloconverter is a device that converts AC, power at one any intermediate d.c stage. A cycloconverter is to
frequency into AC power of an adjustable but lower controlled through the timing of its firing pulses, so that it
frequency without any direct current, or DC, stage in produces an alternating output voltage. By controlling the
frequency and depth of phase modulation of the firing
between. It can also be considered as a static frequency
angles of the converters, it is possible to control the
changer and typically contains silicon-controlled rectifiers. frequency and amplitude of the output voltage. Thus, a
The FFT analysis of output current waveform has also cycloconverter has the facility for continuous and
been discussed in this paper. independent control over both its output frequency and
voltage. This frequency is normally less than 1/3 of the
Key Words: Cycloconverter, MATLAB, Pulse generator, input frequency. The quality of output voltage wave and its
Thyristor. harmonic distortion also impose the restriction on this
frequency. The distortion is very low at low output
1. INTRODUCTION frequency. There are other newer forms of cyclo
conversion such as ac-ac matrix converters and high
In this paper cycloconverter [fig.1] is introduced as a type frequency ac-ac (hfac-ac) converters and these use self-
of power controller, where an alternating voltage at supply controlled switches. These converters, however, are not
frequency is converted directly to an alternating voltage at popular yet. Some applications of cycloconverters are:
load frequency (normally lower), without any intermediate Cement mill drives
dc stage. Cycloconverters are used in high power
applications such as driving induction and synchronous Ship propulsion drives
motors. They are usually phase-controlled and they Rolling mill drives
traditionally use thyristors due to their ease of phase
Scherbius drives
commutation. The Cycloconverters are used in very large
variable frequency drives with ratings from few megawatts Ore grinding mills
up to many folds of megawatts. A Single Phase step up Mine winders
cycloconverter circuit diagram is shown in [fig 2].
The Cycloconverter is used as a variable frequency
Then the circuit of a single phase to single variable speed drives for AC machines. The input of the
cycloconverter of a single-phase to using thyristors is cycloconverter is connected to a power supply with fixed
presented.Traditionally, ac-ac conversion using frequency and the machine to be driven is connected to the
semiconductor switches is done in two different ways: output of the cycloconverter. In the second application
area, in contrast, the cycloconverter is used to provide
I. In two stages (ac-dc and then dc-ac) as in dc link constant frequency power output from a variable frequency
converters or power source.
II. In one stage (ac-ac) cycloconverters. 1.2 Basic Principle Of Cycloconverter
1.2.1 Step-up Cycloconverter [Fig-2]

P1,P2 -> Positive Group Thyristor

N1,N2 -> Negative Group Thyristor
In Single Phase Step Up CycloConverter, during a positive
Fig-1: Block Diagram of a cycloconverter half cycle of supply voltage terminal A is positive with
respect to terminal B so that SCRs P1 and N2 are forward

International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)
Volume 4 Issue 5, May 2017, ISSN 2348 8050

biased from wt = 0 to wt = . SCR P1 is turned on at wt =

0, so that load voltage is positive. At certain instant wt1,
P1 is forced commutated and N2 is turned on by providing
a gate signal to it and it remains in a conduction state and
load voltage is negative.
Similarly, at wt2, N2 is forced commutated and P1 is
turned on and load voltage is positive. So, we can repeat
this process by turning on and turning off the Positive
Group Thyristor in the appropriate time interval. When wt Fig-3: Step-down single phase Cycloconverter
= , terminal B is positive with respect to terminal A; both
SCR P2 and N1 are therefore forward biased from wt = 2. Simulation Modelling of Step-down
to 2. In the same way, P2 and N1 are turned on and off in Cycloconverter
a certain sequence.Thus, by switching the positive group
thyristor and Negative group thyristor in a certain 2. Simulink Diagram
appropriate sequence as mentioned above, the frequency
of the output voltage is increased certain times than
frequency of input voltage.

Fig-2: Step-up single phase Cycloconverter

1.2.2 Step-down Cycloconverter

In this converter, two single phase controlled converters are

operated as a bridge rectifier. And they are named as P-
Converter and N-Converter where P and N mean positive Fig-4: simulation based model of step-down
and negative. Thus P-Converter gives positive output cycloconverter
voltage while N-Converter gives negative output voltage. Output Waveform:
However, their delay angles are such that the output
voltage of P-Converter is equal to the output voltage of N-
From the figure below we observe that the gate signals are
provided to the thyristor of the P-Converter from time
instant zero to 3 and to the remaining thyristor of N-
converter from 3 to 6 . Thus the frequency of output
voltage is fs/3 of the frequency of the source frequency. It
is seen that the output voltage isnt purely sinusoidal and
has high harmonic contents in it.
Gating Sequence:
During the first period of output frequency to /2,
P-Converter operates at a delay angle p = i.e
by gating T1 and T2 at and T3 and T4 at ( + ). Fig-5: Output voltage and current waveforms
During the negative half cycle, To/2, N-Converter
operating at delay angle of n = i.e by gating Inference from the output waveform:
T1and T2 at 3 + and T3 and T4 at 4 + . 1. The average output voltage waveform is far from
sinusoidal since the firing angle is held constant.

International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)
Volume 4 Issue 5, May 2017, ISSN 2348 8050

2. The current waveform not repeated after every

3. Some circulating current is allowed to flow from
the positiveconverter to the negative converter. In
this case a circulating current limit in reactor is
connected between the positive and negative
4. In order to obtain reasonably good sinusoidal or
square output voltage waveform using line
commutated two quadrant converter and
eliminating the possibility of short circuit of the
supply voltage, the output frequency is limited to
a value much lower than supply frequency.


The cycloconverter circuits are designed and simulated

and desired results are obtained. Cycloconverters are
widely used in industry for ac-to-ac conversion. With
recent device advances, newer forms of cyclo conversion
are being developed. These newer forms are drawing more
research interest. In this article, the most commonly
known cycloconverter scheme is introduced, and its
operation principle is discussed. For more detailed
information, the following references can be used.

[1] Thyristorised Power Controller by G K Dubey, S R
Doradla, A Joshi, New Age International Publisher.
[2] B. K. Bose, Power Electronics and Ac Drives,
Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 1986.
[3] Getting started With MATLAB by Rudra Pratap.