DESIGN OF BRUSHLESS
PERMANENTMAGNET
MOTORS
j. R. HENDERSHOT J r
and TJE MILLER
MONOGRAPHS IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING
1
Dr. W.L. Soong is now with GE Corporate Research and Development, Schencctady, NY,
USA, and Dr. R. Rabinovici is at BenGurion University of the Negev. BeerSheva, Israel.
P refa ce
There are so many independent variables involved in the design process,
that the reiteration method is required. By that we mean making certain
assumptions, assigning trial values to independent variables, and
calculating the dependent variables. The independent or "input"
variables are usually dimensions, winding turns, and magnet material
properties. The dependent or "output" variables are usually perform ance
figures such as torque, current, efficiency, temperature rise, etc. The
ensemble of output data is the "performance". If the performance is not
satisfactory, new estimates are made for the input variables, taking
account of trends observed in successive calculations. The process
continues until the desired performance is achieved.
The individual steps in the design process are essentially simple, but a
comprehensive design exercise may include hundreds of parameters and
thousands of iterations, and is clearly capable of being speeded up and
generally improved with the help o f a computer program such as the
SPEED Laboratorys PCBDC program. This book follows the conventions
and equations used in POBDC, and in fact it can be used as a design
guide in conjunction with PCBDC or, for that matter, with any equivalent
GAD software or design procedures.
We would like to thank everyone who has helped us, both direcdy and
indirecdy, including all those who provided material in the form of
photographs and diagrams, our customers, and especially our colleagues
and families. We would particularly like to acknowledge R.C. Perrine,
Gene Aha, and Malcolm McGilp on the engineering side, and Susie
Murdoch and Bridget Sweeney for their help with the manuscript.
4. MAGNETIC DESIGN
TJE Miller
4.1 Introduction.........................................................................................41
4.2 Permanent magnets and magnetic circuits.................................. 43
4.3 Approximate calculation of the flux ...................................... 410
4.4 Nonlinear calculation of the magnetic circuit.........................416
4.5 Armature reaction and demagnetization ............................... 418
46 Calculation of rotor leakage perm eance................................. 423
4.7 Cogging . .......................................................................................426
4.9 Retaining can losses .................................................................... 428
5. ELECTRICAL DESIGN
TJE Miller
5.1 Introduction.........................................................................................51
5.2 Basic windings ....................................................................................51
5.2.1 Squarewave motor............................................................... 51
5.2.2 Effect of additional coils..................................................... 56
5.2.3 Lap windings and concentric w indings............................ 59
5.2.4 MuUiplepole machines........................................................511
5.2.5 ConsequentJ>ole windings and m agnets...........................512
5.2.6 Computeraided design of w indings....................................513
5.3 Wye and delta connections................................................ 514
5.3.1 Wye connection, with 120? trapezoidal phase EMF . . . . 514
5.3.2 Delia connection......................................... ..................... 521
5.3.3 Flux/pole and magnet utilization......................................531
viii
Contents
5.4 Unipolar 3phase connection..................................................... 532
5.5 Twophase and singlephase connections............................... 532
5.6 The EMF constant fcj. ................................................................. 535
5.7 The torque constant fcj................................................................ 536
5.7.1 Basi* of torque production coenergy............................. 536
5.7.2 Torque linearity..................................................................538
5.7.3 Demagnetization....................................... .................. 538
5.8 Calculating the number of tu rn s .............................................. 538
5.9 Winding inductances and armature reaction .......................539
5.9.1 Importance of inductance..................................................539
5.9.2 Inductance components .................................................... 542
5.9.3 Airgap selfinductance of single coil . ................................544
5.9.4 Airgap mutual inductance between two c o ils................... 546
5.9.5 Examples of inductance calculations............................... 548
5.9.6 General case of airgap inductance......................................551
5.9.7 Slotleakage inductance : self and m utual.........................555
5.9.8 Endwinding inductance.....................................................559
5.10 Slotless windings....................................................... ................... 561
5.10.1 General ............................................................................... 561
5.10.2 Design theory for slotless windings...................................... 563
6. SINEWAVE MOTORS
TJE Miller
6.1 Introduction..........................................................................................61
6.1.1 The ideal sinewave m otor.................................................. 61
6.1.2 Practical motors designed to approximate the sinewave motor 62
6.2 Properties of sinedistributed w indings.......................................... 64
6.2.1 Conductor and ampereconductor distributions................. 64
6.2.2 Airgap flux produced by sinedistributed w inding............. 64
6.2.3 Selffluxlinkage and inductance of sinedistributed witiding 66
6.2.4 Mutual inductance between sinedistributedwindings . . . 68
6.2.5 Generated E M F .................................................................. 69
6.2.6 Torque.................................................................................610
6.2.7 Rotating flux and ampereconductors................................610
6.2.8 Vector control or "fieldoriented" control............................611
6.2.9 Synchronous reactance....................................................... 612
6.3 Real w indings............................................................................... 613
6.3.1 Fullpitch coil.............................................. .......................613
6.3.2 Shortjntch co il...................................................................614
ix
Co n ten ts
6.3.3 Distribution or spread ....................................................... 617
6.3.4 General case ....................................................................... 619
6.3.5 Shew ................................................................................... 621
6.3.6 Design formulas for practical windings ............................621
6.4 Salientpole m otors...................................................................... 623
6.4.1 Calculation of Xd .............................................................623
6.4.2 Calculation of X .............................................................. 631
6.4.3 Demagnetizing effect of daxis flux due to Id .................. 633
6.4.4 Crossmagnetizing effect of qaxis flux due to I' ............. 633
6.4.5 Significance of rotor leakage ............................................ 633
6.5 Phasor diagram ............................ ............................................. 635
6.5.1 Nonsalientpole machines...................................................635
6.5.2 Salientpole machines.......................................................... 636
6.5.3 Operation as a generator ...................................................639
6.6 Circle diagram and speed/torque characteristic.................. 642
6.6.1 Nonsalientpole motors with Xd ~ ............................... 642
6.6.2 Salientpole motors with Xd ^ X^ .................................... 647
7. Kr AND Kg
TJE Miller
7.1 Introduction ................................................. .................................. 71
7.2 Squarewave and sinewave m otors................................................ 72
7.3 Definition and measurement of fcj and k ...................................73
7.3.1 DC commutator motors........................................................ 73
7.3.2 Threephase squarewave brushless DC motors..................... 74
7.3.3 Twophase squarewave brushless DC motors....................... 77
7.3.4 Twophase sinewave brushless DC m otors.......................... 77
7.3.5 Threephase sinewave brushless DC motors ....................... 78
7.3.6 Summary .............................................................................710
7.4 Calculation of k j and ............................................................710
7.4.1 Squarewave threephase brushless DC m otors.....................711
7.4.2 Twophase sinewave brushless DC m otors..........................713
7.4.3 Threephase sinewave brushless DC motors .......................715
7.5 Example calculation.................................................................... 716
9. CORE LOSSES
TJE Miller and R Rabinovici
9.1 Introduction...................................................................................... 91
9.2 Nonsinusoidal Steinmetz equation.................................................93
9.3 Coreloss formulas ............................................................................93
9.4 Waveform method ............................................................................95
9.5 Augmentation of tooth w eight........................................................96
9.6 Comparison with test d a ta ............................................................... 98
xi
Co ntents
10.5 Unipolar halfbridge controller ............................................. 1023
10.5.1 Commutation................................................................... 1023
10.5.2 Period A and period B ......................................................1024
10.5.3 Chopping (regulation) .................................................... 1024
10.5.4 Statespace averaged values............................................. 1025
10.5.6 Initial conditions and final DC values ..........................1026
10.6 O verrunning............................................................................. 1027
10.7 Practical examples and comparison with test d a ta ............. 1028
10.7.1 Comparison of measured and computed waveforms . . . . 1028
10.7.2 Accurate calculation of noload speed...............................1030
xiii
Co n t e n t s
14.6.3 Robustness ........................................................................1430
14.7 PID Controllers ..................................................................... .. 1431
14.7. J Design of a PID controller.................................................1431
14.7.2 Tuning a PID controller................................................... 1432
14.7.3 Autotuning.......................................................................1433
14.8 Digital control ........................................................................... 1434
14.8.1 Discrete system theory........................................................ 1434
14.8.2 Ztransforms .....................................................................1436
14.8.3 Z transforms and difference equations........................... 1438
14.8.4 Stability of discrete systems.................................................1438
14.8.5 Digital control system design ............................................1438
14.8.6 Deadbeat controller...........................................................1439
14.8.7 Digital P ID ........................................................................1439
14.8.8 PID control example ........................................................ 1441
14.9 Advanced control techniques ................................................ 1443
14.9.1 Adaptive control ................................................................ 1443
14.9.2 Optimal control ................................................................1446
14.9.3 Observers .......................................................................... 1446
15. COOLING
TJE Miller
15.1 Introduction............. ...................................................................... 151
15.2 Heat rem oval................................................................. .. 153
15.2.1 Conduction............................................................................. 153
15.2.2 Contact resistance...................................................................154
15.2.3 Radiation................................................................................156
15.2.4 Convection ............................................................................. 156
15.2.5 Natural convection................................................................ 157
15.2.6 Forced convection ...................................................................157
15.2.7 Some rules of thumb for "calibration" ..................................158
15.3 Internal temperature distribution ............................................ 159
15.3.1 The diffusion equation........................................................... 159
15.3.2 Thermal equivalent circuit ..............................................1510
15.3.3 Current Density ..................................................... 1512
15.4 Intermittent operation ............................................................ 1514
15.4.1 Dutycycle............................................................................. 1514
15.4.2 Temperature rise during ONtime....................................1515
15.4.3 Temperature fall during OFFtime.................................... 1517
15.4.4 Steadystate............................................................. 1518
15.4.5 Maximum overload fa c to r................................................. 1518
xiv
CONTENTS
15.4.6 Maximum overload far a single puke ......... .............. .. 1519
15.4.7 Required cooldown period...................................... .. 1519
15*4.8 Maximum, ontime,for a given overbadfactor................ 1519
15.4.9 Maximum duration of single pulse . ,. ............. 1520
15.4.10 Graphical transient heating curves ........................1520
15)5 Thermal modelling by computer ............... ........................... 1522
15.5.1 Computer model of thermal equivalent ckcu.it. . . . . . . 1522
15.5.2 Determination of equivalentcircuit parameters bytest. . . 1523
xv
INDEX
1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION
11
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
11SLOT WOUND
ARMATURE (ROTOR)
Fig. 1.1 Crosssection of DC commutator motor. The cxteriorrotor brushless DC motor has
the same crosssection.
13
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
STATOR (LAMINATED)
1.2 Commutation
E U
ROTOR WITH
c :: id ROTOR WITH
MAGNETS
MAGNETS
STATOR WITH
WINDINGS *1
STATOR WITH
::d WINDINGS Px
c : : :d X
UEjd
X
(FROM PM S T A T O R )
Fig. 1.4 Rotor of elementary DC commuUtor motor, rotating in a fixed magnetic field
16
1. G e n e r a l I n t r o d u c t io n
Fig. 1.4 shows the rotor of an elementary DC commutator motor,
rotating in a fixed magnetic field. The field is produced by a permanent
magnet, Fig. 1.5. This field is a 2pole field, because there is only one N
and one S pole in each complete revolution. The axis of the single coil
in Figs. 1.4 and 1.5 is shown at the angle 0 with respect to the reference
axis.
Fig. 1.5 Crosssection of elementary DC commutator motor, showing the position of the
reference axis and the axis of the rotating coil
19
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e ss pe r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
Fig. 1.8 Transistor inverter circuit for use with 3phase brushless DC motor. The power
transistors perform the switching function of the commutator and brushes, but
they require a separate shaftposition transducer and sensing circuitry (not shown).
110
1. G e n er a l I n t r o d u c t io n
Certain important characteristics are the same in both motors. The
current waveform in the phases is a 120 squarewave. Exactly two phases
are conducting at any and every instant. The commutator ensures that
the DC supply current remains constant, as does the torque.
The importance of a constant torque waveform cannot be
overemphasized, especially in servo drives where high precision is
required in both velocity and position control. In machine tools, for
example, the surface finish on machined parts can be adversely affected
by torque variations from the drive motor. Periodic torque variation, or
ripple, is also the cause of vibration which may be extremely troublesome
if it excites a mechanical or structural resonance in the driven equipment
or mountings.
The importance of a constant DC current waveform is that it minimizes
the need for filter capacitors connected across the DC supply, and
generally helps with the levels of harmonics, reducing the filtering
requirements.
At constant speed, the constant torque waveform and the constant DC
supply current waveform represent constant electromechanical energy
conversion according to the equation
E I= T<*m (1.2)
where E is the EMF across 2 phases in series and / is the DC supply
current. The EMF /^connected to the brushes must also remain constant
during each 120 interval, and this can be traced back to the linear rate
of change of fluxlinkage of each phase as the magnet rotates. In turn,
this linear rate of change of fluxlinkage depends on having a flattopped
distribution of magnet flux around the stator. More analysis of this is
given in Chapters 5,7,8 and 10.
Equation (1.2) could be said to be the most fundamental equation in
motor theory. It embodies the essential linearity and simplicity of the DC
motor from a control viewpoint, and these are the fundamental features
on which DC servo systems and variablespeed drives have been designed
for many decades. It is very important that the brushless DC motor, in its
ideal form, has exactly the same characteristics.
111
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s pe r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
T= Jct I, (14)
i.e., the torque is proportional to the current, 'rhis proportionality is so
important that the constant of proportionality in equation (1.4) is usually
called the torque constant, Ay. It is clear from this ideal case that kE = k^.
This equality is often overlooked, especially when English or other nonSI
113
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e ss p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
units are being used, because then and kj are not numerically equal,
but differ by a constant multiplying factor. Moreover, different test
methods can be used for measuring and fcp and they usually yield
slighdy different values because the magnetic and clectrical conditions
in the motor may not be the same during both tests. (See Chapter 7).
Referring to the circuit of Fig. 1.7, the applied supply voltage Vs is equal
to the sum of the backEMF E and the resistive voltdrop in the motor
windings, plus the combined voltdrop from two brush/commutator
interfaces:
V3 = E+ RI+ Vh. (J5)
J? represents the resistance of two coils (phases) in series, and /is the DC
supply current. This equation also applies to the brushless DC motor, if
represents the voltdrop across two conducting transistors in series. In
welldesigned systems, is much smaller than the supply voltage Vt, and
for the remainder of this section we will ignore it.
By substituting for E and I, following a little algebraic manipulation the
speed/torque equation can be derived in the following form:
nl 
(1.7)
E
Vt (18)
^LR = ^T^
in Nm. is the lockedrotor current or stall current, limited only by
the winding resistance.
114
l . G e n e r a l in t r o d u c t io n
If sufficient load torque is applied, the speed falls to zero and the motor
is then stalled, i.e., in the lockedrotor condition. Then E = 0 and all the
supply voltage is dropped across the motor resistance FL Since R is
usually a very small resistance, the resulting stall current is extremely
large. It is not normally permissible to allow the full lockedrotor current
to flow, even for a short time, because it would either demagnetize the
magnets or destroy the power transistors, or bum the winding
insulation. In fact, normal operation is generally confined to the left
hand region of Fig. 1.10. Typically, up to 30% of the lockedrotor torque
(and current) may be obtained continuously, and perhaps 5060% for
very short periods, although these percentages vary widely among
different designs.
RDTDR STATDR
RE
MODULATING FREQUENCY
<SINE 8. COSINE)
400 Hz INPUT
RDTDR ANGLE
Fig. 1.13 Schematic diagram illustrating the operation of a resolver for shaft
position feedback
The resolver rotor mounts on a shaft extension of the brushless DC
motor at the nondrive end, without couplings. All the necessary
electronic circuits are mounted inside the controller. If the brushless
motor can survive the environment, the resolver can also survive since it
is made up of the same materials of copper and iron, without magnets.
120
1. G en er a l I n t r o d u c t io n
Like the resolver, the optical encoder is used when more information is
needed than just commutation pulses. It consists of a set of pairs of
phototransistors and collimated light sources, used in conjunction with
a glass or metal encoder disc. The pattern of slits on the disc defines the
frequency and waveform of the pulse trains which are produced by the
phototransistors.
Encoders can be designed to provide commutation pulses directly,
together with a highfrequency pulse train which may be used to generate
a speed signal.
Absolute
Fig. 1.14 Optical encoder disks: absolute (left) and incremental (right).
Fig. 1.14 shows two types of encoder disks. Commercial incremental
encoders usually have two tracks, A and B, which are in quadrature (out
of phase by onequarter of a slitpitch). An index pulse (one slit per
revolution) is also provided as a simple absolute position reference. More
complex encoder discs have special patterns (e.g. Gray Scales) which can
be used to provide absolute position information with very fine resolution
and high accuracy. A typical resolution used in motor drives is 1000
lines/rev.
121
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s pe r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
LOGIC
INPUT v POWER
POWER
AC OR OC
POWER
SUPPLY
124
1. G e n e r a l I n t r o d u c t io n
125
2. MOTOR AND CONTROLLER TYPES
2,1 Introduction
There are several different configurations of brushless motors which use
rotating permanent magnets and stationary phase coils. The main reason
for so many different variations has to do with the utilization of different
magnet grades in addition to the wide range of applications. For
example, if an application requires rapid acceleration and deceleration
of the load (as in servo systems) then the torque/inertia ratio should be
as high as possible. This indicates the use of an interiorrotor motor with
highenergy magnets.
On the other hand, if an application requires constant speed at medium
to high speed it may make more sense to use an exteriorrotor
configuration with the rotating member on the outside of the wound
stator. This type is sometimes used to drive fans and blowers. Perhaps
the most important application for the exteriorrotor motor is the spindle
motor used in computer fixeddisc drives. This application requires a
very uniform and constant speed, and the high inertia of the exterior
rotor is an advantage in achieving this.
There are other applications such as record players, VCR players, CD
players and floppy disc drives for computers which have a different set
of requirements. These motors rotate at relatively low speed. The
packaging envelope is the most important consideration, and it has been
common to design axialgap or pancake motors for many of these
applications. In most cases they are slotless, meaning that the magnetic
circuit is closed through a smooth backing plate which may not even be
laminated. Slotless motors are sometimes used in the radialgap
configuration, particularly in applications where the cogging torque due
to slotting must be eliminated. Slodess motors have reduced core losses
and are suitable for application at extremely high speeds, up to at least
100,000 rpm.
21
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s pe r m a n e n t m a c n e t m o t o r s
2 .2 In te rio rro to r m o to rs
The interiorrotor motor has the closest configuration to that of the
classical AC synchronous machine or the induction motor, although the
production volumes of exteriorrotor motors are much greater. The
stator is similar to that of the threephase induction motor. Fig. 2.1
shows an example of the interiorrotor configuration. As stated earlier an
advantage of this design is its high torque/inertia ratio. However, it has
two manufacturing disadvantages:
1. Magnet retention must be carefully implemented so that
the rotor does not fly apart.
2. Although exterior stators are easily cooled, they are
expensive to wind without automatic equipment.
ROTOR '
The rotor shaft must be mounted in bearings. It carries a soft iron yoke
which has a polygonal or circular outside surface on which the magnets
are mounted. The yoke is either machined from lowcarbon steel, or
assembled from a stack of laminations (which can be punched from the
22
2. M o t o r a n d c o n t r o l l e r types
23
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a c n e t m o t o r s
24
2. MOTOR AND CONTROLLER TYPES
Fig. 2.2c shows a version of the rotor known as the spoke magnet design or
embedded magnet design. The magnets are magnetized in the
circumferential direction, through their thickness, and their fluxes are
collected and concentrated by soft iron polepieces. With 6 or more poles
the flux concentration can be high enough to achieve airgap fluxdensity
levels, with ferrite magnets, comparable to those which would require a
highenergy magnet in a surfacemagnet configuration. The spoke
configuration is becoming more popular because it is a relatively lowcost
fabricated design. The rotor may be larger than that of an equivalent
surfacemagnet motor with highenergy magnets, but in many
applications, including many servo systems, a super low inertia is not
necessary. The spoke configuration is especially advantageous in higher
power machines. Because of the saliency, the most appropriate form of
drive is the sinewave drive (Chapter 6).
The last example shown is Fig* 2.2/which is similar to the first example
except that the magnet arcs are epoxied to a round stack of laminations
so that litde or no grinding is required after assembly unless a retaining
ring is required.
25
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
26
2. M o t o r a n d c o n t r o l l e r types
A L U M IN U M SQ U IR REL
1 PHASE CAGE D I E  C A S T MOTOR
3 PHASE
WINDINGS
2 4 SLOT
STATOR
PUNCH ING
AC IN D U C T IO N MOTOR
27
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s per m a n en t m a g n e t m o t o r s
28
2. M o t o r a n d c o n t r o l l e r types
29
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n en t m a c n e t m o t o r s
ROTOR YOKE
ROTOR MAGNET
STATOR PHASE
COI LS
211
D e s ig n o f b r u s h l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
Fig. 2.8 Axialgap brushless motor components. (By kind permission or Sony)
PHASE W I N D I N G S
rig. 2.10 Slodcis brujhlcjj pcrmanentmagnet motor
The main feature of this design is the same as that of the axialgap
slotless motors discussed in the previous section. Without magnetic teeth
and slots, there is no cogging or reluctance torque. The resulting
performance is very smooth. Torque ripple is still possible by virtue of
the discrete locations of the stator conductors, but winding distributions
with low spaceharmonic content can be used to minimize this.
Another version of the slotless motor is a completely ironless slotless
configuration, similar to Fig. 2.10 but the laminated steel stator yoke is
either removed altogether or replaced by a magnetically soft ferrite core
of the same shape. The low saturation fluxdensity of ferrite may not be
a limitation because the fluxdensity at its large radius is relatively small.
There are no iron losses with this configuration, and extremely high
speed operation is possible without cogging or heating of the stator core.
An apparent disadvantage of the slotless configuration is the loss of the
heat conduction paths from the conductors to the steel teeth. However,
many slodess prototypes have been built for specialty applications with
direct liquid cooling of the conductors. The inductance of slodess
windings is likely to be low, which makes them suitable for high speed.
213
DESIGN OF BRUSHLESS PERMANENTMACNET m o t o r s
214
2. M o t o r a n d c o n t r o l l e r types
Fig. 2.12 The phaseleg or halfbridge circuit, shown with a splitlevel DC supply.
The single phaseleg is rarely used by itself, but its operadon is considered
here in detail because it forms the basic building block from which full
bridge and threephase bridge circuits are derived.
The operation of the phaseleg circuit as a power switch is summarized in
Table 2.1. A single phaseleg has only one output terminal, to which one
end of the load impedance is connected. If there is only one phaseleg,
the other end of the load impedance must be connected to a suitable
terminal so that current can flow in closed loops. In Fig. 212 the return
terminal is the midpoint of the supply. If transistor Ql is on and Q2 is
off, the output terminal is shortcircuited to the positive of the supply
and the voltage across the load is +Vs/2. Conversely, if Q2 is on and Ql
is off, the output voltage is Fa/2. Ql and Q2 must never be permitted
to switch on simultaneously because they would shortcircuit the supply
and very likely suffer a destructive overcurrent. If Ql and Q2 are both
off, the potential of the output terminal can be either positive or
negative, depending on the condition of the diodes. If Ql was formerly
conducting and switches off, the current commutates to diode D2, and
the inductance of the load keeps the current flowing. The voltage across
the load reverses polarity from +Vs/2 to  V$/2 , and it remains at this
value until the current decays to zero, or until Ql switches on again.
216
2. M o t o r AND CONTROLLER TYPES
By switching Q1 on and off at appropriate instants, the average current
can be held within a "hysteresis band of a setpoint value. This current
is in the positive or forward direction through the load. Similarly, diode
D1 freewheels the load current when Q2 switches off. Q2 and D1
alternately carry reverse load current When Q2 is on, the load voltage
is ~Vt/2 , and when Q2 is off, it is +Vs/2 for as long as the load current
is freewheeling through Dl.
In a singlephase or twophase motor, Q1 controls the current for 180
electrical degrees when the motor backEMF has one polarity, and Q2
controls the current for the other 180 in the cycle when the motor back
EMF has the opposite polarity. There is no overlap between the
conduction periods of transistors Q1 and Q2.
Table 21 also shows the direction of current and power flow for the
various conditions of the switches. Since all combinations of voltage and
current polarities are available, and the power flow can reverse, the
switch is said to be a fourquadrant switch. However, reverse power flow
cannot be maintained continuously unless the source is capable of
absorbing it. If the source is a battery, reverse current tends to recharge
the battery (though not necessarily at the optimum rate). If the source
is a rectifier with a smoothing capacitor, reverse power flow tends to over
charge the capacitor because it is blocked by the rectifier, and the
resulting overvoltage can be dangerous unless auxiliary measures are
taken to absorb the energy, such as crowbar circuits, dynamic braking
circuits, or zener diodes.
Q2 Dl D2 4d Power
1 0 0 0 +V./2 + +
0 1 0 0  V s  +
0 0 0 1 V./2 + 
0 0 1 0 + V /2  
0 0 0 0 Floating 0 0
1 1 0 0 Shootthrough
T a b le 2.1 O p e r a t io n o f s in g l e p h a s e l e g c ir c u it
217
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
218
2. M o t o r AND CONTROLLER TYPES
diodes. Of course the diodes must have adequate reverseblocking
capability comparable with the forwardblocking capability of the
transistors, since they are generally connected in antiparallel with the
transistors.
4. High dv/dt capabilitytransistors should be as near as possible immune
from spurious turnon caused by the induction of gate current caused by
high dv/dt across the main power terminals. Modern power transistors
are generally MOSgated, with capacidve input impedance at the gate,
and therefore are inherently suscepdble to spurious turnon if the gate
is subject to a high dv/dt, which may be coupled via the Miller
capacitance between collector and gate (in an IGBT) or between source
and gate (in a power MOSFET). High dv/dt immunity in the device itself
is obviously desirable, but the safest policy is to drive the gate from a low
impedance source/sink (such as a pair of driver transistors connected in
totempole fashion).
5. High di/dt capabilityM power devices have a maximum rate of change
of current that can be tolerated without currentcrowding effects or
second breakdown.
6. High speed of switchingin transistors, the turnon and turnoff times
need to be as fast as possible to minimize switching losses, although there
is no point in paying a premium for very fast transistors if the switching
losses are insignifcant compared with the conduction losses. In diodes,
the transition from off to on needs to be as fast as possible because the
commutation of inductive current from a transistor branch to a diode
branch is the main means for protecting against destructive transient
voltages. Diodes should also have good reverserecovery characteristics
(see Chapter 10).
The most startling aspect of the development of brushless motor drives
is the sustained rate of improvement in power electronic switches and in
integrated circuits for digital control. The first brushless motors arrived
on the scene in the early 1960s. They used Alnico magnets, and their
commutation sensors comprised filament lamps with planar silicon photo
transistors. The first power electronic switching device to be developed
and widely applied in motor drives was the SCR in the 1960s. Because
the SCR cannot be turned off by a gate signal, it lent itself to naturally
commutated converters such as phasecontrolled rectifiers used with DC
219
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e ss p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
Load current
221
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n en t m a g n e t m o t o r s
\A A A A A A 7 \7 ~ y Hysteresis
band
222
2. MOTOR AND CONTROLLER TYPES
The switching of the power transistor is not instantaneous when the
current crosses the threshholds and and therefore the current
waveform can leak outside the hysteresis band. By how much depends on
the response rate of the controlling circuit Moreover, the switching
instants do not occur at a fixed frequency and if it is necessary to filter
the switching frequency to protect neighbouring circuits, the job may be
made more difficult because of the frequency variation.
The two switching control strategies, voltagePWM and "current
regulation", are only the simplest examples of many possibilities. Much
more sophisticated implementations have been developed, using such
techniques as purely digital regulators, preprogrammed switching intants
to minimize the harmonic content in the current waveforms, and
regulators whose switching is defined and implemented in a rotating
reference frame.
conduction period for forward current the transistors Q3 and Q4 and the
diodes D1 and D2 are idle.
The second group of four rows shows the identical control technique
applied to transistors Q3 and Q4 for negative or reverse current. During
the conduction period for reverse current the transistors Q l and Q2 and
the diodes D3 and D4 are idle.
Ql Q2 Q3 Q4 D1 D2 D3 D4 ^load Power
l 1 0 0 + +
0 1 0 1 0 + 0
l 0 0 0 1 0 0 + 0
0 0 1 I + 
1 1 0 0  +
0 1 0 1 0  0
0 1 0 1 0 0 0  0
0 0 1 1 +V, 
T able 2.2 O p e r a t io n o f f u l l b r id g e c ir c u it
Fig. 2.15 shows the waveforms of applied voltage and current for a full
bridge circuit controlling a singlephase load with 180 conduction for
forward and reverse currents. The diagram shows the onperiods of each
transistor, and the chopping waveforms for forward conduction. The
diagram shows one transistor (Ql) chopping for the whole 180 interval,
while Q2 remains on during the whole of this interval. In this case Ql is
called the chopping transistor and Q2 is called the commutating transistor.
The chopping duty can be assigned to one transistor or it can be shared
between the two. For example, in the next halfcycle of forward current,
Ql could remain on while Q2 chops. The load voltage would be the
same as in the first halfcycle, but the thermal duty experienced by both
transistors would be equalized because their mean and RMS currents
would be equalized.
224
2. M o t o r a n d c o n t r o l l e r ty pes
Una Current 
Cl
4
o 90 80 80 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 990 MO Etecdagraaa
Phw* EMF
eph llne
*ph" ^llne
Q1 Q3 Q1
Q4 Q2 Q4
Q1
dutycycle d JL T U T JU L
Chopping transistor
D4
dutycycle 1d n r ^ ir
Chopping c iode
Q2
Commutating transistor
D3
Commutating diode
fig. 2.15 Voltage and current waveform* for fuUbridge circuit controlling a single
phase load with 180 conduction periods for forward and reverse current
225
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s pe r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
The waveforms in Fig. 2.15 can be used as the basis for calculating the
peak, mean, and RMS currents in the load, in the chopping transistor,
and in the commutating transistor and their respective diodes. Table 2.3
summarizes the result for the case where one transistor does all the
chopping, and Table 2.4 for the case where the chopping is shared
between the two transistors of each phaseleg on alternate cycles. All
these currents are expressed perunit of the setpoint current 7sp which
is the flattopped value of the line current in Fig. 2.15.
Peak Mean RMS
Line 1 1 1
Chopping transistor 1 d/2
Chopping diode 1 (1 d)/2 /[ (l d ) /2 )
Commutating transistor 1 1/2 1 //2
Commutating diode 1 0 0
T a b le 2.4 P eak , m e a n a n d r m s c u r r e n t s s in g l e ph a se f u l l  b r id g e
c ir c u it , th e r m a l l y e q u a l iz e d . S q u a r ew a v e d r iv e .
(d = dutycycle).
In twophase drives the operation is similar, but each transistor conducts
for only 90 instead of 180. The waveforms are shown in Fig. 5.17. With
only one transistor chopping in each phaseleg, the peak, mean and RMS
currents are summarized in Table 2.5. If the transistors chop on alternate
cycles, for thermal equalization, the peak, mean, and RMS currents are
as summarized in Table 2.6.
226
2. M o t o r a n d c o n t r o l l e r types
T a b le 2.6 P eak , m ea n a n d rm s c u r r e n t s t w o p h a s e f u l l b r id g e
CIRCUIT, THERMALLY EQUALIZED. SQUAREWAVE DRIVE.
{d = dutycycle).
227
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
Fig. 2.16 Threephase bridge circuit for sinewave and squarewave drives, (a) wye
connected motor {!>} deltaconnected motor
228
2. MOTOR AND CONTROLLER TYPES
30 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330
!SP alec*
1A
*B
*C
I
Q5 Q1 03 Q5
G6 Q2 Q4
ABC A BC A BC A BC ABC ABC
W W Lit LU tu tu
Fig. 2.17 Line current waveforms for threephase squarewave (upper) and sinewave
(lower) drive*, including the states of the transistors and current paths.
229
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
Fig. 2.17 shows the states of the power transistors Q1Q6, and the arrow
diagrams indicate which lines are conducting in which direction. The
angles at the top of Fig. 2.17 represent rotor position in electrical
degrees.
Sinewave operation is shown in the lower part of Fig. 2.17. In sinewave
operation, the line currents are essentially sinusoidal although they have
a ripple component due to the chopping of the transistors. Normally all
three currents are nonzero (except when they pass through zero).
Consequently there are normally three transistors conducting at any time:
either one upper and two lower, or two upper and one lower. Fig. 2.17
shows the states of the power transistors Ql Q 6, and the arrow diagrams
indicate which lines are conducting in which direction.
In both the squarewave and the sinewave drives it appears from the ideal
waveforms in Fig. 2.17 that there is really only one DC current which is
switched or commutated among the phases. This seems to imply that the
current could be measured with only one current sensor in the DC
supply, and regulated by chopping only one transistor. However, the
operation of the circuit is complicated by the action of the freewheel
diodes and the motor backEMF. Because of the diodes, the three phase
currents are not necessarily "observable" to a current sensor in the DC
supply. For full control of the current at all times, it is usual to measure
the line currents directly by means of current sensors in the lines.
However, in a threewire connection iA + ijj + ^ = 0 so that only two
currents need be measured: the third can be determined from the sum
of the other two. This saves one current sensor.
When the control strategy is voltage PWM in the sense described in
connection with Fig. 2.13, it is common practice to use only a single
current sensor in the DC supply, where it can be used not only for
overcurrent protection but also in a torque control loop.
The use of current sensors in the lines does not necessarily guarantee the
detection of overcurrents in all branches of the circuit, since this
depends on the association of the currentfeedback signal with the gate
control of the transistor that is chopping at the time.
A full analysis of the transistor and diode currents for 1, 2 and 3phase
circuits is given in Chapter 10.
230
2. MOTOR AND CONTROLLER TYPES
Fig. 2.18 3phase bridge circuit showing conducting loops just after Q5 has turned
off and Q1 has turned on. This is the start of the 60 "base interval".
C 120 Q l The "C" means that line current is the regulated parameter.
Ql is the control transistor (chopping transistor). Note that
it is the "incoming" transistor. Throughout the base interval
it is paired with Q6, which is the "old" or "outgoing"
transistor. Q6 remains on for the whole 60, and turns off
at the end (i.e. at the rotor position 90 in Fig. 2.17). In
this strategy, only the upper transistors are used for
chopping. Therefore, Ql continues to chop for 120. Q6
is used only for commutation, and does not do any
chopping. Q3 and Q5 are therefore equivalent to Q l, and
have the same peak, mean, and RMS currents as Q l. Q4
and Q2 are equivalent to Q 6.
232
2. MOTOR AND CONTROLLER TYPES
The current sensor controlling Q1 is assumed to be in line
A or in the DC supply line. This ensures that iA will not
exceed the setpoint current /sp. However, this sensor does
not detect the current in line B, which is the sum of the
rising current iA and the freewheeling current from line C.
Therefore, i0 can exceed 7sp, and indeed "spikes" of excess
current can be seen in the line current waveforms with this
strategy, as illustrated in the smaller diagram in Fig. 2.18.
Note also that the freewheeling current in Fig. 2.18 is in a
"zerovolt loop", and therefore its decay rate depends on
the total backEMF in that loop. Under certain condidons
this decay rate may be too slow, so that D 2 never turns off
during the base interval.
The ideal current waveform in Q1 comprises the positive
halfcycles of the current waveform shown at the top of
Fig. 2.17, with chopping continuing for 120. This
waveform is reproduced in Fig. 2.19.
C 60 Q1 This strategy is similar to the previous one, but with Q1
(the incoming transistor) chopping for only 60 to control
the current in line A. The ideal current waveform is shown
in Fig. 2.19, together with the chopping diode current in
D4.
All six transistors do identical duty. Each one conducts for
a total of 120, but it is chopping only for the first 60 of
its conduction period. In the second 60, it remains on,
and the chopping is continued by the "complementary"
transistor, which is always the next one in the commutation
sequence (i.e., Q l,2,3,4,5,6).
V 120 Q1 The "V" means that lineline voltage is the regulated
parameter. Q 1 is the control transistor (chopping
transistor). Note that it is the "incoming" transistor.
Throughout the base segment it is paired with Q 6, which
is the "outgoing" transistor. Q 6 remains on for the whole
60. In this strategy, only the upper transistors are used for
chopping. Therefore, Q1 continues to chop for 120. Q 6
is used only for commutation, and does not do any
233
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
234
2. M OTOR AND CONTROLLER TVTES
lend to extinguish the freewheeling current quickly.
The ideal current waveform in Q6 is shown in Fig. 2.19,
with chopping continuing for 120. The corresponding
diode current in D3 is also shown.
C 60 Q 6 This strategy is similar to the previous one, but with Q6
(the "outgoing" transistor) chopping for only 60 to
control the current in line A. The ideal current waveform
is shown in Fig. 2.19, together with the chopping diode
current in D3.
All six transistors do identical duty. Each one conducts for
a total of 120, but it is chopping only for the second 60
of its conduction period. In the first 60, it remains on,
and the chopping is continued by the "complementary1
transistor, which is always the previous one in the
commutation sequence (i.e., Q l,2,3,4,5,6).
V 120 Q 6 This is similar to the V 120 Q l strategy, except that the
"outgoing" transistor is used for chopping instead of the
"incoming" transistor.
235
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s pe r m a n e n t m a c n e t m o t o r s
tsga
Current
chopping
m m
Chopping
diode
VA7
Voltage PWM
continuously
iON . i
0 30 60 90 120150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 elec
 Lina
la Currant
^_1
D4 
;: ; C 120 Q1
01______________________ 1
D4 I C 60Q1
_Q1 V/////Z77777A
D4 r . 'i V 120Q1
06 C 120 06
L ..: ' : i 1 D3
06 C 60 06
03
YZZZZZZZZZZZA 06 V 120 06
r D3
05 01 03 05
06 92. 04
Fig. 2.19 Effect of switch control strategy on mean and RMS transistor and diode
currents in threephase squarewave drives.
236
2. M o t o r and c o n t r o l l e r ty p e s
DELTA
I Peak Mean RMS
Phase 2/3 4/9 4 2 1 /3
237
D e s ig n o f b r u s h l e s s p e r m a n en t m a g n e t m o t o r s
or less than half the mean line current (since each transistor conducts
only on alternate halfcycles). The RMS transistor current is equal to or
less than 1 //2 of the RMS line current, or 1/2 the peak line current.
The mean and RMS diode currents are less than the transistor currents
under most condidons.
238
2. MOTOR AND CONTROLLER TYPES
In the singlephase fullbridge inverter (Fig. 5.16) the maximum RMS AC
output voltage is (2^2/n) Vs = 0.90 Vs in squarewave mode. At the limit
of linear modulation in "sine/triangle" PWM, it is V^/V2 = 0.71 Vt.
AC R E C T IF IE R
POWER
IT C H I N G
CONTROLLER
OR M IC R O
EXTERNAI________ 1 SENSORS
COMMANDS
Vs Power electronics
MOTOR
Current
DC M mj} sensors Tacho
Driver
circuits
Shaft'
position
sensor
Current
regulators'^ I 1 j
Commutation
+ Logic
Speed Monitoring
Ref. err r  Motor tem p
speed Supply voltage
l2 t
Tacho
PI gain
Speed feedback
Fig. 2.21 Control system block diagram for squarewave brushless motor controller.
243
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s pe r m a n en t m a g n e t m o t o r s
References
[1] Sebastian T, Slcmon GR and Rahman MA [1986] Design considerations for variable
tpnnd permanerdmagnet motorx, International Conference on Electrical Machines, Pt.
3, 10991102
[2] Mohan N, Undeland TM and Robbinj WP [1969] Pawn' electronics : converter*,
application* and design, John Wiley & Sons, NY ISBN 0471505374
[3] Motorola Application Notei MC330H [1990], MC33034 [1989]
[4] Vai P [1990] Vector control of AC. machines. Clarendon Press, Oxford ISBN 019
8593708
247
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n en t m a g n e t m o t o r s
248
2. MOTOR AND CONTROLLER TYPES
Dote Y and Kinoshita S [1990] iJmiUrit servomotor*: fundamental* ami application*
Clarendon Press, Oxford
Leonhard W [1985] Control of electrical drive*, SpringerVerlag, Berlin
Vaj P [1992] Electrical machine* and drive*: a spacevector theory approach. Clarendon
Press, Oxford ISBN 0198593783
Boldea I and Nasar S [1992] Vector control of AC drive*, CRC Press, ISBN 08493
44085
Jouve D and Bui D [1993] Torque ripple compensation inDSPbavd brushless servo drive.
Intelligent Motion, PCIM Proceedings, Niimberg 2837
3. BASIC DESIGN CHOICES
3.1 Introduction
Before a brushless motor design can begin, several important decisions
must be made. The reasons for this should be obvious from previous
discussion regarding the features of different types of brushless motors
and the availability of different magnetic materials. The method of
commutation is also an important issue which should be considered in
making the basic decisions about the design. The choice of an
interior rotor, exterior rotor, or an axialgap motor must be made
first, along with a rough idea of the correct magnet grade. Then the
number of phases, the number of poles, the number of stator slots,
and the winding configuration must be selected. The rotor and
permanent magnet configuration is designed, then the stator and
winding are determined. A stepbystep procedure is provided as a
rough guide for a typical brushless DC motor design.
1. Determine application requirements (see Table 3.1)
2. Interiorrotor, exteriorrotor, or axialgap configuration?
3. Select magnet grade
4. Select number of poles
5. Select number of stator slots and phases
6. Perform rough sizing estimate
7. Select air gap length and determine magnetic loading
8. Design rotor and determine flux/pole
9. Lay out stator lamination dimensions
10. Solve for numbers of conductors and turns/coil
11. Calculate wire size, resistance and inductance/phase
12. Calculate performance
13. Check temperature rise, current density, flux densities,
demagnetization of magnet
14. Modify design and reiterate until objectives are met
In this chapter the first five items are discussed, in terms of the basic
principles of brushless motor theory and practice. Later sections cover
rotor and stator designs, windings, and other practical aspects.
Aside from the motor design there are several other environmental and
performance requirements that must be taken into account. A checklist
of these is given in Table 3.1 for reference.
31
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s pe r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
T a b le 3.1 C h e c k l is t o f a p p l ic a t io n r e q u ir e m e n t s
32
3. B a sic d e s ig n c h o ic e s
= / ,' 2 ? s in ( p O ~ c o s
where *is the peak phase current and Nt is the effective number of sine
distributed turns per phase (Chapter 6). This can be compared with the
equivalent relationship for threephase motors, equation (6.21). For full
control flexibility and maximum utilization of the available DC voltage,
each phase needs to be fed from a fullbridge inverter circuit (Fig. 5.16),
requiring a total of eight transistors and eight power diodes. This may
seem excessive compared to the six transistors needed in a threephase
drive, but fullbridge singlephase inverters can be neatly packaged, and
the total Silicon area need be no more than in the equivalent three
phase drive. With separate fullbridge inverters the twophase motor also
requires four connecting leads, compared with only three for a three
phase motor. The number of stator slots in the twophase motor does not
34
3. B a sic d e sig n c h o ic e s
fit naturally into the standards used with threephase motors, and special
laminations may very well be required.
Threephase motors are by far the most common choice for all but the
lowest power levels. In common with AC motors generally, they have
extremely good utilization of copper, iron, magnet, insulating materials,
and Silicon, in terms of the quantity of these materials required for a
given output power. Although the utilization can theoretically be argued
to be higher in motors of higher phase number, the gains would be
offset by the increased number of leads and transistors, which increases
cost and may severely compromise reliability. The only practical
application might be for a brushless DC torque motor for directdrive
applications where backlash from gear reducers is unacceptable.
Threephase motors have the flexibility afforded by wye or delta
connected windings, or even unipolar windings. They can operate with
only three connecting leads with no loss of control flexibility. They have
excellent starting characteristics, with smooth rotation in either direction,
and low torque ripple. They can work with a very wide range of magnet
configurations and an enormous range of winding configurations, and
can take advantage of the coilwinding technology that has been
developed for both AC induction motors and DC brushtype motors.
They can operate with either squarewave drive or sinewave drive, and are
Well adapted to the development of "sensorless" controllers that require
no physical shaft position sensor.
No. of phajcj Conductor utilization No. of power Torque ripple %
% twitches
1 50 2 100
2 SO 4 or 8 30
3 67 fi or 3 IS
4 75 8 10
6 83 12 7
12 92 24 3
35
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s pe r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
8 POLE
SKEWED RING
MAGNET
Twopole motors not only have the largest diameter, but they also have
the greatest susceptibility to magnetic unbalance which can lead to shaft
flux and induced currents in the bearings.
Another important point regarding the number of poles has to do with
cost. For example, if a bonded ring magnet is used which is molded
from one of the rareearth materials or a ferrite material, it is easy to
magnetize any number of poles desired on the outside diameter or inside
diameter of the ring. In fact, it does not cost any more to magnetize two
poles than it does a hundred poles once the magnetizing fixture is paid
for. On the other hand, if the motor uses arcs or blocks of samarium
cobalt, the greater the number of poles the greater is the cost in magnets
and labor for fabrication.
It is not surprising then to find that most brushless motors have four, six
or eight poles, with four poles being the most popular choice.
If a rotor is to be designed using embedded slab magnets, there are
several possible configurations. It is easier to configure a design with low
flux leakage from the poles if a high pole number is used. Examples are
shown in Figs. 2.2 e, 3.1a, 3.16 and 3.1 e. It is clear from these examples
that a certain amount of flux can leak from pole to pole inside the rotor,
rather than crossing the airgap and interacting with the stator current to
produce torque. If the magnets are thick enough a sixpole design can
be used with embedded flat magnets, but in most instances an 8pole
design is required to minimize the flux leakage on the inside o f the
rotor.
As shown in Fig. 3 . 1 skewing of the magnet poles may be used to
reduce cogging torque. This requires specially tooled magnet arcs. If a
ring magnet is used as shown in Fig. 3.1/ the poles can be skewed
magnetically in the magnetizing fixture. The other possibility to reduce
cogging is to radius or chamfer the edges of the magnet poles as shown
in Figs. 3.16, d, and e. This socalled poleshaping at the edges of the
poles can be more costeffective because specially tooled skewed pole arcs
are difficult to manufacture. The actual pole arc angle itself will be
covered in the next section.
38
3. BASIC DESIGN CHOICES
Slots 8 IS IB 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48
Poles 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
6 10 4 6 4 6 4 6 4 fi 4
fi 14 6 10 fi 10 fi 10 fi
10 10 18 8 14 10 14 8
12 18 22 10 22 12 18 10
14 20 12 26 14 12
14 30 26 14
20 28 18
22 30 20
24 34 SO
26 34
28 36
38
40
42
Until recently, it appears that certain pole and slot numbers are more
popular than others. However, there are many combinations of slot and
polenumbers that can be used effectively. Tables 3.33.7 list all the
possible polenumbers which will operate with stator laminations having
slotnumbers from 3 to 48, for 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 phases.
Many of the combinations listed are not immediately obvious from a
casual observation, and the tables have been generated with the aid of a
special computer program. It is quite possible that there are useful
applications for some of these slot/pole/phase combinations that have
not been previously used.
39
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
Slot) 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 SO 33 Sfi 39 42 45 48
Polci 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
6 a 10 6 8 8 6 8 8 6 8 8 6 8
8 10 8 14 10 8 10 10 8 10 in 8 10
12 18 12 16 16 10 20 14 10 14 14 10 14
14 20 12 22 20 12 16 16 12 16
16 18 26 22 14 26 26 14 20
20 26 16 28 28 16 32
22 28 22 32 32 20 34
24 24 34 34 28 38
26 30 40
28 32
30 34
32 38
40
310
3. B a sic d e s ic n c h o ic e s
Slotl 8 16 24 32 441
Polei 2 2 2 2 2 " l
2
4 4 6 4 6 4
6 10 6 10 6
10 18 8 14 10
12 10 26 12
14 12 SO 14
14 34 18
20 20
22 30
24 34
26 36
28 38
40
Slots 5 10 15 20 25 SO 35 40 45 
Pole. 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 i
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
8 12 8 8 8 8 8 8
12 10 12 12 12 12
14 16 IB 14 14 14
Ifi IB 22 22 16 16
20 24 24 24 IB
22 26 26 26 28
2B 28 32
32 34
34 36
3 n
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s pe r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
Slots 12 24 3fi
Poles 2 2 2
10 4 fi
10 10
20 14
22
26
30
For example, if the slots/pole is even, then every edge of every pole lines
up with every slot, causing cogging. If a fracdonalslot combination is
used, fewer poleedges line up with the slots. The actual pole arc can
make this situation worse or better. A fractionalslot configuration
minimizes the need for skewing of either the poles or the lamination
stack to reduce cogging. In fact, it is recommended that a integralslot
winding never be used. Note that this precludes one of the most famous
brushless motorsthe one with 4 poles and 12 slots, as well as all of its
derivatives from the 3 slots/pole series.
A final point to be made about the slot and pole relationship concerns
the winding pitch. Since the coils can be wound only over an integral
number of slots, the winding pitch is determined by dividing the number
of slots by the number of poles and rounding off to the next lower
number, or in the case of the 0.75 slot/pole series, the next larger whole
number. The winding pitch or span is summarised in Table 3.9 for all
the slots/pole ratios in Table 3.8.
It should be obvious that the end turns are shortest when the pitch is
one or two slotpitches. Anything above 2 requires a considerable
overlapping of end turns from one coil around the preceding coil end
turn. This requires that coils be either handinserted or machine wound
with expensive AC inductionmotor winding equipment. The singleslot
and 2^slot pitch windings can be automatically wound on needle winders
used for winding stepping motors and series motor stators, and are
economical to make.
312
3. B a sic d e s ig n c h o ic e s
313
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
314
3. B a sic d e s ic n c h o ic e s
'American readers will be interested to know that Joseph Henry, an Albany, N.Y.,
schoolmaster for whom the unit of inductance is named, discovered the law of
electromagnetic induction at about the same time as Faraday, if not before, but Faraday was
narrow!)' first to publish. Ironically, Faraday gave his name (or part of it) to the unit of
capacitance, which is of very liltlc significance in electrical machines! One of the reasons
for Faradays experimental success, after famous scientists had searched in vain for
electromagnetic induction for many years, was that as a chemist he took much trouble to
Obtain and use highconductivity oxygenfree copper for winding his coils, which at the time
was not generally available. He also owned stock in a Welsh copper mine.
315
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s per m a n en t m a g n e t m o t o r s
i 1
Positive Positive
generator motor i
current current
316
3. B a sic d e sig n c h o ic e s
electrons drift to one side of the conductor. The force really appears on
the electrons but since they are, on average, displaced from their
electricallyneutral distribution, there is a force of attraction between
them and the positivelycharged ions of the copper lattice, in a direction
across the conductor orthogonal to the direction of current flow. By this
means the force is transmitted as an electrostatic force to the conductor
itself. The Hall coefficient, which relates the electrostatic voltage across the
conductor to the product of the magnetic field and the current, is
extremely small in copper, which is probably why this effect is rarely
discussed or even noticed.
The Lorentz force law is unnecessary in deriving motor design equations
because the desired equation for the torque can usually be derived from
Faraday's Law with the law of conservation of energy, embodied in the
principle of virtual work and the concept of coenergysee Chapter 5. The
widespread use of the Lorentz law is undoubtedly due to its simplicity. In
many cases it gives the correct result, but in slotted motors this is
fortuitous and it is always wise to question its validity.
The force law, however derived and formulated, becomes a torque law
in rotating machines because the rotor is mounted in bearings and the
tangential force "appearing at the rotor surface" moves with the rotor.
The most fundamental laws or equations involved in the design and
performanceanalysis of electrical machines are summarized in Table
3.10, along with the basic laws of electromagnetism that go with them.
317
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s pe r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
318
3. B a sic d e sig n c h o ic e s
all of the turns link the maximum flux 4> at the same time,
and their contributions to the total winding EMF are
generally not in phase with each other and should be
summed vectorially.
The magnets do not generally produce a perfect
squarewave of flux in the airgap. As a result, the average
EMF calculated by equation (3.2) is not equal to the peak
EMF, even if all the turns are concentrated together.
The backEMF constant can be modified to take these practical factors
into account by writing
Jc = l? ? p c. (3.3)
3 an
The value of the coefficient C depends on the pole arc and the winding
distribution and connection. The effects of these are discussed at length
in later chapters, particularly Chapter 7. For delta connection, the 2/3
factor is replaced by 1/3.
If $ is measured in SI units (Wb or Webers), and in mechanical
rad/sec, then is in volts. (Z, p, and a are numeric with no dimensions).
If <E> is measured in lines, then equation (3.3) should be multiplied by
10 8 to get E in volts.
As shown in chapters 1 and 5, in squarewave motors the torque is
proportional to the DC current / and the constant of proportionality or
torque constant fcj is equal to fcE if both are expressed in SI units (Nm/A
and Vs/rad). Other units are frequendy quoted, however, and for
reference the relationships between some common units are summarized
in Table 3.11.
8 Note that the RMS value is different again. Unlike the RMS value of the current,
the RMS value of the backEMF is of no interest in brushleu motor design. However, care
should be taken while measuring it with electronic instruments (particularly multimeters),
because these arc often set up to measure and indicate RMS values and not average or peak
values. The way to be certain of backEMF values is to measure them on an oscilloscope,
preferably a digital processing oscilloscope that can calculate the mean value while
displaying the whole waveform. The waveform is of interest for many other reasons, not
least for analyzing torque ripple.
319
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
320
3. B a sic d e s ig n c h o ic e s
magnet within the magnetic circuit formed by the motor geometry, using
equadon (4.12):
PC = * h* x A (3.4)
f lX G g AU
321
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
322
3. BASIC DESIGN CHOICES
3.6.3 Basic sizing rules
Magn& overhangIf Ferrite magnets are used as shown in Fig. 2.5, it is
normal practice to increase the magnet area and resulting flux by making
the magnet axial length longer than the stator lamination stack. The
effects of increased flux by using magnet overhang can be quite
significant on a shores tack motor. The amount of overhang should
never exceed the magnet thickness on each end. Surfacemagnet rotors
with Rareearth magnets normally do not use overhang because the
remanence is so high that the stator teeth cannot cany the extra flux,
their width already having been made as small as possible to maximize
winding space.
Qmsequentfole deignsOne of the main advantages of consequentpole
designs (as shown in Fig. 2.2d) is that operation at the maximum energy
product is practical because the thicker magnet is used to drive two air
gaps, which decreases the permeance coefficient.
*Spoke* designsIn the case of the "spoke" design, Fig. 2.2e, the magnet
thickness is again based on two airgaps in series, each with one half of
the soft iron pole area. This configuration is costeffective for both
Ferrite and bonded NdFeB grades because the magnets are flat slabs.
They can be easily magnetized before assembly without concerns about
cleaning after machining. Given the accuracy of the soft iron pole pieces
between the magnets there is no need for machining or grinding on the
finished rotor assembly. Mechanical retention of embedded magnets in
the spoke configuration is more dependable than than any method
which relies solely on adhesive. Other benefits of the embeddedmagnet
rotor (spoke and interiorrotor types) include low magnet cost, low
magnet tooling cost, and high airgap fluxdensity. Also the soft iron pole
piece can be shaped to reduce cogging.
325
D e s ic n o f b r u sh l e s s pe r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
326
3. B a sic d e s ig n c h o ic e s
3. Welding
4. Selfcleating
5. Slot liners
The bonding method is usually used only for prototypes or small
quantities. It is obvious by its name that epoxy in the form of a thin spray
coating is applied to at least one side of every lamination before they are
stacked in a fixture, clamped, and heated to cure the epoxy. Another
form of this is to align, clamp, preheat and apply Loctite which
penetrates between the laminations and bonds them together. Another
method is to provide holes in the stamping die to accept throughrivets
which are staked in place. The holes must be located at points in the
magnetic circuit such that the electrical circuits formed by shorting the
laminations to the rivets will not have significant induced currents in
them. The rivet holes are usually near the outside diameter of the
lamination. Rivets or overboils can be fitted outside the lamination stack.
In some cases they also help to hold the endbells in position.
Another common procedure is automatic TIG (tungsten/inert gas)
welding. This can be used on an automatic assembly line for lowcost,
highvolume production.
A popular method of stacking and retaining laminations into packs that
do not require welding is to use a progressive punching die with a station
at the end of the stamping process which makes a small indentation in
each lamination. The indentations protrude on the other side of each
lamination, providing a selfcleating action when they are nested together
under pressure. The indentations are usually located in the
neighborhood of the teeth.
A common way to hold stacks together until they are wound during the
production of AC induction motors is easily used for brushless DC
motors because of the similarity of the stator laminations. This method
uses cuffs on each end of the slot liners which are automatically inserted
into the stator slot openings. The cuffs on either end of the lamination
stack are folded back automatically and hold the stack together quite
snugly until it is wound and varnished. This is an excellent method for
high speed automatic brushless motor manufacturing which can be
borrowed or adapted from induction motor production lines. Skewed
packs can be made after winding using this system.
328
3. Basic d e s ig n c h o ic e s
Insulating the slots1O nce the lamination stack is in a pack form, it must
be insulated before winding so that the magnet wire does not short out
to the pack. There are several ways that this is accomplished. For
prototypes either handcut slotliners and end insulators are used, or if
the equipment is available a 3M fluidizedbed epoxy coating system can
be used. For highvolume production motors a molded plastic insulator
is commonly used for small brushless machines, usually one on each side
of the pack. Frequently, in the molding process of the insulators various
connection methods are molded as part of the insulator so that
automatic connections of lead wires, Hall switches or printed circuit
boards can be incorporated with the attachment of the magnet wire from
(he coil windings. This highvolume insulating and connecting technique
is seldom used in large motors. The most common method for larger
motors is the cuffed slot liner as used in AC induction motors.
Automatic equipment is available for this sort of insulating.
fig. 3.3 Lamination packs with slot liners (courtesy of Industra Automation)
329
D esig n o f b r u sh l e s s pe r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
331
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e ss p e r m a n en t m a g n e t m o t o r s
332
3. B a sic d e s ig n c h o ic e s
333
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
334
3. B a sic d e sig n c h o ic e s
6 SLOT 12 SLOT
4 POLE 4 POLE
1 COIL/POLE/PHASE 2 CO IL/POLE/PHASE
24 SLOT 36 SLOT
4 POLE 4 POLE
336
3. B a sic d e s ig n c h o ic e s
With the 24slot stator in Fig. 3.4, the coil span could be 6 slots, but with
1 coil per pole and three phases, half the slots would be empty while the
other half would contain two coilsides each. Fig. 3.4 shows a more
practical arrangement with a coil span of 5 slots and one coil per pole.
With the 36slot stator the coil span could be 9 slots but 8,7,6 or even 5
could be used. The winding shown has 2 coils/pole with spans of 9 and
8 each. Alternatively the spans could be 8 and 7 slots. This is a concentric
winding. In an electrically equivalent lap winding, all coils would have the
same span, either 8 or 7, and there would still be two coils per pole.
The windings in Fig. 3.4 are all relatively concentrated, as would be
suitable for squarewave motors. For sinewave motors it is more
appropriate to use shortpitched coils and a more distributed winding.
The windings in Fig. 3.4 fill exactly 1/3 of the available space in the slots,
leaving the same amount of space for the other two windings.
4 POLE ROTOR 6 COILS/POLE
ST ARTS FINISHES
337
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
A B C A B C
I I
I
T
1
4
A B C A B C
START S FI NI SHES
Fig. 3.5b Concentric winding
An example of a lap winding is shown in Fig. 3.5a, and an example of a
concentric winding in Fig. 3.5b.
3.8.3 Winding configurationsfractional and integral slot
An integralslot stator is one with an integral number of slots per pole, so
that the polepitch is an integral number of slotpitches. The windings of
integralslot stators are naturally regular and symmetrical: the coils fall
naturally into groups, each group usually being associated with one pole
as in the 36slot stator in Fig. 3.4.
A fiactionalslot stator has a nonintegral number of slots per pole: for
example, a 4pole motor with 15 slots has 3.75 slots/pole and there is no
perfectly symmetrical winding arrangement with identical groups of coils
338
3. B a sic d e sig n c h o ic e s
The first step is to calculate the slots/pole and the maximum coil span
ffraax us*ng equation (3.9). 0max is an integral number of slotpitches,
and the remainder e is a fractional number of slotpitches between 0 and
1 : thus
D e s ig n o f b r u s h l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
For the 15/4 motor, <Jmax = 3 and e = 0.75. The actual coil span used
can be less than 3 slots, and in the example shown in Fig. 3.6 the coil
span is a = 2 slots.
The first coil in Fig. 3.6 is wound in slots 1 & 3, so the position of the
axis of this coil can be charactemed as (1 + 3)/2 = 2, i.e. 2 slotpitches
from the origin (the waxis), or aligned with the centreline of slot 2.
The rule for locating subsequent coils is expressed in terms of Sp, the
number of slots forward from the "return" coilside of the previous coil to
the "go" coilside of the coil next to be inserted. The value of is given
by
=
f CTm a x + 1 if e S 0 .5
(311)
I ^ s s t7max> f > 05
where Na is the number of slots per section. The winding is divided into
sections if the number of coils per phase Cph is divisible by the number
of polepairs p. In fact, the number of sections S is equal to the highest
common factor of and polepairs p, so that
N = ^ 2 * . (3.12)
H C F [^h^ ]
The rule expressed in equations (3.11) and (3.12) tends to minimize the
buildup of phase displacement or phase error between subsequent coils.
Note that when Sp = cj nax + 1 the winding is progressive, in the sense that
successive coils follow one another in the positive (CCW) direction.
When Sp = Na  omax, the winding is retrogressive in the sense that
successive coils follow one another in the negative (CW) direction.
The winding in Fig. 3.6 has only one section: the number of coils per
phase is 15/3 = 5, and this has no common factor with p, which
is 2. Therefore Nss = Njloti = 15, and with CTmax = 3 and e = 0.75 > 0.5, .Sp
= 3 + 1 = 4 slots. Since the "return" coilside of coil 1 is in slot 3, the "go"
coilside of coil 2 will be in slot 3 + 4 = 7 . The polarity of successive coils
is alternated so that coil 2 has a span of 2 rather than +2, and its
"return" coilside is therefore in slot 7  2 = 5 . Note that the axis of coil
2 is at (7 + 5)/2 = 6, and this is 4 slots further on than the axis of coil 1.
Since the polepitch is 3.75 slots, the axis of coil 2 is displaced 1/4 of a
340
3. B a sic d e s ic n c h o ic e s
slot clockwise from the position it would need to have in order for the
EMF's in coils 1 and 2 to be in phase. It can be said that the phase
displacement between coil 2 and coil 1 is + 1 /4 slot. This does not sound
much, but in clectrical degrees 1 slot is equivalent to 1 /1 5 x 2 x 360 =
48, so the phase displacement of coil 2 is 12 relative to coil 1 .
Proceeding with the winding, coil 3 is in slots (5 + 4) = 9 and (9 + 2) =
11. Its axis is at (9 + l l ) / 2 = 10, that is, 8 slotpitches further on than the
axis of coil 1. The nearest integral number of polepitches from the axis
of phase 1 is at 7.5 slotpitches from the axis of phase 1, and therefore
coil 3 has a phase displacement of 1 /2 slot or 24 relative to coil 1.
The winding can be completed by continuing in the same fashion: coil
4 is in slots 15 & 13 with a phase displacement of 36, and coil 5 is in
slots 2 & 4 with a phase displacement of 48 or one complete slot. The
resulting coil list is summarized in Table 3.13.
Coil No. Turn* Go slot Retn dot Span
1 12 1 3 2
2 12 7 5 2
3 12 9 11 2
4 12 15 13 2
5 12 2 4 2
341
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
The threephase motor in Fig. 3.7 has 18 slots and 8 poles, and C. , =
18/3 = 6 coils per phase. With p = 4, the highest common factor o f fph
and p is 2, and therefore there will be two sections and two sequences,
each containing 3 coils. Each section will have 4 poles and = 9 slots.
The number of slots/pole is 18/8 = 2.25, so oraax = 2 and e = 0.25.
Therefore, from equation (3.11), 5^ = 9  2 * 7. These parameters
define the winding pattern shown in Fig. 3.7 for the first three coils only,
forming the first sequence. The second sequence is obtained by copying
the first sequence coilsideforcoilside, Na slots further on. Thus coil 1 in
slots 1 Sc 3 is followed by coil 2 in slots (3 + 7) = 10 and (10  2) = 8,
then the first sequence is completed by coil 3 in slots (8 + 7) = 15 and
15 + 2 = 17. The second sequence is obtained by copying coil 1 to coil
342
3. B a sic d e sic n c h o ic e s
343
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s pe r m a n en t m a g n e t m o t o r s
Fig. 3,8 BackEMF waveform for threephase 15/4 motor of Fig, 3.6.
a EMF waveform of one coil
b lineline EMF waveform of entire winding {wye connection)
c Electromagnetic torque waveform with squarewave drive
Also shown in Fig. 3.8 is the electromagnetic torque waveform obtained
with perfect squarewave drive. Similarly, Fig. 3.9a shows the backEMF
waveform from a single coil of the winding in Fig. 3.7, and Fig. 3.9b
shows the lineline backEMF waveform from the whole winding.
344
3. B a sic d e s ig n c h o ic e s
Fig. 3.9 BackEMF waveform for threephase 18/8 motor of Fig. 3.7.
a EMF waveform of one coil
b lineline EMF waveform of entire winding (wye connection)
c Electromagnetic torque waveform with squarewave drive
The winding is connected in wye. Fig. 3.9 c shows the torque waveform for
squarewave drive. In both cases the magnet pole arc is 140 electrical,
and the singlecoil waveforms were calculated w i t h 5 x ! 2 = 60 turns in
345
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s pe r m a n en t m a g n e t m o t o r s
Offset = 1 x + k= i i2 3 (3.13)
3 2p p
With integer values of k, the second term merely advances the start of
phase 2 by 360A electrical degrees. Some examples of windings are given
in Figs. 3.113.19, and the Offset parameter is tabled in these figures.
For example, in Fig. 3.11, with 6 slots and 2 poles {p = 1), equation
(3.13) gives Offset = 2 with no need for the second term, i.e. k = 0. In Fig.
3.12, with 9 slots and 8 poles, 2/3 x 9/8 = 3/4, which is not an integer.
Trying k = 1 gives 3/4 + 9/4 = 12/4 = 3, which is the correct value of
Offset for this winding. If no integral value of Offset can be found from
equation (3.13), it is impossible to wind a balanced threephase winding
in the given number of slots and poles. For example, with 15 slots and
6 poles Offset is nonintegral for all integer values of k. On the other
hand, the 15/4 motor works with k= 1 to give Offset = 10, as in Fig. 3.16.
Cheeking the windingA simple check on the validity of a winding
configuration generated by equations (3.1113) is to test whether all the
slots contain equal numbers of coilsides. Generally this will be the case,
provided that valid slot/pole combinations are used (Tables 3.39).
346
3. B a sic d e s ig n c h o ic e s
348
3. B a sic d e s ig n c h o ic e s
same for every motor configuration within the same group, so the
examples shown can be applied to other motors in the same group.
The backEMF waveforms in Figs. 3.113.19 were calculated without any
fringing effects, i.e. assuming no airgap .5 When actual backEMF
waveshapes are measured on motors of these examples, fringing causes
the comers to be rounded: see Chapter 8. This does not significandy
affect the usefulness of this data in making comparisons between the
different configurations.
Some combinations of the windings and polearcs give rise to excessive
thirdharmonic EMFs in the phases, making them unsuitable for delta
connection. This is discussed in more detail in Chapter 5.
All the plots in Figs. 3.113.19 extend over 180 electrical degrees. The
data with each curve includes the average value of the backEMF
throughout the 60 commutation zone, expressed as a percentage of the
peak value of the ideal squarewave backEMF that would be achieved with
a concentrated fullpitch coil (see Chapters 5,7 and 8). This percentage
expresses the effect of the coil span, skew, and method of connection on
the torque constant. The ideal commutation zone average would be
100%, but the actual value is reduced by shortpitching the windings, by
fringing at the edges of the magnet, and by skew. The reduction in
average EMF caused by skewing is noticeable and is the price paid for
low cogging torque. Other techniques for reducing cogging (radii or
chamfers on the magnets) have similar effects on the backEMF wave.
The number of slots can be determined using the examples as a general
guide, along with the rotor pole arc angle to achieve the desired output
considering cogging torque and winding designs. In general, the smallest
number of slots gives the lowest labor cost in winding, and a coil span of
1 or 2 slots yields the lowest phase resistance. The phase inductance is
decreased if the same number of turns is distributed among a greater
number of slots, so the electrical time constant can be lower with a
greater number of slots per pole.
c The computer program, which is the work of G. Aha and R.C. Perrinc, constructs
the waveforms from a 35term Fourier series. The truncation is the cause of the high
frequency ripple visible on some of the waveforms (Cihb phrrwmrrwn).
349
D e sig n o f bru sh less perm a nent m a g n et m o t o r s
Slots/pole 0.75
Slots 6
Poles 8
Phases 3
Pole arc 30 (120e)
Offset 2
Coil span 1
Hg. 3.11a
WYE DELTA
Skew
350
3. B a sic d e sig n c h o ic e s
Slots/pole 0.75
Slots 6
Poles 8
Phases 3
Pole arc 45 (180e)
Offset 2
Coil span 1
Fig. 3.11 fr
WYE DELTA
Skew
351
D esig n o f bru sh less perm a nent m a gnet m o t o r s
Slots/pole 1.125
Slots 9
Poles 8
Phases 3
Pole arc 30 (120 e)
Offset 3
Coil span 1
Fig. 3.12a
WYE DELTA
Skew
Skew = 1
352
3. B a sic d e s ig n c h o ic e s
Slots/pole 1.125
Slots 9
Poles 8
Phases 3
Pole arc 45 (180 e)
Offset 3
Coil span 1
Fig. 3.124
WYE DELTA
Excessive
thirdharmonic
Skew
Excessive
Skew = 1
thirdharmonic
353
D esig n o f bru sh less perm anent m a g n et m o t o r s
Slots/pole 1.5
Slots 6
Poles 4
Phases 3
Pole arc 60 (120e)
Offset 1
Coil span 1
Fig. 3.13a
WYE DELTA
Skew
354
3. B a sic d e s ig n c h o ic e s
Slots/pole 1.5
Slots 6
Poles 4
Phases 3
Pole arc 90 (180e)
Offset 1
Coil span 1
Fig. 3. ISA
WYE DELTA
Skew
355
D e sic n o f bru sh less perm a nent m a gnet m o t o r s
Slots/pole 2.25
Slots 18
Poles 8
Phases 3
Pole arc 30 (120e)
Offset 6
Coil span 2
Fig. 3.14a
WYE DELTA
Skew
Skew = 1
356
3. B a sic d e s ig n c h o ic e s
Slots/pole 2.25
Slots 18
Poles 8
Phases 3
Pole arc 45 (180e)
Offset 6
Coil span 2
Fig. 3.14ft
WYE DELTA
o Excessive
ii
thirdharmonic
Skew
Skew = 1
Excessive
thirdharmonic
357
D esig n o f bru sh less perm anent m a gnet m o t o r s
Slots/pole 3.0
Slots 12
Poles
Phases 3
Pole arc 60 ( 120 e)
Offset
Coil span
Fig. 3.15a
WYE DELTA
58
3. B a sic d e sig n c h o ic e s
Slots/pole 3.0
Slots 12
Poles 4
Phases 3
Pole arc 90 (180e)
Offset 2
Coil span 3
Fig. 3.15*
WYE DELTA
o Excessive
li thirdharmonic
Skew
Excessive
Skew = 1
thirdharmonic
359
D esig n o f brushless perm anent m a g n et m o t o r s
Slots/pole 3.75
Slots 15
Poles 4
Phases 3
Pole arc 60 ( 120e)
Offset 10
Coil span 3
Kg. S.lfia
WYE DELTA
J
/ \
Skew
360
3. B asic CHOICES
Slots/pole 3.75
Slots 15
Poles 4
Phases 3
Pole arc 90 (180e)
Offset 10
Coil span 3
fig.
WYE DELTA
Excessive
thirdharmonic
Excessive
thirdharmonic
D esig n o f bru sh less perm a nent m a gnet m o t o r s
Slots/pole 4.5
Slots 18
Poles 4
Phases 3
Pole arc 60 ( 120e)
Offset 3
Coil span 4
Fig. 3.17o
WYE DELTA
Skew
Skew = 1
362
3. BASIC DESIGN CHOICES
Slots/pole 4.5
Slots 18
Poles 4
Phases 3
Pole arc 90 (180 e)
Offset 3
Coil span 4
Fig. 3.17*
WYE DELTA
Skew
Excessive
Skew = 1
thirdharmonic
SS3
D esig n o f bru sh less perm a nent m a gnet m o t o r s
Slots/pole 5.25
Slots 21
Poles 4
Phases 3
Pole arc 60 (120 e)
Offset 14
Coil span 5
Fig. 3.18a
WYE DELTA
Skew
Skew = 1
364
3. B a sic d e s ig n c h o ic e s
Slots/pole 5.25
Slots 21
Poles 4
Phases 3
Pole arc 90 (180e)
Offset 14
Coil span 5
Fig. 3.1 BA
WYE DELTA
n Excessive
thirdharmonic
Skew
Excessive
Skew = 1
thirdharmonic
S65
D esig n o f bru sh less perm anent m a g n et m o t o r s
Slots/pole 6.0
Slots 24
Poles 4
Phases 3
Pole arc 60 ( 120e)
Offset 4
Coil span 6
Fig. 3.19a
DELTA
h
Skew
/
/ \
\'
Skew = 1
'
Slots/pole 6.0
Slots 24
Poles 4
Phases 3
Pole arc 90 (180 e)
Offset 4
Coil span 6
Fig. 3.19ft
WYE DELTA
Excessive
thirdharmonic
Excessive
thirdharmonic
367
D esig n o f bru sh less perm a nent m a gnet m o t o r s
Aw ~ \ ^slot^slot
N
(3.14)
The next smaller wire gage is selected from a wire table, after selecting
the type of varnish insulation required for the required temperature
rating.
[NOTE: The definition of slot fill used here is not the same as the ratio
of conductor area to total slot area, which is considerably lower.]
3.8.6 Basic winding calculations
ResistanceThe actual "bare copper" wire diameter is used to calculate the
phase resistance. This requires the determination of the mean length of
one turn (MLT). The M LT includes twice the stack length, plus twice
the endtum crossover length, plus twice the coil "bundle" thickness. A
full scale drawing or CAD print is useful for determining the MLT. For
concentric or concentrated windings, each coil in a pole group has a
different turn length, and this must be taken into account.
The resistance per coil Rc is a simple calculation using Q, the value of
resistance per 1000 ft. for the particular wire gage selected. Divide this
368
3. B a sic d e s ig n c h o ic e s
369
D esig n o f bru sh less perm a nent m a gnet m o t o r s
Fig. 3.21 Brushlew DC disc motor (Infranor). Drawing mpplitd by Uhw.Pnf. Dr
Ing. 0. Hmntbrrgrr of Institut fur Ehtktritchr. Maschmen, RWl'HAachm, [2]
370
D e sig n o f bru sh less perm a nent m a g n et m o t o r s
Fig. 321 shows a disc motor with two stator halves each carrying a set of
pole windings. The magnets are held in the rotating disc between the
$tator halves. The stator core is made from a woundup strip of steel
bolted to the housing for good heat transfer. This motor has low inertia.
Fig. 3,22 Exteriorrotor 40mm brushleu DC motor for computer disc drive. Phots
kindly supplied by Syruktron Corp., Portland, Ongpn
Figs. 3.22 and 3.23 show typical exteriorrotor motors of the type used in
computer disc drives and laser scanners.
371
D e sig n o f bru sh less perm a nent m a g n et m o t o r s
Fig. 3.23 Exteriorrotor halfheight brushless DC motor for computer disc drive.
Photo kindly supplied by Synfktron Corp., Portland, Ortgon
372
3. B a sic d e s ig n c h o ic e s
Fig. 3.24 Small bruihleu DC actuator motor. Photo kindt) supplied by Lucas Aeroipacr
Fig. 3.25 8pole spoketypc rotor (Pacific Scicntific F40 Series). Photo kindly supplied
by Pacific Scientific, Rockford, lUinoii
373
D e sig n o f b r u sh l e ss pe r m a n e n t  m a g n e t m o t o r s
Fig. 3.26 Pacific Scientific brushless servomotors. The largest of these motors (7,5')
produce up to 50 Nm continuous stall torque and 200 Nm peak torque.
Photo kindly supplied by Pacific Scientific, Radford, Illinois
374
4. MAGNETIC DESIGN
4.1 Introduction
The flux in a brushless permanentmagnet motor is established by the
magnets. We have seen in Chapter 1 that the torque is proportional to
the current and the flux, while the noload speed is proportional to the
voltage and inversely proportional to the flux. The flux is clearly a most
important parameter in the design. This chaptcr describes the simplest
methods of calculating it, for later use in the calculation of the EMF and
torque equations and the speed/torque characteristic.
The simplest motor is the 2pole motor, Fig. 4.1. The flux is intended to
link the coils of the phase windings on the stator, and these coils are
located as close as possible to the magnet to minimize the amount of
magnet flux that "leaks" from the N pole to the S pole without linking
any turns of the windings. The laminated steel core of the stator acts as
4 rl
D e sig n o f bru sh less perm anent m a g n et m o t o r s
a flux guide. The high permeability steel teeth draw the flux radially
across the narrow airgap and the yoke (backiron) returns it from the N
pole to the S pole with very little expenditure of MMF (magnetomotive
force or magnetic potential drop). The rotor hub performs a similar
function inside the rotor. Because the steel stator and rotor absorb very
little MMF, most of the magnets MMF is available to drive flux across the
airgap.
The slotting is an ingenious way to achieve a narrow airgap length while
keeping the winding conductors close to the magnet. Other benefits of
slotting are subtle but extremely important. The slotted structure
provides a rigid housing for the windings and their relatively fragile
insulation. It greatly increases the surface contact area between the
windings and the steel, providing a path of low thermal resistance which
is important in keeping the windings (and hence also the magnets) cool.
The steel does not have unlimited capacity for carrying flux. If the flux
density exceeds approximately 1.61.7 Tesla [TJ, the permeability
decreases rapidly. At a fluxdensity of about 2.1 T, the incremental
permeability of steel is practically the same as that of air. The magnetic
design should ensure that the fluxdensities in the steel are kept below
these levels, otherwise the magnet MMF will be wasted in driving flux
through the steel. The end result would be that the flux linking the
windings would be restricted; or, what amounts to the same thing, the
amount of magnet material required to establish a given flux would be
greatly increased.
Another reason for limiting the fluxdensity in the steel, especially in the
stator, is that the core losses increase rapidly at high fluxdensity. Core
losses are caused by hysteresis and by eddycurrents (see Chapter 9). The
eddycurrent component can be reduced by stamping the laminations
from thinnergauge sheet, or by using highSilicon steels, but both of
these measures increase cost.
Clearly there is a concentration of flux in the teeth. The flux crossing the
airgap funnels into the teeth, which occupy approximately half of the
periphery at a radius taken halfway down the slots. This means that the
airgap fluxdensity will be of the order of onehalf the maximum flux
density in the teeth, i.e., at most, 0.8 T if the steel is kept below 1.6 T.
The fluxdensity in the magnets in a surfacemagnet motor of the type
shown in Fig. 4.1 will be comparable to the airgap fluxdensity, or slightly
42
4. M a g n e t ic D e s ig n
higher. In motors of this type, only the socalled highenergy magnets
(CobaltSamarium; NeodymiumIronBoron) are capable of operating at
this high level of fluxdensity. Motors with ferrite magnets operate with
lower fluxdensities, and of course they are less expensive,
T able 4.1 M a g n e t ic / e l e c t r ic c ir c u it a n a lo c y
Electric circuit analysis employs ideal current and voltage sources, and
real sources of current and voltage can be represented by their Thevenin
or Norton equivalent circuits, i.e. a voltage source in series with an
internal resistance, or a current source in parallel with an internal
conductance. (Conductance = 1/resistance). Similarly, in magnetic
circuits a permanent magnet can be represented by a Thevenin
equivalent circuit comprising an MMF source in series with an internal
reluctance; or by a Norton equivalent circuit comprising a flux source in
parallel with an internal permeance, Fig. 4.2. (Permeance =
1/reluctance). This internal permeance is sometimed called the magnet
leakage permeance.
The Thevenin and Norton equivalent circuits are exactly equivalent and
cannot be distinguished from each other by measurements at the
"terminals", since they both represent the same thing. Which one to use
is a matter of convenience. For example in the Norton equivalent circuit,
the internal leakage permeance represents flux that circulates inside the
magnet and does not emerge from the pole faces.
43
D e sig n o f bru sh less perm anent m agnet m o t o r s
T H E V E N IN NORTON
MO
FLUX
44
4. M a g n e t ic D e sig n
The "opencircuit" condition, on the other hand, requires that the flux
leaving the magnet poles is zero. In order to achieve this, an external
demagnetizing MMF must be applied to suppress the flux. The external
MMF must exactly balance the internal MMF of the magnet when the
flux emerging from the poles is zero. It is only possible to do this in a
magnetizing fixture with a separate DC coil which provides the external
MMF. The terminal MMF is negative because it opposes the internal MMF
Fc of the magnet, and is exactly equal to it. Fc is called the coercive MMF
because it is the MMF required to coerce the magnet to produce zero
flux. It directly expresses the resistance of the magnet to
demagnetization.
The amount of flux <I>r that can be produced into an infinitely
permeable keeper expresses the maximum available flux from the
magnet. >r is called the remanent flux. This is an historical term
describing how much flux "remains" in the magnet after it has been
magnetized. It should be interpreted carefully, because the ability of a
magnet to retain flux in a magnetic circuit depends on Fc as much as it
does on 4*r. It is better to think of 4>r as the flux "retained by a keeper
in the magnetic shortcircuit condition.
In normal operation there is no keeper, and the magnet operates at a
flux below <&r This is because the MMF drop across the airgap appears
as a negative, demagnetizing MMF as seen from the magnet "terminals".
In addition, the phase currents produce an additional demagnetizing
MMF which drives the operating point still further down the
characteristic.
It is clear from this that magnets require two parameters Fc and <t>r to
characterize them properly. Moreover, the slope of the magnet
characteristic relates Fc and For a given remanent flux <l>r, it is
desirable to have the flattest possible slope since this is associated with a
high value of Fc and a high resistance to demagnetization.
The most suitable magnets for brushless motors are the ferrites or ceramic
magnets, and the highenergy rareearth and NeodymiumIronBoron
magnets. All these magnets have straight characteristics whose slope is
close to the theoretical maximum, and they are classified as hard magnets
because of their high resistance to demagnetization. Other magnets,
particularly Alnico magnets, have a high remanent flux but very low
45
D esig n o f brushless perm a nent m a gnet m o t o r s
O P E N C IR C U IT 
O P E R A T IN G P O IN T
NORMAL LOAD
DEMAG LOAD LINE
C H A R A C T E R IS T IC
/P .C .
KN EE
H ca j Hc M ' ' m
PROJECTED
CURVE ACTUAL curve DEMAG EFFECT
OF PHASE CURRENT
Fig, 4.4 B /H characteristic of a hard permanent magnet material. This is the second
quadrant part of the full hysteresis loop. Note the krut. Also shown is the normal
operating point, the load line, and the effect of demagnetizing phase current.
This scales the units on the horizontal axis from A/m to Tesla, so that
the slope of the demagnetization characteristic becomes equal to the
relative recoil permeability, Hrec Hard permanent magnets have a relative
recoil permeability in the range 1.01.1, close to that of air. With the
horizontal axis plotted as instead of H, a relative recoil permeability
of 1 has a slope of 45. When c.g.s. units (Gauss and Oersteds) are used
for B and H, there is no need to scale the horizontal axis because the
permeability of free space is unity in the c.g.s. system.
We have already seen that the airgap applies a static demagnetizing field
to the magnet, causing it to operate below its remanent fluxdensity. With
no current in the phase windings, the operating point is typically at the
point labelled OPENCIRCUIT in Fig. 4.4, with BM of the order of 0.70.95
* Bt. The line from the origin through the opencircuit operating point
is called the load line.
47
D e s ic n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n en t m a g n e t m o t o r s
S.I. c.g.s.
1 Tesla 10^ gauss or 10 kG
I A/m 471/1000 Oe
1 kj/m3 n/25 MGOe
The slope of the load line is the penneance coefficient, (P.C.). With the
horizontal axis plotted as instead of H, or in c.g.s. units, the
permeance coefficient is typically in the range 515.
When current flows in the phase windings, the additional field may drive
the operating point still further down the demagnetization characteristic,
depressing the airgapfluxdensity as well as the magnet fluxdensity below
the opencircuit or noload value. When the phase current is removed,
the operating point recovers to the opencircuit point, and the recovery
is complete and reversible provided that the excursion of the operating
point has not left the straight part of the demagnetization characteristic.
The straight part, over which the magnet normally operates, is called the
recoil line.
In Fig. 4.4 the intersection of the recoil line with the negadve//M axis is
labelled //ca, the apparent coercivity. This is used later in the magnetic
circuit calculation. The actual coercivity is labelled Hc.
The best grades of hard permanent magnets have demagnetization curves
that remain straight throughout the second quadrant and in some cases
well into the third quadrant (negative BM as well as negative //M). These
magnets can withstand a demagnetizing field that is sufficient actually to
reverse the flux in the magnet, and still recover with no permanent loss
of magnetism.
Other materials have a knee in the second quadrant, as in Fig. 4.4. If the
operating point is forced below the knee, then when the demagnetizing
field is removed the magnet recovers along a lower recoil line. Fig. 4.4
shows an example in which the demagnetizing field is just sufficient to
reduce to zero. The magnet "recoils" along the depressed recoil line,
but it has lost almost 20% of its remanent flux. This loss is irreversible.
48
4. M a g n e t ic D esig n
A material which has a straight demagnetization characteristic at room
temperature may develop a knee in the second quadrant at higher
temperatures (this is characteristic of CobaltSamarium and Neodymium
IronBoron magnets); or at lower temperatures (this is characteristic of
Ferrite magnets).
Generally, the remanent fluxdensity Bf decreases with temperature. This
effect is usually specified in terms of the reversible temperature coefficient of
Bt, quoted in % per degree C. If this coefficient is given the symbol a fir,
then the remanent fluxdensity at temperature 7"C is given by
B im = Brm M l + Br * I ?  20)/100] (4.4)
49
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
Bm t
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
^ 0 HM T 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2
410
4. M a g n e t ic D esig n
LEAKAGE FLUX
A IN FLUX
*9
411
D esig n o f bru sh less perm anent m a g n et m o t o r s
PL is in parallel with the magnet internal permeance The armature
MM F Fa due to phase current is shown as an MMF in series with the
airgap reluctance R^, but it will be assumed initially that = 0 (open
circuit conditions).
In Fig. 4.7, permeances P and reluctances R are mixed freely, reflecting
the point of view in which a leakage permeance diverts magnet flux away
from the windings, while a reluctance (principally of the airgap) presents
a magnetic "resistance" to the flux. The reluctances of the steel stator
and rotor are omitted from Fig. 4.7 for simplicity, i.e., it is assumed that
the steel is infinitely permeable. The magnet permeance is given by
hi P
(4.7)
412
4. M a g n e t ic D esig n
M a g n e t (1 pole)
Note that having^ KG < 1 means that the airgap flux density is reduced
compared to the value it would have if there were no leakage. The
corresponding fluxdensity in the magnet is determined as
' B 7LKG
~ * 7 Ms r LKQV (410)
Since ^lkG < 1, for a given airgap flux the magnet flux and fluxdensity
are greater than they would be if there were no leakage. This is
intuitively correct, since the magnet must provide the leakage flux over
and above the airgap flux.
The operating point of the magnet can now be determined either
graphically, from Fig. 4.4; or by calculating //M from the equation which
describes the demagnetization characteristic:
Bh = + Bt ; > B^. (4.11)
The inequality B ^ > By, expresses the need to check that the operating
point is above the knee point.
With the foregoing equations it is not difficult to determine the value of
the permeance coefficient, and a convenient formula is
PC =  J  * h i * jli.. (4.12)
^UCG g'
In surfacemagnet motors and the permeance coefficient is
roughly equal to / ^ / g . In order to achieve a high permeance
coefficient, desirable for operating as close as possible to the remanent
fluxdensity, the magnet length needs to be much greater than the airgap
length.
414
4. M a g n e t ic D e sig n
Another useful relationship involving the permeance coefficient [2] is
* * = tPC*
f T ;Mrec
, x (413)
Since nrec is close to unity for most hard magnets used in brushless
motors, a high permeance coefficient ensures that the magnet operates
close to its remanent point. A value of 5 would be typical, giving ^ =
0.83flr with ircc = 1. If the permeance coefficient is as low as 1, then
with prec = 1 5 ^ = Br/2, which corresponds to the maximum BH product
or energy product.
It can be seen from these design equations that, with a given magnet
material, the need for a high flux density is satisfied by making the
magnet as thick as possible in relation to the airgap length, while the
need for a large flux per pole is satisfied by increasing the magnet pole
area. For the opencircuit condition the magnet volume per pole can be
shown to satisfy the equation
2 W . ..
K, = I _, (4.14)
M I ^ mI
where is the magnetic energy per pole stored in the airgap, equal to
BgH^/2 x A x g. This energy is determined by the volume of the airgap
and the fluxdensity B , so in order to minimize the volume of magnet
material required, it appears that the magnet should be operated with
the maximum energy product If the demagnetization
characteristic is straight, then the maximum energy product occurs when
= Br/ 2, with a permeance coefficient approximately equal to 1 , i.e.,
the operating point is halfway down the demagnetization characteristic.
This theoretical result is never applied in practical motor design, however, because
of the allowances needed for the demagnetizing MMF of the phase currents and
temperature effects.
Nevertheless, it is still meaningful to talk about a magnet material as
having a high maximum energy product  b e c a u s e this is a single
number representing the fact that both the remanent fluxdensity and
the coercivity are high. In common parlance, the BIImax figure is widely
used to express the "strength" of various magnet grades, and the units
are usually MGOe (megaGaussOersteds) or kj/m .
415
D e s ig n o f b r u s h l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
^ca (4.15)
where Hca is the apparent coerchrity of the magnet. This is defined in Fig.
4.4, and is usually greater than the actual coercivity because of the knee
that may exist in the demagnetization curve in the second quadrant.
Like the linear calculation in the previous section, the nonlinear
calculation begins by assuming that the solution for will not fall below
the kneepoint value 1^, and this must be checked independently.
Proceeding with the individual MMF drops, and starting with the airgap,
the airgap fluxdensity is initially assumed to be equal to the value
calculated in equation (4.9). Then
(4.16)
Assume that the stator yoke flux is equal to the gap flux crossing the
airgap over half the pole area. Then
(4.17)
416
4. M a g n e t ic D e sig n
where Asy is the yoke crosssection area, and
U sy  X s y (V
The functional notation represents a linear (or cubicspline)
interpolation along the B/H curve of the steel. In other words, once the
yoke fluxdensity is calculated from equation (4.17), the magnetic field
strength H^ is determined from the B /H curve. Then
^ ^ * A* <419)
where L^. is the length of the fluxpath through the stator yoke over
onehalf of a polepitch. Similar equations are written for the stator teeth
and for the rotor yoke,giving MMF components Fst and respectively.
The magnet flux is taken to be
 5 s (4.20)
LKG
^ = MT 1 = M L K G (421)
Fu *V (422>
Now all the MMF drops are added together
F  4 + + F* + Fv> + (423)
The principle of the iteration is that if F > Fca, is decreased and the
calculation is repeated; if F< Fa , B is increased and the calculation is
repeated, and this continues until r is within 0.1% of F^. An under
relaxation factor can be used, multiplying the righthand side of equation
(4.23) to assist convergence, or Newtons method can be used.
417
D esig n o f brushless perm a nent m a gnet m o t o r s
M. (4 2 5 )
1 + LKG MO g
421
D e sig n o f bru sh less perm a nent m agnet m o t o r s
4r22
4. M a c n e t ic D e sig n
q axis
elemental strip bounded by two arcs, centre H, radii rand r+ dr, between
the equipotential surfaces AD and CD. The flux through this strip is
(4.30)
where /"is the MMF or magnetic potential drop between faces AD and
CD. The total flux between faces AD and CD is given by
(4.31)
The permeance ratio for this shape is the coefficient of (1/H qI^) fy/F, i.e.
(1/0) In (r2/ r j ) . In the case of the shape ADCB, rj = HA and r2 = HD.
Permeance DEJCThis permeance has an irregular shape that is not easy
to formulate analytically. The following technique is an amalgamation of
Roters technique [29] and the dualenergy method described by Prof.
Hammond [30]. Consider a brickshaped volume carrying flux as shown
in Fig. 4.126. If the length of the brick (into the paper) is the
permeance is ^ nLs[k w/h, and w/h is the permeance coefficient. If this
is written as w h /$ , the product wh can be replaced by the transverse area
At and the permeance coefficient can be written At/ A2. The method
attributed to Roters involves applying this expression to any arbitrary
shape, such as the shape DEJC in Fig. 4.12a. The area At can be
calculated without difficulty if the shape is bounded by arcs and straight
line segments, but it is not obvious what value should be given to /*a.
The crudest approach is to make h equal to the average of the two sides
that "channel the flux: in Fig. 4.12a, this would mean making k equal
to the average of the arc length DC and the straightline segment EJ.
Other formulations of mean squares, or mean squares of reciprocals of
these sides, are possible, but if the shape is "reasonably square, or more
precisely, if it is close to a curvilinear square, then all these estimates give
more or less the same result.
In principle the estimated permeance coefficient can be improved by
means of the dualenergy method. In Fig. 4.126, the reluctance across the
area At (i.e., orthogonal to the original flux direction) is ( l A l 0Z.stk) h/w,
and the reluctance coefficient h/w can be written At /w~. The. same
uncertainty applies to the assignment of a suitable value to w2, but a
crude approximation is to use the average such as (DE+ arc CJ)/2. The
dualenergy principle states that the actual permeance coefficient
4
4. M a g n e t ic D e s ig n
estimate can be improved by replacing it with
4 (4.32)
A2 \
The closer the original shape is to a curvilinear square, the more
accurate this formula will be.
The two leakage permeance coefficients can be added to the permeance
coefficient for the segment of magnet that lies within the boundary of
the halfpole section, i.e. v>M/(L ^ /2 ). Equivalently, the perunit rotor
leakage permeance can be written
Al = P\dcb + Pdejc + / ends (4.33)
whore s permeance coefficient for the shape ADCB, p ^ jC is
the permeance coefficient for the shape DEJC,and pendi is the perunit
endflux leakage permeance.
Permeance due to endJlux between polepiecesFringing also occurs between
polcpieces outside the active length. A very rough guide to the
contribution pcnAi is to assume that the flux flows in semicircular arcs
spanning the magnet, and use equation (4.31) with ry = Lj^/2 and r2 =
2fj. Then
/ends * In . (4.34)
^ s tk rt
This formula includes both ends of the machine.
Permeance egad 1This permeance can be calculated by equation (4.31) with
0 = ft/2, rj = he (airgap length), and r2 = hg. The resulting permeance
ratio can then be added to the permeance ratio for the halfpole section
of the airgap, which is anD /pg. It is common to augment the polearc
in this type of rotor by 2 x g / [gvD/Tj radians to account for fringing flux
that flows within the area hed at each edge of the polepiece.
"Lumped" permeance calculations of this type have been used for a long
time and occasionally refined into complex nonlinear magnetic
ccjuivalentcircuit calculations. The method is less accurate and less
reliable than the modem finiteelement method: its main virtues are
simplicity and ease of programming, and its use can be justified only
425
D e sic n o f bru sh less perm anent m agnet m o t o r s
4.7 Cogging
Cogging is the oscillatory torque caused by the tendency of the rotor to
line up with the stator in a particular direction where the permeance of
the magnetic circuit "seen" by the magnets is maximized. Cogging
torque exists even when there is no stator current. When visitors to a
trade exhibition rotate the shafts of brushless motors on the display
stands, they are feeling the cogging torque. When the motor is running,
additional oscillatory torque components can result from the interaction
of the magnet with spaceharmonics of the winding layout and with
current harmonics in the drive current. These additional oscillatory
torque components are electromagnetic and are generally referred to as
torque ripple, while the term cogging is often reserved for the zerocurrent
condition. In a well designed motor the torque ripple and the cogging
should both be negligible, but it is possible for the torque ripple to
exceed the cogging torque by a large amount if the motor has an
inappropriate combination of winding layout, drive current, and internal
geometry. Manual rotation of a disconnected motor gives no indication
whatsoever about torque ripple.
One of the characteristics of a servomotor is low torque ripple, and "low"
generally means less than 12% of rated torque. This figure applies to the
combined effects of cogging and electromagnetic torque ripple, and is
met by the best quality sinewavedrive servomotors.
With a large number of slots/pole the cogging torque is inherently
reduced by the fact that the relative permeance variation seen by the
magnet is reduced as it successively covers and uncovers the slots one at
a time: indeed the permeance variation can be thought of as being
426
4. M a g n e t ic D e s ig n
concentrated at the edges of the magnet. A small amount of skew is then
usually sufficient to eliminate most of the cogging. When the number of
.dots/pole is closer to 1 , the slot geometry becomes more important, and
the widths of the teeth in particular can be adjusted to minimize the
cogging effect. An analysis of this approach was given by Ackermann et
al [1]. They developed an equation for the cogging torque:
^cog = j D L * E * K Jn ^ ( j g )
4 n n a L sk
where n = hS, k = 1,2,..., and S is the lowest common multiple of the
number of slots iVsloU and the number of poles 2p. The
s i n n o i stk^ function represents the effect of skewing, where o
is the skew angle, and An is the nth spaceharmonic of the permeance
of the magnetic circuit "seen by the magnet as the rotor rotates.^, is the
nth spaceharmonic of the magnet fluxdistribution, and is the angle
of rotation of the rotor. This somewhat complex equation is derived from
the rate of change of coenergy as the magnet rotates. It clearly shows the
interaction between the spaceharmonics of the magnetic circuit
permeance and the distribution of magnet flux, and can be used to
identify torque harmonics of a particular order.
The calculation of cogging torque from the rate of change of coenergy
can be applied with calculated values of coenergy obtained with the
fin ite c le m e n t method. Because of the differentiation of the coenergy,
the finiteelement solution needs to be very accurate, requiring a fine
mesh at the very least.
Cogging torque can also be compensated electromagnetically by adapting
the drive current waveforms to produce an electromagnetic torque ripple
component that cancels the cogging [2].
Other methods for reducing cogging include the use of birfurcated teeth
(as in Fig. 8.9), or punching holes in the tooth overhangs to modulate
the permeance variation [3 ]. Bifurcated teeth or "dummy slots" have a
similar effect to that of doubling the number of slots: the cogging torque
frequency is doubled and the amount of skew required to eliminate the
cogging is halved. Also, the permeance variation caused by uncovering
one halftooth is of the order of half the variation caused by uncovering
a whole tooth, so the magnitude of the cogging torque decreases as well.
Tlie cogging torque can be adversely affected by partial demagnetization
427
D esig n o f bru sh less perm a n en t m a g n et m o t o r s
of the magnets through over temperature or overcurrent, particularly in
surfacemagnet motors because the degree of demagnetization is liable
to vary over the face of the magnet, producing a distortion in the back
EMF waveform. This distortion tends to aggravate the torque ripple as
well as the cogging. Interiormagnet motors do not suffer from this
problem to the same extent
A summary of methods for reducing cogging torque is given in Table 4.3.
Increase airgap length
Use fractional slots/pole
Use larger number of slots/pole
Use thick tooth tipi to prevent saturation
Keep slot openings to a minimum
Use magnetic slot wcdges
Skew stator stack or magnets
Radius or chamfer magnet poles
Radius or chamfer stator tooth tips, or punch holes in tooth tips
Vary the magnetization of the magnet poles
Use bifurcated teeth
Use lower magnet fluxdensity
Compensate cogging by modulating drive current weaveform
T a b le 4.3 Methods f o r r e d u c in g c o g c in c t o r q u e
428
4. M a g n e t ic D esig n
r.( . i .12
(BOD
Magnet retaining can. (a) Geometry of induced current, (b) Short can haa
higher rcjistance to induced current, (c) Can divided into insulated rings
to reduce losses.
Fig. 4.13 (a) Dip in fluxdensity caused by stator slot opening as it moves relative
to the rotor at velocity v. (b) Construction of RMS value of the flux
density variation in the can.
As the rotor passes a slot opening, the dip in the airgap fluxdensity
moves along the Bwaveform which is otherwise moving synchronously
with the rotor. The variation in B is separated out in Fig. 4.136 and each
dip is represented as a halfsinewave of width 0 radians. The dips repeat
at intervals of A.s radians, where Xi = 2 n/jVsotJ is the slotpitch.
It is assumed that the eddycurrents are resistancelimited i.e., that they do
not modify the Bfield. This assumption is appropriate bccause in cases
where retaining can losses are a problem, the eddycurrents need to be
resistancelimited in order to keep them low. (Bolton [6] presents a
method of analysis that does not make this assumption and allows the
eddycurrents to be resistancelimited or inductancelimited. His analysis
also includes a useful and relatively simple criterion for determining
when the eddycurrents are resistancelimited. This criterion is expressed
in terms of dimensions and can therefore be used as a design rule).
430
4. M a g n e t ic D e sig n
The rotation of the rotor causes an Afield in the can, given by v x B
where v is the surface speed in m /s. The corresponding currentdensity
in the axial direction is /= E/p. I f / 2p is integrated over the volume of
the can, the losses P can be calculated as well as the average loss per unit
area w. The result is
w =  * L ( B N P ft w / m 2 ( 4 .3 6 )
3600 p
The B value in equation (4.36) is the effective or RMS value of the flux
density variation over the surface of the can. Referring to Fig. 4.136, this
can be estimated as
B = * iL (4.37)
V2 N
in IT). This result is intuitively derived as the RMS value of the half
sinewave, modified by the effective "dutycycle" implicit in the fact that
the dips repeat after rather than after p.
For example, if P/A^ = 1/4 and = 0.2 T, D = 100 mm, t = 0.5 mm, and
JV= 3000 rev/min, the surface loss is w = 3.6 W /cm 2 for copper, or 0.088
W/cm 2 for stainless steel (i.e., 0.57 W /in2).
The above analysis is "twodimensional" and only considers current
flowing in the axial direction. Of course the current must flow in
complete loops as illustrated in Fig. 4.12. There is a circumferential
component as well as an axial component. Russell and Norsworthy
derived a simple formula for modifying the total can losses by a factor
to take account of the endeffects. Assuming that the can has the same
axial length as the rotor, i.e. LJ[k, the total can losses are given by
P = J^w A W (4.38)
where A = nDL^ is the surface area and
'PL*
Ks * 1 
tanh
D (4.39)
P^&k
D
431
D esig n o f bru sh less perm a nent m a g n et m o t o r s
References
1 Ackemiann B et al [1992] Afeui technique for reducing cogging torque in a class of
bushiest DC. mot/m, IEE Proceedings 139, No. 4, 315820.
2. Jouvc D and Bui D [ 1993] Torque ripple compensation inDSPbavrihrushle.tt m o drive.
Intelligent Motion, PC1M Proceedings, Numberg 2837
3 Gizaw D [1993] Permanent magnet bmxhtf.it DC. motor having reduced cogging, United
States Patent No. 5,250,867
4 Takahashi I, Koganezawa T, Su G and Oyama K [ 1993] A super highspeed PM motor
driven hy a quasicurrent source inverter, IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual
Meeting, Toronto R57W52
5 Russell RL and Norsworthy KH [ 1958] Eddycurrents and wall losvs in icreenedrotor
induction motors, IEE Proceedings 105A, 1B3175
h Bolton H [19fi9] Transverse edgeeffect in sheetrolor induction motors, IEE Proceedings
116, No. 5, 725731
433
I
5. ELECTRICAL DESIGN
j .l Introduction
Now that we have reviewed the configuration of the motor and
determined how to calculate the magnetic flux, we are in a good position
to study the basic electrical operation. This chapter considers the
windings in more detail: in particular, the factors affecting the layout of
the windings and the calculation of the correct number of turns. This
requires a simple explanation of the operation of the ideal brushless DC
motor, describing how a squarewave EMF is generated and how this
relates to the operation of the power electronic controller. Motors with
1,2, and 3 phases are considered, and there is a discussion of the use of
wye and delta connections in threephase motors. Although this chapter
is mainly about squarewave motors, it deals with many fundamental
points which are important for sinewave motors also (see Chapter 6).
The chapter includes a treatment of winding inductances and the analysis
of slodess windings.
*axis). In Fig. 5.1 the rotor is shown at the position \ = 0: i.e., the daxis
coincides with the xaxis. The *axis is the stator reference axis and for
this reason the slotnumbering scheme begins with the axis of slot 0 on
this axis. Slot 0, of course, is the same as slot 12 in this machine.
dAXIS
Fig. 5.1 12slot, 2pole brushless DC motor showing the winding of phase 1 with 1
coil/pole, 5/6pitch, and 2 slots/pole/phase
When the rotor moves, the whole fluxdistribution moves. Thus, for
example, Fig. 526 shows the distribution B(9) when the rotor is at the
position =105.
52
5. E le c t r ic a l D esig n
The stator has 12 slots and a threephase wyeconected winding. Only
phase 1 is shown. There are 6 slots per pole and 2 slots per pole per
phase. This is not necessarily a desirable combination in practice (see
Chapter 3) but it is useful for illustrating the winding principles
developed in this chapter for both squarewave and sinewave motors.
Each phase winding consists of two coils 1 and 2 of jVj turns each. Coil
1 is wound in slots 1&6 and thus has a span of 5 slotpitches. The span
is also called the pitch or throw of the coil. Since one polepitch is 6 slot
pitches in this machine, the coil pitch is said to be 5/6. The "start" of
coil 1 is in slot 1 , and its axis is located at half the span further round
the stator, i.e. at 5/2 = 25 slotpitches from the start. Since slot 1 is
located at 30 (one slotpitch) from the *axis, the axis of coil 1 is at 30
+ (5/2) x 30 = 105 from the #axis.
The fluxlinkage of a stationary coil is represen ted by th e function i>c (),
because it varies as the rotor rotates. Fig. 5.2c shows the waveform of
the fluxlinkage i/cl() and Fig. 5.2d shows the backEMF ci() in coil
1 as the rotor rotates. These waveforms are plotted vs. rotor position
The origin is at 5 = 0t corresponding to the particular rotor position
shown in Fig. 5.1. Thus the negative peak of the fluxlinkage irc] occurs
when the rotor is at the position = 105, where the Spole rfaxis is
aligned with the axis of phase 1.
The backEMF is derived directly from the fluxlinkage waveform by
Faradays Law:
* 5) . (5.1)
df oc
The notation e() simply means the EMF plotted as a function of rotor
position rather than plotting it as a time waveform e{t). The waveshape
is unaffected because E, = and Ci>ra = d^/dt. This equation applies
not only to individual coils but also to the complete phase winding.
The corresponding waveforms for coil 2 are identical but opposite in
sign, because coil 2 is displaced by 180 and therefore links magnet flux
of exactly the same magnitude but of opposite polarity to that linked by
coil 1. When the coils are connected in series, coil 2 must be effectively
reverseconnected so that the total backEMF is doubled to 2ecl, otherwise
the total EMF would be zero.
53
D esig n o f bru sh less perm anent m a c n et m o t o r s
6(5=0)
a
B (? = 105)
CONDUCTION INTERVAL
ec2<5>
e
Wi 2//( /lM) W ///A
ec3< S>
's(5>
180 360
Fig. 5.2 (a,b) Magnet flux distribution (c) fluxlinkage waveform and (d,e,f) EMF and
current waveform* corresponding to the motor of Fig. 5.1.
54
5. E l e c t r ic a l D e sig n
In Fig. 5.1 the conductors of phase 1 occupy 4 of the 12 slots, leaving 4
slots for each of the other two phases without requiring any slot to
contain conductors from more than one phase. A singlelayer winding is
therefore built up with phase 2 in slots 5&10, 4&11; and phase 3 in 3&8,
2&9. This ensures that the winding axis of phase 2 is 120 ahead of the
phase 1 axis (i.e., at 105 + 120 = 225) and the winding axis of phase 3
is 240 ahead at 105 + 2 x 120 = 345. The phase 2 axis is along the
centreline of tooth 7/8 and the phase 3 axis is along the centreline of
tooth 11/12. Thus the phase winding axes are displaced from each other
by 4 slotpitches ( 120).
With a magnet polearc of PM = 180 and a coilpitch of 5/6, the back
EMF is ideally flattopped over 5/6 of a polepitch or 150. However,
fringing effects at the edges of the magnet poles cause the EMF
waveform to be rounded and the effective flattop may extend over no
more than 120 in practice. This is 1/3 of a revolution. Now phase 1 can
produce constant torque if it is fed with constant current of the correct
polarity during the 120 interval. If phases 2 and 3 are fed with the same
current during the other two 120 intervals, constant torque can be
produced through one complete revolution, as shown in Fig. 1.6.
The necessary phase current waveforms are shown as blocks in Fig.
5.2d,e,f It is important to note that the conduction intervals are 120
wide, and alternate in polarity. The resulting current waveform in each
phase is described as a "120 squarewave1', and the three phase currents
form a balanced set with equal phase displacements of 120. Becausc of
the phase displacement between phases, there is a commutation
(transistor switching) every 60, and therefore there are 6 commutations
per cycle of the fundamental frequency. There are two phases
conducting at any and every instant, and this is often called 2'phaseon
operation. A commutation always switches one phase off at the same time
as another one is switched on. The sequence of switching the six power
transistors in Fig. 1.8 is shown in Fig. 10.3 together with the three phase
current waveforms for a wyeconnected stator. For a deltaconnected
stator, the phase and line current waveforms are shown in Fig. 10.4; the
transistor switching sequence is identical for wye and delta conections,
and in fact the controller does not "know" the difference between them.
Note that in Figs. 10.3 and 10.4, the origin is taken as the axis of phase
1, i.e. at the 105 point in Fig. 5.2.
55
D esig n o f brushless perm a nent m a g n et m o t o r s
PH A SE 1 A XIS
dAXIS
Fig. 5.3 12'ilot, 2pole brujhleu DC motor showing the winding of phase I with 2
coils/pole, having pitches of 5/fi and 1/2 respectively.
5.2.2 Effect of additional coils
Fig. 5.3 shows the phase 1 winding with two additional coils 3 and 4, each
of which has a pitch of 3 slots. This is 1/2 of a polepitch, or 90 electrical
degrees. The axes of coils 3 and 4 are coincident with those of coils 1
and 2 respectively, so their fluxlinkages and EMFs will be in phase with
icl and ec]. The additional coils are assumed to have the same numbers
of turns as coils 1 and 2. Fig. 5.4 shows the fluxlinkage ijc3 and EMF
of coil 3 together with trcl and ecl, as well as the total fluxlinkage and
56
5. E l e c t r ic a l D e s ig n
COIL e 150
EMF c3
e
FUNDAMENTAL
ACTUAL 90
e c 1 + e c3
/
/ s.
s
\
s
J ^ __
30 deg
180 360
Eft 5.4 (a,b,c) fluxlinkage waveforms and (d,e,f) EMF waveforms corresponding to the
motor of Fig. 5.3.
57
d e s ig n o f bru sh less perm a nent m a gnet m o t o r s
FUNDAMENTAL
Fig. 5.4g Expanded view of Fig. 5.4/ showing the actual EMF waveform and the
fundamental harmonic from Fig. 5.4/
58
5. E l e c t r ic a l D esig n
especially if smooth torque is important.
On the other hand, adding the additional coils 3 and 4 increases the
number of steps in the overall backEMF waveform, and although it may
not be strikingly obvious from Figs. 5.2/and 5.4/ the waveform of the 4
coil winding has a smaller harmonic content and is closer to a sinewave.
The fringing (and also any skew) further reduces the harmonics, and it
can be correctly inferred that for a sinewave brushless AC motor the
additional coils are beneficial, because the production of smooth torque
requires the combination of sinewave backEMF with sinewave current
(Chapter 6).
The backEMF waveform ecl appears to lead the corresponding flux
linkage waveform i(rcl by 90: this is also true of the fundamental
harmonic components T t and Ecl, which are phasors and are therefore
related by the equation
^1 = <52>
where o) = 2ti/ and / is the supply frequency. This equation does not
apply to the actual waveforms, because they are not pure sinewaves: it
applies only to the fundamental harmonic components.
5.2.3 Lap windings and concentric windings
The manner in which coils 14 are wound, inserted, and connected
together is extremely important from a manufacturing point of view,
where the cost of winding is important. The addition of coils 3 and 4 in
the previous section causes phase 1 to occupy 8 of the 12 slots, so that
when phases 2 and 3 are added every slot contains two coilsides: i.e., a
doublelayer winding. This is more difficult to wind than the singlelayer
winding of Fig. 5.1.
Fig. 5.5 shows the principle of a lap winding corresponding to Fig. 5.3. In
the lap winding, all roils are identical in pitch and number of turns.
When the coil pitch is greater than 1 slot pitch, the concentric winding is
common. It can be seen from Fig. 5.5 that the fluxlinkages and back
EMFs of both windings are identical because the disposition of
conductors is identical, and so is their electrical connection (i.e., all in
series). The windings differ only in the endregion, by having slightly
different resistances and inductances in the endwindings.
59
D esig n o f bru sh less perm a nent m agnet m o t o r s
WINDINGS
3 ACTIVE
LENGTH
(a) LAP
510
5. E l e c t r ic a l D esig n
A "developed" winding diagram for the motor in Fig. 51 is shown in Fig.
5.6, for phase 1 only. The other phases are similar. For coilwinding, the
route taken by the wire is designed to minimize the length and number
of interconnects in the endwindings. This helps to minimize the volume
of copper in the endwindings and to minimize the winding resistance.
$.2.4 Multiplepole machines
So far the discussion has been confined to a 2pole motor, but the same
principles apply to multiplepole motors. The waveforms in Figs. 5.2 and
5.4 remain unchanged if 0 and are in electrical degrees. TTie 4pole
equivalent of the motor in Fig. 5.3 has 24 slots, so that the number of
slots/pole is the same. The coils are wound with the same pitches as a
fraction of the polepitch, which is reduced to 90 actual degrees (= 180
electrical degrees). The period of the waveforms in Figs. 5.2 and 5.4
covers 180 actual degrees {= 360 electrical degrees). An angle in electrical
degrees is p times the same angle in actual degrees, (p = poUpairs).
511
D esig n o f bru sh less perm a nent m a gnet m o t o r s
In the 2pole motor of Fig. 5.3 there is one coilgroup per pole, so that
with 2 poles there are 2 coilgroups and 4 coils in each phase. If the 24
slot motor retains 1 coilgroup/pole there will be 4 coilgroups and 8
coils per phase. The additional 2 pairs of coilgroups can be connected
in series with the first group; or in parallel, giving 2 parallel paths through
the phase winding. This multiplies the backEMF at the phase terminals
by 50%, and doubles the phase current required to produce the same
torque. In other words, for a fixed number of coils the backEMF
constant ftg and the torque constant kj (torque/amp) are both inversely
proportional to the number of parallel paths.
5.2.5 Consequentpole vnndings and magnets
In the 4pole motor it is not mandatory to have 4 coil groups per phase.
An alternative arrangement is to have only two coil groups diametrically
opposite each other. This is called a consequentpole winding. Such a
winding is shown in Fig. 5.7 with a 12slot stator. The 4pole flux pattern
could be produced by any one of the four configurations acting alone:
Either or both the windings and the magnet may be of the consequent
pole configuration. The consequentpole configuration is simpler to
assemble and can save copper or magnet material. For example,
removing the two N magnets would leave the flux pattern essentially
unchanged, but the airgap fluxdensity and the flux per pole would be
slighdy reduced because each magnet is now forcing flux through two
airgaps instead of only one. The thickness of the magnet may need to be
increased to compensate for this. The increase can be worked out from
equations (4.9) and (4.10). In order to restore the remaining magnets
512
5. E l e c t r ic a l D e sig n
to the same operating point, their thickness would have to be
doubled. However, it may be that when all four magnets are used the
thickness is greater than it needs to be, owing to the fact that there is a
minimum thickness to which magnets can be manufactured. If this is the
case, then the consequentpole arrangement makes better utilization of
the magnets even though they may be working at a slightly lower
permeance coefficient and fluxdensity.
5.2.6 Computeraided design of windings
The PCBDC computer program includes a winding editor which is shown
in Fig 5.8 with the same winding as in Fig. 5.7. The winding editor can
be used to construct any combination of coils, or alternatively it can
construct many "standard" types of winding automatically. Whatever the
distribution of coils, the program can subsequently calculate the EMF
waveform as well as the resistance and inductance of each phase and the
mutual inductance between phases. This is especially useful when the
winding is nonstandard or very complicated. A windingconstruction
algorithm is described in Section 3.8.3.
PCBDC 3 .1 Crosssect Ion editor CC) 1992 TJOI.Wfce
Z1 12 Z
12 0
5
11
3
3
513
D esig n o f bru sh less perm a nent m a g n et m o t o r s
Since the EMF is synchronous with the rotor position, the shaft position
sensor ensures the synchronism between the EMFs and the line currents,
even though there is usually a voltage drop in the winding resistance and
leakage inductance. This voltage drop means that under loaded
conditions the terminalvoltages are notin phase with the backEMFs, and
do not have quite the same waveform.
514
5. E l e c t r ic a l D esig n
JSl'.vi.v.v?
1
\
OJ
m m i   1*......... l / 3
e12
23 \ / e31
V
\ /
:V :.
/
N X y
/
/
fig. 5.9a Idealised squarewave motor : wye connection, 120 flattop EMF
Waveforms
The 120 squarewave currents require a commutation every 60, and the
switching sequence that achieves this is given at the bottom of Fig. 5.9a.
515
D e sic n o f bru sh less perm a nent m agnet m o t o r s
e12 x 112
j j N y^ n '31M s
K
t
\
// m
\\
Q5 Q1 Q3 Q5
Q6 Q2 Q4 Q6
Fig. 5.9b Idealised squarewave motor : wye connection, 50* flattop EMF waveforms
5. E l e c t r ic a l D e s ig n
In any 60 interval, the basic electromagnetic torque production is given
simply by
where eis the "reigning" lineline voltage (i.e., the one connected to the
supply through the two conducting power transistors), and i is the line
current. Since there is only one conduction path through the winding,
there is no ambiguity about the meaning of e and i For example, during
the period 3090 e = and * * ip with transistors Q1 and Q 6
conducting. If all the phase waveforms are assumed to have a peak value
of 1 unit, then the peak lineline EMF is 2 units and the peak line
current is 1 unit, and if wm is taken to be 1 unit then the torque during
this 60 interval is 2 x 1 /I = 2 units.
The current ij during the 3090 interval flows in the positive direction
in phase 1 and in the negative direction in phase 2, with transistors Q 1
and Q 6 conducting. This current can be regarded as a loop current and
it is expressed by the notation and similarly for i >3 and ij, in later
intervals (see Fig. 5.11). During every 60 interval the same conditions
prevail, the only difference being that is substituted in turn by eJ2,
while i is substituted in turn by ij2> *23, _*i2>The alternation
(i.e., polarity reversal) of the lineline EMFs is natural, being caused by
the passage of the N and S magnet poles. The alternation of the loop
currents is forced by the commutation process. Note that during the
commutation from i,2 to ijj, remains unchanged but ig switches off
and ij switches on.
A "block" of the torque waveform is shown immediately below the line
current waveform i 12 in Fig. 5.9a, labelled e12 x ij2 Its amplitude is 2
units and it remains constant throughout the 60 conduction interval
because e12 and i12 are both constant during this interval, and there is
no other current in the machine.
During the next and subsequent intervals the same block of torque is
replicated but with a different set of EMFs and currents. From 90150
it is (~<3j) x (>3i)> then from 150210 it is e2g x *23>etc Consequently
ihe electromagnetic torque remains constant from each conduction
interval to the next, as shown in the lowest trace in Fig. 5.9a.
517
D esig n o f bru sh less perm a nent m a g n et m o t o r s
518
5. E le c t r ic a l D e s ig n
ampereconductors, leaving two unexcited belts each 60 wide. A
winding which will produce this pattern is the one shown in Fig. 5.1 and
discussed in secdon 5.1.1. Note that this winding is not truly
concentrated, became the conductors of like polarity are "distributed"
over a 60 arc.
The rotor is shown as having a 180 magnet polearc, and it is tacitly
assumed that the magnet is radially magnetized, to produce a perfectly
rectangular flux distribution around the airgap. With a 60s phasebelt,
this magnet polearc produces phase EMFs with a 120 flattop.
The diagram in Fig. 5.13a shows the principle of the squarewave motor
in a particularly graphical way. It can be assumed that positive
contributions to the torque are produced at all angles where there is
overlap between magnet and ampereconductors of like polarity. There
is an arc of 120 of overlapping Npole with one ampereconductor
polarity, and 120 of Spole with the other ampereconductor polarity.
The position shown in Fig. 5.13a corresponds to 60 in Fig. 5.9a. At this
position the rotor can rotate 30 forwards or backwards with no change
in these overlap angles. At the end of this interval (90) there is a
commutation, which "resets" the overlap pattern, whereupon the next
"conduction interval" begins. The constancy of the torque follows from
the fact that the magnet polearc exceeds the ampereconductor belt
width by 60.
Fig. 5.13a also shows that the ideal phase EMF has a 120 flat top, as this
is the difference between the magnet polearc and the phasebelt arc.
This is perhaps not immediately obvious, but it becomes clear if the BLv
waveforms are plotted and added together for all the conductors in the
phasebelt, especially if they are considered to be uniformly distributed
through the phasebelt.
The effect of reducing the width of the flat top of the phase EMF
waveform can be seen in Fig. 5.96 which shows the effect of a 60 flat
topped phase EMF waveform. This waveform would be produced with
the winding of Fig. 5.1 if the magnet polearc were reduced from 180
to 120. The lineline EMF now has no flat top at all, and consequently
the torque production is not constant throughout the 60 conduction
interval. In fact, the peakpeak torque ripple is 28.6% of the mean
torque.
519
D esig n o f brushless perm anent m agnet m o t o r s
It was stated in Ref. [10] that the ampercconductor distribution in Fig. 5.13*
catmol be realized with a wyeconnected winding, but that is only true for a singlelayer
winding. The winding in Fig, 5.3 is a doublelayer winding.
521
D esig n o f bru sh less perm a nent m a g n et m o t o r s
kzzzzzzm
Fig. 5.10a Idealised squarewave motor : delta connection, 60' flattop phase EMF
waveforms
at any one time, exactly the same as for the wye connection. For sinewave
operation there are generally three transistors conducting at any time.
522
5. E l e c t r ic a l D esig n
Fig. 5.10b Idealised squarewave motor : delta connection, 120 flattop waveforms.
The idea] phase current waveforms are not realisable, because of
distortion by the icrosequence cuirent.
523
D esig n o f bru sh less perm a nent m a g n et m o t o r s
The lines are labelled A,B,C and the phases are labelled 1,2,3. In the
delta connection the lineline voltages and EMFs are identical to the
phase voltages and EMFs, i.e. AC = vv t^c = v%, and = v3. The line
currents are *a = *1  *B = *1> an^ *c = *3 " *2
The delta connection is the dual of the wye connection, in the sense that
relationships between line and phase voltages in the wye connection are
transferred to the currents in the delta connection, and vice versa. A
complete set of waveforms is shown in Fig. 5.10a, assuming phase EMF
waveforms with a 60 flat top. Such waveforms would be produced by the
motor of Fig. 5.136, which has a magnet polearc of 120 and the same
stator winding as in Fig. 5.1. Since the machine is deltaconnected, the
lineline EMF waveforms are identical to the respective phase EMF
waveforms.
In Fig. 5.10a it appears that there is a 30 phase shift between the
fundamental component of the line current and the fundamental
component of the phase current (e.g., between iA and ij). This is the
same as in the sinewave motor, where ideally the fundamental is the only
nonzero component.
To understand the ideal form of this machine it is necessary to recognize
that throughout each 60 interval the delta is connected between two
lines with the third terminal of the delta opencircuited. For example,
during the 3090 interval Ql and Q 6 are on, so the delta is connected
as shown in Fig. 5.12, with phases 2 and 3 connected negatively in series
across the supply, and phase 1 connected positively across the supply. If
the motor is "properly designed", then the line current / divides between
the two parallel branches in the ratio 2:1, with (2 /3 )/ going through
phase 1 and (1 /3 )/going negatively through phases 2 and 3.
During the first half of the line A conduction interval, from 3090,
= 1 unit while ij = 2/3 unit, so the torque contributed by phase 1 is Tj
= fij x = 2/3 unit. During this period is decreasing from its flattop
value of = 1 unit to zero, while = 1 /3 unit. The average torque
contributed by phase 2 is therefore 1/2 x (1) x (1/3) = 1/6 unit
Similarly is increasing from zero to 1 unit and so the torque
contribution from phase 3 averages 1/2 x (1) x (1/3) = 1/6 unit, the
same as the average from phase 2. The instantaneous torque
contribution T2 decreases at the same rate as the instantaneous
524
5. E l e c t r ic a l D e s ig n
contribution 73 increases, so their sum + Tg remains constant at 1/3
unit. Added to Tlt this produces a constant torque of 1 unit throughout
the 60 interval.
During the second half of the line A conduction interval, from 90150,
the process is repeated but with all the respective EMF's and currents
commutated to the successive interval: thus el   eg, *j e^  j, etc.
Thus the ideal squarewave deltaconnected machine, correcdy
commutated and with the correct EMF and current waveforms, also
produces perfectly constant torque.
The production of constant torque by the deltaconnected motor with
60 flattopped phase EMF's is shown in Fig. 5.136. The magnet has a
120 polearc and the phasebelts are 60 wide. Unlike the wye
connection, all three phases conduct simultaneously, even though only
two lines are conducting. Moreover, the ampereconductors in the three
phasebelts are not all equal. In Fig. 5.136, the instant drawn is at 30 in
Fig. 5.10o: e$ = 0, while el and are both equal to 1 unit. As the rotor
rotates counterclockwise, diminishes as the phasebelts of phase 2 are
"uncovered by the passing magnet, while increases as the phasebelts
of phase 3 are progressively "covered' at the same rate. Meanwhile e]
remains constant at 1 unit as the phasebelts of phase 1 remain covered
throughout the whole 60 interval from 3090. The current in phase 1
is (2/3)7, and this produces a constant positive torque throughout the
interval. The current in phases 2 and 3 is (1/3)7, and these phases
produce positive torque contributions decreasing and increasing
respectively at the same rate, as described earlier. The constancy of the
total torque follows from the fact that the effective ampereconductor
belt width exceeds the magnet pole arc by 60.
The 2:1 division of current in Fig. 5.12 is not as obvious as it looks. If the
phases were pure resistances of equal value, this division of current would
be obvious. But the phases have backEMF (and leakage inductance
both self and mutual). Under pure DC conditions the inductances have
no effect, but the designer should ensure that the backEMFs are
correcdy balanced at all times, otherwise, with an imbalance in backEMF
between the two branches of Fig. 5.12, there will be a net EMF around
the delta and a potentially large current will flow, limited chiefly by the
winding resistances, which are generally small. This current does nothing
useful, but it produces additional I^R losses and torque ripple.
525
D e sig n o f b ru sh less perm a n en t m a gnet m o t o r s
Fig. 5.10i> shows what happens when a delta connection is used with a
motor having 120 flattop EMF waveforms. As we have seen, such
waveforms would be produced by the winding of Fig. 5.1 with a magnet
polearc of 180. The resulting zerosequence EMF has a peak value
equal to that of the phase EMF. The phase current waveforms can no
longer be assumed to be of the same ideal form as in Fig. 5.10a, because
the zerosequence EMF drives a potentially large current around the
delta which increases one of the branch currents in Fig. 5.12 while
decreasing the other one. The resulting current waveform depends on
the size of the zerosequence current.
Fig. 5.14 shows a computer simulation of the phase current waveform
with a deltaconnected motor having a magnet polearc of 180 and the
same stator winding as in Fig. 5.1. With no fringing this produces 120
flattop phase EMFs. This figure is included to show the extreme
distortion of the phase current {mainly thirdharmonic) and the
resultant torque ripple, which is very large. The zerosequence current
dominates the phase current and distorts its waveshape almost beyond
recognition. Since the circulating current is absent from the lines, this
undesirable state of affairs can pass completely undetected. In fact, it
may appear only as an u nexplained" tendency of the motor to overheat
Notwithstanding the problem of circulating currents, many brushless DC
motors are made with delta windings and in some case no precautions
are taken to eliminate the residual EMF. In very small motors the phase
winding resistance may be large enough to limit the circulating current
to a safe value, but it still produces unnecessary losses.
526
5. E le c t r ic a l D e sig n
12 '2 3
31 , u
 >
u i 
Kg. 5,11 Loop currents in wye connection. Each one flows for 60
527
D esig n o f brushless perm a nent m a gnet m o t o r s
Fig. 5.13 (a) Squarewave motor with 180 magnet polearc and 120 ampere
conductor distribution, (b) Squarewave motor with 120 magnet polearc
and 180 ampereconductor distribution. The phase axes correspond to
those in Figs. 5.1 and 5.3. The numbers indicate the conductors belonging
to phases 1,2.3. Filled circles represent conductors in one direction;
crossed circles represent return conductors in the opposite direction,
528
5. E l e c t r ic a l D e s ig n
Tig. 5.14 Computer simulation of deltaconnected motor with 180 magnet polearc
and nearI20 flattop phase EMF waveforms, showing the large zero
sequence EMF around the delta and the consequent distortion of the
phase currents and the torque ripple. The line currents are 120
squarewaves, and the zerosequence current docs not appear in the lines
or in the controller: consequently it may pass undetected. The winding is
the same as in Fig. 5.1.
529
D esig n or bru sh less perm a nent m a gnet m o t o r s
[Aaptf] \ ft.B_lB.BCC
1.80 * 1.0*1
PHArf onlu clbotm ROTDS PCflTYION
^ S"
^ \ /
2.00 Z e ro s e q u e n c e vo ltag e e 0 V  /
CN TOBflUE Tt fiOTOfl POSITION, A,t 15.BDC
2.60
[N.l K 1.0.I
2.00
I.SO Torque
1.00
0.60
0. 00 0.39 O.tfO 0.00 1.20 I.BO 1.00 2.10 2.AQ 2.70 3.00 3.30 3<0
Pto> position [*lc dq' x 1.0*2
f .b.5 .15 Computer simulation of deltaconnected motor with 180 magnet pole
arc, with the winding of Fig. 5.3. The phase EMF has a narrower flat top
and the zerosequencc EMF ii eliminated by the thirdharmonic winding
factor.
Interestingly enough, the winding of Fig. 5.3 also has k = 0 provided
that all coils have equal numbers of turns, even though it has two
separate coilpitches neither of which is 2/3. In effect, the outer coils 1
and 2 are "underchordcd" relative to the ideal 2/3 pitch, while the inner
coils 3 and 4 are "overchorded"; in the superposition of EMF's the
triplen harmonics induced in these coilpairs cancel, provided that they
are connected in series.
Fig. 5.15 shows a simulation of the motor of Fig. 5.3 with deltaconnected
windings, 180 magnet polearc, and the doublelayer winding. It can be
seen that the zerosequence loop EMF is zero and so is the torque
ripple.
The designer thus has an additional task when designing motors for delta
connection, namely to ensure that the zerosequence EMF around the
delta is zero. The PCBDC. program plots the waveform of the loop EMF
Kq = + <2 + ^ along with the phase and lineline EMFs when the
530
5. E l e c t r ic a l D e s ig n
Ending connecdon is delta, Figs. 5.14 and 5.15. Any departure from zero
shows up immediately and can be corrected by the necessary adjustment
ro the parameters mentioned. In sinewave motors, the same requirement
exists. In wyeconnected motors the problem does not arise because the
zerosequence current is forcibly suppressed by the threewire connection
the neutral point of the windings, and there is only one current path.
5,3.3 Flux/pole and magnet utilization
Itis helpful to construct a model of Figs. 5.13a and b using construction
paper, in which the three separate rings, suitably shaded or coloured, are
cut out andpinned at the centre so that the two inner ones can be
independently rotated while the outer phasebelt ring remains stationary.
This model will prove invaluable in sorting out the sequence of events as
the rotor rotates.
While the fluxdistribution of the magnet rotates with the rotor in a
continuous fashion, the MMF distribution of the stator remains stationary
for 60 and then jumps to a position 60 ahead. This motor is not a
rotatingfield machine in the sense associated with AC machines.
In Fig. 5.13a, the production of smooth, ripplefree torque depends on
the fact that the magnet pole arc exceeds the MMF arc by 60. The
magnet is therefore able to rotate 60 with no change in the fluxdensity
under either of the conducting phasebelts. An inevitable result of this is
(hat only 2/3 of the magnet and 2/3 of the stator conductors are active
at any instant, although all of the stator ampereconductors are active.
Similarly in Fig. 5.13b the whole of the magnet is overlapped by
conducting phasebelt, but 60 of ampereconductors are wasted, either
waiting for the magnet to arrive, or waiting for the next commutation
after it has passed. The motor of Fig. 5.13ft may therefore appear to have
higher perunit copper losses than that of Fig. 5.13a. Offsetting this
disadvantage is the fact that for the same magnet fluxdensity, the
flux/pole in Fig. 5.136 is only 2/3 that in Fig. 5.13a, so that only 2/3 of
ihe stator yoke thickness is required. If the stator outside diameter is kept
the same, the slots can be made deeper so that the loss of
ampereconductors can be at least partially recovered. Consequently the
efficiency of the motor of Fig. 5.136 may not be very much lower than
that of Fig. 5.13a, provided that the extra copper is used.
531
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
and twice the current, and the remaining power transistors must have
double the current rating. So it is unlikely that there will be any major
saving in total Silicon area. At the same time the bussplitting capacitors
add cost and bulk and may limit the performance in other ways.
Moreover, there is less freedom to design a twophase motor with
sufficient overlap or even any overlap between the flat tops of
successive phase EMFs, when compared with the threephase motor.
These considerations may help to explain why the twophase brushless
DC motor whether squarewave or sinewave is rare, although it is in
production by a number of companies.
One of the concerns with the twophase brushless motor is the ability to
start from any rotor position. This is of less concern with sinewave
motors than with squarewave motors. However, with singlephase motors
ilxs a fundamental problem becaue, with symmetrical classical designs of
The type discussed so far in this chapter, the torque over half of each
electrical revolution would be zero or negative. In order to produce
positive torque over the entire revolution, evenorder torque harmonics
jttiy be introduced by the addition of saliencies as described by Kenjo
<ind Nagamori [ 1].
533
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n en t m a g n e t m o t o r s
0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 Elec ctogrwa
30
Z T
'2
Q1 Q3 Q1
I
Q2 Q4 Q2
Q1 Q3
02] Q4
ISP Q1 dutycycled
Chopping transistor
Is p  D4 dutycycle 1d
Chopping diode
ISP Q2
Commutating transistor
D3
Commutating diode
^ <5 7 >
where <J> is the airgap flux due to the magnet, B is the airgap fluxdemtfy
due to the magnet, D is the stator bore, and L is the stack length (active
length). Hence
ec = NcB umDL (5 .8 )
In [V]. If all the coils in one phase have the same backEMF induced in
them, in phase with each other, the subscript 1 is unnecessary, as in
equation (5.8), and the total phase EMF has a peak value eph equal to ec
multiplied by the number of coils in scries per phase. If the number of
turns in series per phase is N^h, then
^ = N^B<*mDL (5 .9 )
If Zis the total number of conductors in the machine, and the number of
parallel paths is a, then = 1/3 x Z/2a.
In squarewave 3phase motors, if the windings are wyeconnected then
the lineline backEMF is = 2e h. In deltaconnected windings =
This is the backEMF "seen" by the controller.
The EMF constant is defined as Thus, using equation (5.9),
535
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
(5.10)
in Volts per (rad/s). Alternative expressions for Aj. are developed in
Chapter 7, which also discusses methods of measurement.
The EMF ec in a fullpitch coil can also be thought of as twice the EMF
in each of its two conductors, or 2BLv, where v is the linear velocity of
the magnetic field past the conductor, v = w^D/2. This expression can
easily be used to develop the backEMF formulas discussed hitherto, and
it is tempting to use it, but it is subject to a number of uncertainties. The
BLv concept of backEMF is that of a conductor moving through a
magnetic field, as in every physics textbook, but in most electric motors
the conductors are not located in the flux at all: they are located in slots,
and for all practical purposes the permeability of the teeth is so high that
no flux passes through the conductors at all! To overcome this difficulty
it is assumed that the conductors are equivalent to filaments at the
diameter D, located at the slot centres, or to uniformly distributed
current sheets on a smooth stator surface. But this is artificial and is not
a satisfactory assumption when the number of slots/pole is small or
fractional, and especially when the slotopenings are large (see Chapter
8). It is for these reasons that the EMF equations are derived here
directly from Faradays Law (equation (5.1)). This is a more modem
approach and it is more rigorous because the concept of fluxlinkage is
more rigorous than the concept of fluxcutting by conductors which are
not even in the magnetic field.
536
5. E l e c t r ic a l D e s ig n
FLUXLINKAGE
Ktg. 5.18 Idealised fluxlinkage vs. position characteristics with impressed constant
current, showing the production of torque by incremental changes in co
energy
537
D esig n o f bru sh less perm a nent m a gnet m o t o r s
We have already been using diji/d in equation (5.1) and in the previous
section to define kE, and it follows immediately that kT = k^. Further
discussion and analysis of the torque constant and the EMF constant, and
their measurement, are given in Chapters 7 and 8.
5.7.2 Torque linearity
It is central to the design of servomechanisms that the torque of a
brushless servo motor is proportional to the current, with a fixed1
constant of proportionality kj. A graph of torque vs. current is a straight
line, k^I. In practice the torque/current graph may deviate slightly
from a straight line, mainly because of saturation of the stator teeth and
other parts of the magnetic circuit. The torque linearity is defined as the
ratio of the actual torque to the value of k jl at a given current I, which
is typically quoted as 100% of rated current.
5.7.3 Demagnetization
The magnets can be partially demagnetized by overcurrent or
overtemperature, or a combination of both. Brushless motors should be
specified to suffer no more than a certain percentage demagnetization
at a certain current and temperature, for example, 5% at 300% rated
current at a winding temperature of 155C. The 5% refers to the
permanent decrease in the value of fej (or k^) following a test at this
level.
Test procedures should ensure that the demagnetizing current is applied
at all orientations so that the worst case is definitely covered. The
calculation of partial demagnetization effects is difficult by manual
calculation methods and is best tackled with finiteelement or boundary
element methods.
538
5. E l e c t r ic a l D e s ig n
The total number of conductors and parallel paths, and the number of
strandsinhand in the winding of each conductor, must be adjusted to
m atch the available supply voltage while maximizing the slotfill factor to
keep the winding resistance and copper losses as low as possible.
If the torque constant is not specified, the operating speed of the motor
certainly will be. Maximum speed will usually correspond to operation
with maximum voltage, i.e. with no chopping. In most cases the
maximum speed will be only slightly less than the noload speed because
the slope of the speed/torque characteristic is generally quite shallow
because it is proportional to the winding resistance, which is made as
small as possible in the interests of high efficiency. This means that the
noload speed JV0 can be taken as representative of normal operating
speeds. In mechanical rad/s, the noload speed is given by equation
(1.7), so in rev/min
N0 = x J = J l * L. (5.13)
0 ^ 2n kE 2rr
From this equation, if N0 and the DC supply voltage Vs are known, AE
can be calculated and then the number of turns in series per phase can
be calculated from equation (5 .10).
This process is simple and is adequate for many purposes, but it is
sometimes necessary to refine the estimate of the required number of
turns particularly if the design constraints in the specification are very
tight. For example, in lowvoltage systems (12V or 24V) the number of
turns can be critical in determining the correct motor operation, and
because it has a bearing on the required current, it also affects the
choice and rating of power transistors.
For sinewave motors the number of turns can be calculated in the same
way, but the formula for is different: see sections 7.4.2 and 7.4.3.
= Vs I E (5.14)
dt L
where L is the circuit inductance. For example, in a wyeconncctcd
squarewave motor, L is the inductance of two phases in series. At low
speed the backEMF E is much less than the supply voltage Vs, so the rate
of rise of current is large. This is shown in the lefthand diagrams in Fig.
5.19a. The current rises so quickly to the setpoint value 7jp, that it has
to be limited by chopping the supply voltage.
At high speed the net driving voltage Vs  E is reduced because E is
closer to Vs. Consequently the rate of rise of current is lower, and at a
sufficiently high speed the current fails to reach the setpoint value
during the available conduction period. Clearly the average current is
reduced, and so the torque is reduced, as shown in Fig. 5.20.
Matters are somewhat worse than indicated by equation (5.14) because
the current is really intended to rise to the setpoint value within a
certain angle of rotation, not a certain timeinterval (see bottom diagram
in Fig. 5.19A). As the speed increases, the angle of rotation during a
given time interval increases proportionately, or, put the other way
round, the time interval available to build the current decreases in
inverse proportion to the speed. Therefore, in a fixed angle of rotation
at high speed, the current rises to a lower value than it would at low
speed, even if the net driving voltage was the same.
These two factors combine to cause the torque to collapse as the speed
is raised above a certain level. Mathematically, the effect can be
expressed by the rate of rise of current with respect to rotor position,
rather than with respect to time:
A = dI>dt = Vs ~ E = (5.15)
dO d d /d t w mL a) m L
541
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n en t m a g n e t m o t o r s
542
5. E l e c t r ic a l D e s ig n
methods), which solve the entire field problem and do not distinguish
between "airgap flux" and "slot1eakage flux". These methods give the
total fluxlinkage of a winding, from which the self and mutual
inductances can be obtained by dividing by the respective currents.
Alternatively, they compute the total stored energy in the magnetic field.
This energy is then expressed in the form
fKF = 2 L I 2 (5.16)
where I is the total current at the terminals. The inductance L is
extracted by rearranging this equation. An alternative method is to
evaluate the fluxlinkage of the winding as an integral of the vector
potential A along the length of the conductors:
(5.17)
From a circuitanalysis point of view, it is important to recognize the
separate effects of selfand mutual inductance. For example, in the
threephase squarewave motor with two phases on, the inductance
between two line terminals of the motor (say, A and B) is
(5.18)
where LA and are the selfinductances of phases A and B, and is
the mutual inductance. The positive sign applies if the two phases cany
current in such a direction that their fluxes arc essentially additive, as in
Fig. 5.21a. The negative sign applies if they are in opposition. It is
possible for two phases to have very low or even zero mutual inductance,
if their axes are orthogonal (Fig. 5.21ft), as in the twophase motor.
(a) (b)
fig 5.21 Total selfinductance of two coils connected in series with mutual
coupling, (a) Fluxes are essentially additive, so L  LA + Lp + L ^ . (b)
Winding axes at 90*, giving zero airgap mutual inductance.
543
D esig n o f bru sh less perm a nent m a g n et m o t o r s
It is perhaps worth spelling out in more detail why the fluxes are
essentially additive in Fig. 5.21a. The dot convention means that when
positive current is applied, the flux is in the positive direction; and
positive current is that which enters at the dotted end of the coil. In a
wyeconnected threephase motor (with no neutral connection), positive
current entering phase A is negative current leaving phase B.
Accordingly, the flux produced by phase A is in the positive direction
(shown leaving the dotted end), while the flux produced by phase B is in
the negative direction (shown entering the dotted end). The winding axes
are not aligned, and therefore the fluxes do not add directly. If the
winding axes are at 90 there is no common fluxlinkage and no mutual
inductance. If the angle between the winding axes were less than 90
the fluxes would be essentially in opposition and the negative sign would
be required in equation (5.18).
5.9.3 Airgap self inductance of single coil
The basis forcalculating the airgap selfinductance L of a single coil is
shown for a fullpitch coil in Fig. 5.22. Thisshows the magnetic flux
established by a fullpitch winding with one slot per pole per phase. The
total MMF around a complete loop or fluxline is equal to Nci, where Nc
is the number of conductors in the slot and i is the current. Nc is also
the number of turns in the coil.
If the steel in the rotor and stator is assumed to be infinitely permeable,
then the MMF is concentrated entirely across the two airgaps. Across
each airgap the MMF drop is Nci/2. If the flux is assumed to be radial in
the gap, the magnetizing force in each gap is
H  2sL. (519)
2/
In a surfacemagnet motor the gap g " includes the radial thickness of
the magnet as well as the physical airgap g, which may be modified to gl
= Kcg by the Carter coefficient Kc for the stator slotting. A reasonable
approximation for g " is then
g " = g< + J . (5.20)
Mrec
544
5. E l e c t r jc a l D e sig n
'I'll =
(lrr 7T1 ' 7r (5.25)
; . 6 2 , + 2 " eJ
The positive and negative signs account for the direction of the
546
5. E l e c t r ic a l D esig n
fluxdensity in the airgap. Substituting the expression for from
above, we get
A. _ _____________________________
8 h 3 2g
547
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s pe r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
L. (5.29)
where
(5.30)
is the winding factor for q = 2 slots per pole per phase, i.e. 0.833. The
selfinductance is thus only 83.3% of the value which would be obtained
with the same number of turns per phase concentrated in one slot per
pole per phase. This concurs with the general rule that the inductance
of a coil is increased when its conductors are concentrated, together.
When the mutual inductance is evaluated, using the same method as
before, it is found that the distribution of the second winding cancels the
effect of the step in the flux distribution, so that the actual value of the
mutual inductance is the same as with one slot per pole per phase
(provided the total turns are the same). The ratio between the self and
mutual inductances is therefore
(5.31)
549
D esig n o f bru sh less perm a nent m a gnet m o t o r s
It is again found that the distribution of the second winding cancels the
effect of the steps in the flux distribution, so that the mutual inductance
has the same value as with one slot per pole per phase (provided the
total turns are the same). The ratio between and is given again by
equation 5.81, and its value is 0.415. Once has been calculated, (his
equation can be used for provided that the flux distribution is as
shown in Fig. 5.24.
550
5. E l e c t r ic a l D esig n
In field
fig, 5.25 Geometry of a jingle stator coil and associated fluxpaths. The coilside
locations are defined by the angles 0G for the "go" conductor and 0R for
the "return" conductor.
5.9.6 General case of airgap inductance
The airgap selfinductance of any distribution of conductors can be
calculated automatically by computer, following the principles described
in the previous sections, and this calculation can be extended to include
the mutual inductance between any two windings regardless of the
distribution of their conductors, provided these arc known. The
accumulation of fluxlinkage in the winding is done by exciting each coil
in turn, and adding the fluxlinkage of every coil including the excited
coil. In this way the total inductance can be seen as being composed of
a sa of n selfinductances and n (n l) mutual inductances, where nis the
number of coils in the winding. The formulation of this process is
ttmple in electromagnetic terms, although it requires careful
programming. The PCBDC computer program uses a coil table to
manage the inductance calculation. The coil table is a list of coils, each
identified by its number, the number of its turns, and the slotnumbers
of the "go" and "return" conductors.
The basis of the method is shown in Fig. 5.25, which shows a single coil
with the "go" conductor located at 0G and the "return" conductor at 0R.
Applying Amperes and Gauss laws,
551
D esig n o f brushless perm a nent m a cn et m o t o r s
(H i * H 0 ) g "  N cj (533)
and
4>i = 0O (534)
where Ht is the magnetic field strength in the airgap "inside" the coil
(i.e., between 0G and 0R) and H0 is the magnetic field strength in the
airgap "outside" the coil, g" is the effective airgap which can be
approximated by g+ fci/lirec in surfacemagnet motors. These sections
of the magnetic field are labelled "infield" and "outfield" in Fig. 5.25.
<t>; is the flux crossing the airgap in the "infield", "inside" the coil, and
is the flux crossing the airgap in the "outfield", "outside" the coil. Now
where
r _ irl*ojVc2 /'stk'ri C5.391
^m ax "
 v
2g '
552
5. E l e c t r ic a l D esig n
G1
R2
Fig. 5.26 Geometry of jtator coils for the calculation of airgap mutual inductance.
where 0G1 is the location of the "go" conductor of coil 1 and 0R1 is the
location of its "return" conductor, and similarly for coil 2. The mutual
airgap inductance between coil 2 and coil 1 is evaluated as
553
D esig n o f bru sh less perm a nent m agnet m o t o r s
Fig. 5.27 Idealised flux distribution for the calculation of airgap mutual inductance
between the two stator coils of Fig. 5.2fi.
A number of different possibilities arise, depending on the nature of the
overlap between the coils. If the conductors of coil 1, the excited coil,
are represented by [ ], and if the "go and "return" conductors of coil
2 are represented by G and R respectively, then four basic categories of
overlap can be identified as
(i) []GR No overlaprGo 2 and Return 2 both outside coil I
(ii) [G ]R Go 2 within coil 1; Return 2 outside
(iii) G[ R] Return 2 within coil 1; Go 2 outside
(iv) [G R] Go 2 and Return 2 both within coil 1
The equations for the fluxlinkage of coil m due to current in coil
n, are derived in the same way as equadon (5.40), which is the correct
formula for case (ii), [ G ] R. The total airgap self fluxlinkage of the
phase winding is then
(5.41)
tnl n\
The mutual inductance between two phases is evaluated in the same way,
cxcept that the summation over m is taken for the coils of one phase
554
5. E l e c t r ic a l D esig n
while the summation over n is taken for the coils of the second phase.
5.9.7 Slot leakage inductance : self and mutual
The slotleakage component of the phase selfinductance and of the
phasephase mutual inductance is typically of the same order of
magnitude as the airgap component. It is evaluated in the same way as
for induction motors, except that there is an additional component of
slotleakage flux due to fringing between the tops of adjacent teeth. This
fringing flux can be considered a spaceharmonic addition to the airgap
component of armaturereaction flux. In the induction motor this
component of flux would cross the airgap and flow along the rotor
surface without linking the rotor flux, and it is then known as zigzag
leakage. In the surfacemagnet brushless motor the magnet is generally
so thick that there is no zigzag effect as such.
The procedure for calculating slotleakage inductance follows that used
for induction motors, with a few differences in technique in order to
adapt the calculation for automatic computation. The procedure is first
to determine the slot permeance coefficient appropriate to the various
combinations of conductors that may be found in one slot (including the
case where there is only one conductor per slot); and then to add up the
contributions to the total phase fluxlinkage from every slot, taking into
account the distribution of conductors from the separate phases.
The slot permeance coefficient can be understood by considering the
inductance of a bunch of N conductors occupying a rectangular stator
slot, as in Fig. 5.28. The slotleakage flux follows the paths illustrated by
dotted lines. Assuming that the steel is infinitely permeable, the main
reluctance is the crossslot reluctance, which evidently depends on h and
w, the depth and width of the slot Intuitively we can see that if the ratio
w/h is small, the crossslot reluctance will be small and the crossslot
permeance and the inductance will be high. The total fluxlinkage of the
conductor in Fig. 5.28 is calculated as follows.
The crossslot fluxdensity is given by
B = p.H = * N I. (542)
w h
The flux in the elemental tube shown in Fig. 5.28 is <&)>= RLaVdx and this
flux is linked by a fraction x/h of the total number N of conductors,
555
D esig n o f brushless perm a nent m agnet m o t o r s
Fig. 5.28 Calculation of slot permeance coefficient Tor open rectangular slot with
uniform ampereconductor distribution throughout the slot.
0 hw 0 (5.43)
556
5. E l e c t r ic a l D e s ig n
fif. 5.29 Slot leakage inductance: effect of conductor location within the slot.
4aOt = ^ N\ L *k i : (5*45)
* Jt1
in [H], where a is the number of parallel paths and NQis the number of
turn* per coil. It is assumed in equaion (5.45) that the slot permeance
coefficient is different for every slot, allowing for different coilside
positions within the slot. In practice this refinement is rather impractical
and a single permeance coefficient (e.g. equation (5.44)) can be used
outside of the summation.
For the mutual slot inductance between two phases A and B, the
corresponding formula is
= i^ ^ E , W Urua][^CA[^]CB[i] (546)
S jhl
>n [H], where CA and Cg are the coilside incidence vectors for phases A
and B respectively.
5,9,8 Endwinding inductance
Endwinding inductance is difficult to calculate accurately with simple
formulas because the conformation of the endwindings is complex and
difficult to characterize mathematically in simple terms. Fortunately the
endwinding inductance is generally quite small, and it suffices to have
an approximate formula that includes the effects of the main dimensions.
A simple calculation of endwinding inductance is based on the sum of
the endwinding inductances of each coil, without taking account of the
559
5. E l e c t r ic a l D es ic n
Fig. 5.31 Geometry for calculation of endwinding inductance. The same geometry
is used in the calculation of mean length of rum (MLT) and winding
resistance.
mutual coupling between coils. To calculate the endwinding inductance
of one coil, the endwindings are developed into a circular arc as shown
in Fig. 5.31. First, imagine the steel stator core dissolved away. Then,
imagine the coil flattened into a plane, as in Fig. 5.31 b. In c the flat coil
is shown with two semicircular endwindings and two straight sides of
length Z ^ . The diameter of the semicircular endwindings is D = r^a,
and two such semicircles from opposite ends of the motor combine to
make a complete circle whose inductance is
Z,cire *
circ 2 (GMD J
 2) (5.47)
in [H], where CMD is the geometric mean distance between the
conductors in the coil crosssection. If the coil crosssection is assumed
square, with area A, then CMD = 0.447 JA. To get the total contribution
from the phase windings to the phase inductance, Lcnd, the inductance
Lcirc is multiplied by the number of coils per phase and divided by a2,
where a is the number of parallel paths.
A more accurate estimate of the endwinding inductance could be
obtained by means of equation (5.17), with the vector potential A
560
5. E l e c t r ic a l D esig n
evaluated by a threedimensional calculation using the finiteclement or
boundaryelement method.
561
D esig n o f bru sh less perm a nent m a g n et m o t o r s
566
6. SINEWAVE MOTORS
6.1 Introduction
that represent the magnitude and direction of the the spatial distribution
of these quantities in a polyphase machine with a rotating field. They are
analogous to the time phasors which represent the magnitude and phase
of individual phase currents, voltages, etc., and they are closely related
to them. The space vector is also closely related to the d,qaxis frame of
reference, which is the basis of classical AC machine theory. Space
vectors actually have a long history, but they are increasingly important
and popular today because of the widespread use of vector control or fieId
oriented control for synchronous and induction motors. Certain pulsewidth
modulation (PWM) control strategies used with vector control are more
easily understood and analysed in terms of space vectors, than in terms
of tfj^axis theory.
6.1.2 Practical motors designed to approximate the sinewave motor
The most fundamental aspect of the sinewave motor is that the backEMF
generated in each phase winding by the rotation of the magnet should
be a sinewave function of rotor angle. The purity of the sinewave
depends partly on the magnet fluxdistribution, which should be as near
as possible to a sinewave, and pardy on the winding distribution. If the
winding were perfecdy sinedistributed it would have no fluxlinkage with
spaceharmonics of the magnet fluxdistribution, but practical windings
are not perfecdy sinedistributed and therefore it is important to make
the magnet flux distribution as nearly sinusoidal as possible. The rotor
configurations shown in Fig. 6.1 are commonly employed for this.
(a ) (b ) (c )
Fig. fi.l PM rotors commonly used in sinewave motors.
In Fig. 6.1a the magnets are parallelmagnetized (not radially
magnetized). In Fig. 6.1A the varying thickness of the magnet in ihf
direction of magnetization naturally profiles the fluxdistribution and a
62
6. S inewave M o t o r s
very good sinewave is possible with this configuration. In Fig. 6.1 c the soft
iron polepieces can be profiled to give a variable airgap length which
produces the same effect. A difficulty with this motor is the effect of
crossmagnetization, i.e. 9axis armature reaction flux. In all three cases
Ihc magnet pole arc is chosen to maximize the ratio of the fundamental
flux to the total flux.
The windings can be made approximately sinedistributed by three main
methods:
1. shortpitching or "chording";
2. skew; and
3. distribution or "spread".
Shortpitching means winding the coils with a span less than n electrical
radians; this has the additional advantage of lowering the resistance and
decreasing the amount of copper in the endwindings, as well as making
the endwindings more manageable in the factory. Winding pitches of
5/6, 2/3, and even 1/2 are typical, the fractional pitch being relative to
one polepitch or 7t electrical radians. "Concentric" windings are
essentially made up of combinations of shortpitched coils, all of which
have the same axis.
Skew can be applied to either the winding or the magnets, and both
methods are used in production.
The distribution or spread of a winding means that the conductors are
distributed throughout an angular belt as discussed in connection with
Fig. 5.13. In large AC machines the spread is achieved by means of a lap
winding, in which all the coils are identical. In small PM machines it is
more usual to use concentric windings, of the type discussed in Chapter
5.
The sinewave PM motor is a simple synchronous motor. It has a rotating
stator MMF wave and can therefore be analyzed with a phasor diagram;
this is especially useful in designing the control system and calculating
the performance. In this chapter we determine expressions for the
torque; the opencircuit phase EMF due to the magnet; the actual
winding inductance; and the synchronous reactance. These results are
63
D e sig n o f b ru sh less perm a nent m a gnet m o t o r s
modified for practical windings by means of the standard winding factors
of AC machines. They provide the basis for the phasor diagram, which
is used to develop the circle diagram and study its variation with speed;
from this the speed/torque characteristic is derived. It is shown that the
surfacemagnet sinewave motor has limited capability to operate along a
constantpower locus at high speed. The chapter finishes with a
theoretical comparison of the torque per ampere and kVA requirements
of squarewave and sinewave motors and a comparison of woundfield and
PM motors which justifies the preference for PM motors in smaller sizes.
1 = ^ (6.2)
2 v p p
so the total number of conductors per phase is Ns/p x 2p = 2Nt. The
total number of turns per phase is half the number of conductors per
phase, i.e., Ns. This is illustrated for a twopole winding in Fig. 6.2.
6.2.2 Airgap flux produced by sinedistributed winding
For the calculation of backEMF and winding inductance it is necessary
to calculate the fluxlinkage of the sinedistributed winding. Fig. 6.2 shows
the selfflux produced by current in the winding itself, and Fig. 6.3 shows
the MMF which forcesthe flux across the airgap at two points located at
0 and n /2 p  0 electrical radians. The equations will be developed for
the general case of a machine with 2p poles, even though Fig. 6.2 b
drawn for p = 1. The MMF enclosed by the flux line is given by
64
6. S inew ave M o t o r s
FLUX LINES
COIL A X IS
ELEM ENTAL
COIL
wipe v . iN . (6.3)
F = f i smp6 d9 = cospO.
Je 2 p
The airgap fluxdensity at 0 is therefore
B = MoH ~ = B cospO
b = (6.5)
2p g "
and g is given by equation (5.17). The flux linking the coil whose
conductors are located at the angles 0 and 0 is given by
65
D e sig n o f bru sh less perm a nent m a g n et m o t o r s
66
6. S inewave M o t o r s
in [H]. If there are a parallel paths through the winding, this formula
ii unchanged provided that Af is interpreted correcdy as Nc x 2p/a,
where Nc is the number of sinedistributed turns per pole. Ns is then the
number of turns in series per phase, in the same sense as in Chapter 5,
section 5.8.3. Comparing equation (6.10) with equation (5.23), the sine
distribution reduces the selfinductance by 50% compared with that of
a single concentrated fullpitch coil having the same number of
conductors. As noted already, the flux is reduced by the factor 2/ n while
the linkage of that flux is reduced by the factor ir/4, so that for the same
ampereconductors the inductance is reduced by 2/ti x ti/4 = 1/2,
compared with the concentrated coil.
67
D esig n o f b ru sh less perm a n en t m a g n et m o t o r s
From this it is easy to show that the mutual inductance between two
otherwise identical sinedistributed windings with Na and JVp series turns
per phase is
cos y = Mjnm cos Y. (613)
68
6. S inew ave M o t o r s
where Y is the angle between the axes of the windings, in electrical
radians. These results are among the most fundamental in the theory of
AC machines. The vanishing of the integral in equation (6.11) for p *
q means that a sinedistributed winding has no fluxlinkage with any sine
distributed flux that has a polenumber different from its own: by
implication, it therefore rejects all spaceharmonics of the magnetic flux
set up by the rotor magnet, since this field is no different in principle
from the field set up by another winding or set of windings. The sine
distributed winding is therefore a perfect "notch" filter for space
harmonic fluxes of its own polenumber.
The cosinusoidal variation of the mutual inductance in equation (6.13)
is equally fundamental. In particular, it forms the basis of the twoaxis
theory of the induction machine, and it also plays a central part in the
twoaxis (dj^axis) theory of synchronous machines, including the PM
machines of this chapter. If y = 0 and Nat = Np = Ns, then the mutual
inductance Map is equal to the selfinductance of equation (6.10).
6.2.5 Generated EMF
Suppose the flux is established by a second winding which rotates relative
lothe first winding. The fluxlinkage in the stationary winding ais still
given by equation (6.12) but with
Y = t V + Yo (614>
69
D esig n o f bru sh less perm a nent m a gnet m o t o r s
6.2.6 Torque
Suppose the flux is established by a second winding or a magnet with y
polepairs, whose axis is located at an angle p from the reference axis of
the first winding, Fig. 6.5. The radial fluxdensity at the winding is
B cos ( g9  f3) and this produces a force on the winding element and
a resulting torque equal to
= y, * B cos (g$  /9) * N sin pO * (6.17)
The total torque is the integral
e 2 (618)
^ f {sin [{p + g)6 0] + sin [ (p  g)8 + 0]]dB.
22 Jn
ty jp s m fi

610
6. S inew ave M o t o r s
The rotation of the ampercconductor distribution is achieved by means
of a two or threephase winding carrying balanced currents. If three
phase windings a,b,c have their axes at 0, + 120, and  120 and are
supplied with currents i cos 0)at, cos (&)at  2tc/3), and i cos (Ci>st 
2n/3), the resulting ampereconductor distribution is given by
N [sin p 9 costds/ + sin (p Q  2tt/3) cos {(i3s/  2 tt/ 3 )
+ sin (p6+ 2ir/3) cos (ws/+2ir/3)] (6.21 )
t N
= / sin (p9 
2 2 s
611
D e sig n o f bru sh less perm anent m a gnet m o t o r s
where
(6.26)
and I  /V2 is the RMS phase current. The associated flux per p o le is
612
6. S inew ave M o t o r s
/A rotating flux wave, established by armature reaction,
generates voltages in all three phases. In each phase the voltage is
proportional to /an d is therefore regarded as the voltage drop ^/across
a fictitious reactance, the 'synchronous reactance, By substituting the
flux/pole into the expression derived earlier for EMF, and dividing by I,
we get
y _ 3 tt Mo^i^ak (6 27)
^ 8 p ig "
in [Ohms], This expression applies to an ideal 2/>polc sinedistributed
threephase winding with Af turns in series per phase, and it neglects the
leakage inductance of the slots and endturns. To obtain a practical
formula for a real winding, we must first find an effective value for the
iincdistributed turns. This is done by means of Fourier analysis and
winding factors in the next section.
Fig. fi.6 Fullpitch coil, shown divided into two equal halves, one per pole
614
6. S inewave M o t o r s
2N p C O N D U C T O R S /P O L E
N T U R N S /P O L E
P
N c TU R N S /C O IL
FUNDAMENTAL
SPAN = 7 SLOTS
Bn is the nth space harmonic of the flux distribution. The nth harmonic
can be eliminated from the flux wave produced by a winding if = 0,
which requires e = n /n . In the winding of Fig. 6.7, 0 = 2n/9, so no
integralorder harmonic is eliminated If the coil span was reduced from
7 to 6 slots, however, e would be 3n/9 = n/S and the third harmonic
would be eliminated from the selfflux because = cos (3 x ti / 6) =0.
The winding would also have zero linkage with the 3rd harmonic flux
produced by any other winding or by the magnet. Shortpitching by 1/n
of a polepitch eliminates the nth harmonic fluxlinkage from all sources,
both self and mutual.
In wyeconnected threephase motors there is little point in using a
chording angle e that is n /3 (or a submultiple thereof), because the wyr
connection itself cancels the 3rd harmonic EMFs from the lineline EMF,
and no thirdharmonic current can flow provided that the star point of
the winding is isolated. However, in deltaconnected motors it is essential
616
6. S inew ave M o t o r s
(0 eliminate the third harmonic (see section 5.2.2), and the use of a 2/3
pitch winding does this most effectively.
,\ concentric winding with more than one coil per pole contains coils of
differing span, and even different numbers of turns. Provided that all the
coils have the same winding axis, the overall pitch factor can be
calculated using
_ ^i^pn(l) + pn(2) + + ^m^pnfrn) /fi 391
^  a w v T a T (632)
where m is the number of coils, JVj, M,, etc. are the numbers of
turns/coil, and i n(1j, fcpn(2)> etc are t^e individual pitch factors for the
individual coils. For example, a winding of 2 coils per pole having spans
of 7/9 and 5/9, with equal numbers of turns, would have a third
harmonic winding factor of
sin ~3 
7 TT + sin 3 x 
5 7T
92 92
2 (6.33)
sin (210*) + sin (150;)
2
= 0.
This shows the possibility of eliminating a particular harmonic by means
of a "composite" pitch factor, even though no coil has the exact pitch
required to eliminate that harmonic from its own fluxlinkage.
6.3.3 Distribution or spread
Lap windings are made up of groups of coils which all have the same
span, but which are displaced from each other by an electrical angle y
(see Fig. 5.5). Often y is equal to the slotpitch angle, but this is not
necessarily the case, particularly in fractionalslot windings.
Consider two coils such as those in Fig. 5.5. Each produces a
fundamental airgap MMF that is sinusoidal and whose wavelength is, by
definition, 2n electrical radians. The two fundamental sinewaves are
displaced from each other by y electrical radians, so that the resultant
airgap MMF is proportional to
sin + sin (0  Y) = 2 sin cos (6.34)
617
D esig n o f b ru sh less perm a n en t m a g n et m o t o r s
If both coils were concentrated together in the same slots then y = 0 and
the MMF would be proportional to 2 sin 0. The ratio of the amplitude
of the fundamental of the distributed winding to that of the concentrated
winding is cos ( y / 2), and this is known as the fundamental distribution
factor, fedI. If there are m coils in a group, the resultant fundamental
MMF is proportional to
sin 8 + sin(0  y) + sin(0  2 y) +...+ sin [9  (J37 1) Y]
s in ^ l
= sin 8 + (in~Y) v2
(6.35)
2 sin^
2
(This result can be derived by multiplying both sides of the original sum
by 2 sin (y / 2) and expanding the sinproduct terms into sum and
difference sin terms, then cancelling common terms). If all the m coils
were concentrated together then y = 0 and the MMF would be
proportional to m sin 0. The fundamental distribution factor is then
given by the ratio
sin m y
I
m sin Y
[2 J
The same procedure works also for the spaceharmonic components of
the MMF, so that the nth harmonic distribution factor is
sin 'nBH.
2 (6.37)
m sin n l
2
Equation (6.35) shows that the axis of the resultant MMF wave ij
displaced by an angle (m  1 ) y /2 by the distribution, relative to ihc
position it would have if all the coils were concentrated together with the
first coil. The summation in equation (6.35) can be represented
vectorially as in Fig. 6.9, where the vector sum of the MMFs is
represented by the large chord.
618
6. S inew ave M o t o r s
fi.9 Vector sum of coil MMF'j, illustrating the winding distribution factor
619
D esig n o f bru sh less perm a nent m a gnet m o t o r s
where
sl = f F{6) cos n& d6 and
2 ir Jo
(6.39)
IT / n 7^0) sin nO d9.
2
O.ir j
+ J (/j^cos jj0
fl<M (6.40)
r27r
* J (~Foq)cos 1,9 d6
2
(Nf)a cos n<pnnai
sin
nv 4
and
(Nf)a sin n<f> sin (6.41)
IITT M 2
where a = (9Rq ~ 0G ) is the span of the coil in electrical radians, (>^
= ( 0R + dGc[)/2 is the location of its axis, and (M)q is the ampereturns
of me i/th coil. For a winding with N coils the overall harmonic
coefficients are given by
E a n,q At = E Awi (6 '42)
ql ^1
and the magnitude of the nth harmonic is
^ = W * V (643)
If all the ampereconductors were redistributed and concentrated in full
pitch coils, one per pole, then the MMF distribution would be a
rectangular wave of peak value F /2, where
620
6. S inewave M o t o r s
n
(6 .4 4 )
The amplitude of the nth harmonic component is 4/y'wi, and this is the
base from which the nth harmonic winding factor can be defined:
In the machine of Fig. 6.7 with 18 slots, a skew of 1 slotpitch gives Asl =
0.995, = 0.0583, and fcjig = 0.05326, and these low skew factors
attenuate the most troublesome harmonics associated with slotting. A
skew of one slot pitch is not necessarily optimum from all points of view,
and smaller values are sometimes used, e.g. 0.75 of a slotpitch.
6.3.6 Design formulas for practical windings
All the design formulas for sinedistributed windings can now be
rewritten for practical windings simply by replacing the sinedistributed
621
D e sig n o f bru sh less perm anent m a g n et m o t o r s
series turns per phase with the equivalent sinedistributed series turns
per phase for the fundamental:
7T
where Nph is the actual number of series turns per phase 2pNp/a, and
is the fundamental winding factor.
K i = *pdi^i (a48)
The opencircuit phase EMF is
E  A (6.49)
J2
where $>M1 is the fundamental flux due to the magnet. If, as is usually the
case, the magnet flux distribution is not perfectly sinusoidal, the
fundamental component should be extracted using Fourier analysis as
outlined in section 6.4 below. In that case the nth harmonic EMF can
be computed using equation (6.49) with Awl replaced by kmi. The EMF
can be written in an alternative useful form by recognizing that the RMS
phase fluxlinkage due to the magnet is
^iul
Wl ph Ml (65Q )
Ml =
v/2
With this, the EMF can be written
Eq = wsl).M1. (6.51)
The subscript 'q here means that the EMF phasor is aligned with the
<faxis in the phasor diagram since it leads the fluxlinkage by 90 electrical
degrees.
The torque is given by equations (6.19), (6.2123) and (6.50):
T, = 3 ^ mi I P sin P (6.52)
622
6. S inew ave M o t o r s
E J s in /3 (6.53)
q
jn [Nm). o>m is the mechanical angular velocity given by equations (6.23)
and (6.22). For a 2phase motor the 3 in equations (6.41) and (6.42)
should be replaced by 2.
Turning now to the actual phase inductance, it is meaningless to
substitute the effective sinedistributed turns. The actual inductance must
include all the self fluxlinkage, not just the fundamental component.
The inductance formula for a practical winding therefore remains the
same as in section 5.8, including the leakage inductance.
The synchronous inductance or reactance is quite different from the
actual inductance, being associated with the voltage drop in one phase
caused by the fundamental component of rotating armaturereaction
flux, under balanced conditions with all three phases in operation.
Substituting for the effective sinedistributed turns per phase, we get
(6.54)
in Ohms per phase. To this value must be added the perphase leakage
reactance Xa, giving the total synchronous reactance
(6.55)
Potential
^ F ladc o sP e
1 magnet
Potential u f 1 n
Zero potential 2p
Fig. 6.10 Geometry for the calculation of XA.
The geometry for the calculation of is shown in Fig. 6.10 and the
axis flux distribution in Fig. 6.11.
624
6. S inew ave M o t o r s
This geometry is derived from the spoketype motor shown in Fig. 6.1 (c),
by developing it into Cartesian or rectangular form. The projection is
used purely to facilitate a clear picture and does not introduce any
additional approximation, since the circular shape of the airgap is
retained in the mathematics. Although the geometry appears to be
specialized to the spoketype rotor, in fact it applies to all rotor
c o n f i g u r a t i o n s provided that the symmetries of the magnetic circuit are
correcdy observed. Fig. 6.12 shows how the basic geometry of Fig. 6.10
can be developed for three different rotor configurations. Similar
developments apply to the geometry for calculating X^.
The MMF distribution fjad cos pB is determined from Fig. 6.13. The
actual winding has 2p poles, and each pole has N turns. For example,
if there are m coils per pole each with Nc turns/coil, = mNc. The
equivalent sinedistributed winding has a conductor distribution (Ns/2 )
tin pQ conductors/rad, so that the number of conductors per pole is
v = fJirfp _Vs sin p6d6 = i 2x  Ai n lw = N, if
t656)
v Jo 2 ir 2 p p
625
D esig n o f bru sh less perm anent m a gnet m o t o r s
M A G N ET
Fig. 6.12 Development of geometry for calculation of X ^. (a) Spoke type (b) Erat
type (c) Surface magnet
626
6. S inewave M o t o r s
and the number of sinedistributed turns per pole is half this, i.e.
N = (6.57)
p 2 Ip
If all turns are in series then the number of sinedistributed turns in
series per phase is
2p * % = Ns. (6.58)
Ip s
In a practical phase winding with all Arph turns in series,
N.  +7r K , <659>
From Fig. 6.13 the MMF per gap has a peak value
627
D e sig n o f brushless perm anent m a gnet m o t o r s
K
F* ' N* t P
2 2 p
(6'M)
3y/2 AvI
IT
ampereconductors/gap. This equation shows that in a multiplepole
machine the total armaturereaction amperetums are divided among p
polepairs. If the phase winding is divided electrically into a parallel
paths, then the MMF per gap is divided by a, and this is taken into
account by defining JVph as the number of turns in series per phase, i.e.
N _ T o ta l turns/phase
Pb " Paths
The peak MMF per gap given by equation (6.60) is made equal to
^lad by using the rfaxis current 7d from the phasor diagram (section
6.5), or to by using the yaxis current 7^.
Returning to the magnetic analysis of Fig. 6.10, the polepiece is floating
magnetically and has an undetermined magnetic potential u. Since the
qaxis is taken as the datum of magnetic potential, is themagnetic
potential drop across one magnet. "One magnet" isdefined as the
segment of magnet associated with one halfpole. In the spoketype rotor
this means splitting the actual magnets into two sections in series. The
permeance P ^ is the permeance of "one magnet", i.e.
Am/ (L ra/ 2 ) , where Lm is the total thickness of one block of magnet. The
airgap fluxdensity over the polepiece is given by
3 .dW = [^iad COS P  (6 62)
g
628
6. S inewave M o t o r s
and the form of this distribution is shown in Fig. 6.11. If the polepiece
is sufficiendy wide and the negative potentialdrop u induced in the
airgap by the reluctance through the magnet is sufficiendy large, a
proportion of the flux can reemerge from the polepiece and return
across the airgap in the reverse direction, completing its path to the q
axis via the stator teeth at the edges of the pole arc. These reentrant
fluxpaths were termed "whorls" by V.B. Honsinger in his analysis of line
siart versions of the PM AC motor [1],
629
D esig n o f b ru sh less perm a n en t m a g n et m o t o r s
to the base Then
u  a<l (6.67)
This is the total <axis flux produced by the armature reaction current
Its fundamental component is what generates the voltage in the
phasor diagram. The fundamental component is determined by Fourier
analysis of as described in [2]. Thus the amplitude of the
fundamental armaturereaction airgap fluxdensity symmetrical about the
daxis is
jrPP
?,ad = iIT Jf0
(6.69)
g
l ^ ud V I 
The constants fc, and fclad arise in the Fourier analysis and are given hy
_4 an
v
and
r Sill OC7T
lad = a +
7r . ( 6 .7 1 )
If equations (6.67) and (6.68) are substituted into equation (6.69), there
results a simple equation for
*.ad   ^ a d (672)
8i
where gd ' is the effective airgap presented to the fundamental
component of daxis flux, given by
630
6. S inew ave M o t o r s
The use of the concept of the equivalent airgap makes it possihle to use
equation (6.54) for Xd, simply by substituting g instead of g : thus
+^ ^ i^ph )2 + ^ (674)
PSa
jfoie the addition of the leakage reactance Xo to the airgap component
V d to get the total reactance. For a twophase machine the airgap
component Xad has 2/3 the value calculated by equation (6.74). The slot
leakage reactance is calculated using methods described in Chapter 5.
for completeness, the fundamental armature reaction flux associated
with .Blad is given by
* = A ad ^stk (6.75)
* lad p
in [Wb]. The fundamental fluxftn&jge associated with Jlad is =
iad and the peak induced voltage is G)ip]ad. The RMS induced
voltage is wtlad/'/2 = ( 2 7 1 / ^ 2 ) ^ ^ /3> lad = Xdd/d V/phase.
The analytical derivation of equation (6.74) for Xd is essentially similar
io die procedure followed by Honsinger [1] and Miyashita [2] although
both these authors worked with polearcs of 180 electrical degrees (a =
1 ). The technique described here is similar to that of Richter [35].
6.4,2 Calculation of
The component of the stator ampereconductor distribution associated
with / is symmetrical about the 9axis and produces a flux that does not
pass through the magnet. Fig. 6.14 shows the ideal form of the airgap
ilux distribution. The airgap fluxdistribution symmetrical about the <7axis
i* given by
5 aq(0) = ^aq s <676)
g
and the total qaxis flux corresponding to is
SLTttlp
631
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n en t m a g n e t m o t o r s
This is the total 9axis flux produced by the armature reaction current I .
Its fundamental component is what generates the voltage Xdq/ in the
phasor diagram. The fundamental component is determined by Fourier
analysis of 4> as described in [2]. Thus the fundamental armature
reaction airgap'Vluxdensity symmetrical about the 9axis is
tt(2
8 (6.78)
= Alaq
k , Mac
F
g
where
*laq = IT (679)
Equation (6.78) can be used to determine Xq in the same way as
equation (6.54) was used for the symmetrical synchronous reactance X^
in the nonsalient pole machine, and as equations (6.69) and (6.74) were
used for thus
xq = + = 6^ Lf + Xt (6.80)
pga
where
V = (6.81)
*iaq
Note the addition of the leakage reactance Xa to the airgap component
to get the total reactance. For a twophase machine the airgap
component X ,q has 2/3 the value calculated by equation (6.80). The slot
leakage reactance is calculated using methods described in Chapter 5.
For completeness, the fundamental armature reaction flux associated
with filaq is given by
* laq = ffaq ^stk (6.82)
632
6. S inewave Moto rs
^mo + 2 * + Pt\
where
Pa  (684)
and /*L is the leakage permeance per halfpole, i.e. the leakage
permeance in parallel with Pm0
The corresponding fluxdensity produced in the m agnet is given by
B . 5 . (6.85)
where is the poleface area of one magnet. This fluxdensity is
superimposed on the opencircuit fluxdensity in the magnet (equations
(4.10) and (4.13)). If 7d < 0, then flma < 0, i.e. the daxis armature
reaction is demagnetizing, and the magnet operating point is driven
further down the demagnetization characteristic (Fig. 4.4).
6.4.4 Crossmagnetizing effect of qaxis flux due to 7q
The yaxis armaturereaction flux produced by I is given by equation
(6.77). This flux splits into two equal halves which flow across adjacent
polepieces. At the centre of each polepiece (Fig. 6.14) the resulting
fluxdensity component is
* qad = (686>
This fluxdensity should be checked in design calculations to ensure that
the polepiece has enough radial depth to avoid saturation.
6.4.5 Significance of rotor leakage
Rotor leakage has two main effects. First, it wastes magnet flux. On
opencircuit the airgap flux is less than the magnet flux. Accordingly the
633
D esig n o f brush less perm a nent m a gnet m o t o r s
Fundamental Blaq
 Potential
jF la q ^ P 0
1 magnet
^mO
/> n
Zero potential
2p
A1 (6.89)
'q
vd 'd d
This equation applies also in Fig. 6.16fc, where y < 0 and the current lags
behind the ^axis.
The current phasor is given by
(6.92)
where
1^ = /co s (3 = /s in y; and (6.93)
Jq = /sin P = / cos Y
Similarly the terminal voltage phasor V leads the ^axis by the angle 6,
sometimes known as the load angle, and
(6.94)
where
V cos (5 + ) =  V sin S ; and
2 ( 6 .95)
V sin (5 + ) = V cos S .
2
636
6. S inew ave M o t o r s
JXJ
q'q
(a) (b)
Fig. 6.16 Phasor diagram of salientpole sinewave motor in motoring mode, with
currents and voltages resolved into if and ^ axis components, (a) rfaxis
current is 'demagnetizing'' (b) itaxis current is "magnetizing1'.
Also
produced by the MMF associated with /d induces the voltage jXd/d in the
qaxis, which adds to ]E , as in Fig. 6.166. The magnet fluxdensity is
increased, so the operating point moves up the demagnetization
characteristic. It may even end up in the first quadrant with > Br
Conversely, a negative daxis component, /d < 0, produces an MMF
distribution that opposes the magnet flux in the daxis. The armature
current is said to be demagnetizing. The voltage jXd/d is in the
opposite direction to jq, as in Fig. 6.16a. The magnet fluxdensity is
decreased, so the operating point moves down the demagnetization
characteristic.
The power factor angle is given by
<f> = S  Y (6.98)
in [Nm], where the fluxlinkages ijtd and ir are RMS perphase values
given by
s'J'd = Eq * x d fd (6.100)
The first term is called "magnet alignment torque" and the second term,
proportional to (Xd  Ar((), is called "reluctance torque". If 7d and are
substituted from equations (6.93) the torque equation becomes
638
6. S inew ave M o t o r s
(6.103)
4 AX I
(6.104)
This equation is the same as equation (6.53). A contour of constant
torque is therefore a horizontal line in the phasor diagram, with / =
constant.
6.5.3 Operation as a generator
fig. 6.17 shows the phasor diagram for generating, with both
demagnetizing (7d < 0) and magnetizing (7d > 0) orientations of the
stator current. It is usually more convenient to exchange the current
phasor for its negative, so that generating current appears positive when
leaving the machine, rather than when entering it: in other words, the
machine is treated as a source rather than as a sink. Then equation
(6,97) becomes
639
D e sig n o f bru sh less perm a n en t m agnet m o t o r s
Reversing the current in Fig. 6.12 causes the arrowheads on the HI, jX ^
and jX^/ phasors to switch to the opposite ends of the respective
phasors. Ilie phasor diagram then appears as in Fig. 6.18, which shows
the usual case of lagging current. This is the classical phasor diagram for
an overexcited AC generator. The term "overexcited" generally means
that E > V. In other words, the excitation (in this case, the magnet flux)
must be increased above the value corresponding to rated terminal
voltage, in order to overcome the voltage drop in the synchronous
reactances and X^. The daxis component of armaturereaction MMF
opposes the magnet flux.
Fig, fi.17 Phasor diagram of salientpole sinewave motor in generating mode, with
currents and voltages resolved into A and ^axii components, (a) daxis
current is "demagnetizing" (b) rfaxis current is "magnetizing".
640
6. S inewavk M o t o r s
fig. 6.18 Classical phasor diagram for generating wilh lagging load.
641
D esig n o f bru sh less perm a n en t m a g n et m o t o r s
642
6. S inew ave M o t o r s
In c re a sin g sp ee
At point D,
> k   4 (6115)
"Tst)
Equating the two expressions (6.81) and (682) for 7C at the two
respective speeds,
V
k =  c (6.116)
Z fi ~ J Vc ~ V
Suppose we define ^ as the perunit opencircuit voltage at the comer
point, with the maximum RMS voltage of the controller as the base
voltage:
^ (6117)
Vc
Then
k = (6 .118)
" ft ~
645
D e sig n o f bru sh less perm a n en t m a g n et m o t o r s
References
1. Honsinger VB [ 1982] Thr fteUh and parameters of interior type ac permanent magnet
machines, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, PAS101, 4, 867575
I. Miyaahiu K, Yamashita S, Tanabe S, Shimozu T and Scnto H [1979] Development
of a highspeed permanent magnet synchronous motor, IEEE Transactions, Power
Apparatus and Systems
S Lafuze DL and Richter E [1976] A highpower rareearth cobalt permanent magnet
generator in a variable speed constantfrequency aircraft startergenerator system, NAECON
conference record, 971977
< Bailey LJ and Richter E [1976] Development report on a highspeed permanentmagnet
generator of the 200kVA rating class utilizing rareearth cobalt magnets. Proceedings of the
second international workshop on rareearth cobalt magnets and their applications,
Dayton, Ohio
647
D esig n o f bru sh less perm a nent m a gnet m o t o r s
5 Richter E [1978] Tradeoff studies for permanentmagnet machines tiling rar*earth cobalt
magnets. Paper 14 of the third international workshop on rareearth cohalt magnet*
and their applications, University of California, San Diego
6 Leonhard, W [19851 Control of electrical drives, SpringerVerlag, Berlin
648
7. kT and kE
7.1 Introduction1
The torque constant fej and the backEMFconstant A introduced in Chapter
1 are widely used to match the motor to its controller, especially when
the motor and controller are obtained from different sources. Even more
importandy, fcj. is used in the controlsystem design of complete servo
mechanisms that are driven by electric motors, because it represents the
essential "gain" of the motor in converting current into torque. Yet there
is scope for confusion in the way these factors are used. In S.I. units it is
often tacidy assumed that hj. and kL are identical. In English units, they
are numerically different, giving rise to the impression that they are
independent of one another. Sometimes kE is expressed in Volts per 1000
rpm, which seems at first sight to have no relation to the torque per
ampere.
The widely used ElectroCraft handbook [1) provides definitions for DC,
squarewave brushless DC, and twophase sinewave brushless AC motors,
but it docs not discuss the threephase sinewave BDC motor, neither does
it explain how these constants can be calculated from dimensions. The
scope for uncertainty is increased by two other factors :
1. Squarewave motors can be fitted with resolvers and operated
from sinewave drives. Indeed, in some manufacturers ranges the
differences between squarewave motors (brushless DC) and
sinewave motors (AC servo) are so small that the distinction
between them is not clear.
2. When applied to the threephase sinewave motor, the "natural"
definitions of kj and kE used with commutator and squarewave
motors lead to a ratio of v^3/2 between kj and A. Ref. [1]
overlooks this factor. It only discusses the twophase sinewave
motor, for which the problem does not arise.
There is some overlap between this chapter and other chapters that define Jfcj. and
kjr (Chapters 1,5 and 8); and also with Chapter 11 on measurement. The function of this
chapter is a detailed treatment of the two constants together with their measurement, in
which the similarities and differences among two and threephaae, and squarewave and
sinewave motors are brought out.
71
D esig n o f bru sh less perm a n en t m a gnet m o t o r s
72
7. Kj. AND Kf
7,3 Definition and measurement of kj. and Ag
7J. 1 DC commutator motors
The DC commutator motor is the most basic of all electrical machines
from a control point of view. Viewed from the DC source, the ideal
brushless DC motor is electrically identical to the commutator motor.
The backEMF constant ky and the torque constant form the basis of
Lhe control theory of both machines. To put this theory on a clear basis,
the equations of the DC commutator motor are summarized first.
The DC commutator motor is described by three simple equations as
follows:
T = Jfe, I Nm (7.1)
where Tis the electromagnetic (airgap) torque, Tis the DC current, and
Jtf is the torque constant in Nm/A. Next,
E = kE o m V (7.2)
where E is the backEMF, com is the angular velocity in mechanical
radians/sec, and is the backEMF constant in Vs/rad. Finally Ohms
Law: in the steady state
Ks = B * R^I Kb (7.3)
where is the supply voltage, RA is the armature resistance, and is the
combined voltage drop across both brushes. Many of the operational
characteristics of the DC commutator motor can be derived from these
equations, including the speed/torque characteristic and the variation of
current and voltage with speed and torque (see Chapters 1 and 5). For
the ideal DC motor,
kj = k 2 (7.4)
provided that hj. and are in consistent units (such as Nm/A and
Vs/rad). The basic energy conversion process is described by the
equation
73
D e sig n o f b ru sh less perm a n en t m a g n et m o t o r s
Torque T
s
/ ^ E f f e c t of
( armature
Jq reaction
0 /
Friction C, Current I
torque
Fig 7.2 Errors in measurement of Jfcj. can arise from armature reaction and
friction
with units Vs/rad. At full speed, with no chopping, if the lineline back
EMF waveform is trapezoidal with a flat top wider than 60, and if the
mean voltage drops in the transistors and the winding resistance are
small compared with the supply voltage, then
 Ks (7.7)
75
D esig n o f b ru sh less perm a nent m a g n et m o t o r s
O n e phase
ph
76
7. K jANDK j .
where Pclcc has the same meaning as before, i.e. the electromechanical
power conversion. The ideal squarewave brushless DC motor thus has the
same basic energyconversion equation as the DC commutator motor.
7.3.3 Twophase squarewave brushless DC Motors
for the less common twophase squarewave BDC motor the definitions
are similar and equations (7.6)(7.10) can be used, except that the peak
lineline backEMF e ^ is replaced by the peak phase backEMF ph. In the
measurement of kE by the generator/rectifier test, only one phase of the
motor is used at a time, as in Fig. 7.36.
7.3.4 Twophase sinewave brushless AC motors
The definitions of and fcp follow those given in Ref [1], Thus
(7.11)
with units Vs/rad, where ph is the peak phase voltage. This is measured
a
using capacitivelysmoothed rectifier, as in Fig. 73b. If the backEMF
waveform is sinusoidal, I h can be measured with an oscilloscope
connected direcdy across tne phase terminals; alternatively, an RMS AC
voltmeter can be used, and the reading multiplied by / 2.
(7.12)
with units Nm/A, where i is the peak phase current during normal
operation with two phases, i should be measured with a currentsensor
that is connected lo measure the phase current direcdy and display it on
an oscilloscope.
With these definitions, for the ideal twophase brushless sinewave motor
J cj  kE (7.13)
77
D esig n o f bru sh less perm a n en t m a g n et m o t o r s
and
7^ */ 2 ^ ^  Pclec (7.14)
E
where Pclcc is the electromechanical power conversion, as before. In the
ideal case also
^elec = (715)
where I is the mean currcnt from the DC supply.
The equations of the twophase sinewave brushless motor, and its
definitions of and ftp, are virtually the same as those of the threephase
squarewave motor and the commutator motor, even though the
waveforms and principle of operation are quite different: the nvophase
sinewave motor is a classical rotatingfield synchronous machine, whereas
the other two motors are DC motors, one being mechanically
commutated, the other being electronically commutated.
7.3.5 Threephase sinewave brushless AC motors
Ref. [1] does not discuss the definitions of i E and ftp for the threephase
sinewave motor. In fact there are several different ways in which they can
be defined. The one chosen here is selected so that
(a) the method of measuring is the same as for the other
motors; and
(b) the equivalent of equation (7.5) is satisfied in the natural
form for the threephase motor (see equation (7.19)).
Thus *E is defined by
4 = (7.16)
with units Vs/rad, and it is measured by the circuit shown in Fig. 7.3a,
exacdy as for the squarewave motor, ftj. is defined in exacdy the same way
as for the twophase sinewave motor, that is,
JcT = I (7.17)
T /
78
7. Kj. AND Kg
^rjih units Nm/A, where t is the peak line current when the motor is
operating normally, and is measured in the same way as described for the
fvvrophase motor. However, with these definitions
(7.18)
and
^ Su.t An* v/24* (7.19)
79
d e s ig n o f bru sh less perm a n en t m a gnet m o t o r s
where the symbols a,b,c refer to the phase voltages and currents, and d
and q refer to the transformed voltage and currents in d,q axes. This
equation expresses the principle that the instantaneous power measured
by the obvious direct method of summing vi products should produce
the same result in either the abc or the dq reference frame. But this i&
only possible if the referenceframe transformations contain appropriate
factors such as 3/2. The particular value (/3/2) of die ratio between kT
and arises because we have chosen to measure the peak lineline EMF
and the peak line current, rather than the RMS phase values.
7.3.6 Summary
The following table summarizes the definitions of kj and developed
in this section.
At/* e 1 1 1 /3 /2
712
7. Kp AND Kj.
and if we substitute for from equation (7.26) we get
k,  \ k . (7.30)
3 air
which is exactly the same as equation (7.28), showing that ftp = for this
ideal motor. If there are a parallel paths, the expression for ftp is reduced
by the factor a. The corresponding waveforms of lineline EMF and
current are shown in Fig. 7.5. The equality of AE and ftp holds regardless
of the connection (wye or delta) or the number of parallel paths.
60 JL^L
T _L
= B \DL (7.34)
P
The actual winding produces an MMF distribution whose fundamental
component is the same as that of a concentrated winding having &wl jV)h
turns. This is equivalent to a sinedistribution of C\cos />0
conductors/radian where
c, 7T2A ,,A r1*. <)
The other phase winding has an equivalent sinedistribution of
conductors sin pft. With currents * cos oz and * sin to* there is a
rotating ampereconductor distribution
Cl /cos pB cos ai t + C J sin p 6 sin o> t
1 1 (7.36)
= C,/cos {p 8  (i>/)
and the resulting torque is
714
7. KpANDKj.
T = ( /^ A ^ ,) ! = V <738>
By comparison with equation (7.32), we see that fep and kF are identical.
If there are a parallel paths in the winding, the term in brackets in
equation (7.38) is divided by a.
With two phases, if the MMF waveform is oriented so that its axis is
orthogonal to that of the magnet flux waveform (i.e. if the current is
oriented in the qaxu), the internal powerfactor angle between the
generated EMF phasor E and the current phasor I is zero and
r o m = k, /x j k = h S i 2 (739)
as in equation (7.14).
7.4.3 Threephase sinewave brushless A C motors
In Che threephase motor, assuming balanced sinusoidal operation and
wye connection,
715
D e sic n o f b r u sh less perm a n en t m a gnet m o t o r s
716
8. THE BACKEMF WAVEFORM
S,L INTRODUCTION
"This chapter is concerned with methods for the rapid calculation of the
backEMF waveform, including the methods used in the design program
pCBDC (see Chapter 13 and Ref. [1]). A good estimate of the backEMF
vaveform is required for two main reasons. In the first place, it is an
important indicator of the ability of the motor to produce smooth
torque. Squarewave motors need a backEMF waveform that is essentially
flat throughout the commutation zone, while sinewave motors require
essentially sinusoidal backEMF waveforms. In theory it is possible to
profile the current waveform by chopping so that smooth torque is
produced with any backEMF waveform, but this requires sophisticated
electronics and is only occasionally proposed in practice [2]. Most of the
time, designers aim to get the backEMF waveform as close as possible to
the trapezoidal or sinusoidal norms, within reasonable limits imposed by
manufacturing constraints.
The second reason for requiring a good estimate of the backEMF
waveform is for accurate simulation of the motor operating with its
controller, and for the determination of the current waveform and the
correct control strategy.
We have seen in Chapter 7 that the usual formula for the peak lineline
backEMF of a 3phase, wyeconnected squarewave brushless DC motor
operating with "two phases on" is
^LL = ^EWra
where is the backEMF constant given by equation (7.28). These
formulas give no information about the EMF waveform, which is generally
assumed to be trapezoidal or sinusoidal. However, when the designer is
making basic choices about the slot number, pole arc, slot opening, coil
pitch, and other dimensions, he or she may have no a priori rules which
guarantee that the backEMF waveform will have an acceptable shape. It
is therefore desirable to have a quick means of calculating it, with all the
key dimensions and parameters taken into account.
The calculation of the whole backEMF waveform is inevitably more
complicated than the calculation of ftE or hj, because the values of these
81
D esig n o f bru sh less perm a nent m a g n et m o t o r s
constants depend only on the total flux, and when they are calculated ft
is usually assumed that the EMF waveform is of the correct shape.
However, we have already seen in Chapter 3 that when the basic choices
of slot number, pole number, pole arc, coil span, etc., are being made,
there are no a priori rules which guarantee the correct EMF waveshape.
The process of selecting the correct values of these parameters needs to
include a visual inspection and perhaps also a harmonic analysis of the
EMF waveshape for each trial design. This requires a computer program
because the number of variations is far too large to be comfortably
handled by manual calculation and graphplotting. Moreover, the
influence of fringing is very' difficult to calculate by hand. Even though
methods exist, such as conformal transformation, a computer is still
required to perform the numerical computation of the results, and to
work through the variations of key parameters such as magnet length,
slot opening, skew, and other factors.
Methods for calculating the backEMF waveform can be classified into
analytical and numerical methods. The main analytical methods are (1)
the lumpedparameter reluctancenetwork (magnetic equivalent circuit);
(2) conformal transformation; and (3) analytical solution of Laplace's
equation. The main numerical methods are (1) the finiteelement
method and (2) the boundaryelement method, both of which are
available in welldeveloped computer software packages.
What is easily overlooked is the amount of numerical calculation involved
in design, which is an iterative process involving typically dozens or
hundreds of parameters, all of which have to be varied over quite wirir
ranges and finally finetuned to get an "optimal" design or an acceptable
compromise. Not all of these are electrical or magnetic: they include
thermal and mechanical parameters and calculations. Much of the
current research and development in motors is overly concerned with the
use of ever more sophisticated techniques to analyse one particular design:
this is especially characteristic of publications relating to the iinite
element method. But the finiteelement method is orders of magnitude too
slaw and expensive for use in normal design work. For the present, and
probably for some time to come, design calculations will be found to be
more productive and more efficient when they are based on analytical
methods which are much faster, even though they may be less accurate.
The proper use for finiteelement analysis is the checking and refinem ent
of designs, or the analysis of problems that are simply too difficult for
analytical techniques.
82
8. T h e Back EM F W aveform
f\ n elegant and effective example of the application of computerized
analytical methods to the EMF waveform calculation is the work of Boules
[3,4]. Boules method is based on the representation of the magnets by
equivalent currentsheets, using a formulation that dates back to Hague
[5. Unfortunately the technique does not account for the effects of slot
opening geometry or skew, and it is limited in the rotor configurations
which can be dealt with. Yet several current designs of commercial
importance use a small number of slots per pole (including fractional
values such as 1.5), and many brushless motors are skewed, either in the
stator or in the magnets. On the other hand, Boules method is ideal for
analysing slotless motors (Chapter 5).
The finiteelement method is possibly the most powerful tool for
analysing the effects of slotting, as has been demonstrated in the
extensive papers of Demcrdash and his colleagues [6 ]; but it is too
cumbersome for the present purposes, where virtually instant results are
called for, and it is arguable whether it is yet a practical tool for
modelling the effects of skew.
Most authors have treated the backEMF calculation and the coreloss
calculation as completely separate exercises, without mentioning the fact
[hat in a comprehensive design theory the two calculations must be
absolutely consistent with each other. Ref. [7] combines both analytical
and finiteelement models of the EMF waveform and iron losses in
brushless machines, and goes some way towards answering this criticism.
In this and the next chapter it is shown how the coreloss calculation can
be made consistent with the EMF waveform calculation, when both are
based on the tooth Jlux waveform.
The theory in this and the next chapter is based on relatively simple
magnetic field computations modified by smoothing or fringing functions
which, in the PCBDC computer program, may be adjusted or turned on
or off at will, giving physical insight into the effects of the design and
layout of the slots, magnets, and windings on the backEMF waveform,
core losses, and performance. The fringing functions are simple
analytical functions, based on only a few points on the waveform.
This chapter describes the backEMF calculation by three alternative
procedures, indicating their appropriateness for different situations. The
simplest is the "BLV" method, which is the most widely used. A discussion
of its limitations leads to two methods based on the toothflux waveform,
83
D esign o f bru sh less perm a nent m a cn et m o t o r s
and this provides the necessary link with the core loss calculation in the
next chapter.
84
8. T h e B ack EM F W aveform
vfhere V= rtom is the linear velocity at the stator bore and and are
die fluxdensities at 0j and 02 respecdvely. In a fullpitch coil, further
simplification results from the fact that B^ = B^, giving e = 2 BLV.
In the "BLV method 5(0) is the static magnet flux distribution around
the airgap, unmodulated by slotting. According to the "BLV" method the
EMF waveform in a fullpitch coil has the same shape as the unmodulat
ed airgap fluxdensity distribution. In a surfacemagnet motor this has the
form shown in Fig. 8.1.
85
D esig n o f bru sh less perm a n en t m a g n et m o t o r s
( 8.10)
g /r>
where Lm is the magnet length and J.rcc is its relative recoil permeability.
This formula, which was proposed by Dr. R Rabinovici [8], has its roots
in Hagues analysis of the unslotted motor with L^ = 0 [5], and is found
to give good results in practice (see below). The total width of the fringe
zone on each side of the magnet is taken to be fa = 7a, a range which
encompasses 97% of the exponential transition. The significance of the
product term in equation (8.10) is that fringing vanishes if either g or
(Lm + g) is zero; both of these conditions agree with physical intuition.
The N and S magnet poles are treated independently according to
equations ( 8.8) and (8.9), and the resulting EMF waveforms are added.
If the magnet arc is very narrow, the fringing function from the left can
overlap with the one from the right. In the overlap region the resultant
is taken to be
y = i  y%  yr (8n )
where y2 is the fringing function from the left and y3 is the one from the
right. The justification for this is explained in Fig. 8.2. A narrow magnet
g,4 Skew
A skewed magnet can be considered as being made up of many small
magnets arranged as in Fig. 8.3. The flux 4>T passing through the whole
axial length of one tooth is nearly the same as if this array of magnets
was replaced by a stack of thin sheetmagnets, each having the full length
/.in the axial direction, but with graded arcs. The combined strength of
the sheet magnets is such as to produce the same airgap flux distribution
as the actual magnet.
If the fringing functions of equations (8.8) and (8.9) are applied
individually to each sheet magnet, while their thicknesses are allowed to
decrease to an infinitesimal value, the total effect can be obtained by
integrating the field contributions of the sheetmagnets over the range
o/2 to o/2, where o is the skew angle as shown in Figs. 8.3 and 8.4. If
the contribution of one infinitesimally thin sheetmagnet to the total flux
distribution is dB = (Bpk/o)d0j, then in region 1 of Fig. 8.4 the total is
given by the integral over all the sheet magnets, i.e.,
and in region 3 as
B^B)  q, k{ " 7 ~ (8.14)
87
D e sig n o f b r u s h le s s p e rm a n e n tm a g n e t m o t o r s
L L
8.5 S lo ttin g
Slotting causes difficulties with the "BLV method. It is not obvious how
the EMFs in conductors located in slots are related to the EMFs in
filaments on the bore of the unslotted stator. Moreover, slotting
modulates the airgap fluxdistribution ij(0) at the stator bore, Fig. 8.5.
The modulating function is fixed to the stator while the fundamental flux
rotates with the rotor: the 5(0) waveshape changes as the rotor rotates,
and H and 0 in equation (8.5) are not simply related to each other.
Evaluation of e therefore requires the prior evaluation of the fluxlinkage
integral as a function ir(E) that can subsequendy be differentiated with
respect to
89
D esig n o f bru sh less perm a nent m a g n et m o t o r s
such a building process is based on the fullpitched coil, i.e., 10 j  02
7T electrical radians, but not all windings can be decomposed into full,
pitch coils. A better choice is the singletooth coil, which has the
following advantages:
1. It is more general in the sense that any winding can be
"decomposed" into an electricallyequivalent series of singletooth
coils. Some motors are in fact wound with singletooth coils.
2. The tooth fluxdensity is approximately proportional to the flux
<f>T linking a singletooth coil, and its waveform can be used to
compute the core losses in the teeth more rigorously than with
conventional coreloss formulas.
3. The flux waveform <J)y in any yoke section can be reconstructed
from the toothflux waveforms. This can be used to compute the
core losses in the yoke, and it is also useful as an indicator of
cogging torque.
4. Singletooth search coils are convenient for measurement, and
they can often be fitted after the stator is wound. It is more
difficult to fit fullpitch search coils particularly if they have several
turns.
5. Analysis based on the singletooth coil is particularly useful
when considering stator saturation conditions with the machine
loaded.
Notwithstanding its limitations, the "BLV" method is often satisfactory
particularly if the slot openings are narrow. It has the advantage of being
simple and fast. Although not every phase winding can be decomposed
into fullpitch coils, the total phase EMF can be reconstructed from the
totality of conductor EMFs.1 It can also deal with skewing if the airgap
fluxdensity waveform is modulated according to equations (8.128.14).
1Because the fringing flux enters the sides of the teeth the effective slot openings are
considerably narrower than the actual ones. This effect is probably more pronounced in
surfacemagnet PM motors than conventional nanowgap machines because of the larg
effective airgap through the magnet.
810
8. T h e B ack EM F W aveform
8.6 Calculating backEMF from Tooth Flux
8.6.1 Singlelooth flux and EMF
The singletooth EMF is the backEMF in a coil wound around one
tooth, and is given directly by Faradays Law:
e. = (8.15)
^ dt m^
where <j>T is the tooth flux due to the magnet (with no current flowing
in the stator), and (i)m is the angular velocity in mechanical rad/s. In
terms of the tooth fluxdensity, is given by
e,  (8.16)
where B j is the fluxdensity averaged over the effective tooth area Ar and
f; is the rotor position, is the tooth width; and ks is the lamination
stacking factor. In this analysis, variations of fluxdensity across the tooth
width are ignored, and the flux through the tooth Is assumed to vary only
as a result of the rotation of the magnet.
As the edge of the magnet sweeps across the tooth surface, the tooth flux
<j>T varies as shown in Figs. 8.6 and 8.7.
Fig. 8.7 shows the idealised variation of <J>T with no fringing or skew. It
is easier to understand if the magnet is considered fixed while the tooth
sweeps across it from position 1 through position 5. At position 1 the
tooth flux is zero. It reaches its maximum value aT radians later at
position 2, where the whole tooth overlaps the magnet. After that, from
position 2 through position 4, there is no variation in the tooth flux.
Finally, between position 4 and position 5 the tooth flux falls to zero.
Because of the fringing at the edges of the magnet, the "transition angle"
between zero and maximum values of <}>,. is wider than the actual tooth
arc. It is as though the tooth arc a T were augmented to a larger value
app. The transition essentially takes place over the augmented tooth arc
ar r In Fig. 8.6 the augmented tooth arc would be nearly equal to the
slot pitch. This supports the assumption on which the "BLV" method
depends, namely that the slot openings are negligible; however, the slot
openings in Fig. 8.6 are relatively narrow. The maximum tooth flux is
Sll
D esig n o f bru sh less perm a n en t m a g n et m o t o r s
clearly gathered from the augmented rather than the actual tooth arc.
A possible formula for augmenting the tooth arc is
rr = ys  K wo (817)
where is the augmented tooth arc, yt is the slot pitch, and is the
slot opening (all in electrical radians). The Carter coefficient kQ is
obtained as a function of the ratio w0/gfrom Carters graph [9]. For the
surfacemagnet PM motor, we replace g by the effective airgap g +
V ^ re c
The tooth EMF is the derivative of the <t>T waveform in Fig. 8.7, and
the idealised trapezoidal <j)T waveform therefore produces rectangular
pulses of backEMF. The next two sections describe two alternative means
for determining the <t>T and waveforms.
812
8. T h e B ack EM F W aveform
Fig 8.7 Accumulation of tooth flux as the rotor rotates. The backEMF waveform is the
derivative of the toothflux waveform
813
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s pe r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
C tfC V A / A N i m F a T O O TH T2
L2
0<rr MAGNET
o Li v lc  
(a) Low skew (b) High skew
Fig. 8.8 Tooth flux accumulation with skew, (a) Low skew (b) High skew
The ffj. waveform as described hitherto is the result of one edge of one
magnet passing one edge of the tooth. The other edge of the magnet
passing the other edge of the tooth produces another EMF pulse whose
edge is shown dotted and inverted in Fig. 8.10. Where these waveforms
overlap, they should be added together, producing the resultant eTS (for
the south magnet pole) which passes through zero as shown. A similar
image exists, folded about n, and the same addition must be performed
with it.
The north magnet produces an EMF pulse ,?TN identical to that of the
souLh magnet, but displaced symmetrically about the angle n / 2 and
shown in Fig. 810 as The total tooth EMF is given by
^TS + ^TN' ( 8 .20)
The overlap between EMF pulses coincides with the region of minimum
tooth flux, implying that the superposition is valid even though the tooth
may be saturated at other rotor positions.
815
D e s ig n o f b r u s h l e s s pe r m a n e n t m a c n e t m o t o r s
RESULTING WAVEFORM ;
FROM S MAGNET
LEADING
EDGE
TRAIUNG
EDGE
BTp is the peak fluxdensity in the tooth when it is aligned with a magnet
axis. The use of the waveform functions means, of course, that this
magnetic field calculation is performed at only one rotor position an
important factor in the overall economy of the method. The correct
value of the phase EMF, and in particular its peak value, depends on an
accurate calculation of the peak value of Bj. The quickest method for
this is a nonlinear reluctance network in which the teeth, yoke, magnet,
and airgap are modelled as series elements, with appropriate allowances
for magnet leakage flux, as described in Chapter 4. Alternatively, the
magnet can be represented by an equivalent surfacecurrent distribution
provided that its relative recoil permeability is close to unity. Of course,
816
8. T h e B ack E M F W a v efo r m
finite elements can also be used to calculate Bj accurately but with a
little more effort.
S m agnet 2s Jl___i[
3S j l Z j v
"U Lf3N
4S_n__ n_
u U"4N
5S_n__ n_
U L f5 N
6 s_n___ n
U U" 6N
7S_n__ n.
U Lf 7N
8S j i ___ n_
u LT0 N
9S j i __ n_
U LT 9N
d im m
SMOOTH WAVEFORM
WITH FRINGING
Fullpitch coll EMF
Collpltch = 9 Blots
7a = / i " 0i ' 02    0*
Adding equations (8.24),
Yi + (Si  0i) + Oi  0i  0j) +  (8.25)
+ (Ti " 0i  02 "   <f>t) = 0
fro m w hich
818
8. T h e B ack EM F W aveform
y \ = 4> ( *  i) * j (8 26)
" j=l
This means that the yoke flux in any section can be constructed as a
weighted sum of all the tooth fluxes. If the number of slots per polepair
is even, the expression simplifies to
*2
A  \ Ej=i *i (827>
Each & is a complete waveform and the summation must be executed
iamplc:bysample. An example of this construction is shown in Fig. 8.12
for a motor with 12 slots. If the number of slots/pole is nonintegral, the
yoke flux waveform becomes irregular.
References
Miller TJE, Staton DA and McCilp MI [1993] Hightpeed PCBased CAD for motor
drives, 5th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, EPE9S,
Brighton, 1316 September 1993.
Ackermann B, Janssen JHH, Soltek R and van Steen RI [1992] New technique, for
reducing cogging torque in a dais of krushJes* DC. motor*, IEE Proceedings 139, No. 4,
315320.
Boules N [1985] Prediction of noload flux density distribution in permanent magnet
machine*, IEEE Transactions, Vol. IA21, No. 4, May/June 1985, pp. 633643.
819
D esig n o f bru sh less perm a n en t m a g n et m o t o r s
&20
9. CORE LOSSES
9J INTRODUCTION
After copper losses, core losses are generally the second largest
component of power loss or inefficiency in the brushless motor, although
their significance may become overriding at very high speeds. They arise
from the variation of magnetic fluxdensity throughout the core,
particularly the stator core. This variation incurs hysteresis and eddycurrent
losses, (Chapter 16). Briefly summarizing, the hysteresis loss results from
the "unwillingness" of the steel to change its magnetic state, and as the
fluxdensity varies cyclically the magnetic state describes a locus in the
B/H diagram: the energy loss per cycle is proportional to the enclosed
area, so the average power loss due to hysteresis is proportional to the
frequency of the variation in the magnetic field. Eddycurrent loss is also
caused by variations in fluxdensity, which induce current to flow in the
jtator steel at the same frequency as the variation in the magnetic field.
The EMF which drives these currents is proportional to the peak
magnetic field and to the frequency of variation, but the power loss is
proportional to the square of the EMF and therefore also varies with the
square of the peak fluxdensity and the frequency. Eddycurrent losses
can be reduced by using thinner lamination steels. This is because the
EMF's which drive them are usually in a direction perpendicular to the
plane of the punching. Lamination lengthens the return path for these
currents by forcing them into the circumferential direction, increasing
the resistance. Provided that the frequency is low enough, this causes a
reduction in current and since the power loss is notionally of the form
the reduction in J 2 overwhelms the increase in R and the power loss
is reduced.
In traditional AC machine theory the core loss is viewed as being caused
mainly by the fundamentalfrequency variation of the magnetic field at
50 or 60Hz, and this variation is essentially sinusoidal because the supply
is usually a lowimpedance utility voltage source. Accordingly the
characterization of core losses in electrical steels has been developed over
the years in terms of Watts per lb or Watts per kg, typically quoted at a
peak fluxdensity of 1.5T. In brushless motors this fundamentalfrequency
lunation is still present, but only in sinewave motors is it even
ipproximately sinusoidal. Most brushless motors, including sinewave
motors, are fed from switched DC sources with pulsewidth modulation of
the switches. This means that the applied voltage, and therefore the flux,
91
D esig n o f b ru sh less perm a nent m a g n et m o t o r s
contains many harmonics which may reach frequencies of several tens of
kHz. Although the harmonic components of fluxdensity are small, they
produce additional core losses over and above the fundamentalfrequency
component.
The magnetic field variation in the stator teeth and yoke is primarily due
to the rotation of the magnetized rotor. The time waveshape of the flux
density in the teeth and yoke is closely related to the space waveshape of
the airgap flux distribution, whose harmonics induce additional core
losses.
A difficulty in the calculation of core losses is that the magnetic flux
density not only varies in time but also varies widely between different
points in the stator punching. The simplest approach distinguishes two
fluxdensities, one for the teeth and one for the yoke, and finer
distinctions are ignored. This makes it possible to obtain manageable
coreloss formulas which include the influence of the main dimensions,
the level of excitation, and the frequency.
Recent attention has been given in the literature to the calculation of
core losses. Bertotti [1] and Slemon [2] recognized the importance of
highfrequency flux pulsations in various parts of the magnetic circuit,
and modified the Steinmetz equation (see below) to accommodate non
sinusoidal flux waveforms. Bertotti [2] applied the finiteelement method
over a range of rotor positions of an induction motor to determine the
fluxdensity waveforms, subsequendy decomposing these waveforms into
harmonic series and computing the loss components harmonicby
harmonic, with various modifications to the material coefficients. Ilowe
[3] reported a similar procedure for the brushless DC motor.
A more direct approach was taken by Slemon [2], who expressed the
basic coreloss equation in terms of the rate of change of fluxdensity
dB/dt instead of the frequency, and he calculated this rate of change in
the teeth and yoke, assuming idealised waveforms of fluxdensity in these
sections. A similar procedure has been used in the PCSRD and Pf'cBDC.
computer programs for several years (4,5]. This "waveform" method
produces elegant and simple formulas from which the influence of major
dimensions and parameters can be readily seen.
Most works on coreloss calculation treat the backEMF calculation and
the coreloss calculation as completely separate exercises, and do noi
92
9. C o r e L osses
mention the fact that in a comprehensive design theory the two
calculations must be absolutely consistent with each other. The approach
follow ed here is strictly consistent with the EMF calculation methods
outlined in the previous chapter.
TOOTH
MAGNET
Nl I TS 11.
Tp
r0  B,
r
0
*
J
(a) w
Fig. 9.1 Toolh flux waveforms for calculation of core Iom
depending on the relative values of the tooth arc aT and the gap
between the magnets With trapezoidal transition shown in Fig
9.1a or 9.1 b ( a ^ s n  PM), the specific eddycurrent loss is
For the stator yoke, with the waveform shown in Fig. 9.2 the eddycurrent
loss is
8
[W/kg] (93)
v Pm
where Byp is the peak yoke fluxdensity.
In reality the tooth and yokeflux waveforms are not perfecdy trape
94
9. C o r e L o sses
Stator Yoke
180
Pig. 9.2 Yolce flux waveforms for calculation of core loss
zoidal, but have rounded corners. For the toothflux the effective
transition angle is much closer to the augmented tooth arc (equation
(8.17)) than to the actual tooth arc a T, and is used in equations
(9.3) and (9.4). The augmentation of the tooth arc tends to decrease the
specific eddycurrent loss.
where Aj. is the crosssection of the tooth (allowing for the stacking
factor of the laminations), and is the angular position of the rotor.
Substituting in equation (8.15),
(9.7)
dt a t
and therefore the RMS value of the j waveform can be directly used as
it is proportional to the RMS value of dB/dl Equation (9.7) is an
important link between the EMF calculation method and the coreloss
calculation method.
95
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
so that
<30y 0r(O (99)
~dt
and therefore the RMS value of ey can be used in the calculation of the
yoke eddycurrent losses. ey is the EMF waveform of a singleturn search
coil wound around the yoke. The RMS value can be extracted from the
waveform using the standard formula for RMS value:
^RMS (9.10)
\
where 5 is the rotor angle in electrical radians. If the waveform eft) or
e(l) is available as a set of N samples e}, covering a completed
period of 2it electrical radians, the integral in equation (9.10) becomes
a sum and
jv
(9.11)
Kig, 9.3 Augmentation of tooth weight with triangle* representing the transition zone
between tooth flux and yoke flux
fig. 9.4 Augmentation of tooth weight viewed over the entire machine crowsection
The weights of the triangles can amount to a 50% increase in the
effective weight of the teeth, Fig. 9.4, and a corresponding increase in
the total computed tooth corelosses. This tends to compensate for any
dif ference between the waveform method in the specific loss calculation.
97
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
References
1. Bcrtotti G, Boglictti A, Chiampi M, Chiarabaglio D, Fiorillo F and Lazzari M [1991]
An improved estimation of iron (tun m electrical machines, IEEE Transaction* on
Magnetics, Vol. 27, No. 6, November 1991, pp. 50075009,
2 Slemon GR and Liu X [1990] Core loots in permanent magnet motor*, IEEE
Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 26, No. 5, September 1990, pp. 16531655.
3. Atallah K, Zhu ZQ, and Howe D [1992] The prediction of iron losses in brushless
permanent magnet DC, motors, International Conference on Elcctrical Machines,
ICEM92, Manchester, 1517 September 1992, pp. 814818,
4. Miller TJE and McGilp M [1991 ] Highspeed PCbased CAD for brushless motor drives,
4th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, EPE 91,
Florence, $6 September 1991, pp. 435439.
5. Miller TJE and Rabinovici R [1994] BackEMF waveforms and core losses fn brushless
DC motors, IEE Proceedings 141B, pp. 144154
98
10. ELECTRONIC COMMUTATION
OF SQUAREWAVE MOTORS
10.1 Introduction
This chapter describes the process of electronic commutation in
squarewave brushless DC motors and their controllers. It also describes
the differential equations used by the PCBDC computer program for the
dynamic simulation of 3phase squarewave brushless DC motors, with wye,
delta, and unipolar halfbridge connections. The commutation process
is important for detailed understanding of the switching of the power
transistors.
The equations include the freewheeling periods following each
commutation. The integration of the differential equations falls naturally
into "base intervals" of 60 or 120 electrical degrees between successive
commutations. The periodic current waveforms can be constructed from
a knowledge of the currents in one base interval, provided that the
system is in a steady state. The calculation of an isolated base interval
without iteration is possible only if the initial currents can be calculated
algebraically. This is possible at all but the highest speeds, and the
necessary formulas are developed together with the conditions under
which they apply. Many physical insights arise from this analysis into the
structure of the waveforms of the brushless DC motor. Although the
differential equations were developed specially for PCBDC, which
integrates them using Eulers method, they could equally well be used as
externallydefined system equations in generalpurpose simulation
packages.
The importance of a detailed model of the commutation process is
illustrated in the calculation of the noload speed. Except under special
ideal conditions, this speed cannot always be calculated reliably for
brushless DC motors by means of the simple backEMF constant used
with DC commutator motors, because the backEMF waveform may not
be perfectly flat and the supply voltage may be chopped to a lower
effective value than the nominal value. Computer simulation is used to
determine the noload speed accurately, and the difference between the
noload speed for motoring and the noload speed for generating is
discussed.
The quest for computational speed and memoryefficiency places certain
101
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
102
10. E l e c t r o n ic C o m m u t a t io n o f S q u a r ew a v e M otors
For both wye and delta connections, Figs. 10.3 and 10.4 reveal that the
waveforms repeat every 60 electrical degrees, with each 60 segment
being "commutated" to another phase. For example, in Fig. 10.3 the
103
D e s ig n o f b r u s h l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
104
10. E l e c t r o n ic C o m m u t a t io n o f squarew ave M otors
30 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 0 lec
'SP Lin<3
I\
'A Cur rents
/
y
\
f
'B
'C
\
Ph ase
ENIFs
/
e1
' /
>
f
e2
1
UnisLin e
EM
e12 1
<D
CM
= e 1~
Q5 Q1 Q3 Q5
Q6 I Q2 I Q4
105
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s

PHASE
PHASE
61 EMF
EMFxv

X
2/3*1
2/3 * leo
SP
1 / 3 * ls
spp / ,SP 
.3  iJ.
f f
Q5 Q1 Q3 Qi
06 02 Q4
106
10. E lectronic Com mutation o f Squarewave M otors
10.3 Circuit Equations  Wye
10.3.1 Commutation
Commutation is initiated by a switching event and is characterized by the
currents in two separate meshes. Following the switching event, one of
these currents builds up from zero and the other one decays towards
zero. The switching event taken as the initiator of the "base" interval is
the turnoff of Q5 and the simultaneous tumon of Q l. In Fig. 10.3 this
interval is from 30 to 90. The two mesh currents are as shown in the
topleft diagrams of Figs. 10.5 and 10.6 respectively. Fig. 10.5 shows the
current building up through Ql and Q6 in phases 1 and 2 (lines A and
B). Fig. 10.6 shows the current freew heeling through diode D2 and
transistor Q6 in phases 3 and 2 (lines C and B). Ideally the (negative)
current in line B should remain constant, while the line C current falls
to zero and the line A current builds up to the setpoint value.
(a) Building (b) Q1 chopped
107
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a c n e t m o t o r s
(a) Freewheeling (b) Q1 chopped
Fig. 10.6 "Freewheel" mesh during commutation and chopping  wye connection
The currents in the corresponding diagrams a,b,..d in Figs. 10.5 and 10.6
are flowing simultaneously. The reason for having two separate diagrams
is to associate them clearly with their respective meshvoltage equations.
It is assumed, initially, that the setpoint current /sp is flowing through
phases 3 and 2 in series, so that ig = / and ^ =  / . All branches of the
circuit are inductive, so that when Q5 switches off the current in line G
continues to flow, causing diode D2 to become forwardbiassed, clamping
the positive terminal of phase 3 to the negative rail. At the same time,
although Q l is on, the current in line A is initially zero. The positive
terminal of phase 1 is held at +V^. The potential of the negative terminal
of phase 1 is not known, but it is normally at a potential lower than +VS,
so the current ij begins to rise. In a similar way, the voltage across phase
3 is normally negative and therefore begins to decay.
108
10. E l e c t r o n ic C o m m u t a t io n o f Sq u a r e w a v e M otors
'The process continues until ^ = 0 , at which point it remains zero
because D2 switches off and there is no conduction path in line C. There
is then only one mesh for current to flow, i.e., the loop through phases
1 and 2. This current continues to rise until it is limited by the chopping
action of the currentregulator, which turns transistor Q1 (or Q6) on/off
to maintain the current at the setpoint value /Jp. If there is insufficient
voltage for the current to reach 7 , then it is limited instead by the
resistances, inductances, and backEMFs of phases 1 and 2 in series. This
condition tends to arise at high speed.
10,3.2 Period A and Period B
Period A is the initial freewheeling period, just after switching, when
both mesh currents are nonzero. During Period A, all three lines are
conducting. The subsequent period when only phases 1 and 2 are
conducting is called Period B. Period B begins when the freewheeling
mesh current extinguishes. During Period A, ^ is decaying and i, is
increasing. Ideally di^/dt =  di^/dt so that ^ remains constant. It is
shown in Fig. 10.7, which also shows the reverse recovery of D2. Any
inductance in line C (including motor inductance) multiplies the di/dt
of the reverserecovery current in D2 to produce a positive voltage spike
across Q5 (not analyzed here).
PERIOD A
PERIOD B
Isp
109
D e s ig n o f b r u s h l e s s pe r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
or
1010
10. E l e c t r o n ic C o m m u t a t io n o f S q u a r ew a v e M otors
If Ql is chopped at a very high frequency then Sqj can be set equal to
the dutycycle (mark/period ratio) of Ql, and in this case yb)d can be
interpreted as the average voltage across the terminals AB. (This is the
principle of statespace averaging).
The statespace average value is useful in algebraic calculations of the
steadystate currents; in this case Sq j will have a fractional real value. But
the same formulas for ^bld and can be used in digital simulation,
where Jqj is the actual state of the chopping switch; in this case Jqj has
a binary value (on or off).
Similar equations result if Q6 is chopped instead of Ql: the result is
^wh = + V i + Kd>+ a  + 2 ^ ) (1 0 n )
When the line A current is building up there is no difference between
chopping Ql and chopping Q6. However, chopping Q6 will accelerate
the decay of the freewheeling current in line C by connecting the supply
voltage against the flow of freewheeling current during the periods when
Q6 is off.
10.3.5 Euler form of voltage equations (wye connection)
In the wye connection
h + h. 4 h ~ 0 (10.12)
and therefore
Px* P i* Pi = 0. (10.13)
1011
D e s ig n o f b r u s h l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
gj + + (L  A/)A (10.15)
(10.16)
It is now a matter of algebra to solve equations (10.1416) for the
derivatives fa, p%, and py the result is
(10.17)
3 L>
~ J'fwh + 13R ~ L 'P \ (10.18)
1 2L
Pi =  Pi ~Pi (10.19)
where
enx ~ + + h) ( 10.20)
~ % ~ ~ i + 2yj)
r ( 10 .21 )
L = L  M, ( 10.22)
To find the final values ijF, ^ F, and ^ F, assume that by the end of Period
B the line current iy = has arrived in the hysteresisband of the
currentregulator, and that this band is a very small percentage of /s ; see
Fig. 10.7. The current tj is essentially a DC value. rHiis is possible only if
the dutycycle of the chopping transistor Ql is less than 1. From equation
(10.25), with py = 0 (steadystate DC),
. Hid ~ (ei ~ 5 ) (10.29)
1 2R
If we set iy = I (the setpoint value) then the dutycycle of Q l can be
calculated from equations (10.8) and (10.29) as
= gi  H * 2 RIsV + VA * \ + ^ / s p (10.30)
K ~ K + V,  Rq I
1013
D e s ig n o f b r u s h l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
If this expression gives Jqj < 1, then the initial conditions can be
assigned from
7IS = 0 (10.31)
4s 4p (10.52)
^3S = V (10.33)
If, on the other hand,turns out greater than 1, it means that there
is insufficient voltage to drive the current up to the setpoint value of the
regulator. This can mean one of two things. Either the setpoint current
is greater than the resistancelimited DC value of the current at the end
of the 60 interval. Or, the current is never reaching a steady state within
the 60 interval. In the first case the final steadystate DC value can be
calculated as
J \r = Vs ~ 2 *q  (C[ " (10.34)
,F 2(R + R J
with = 1, (The currentregulator will be saturated in this case and Ql
will remain on for the entire 60 interval). The second case can arise at
high speed. Unfortunately there is no way thefinal current can be calculated
analytically. What is done instead is to run a trial 60 integration with the
initial conditions calculated by equations (10.3133) or (10.34), and then
test the final values, suitably "commutated", to see if they match the
starting values. If they do not, then the final values from the integration
are "commutated" into the starting values and a second 60 integration
is run. The procedure is repeated until the final values and starting
values converge to within a predefined tolerance.
When Q6 is the chopping transistor, the equations are identical except
that .?Qt is replaced by Jq 6 in equation (10.30).
1014
10. E l e c t r o n ic C o m m u t a t io n o f S q u a r ew a v e M otors
** Is p /3
Fig. 10.8 Condition of cicltaconncctcd circuit jujt before commutation of Q5/Q1
that the current 7sp is flowing in line C: that is, V through phases 3
and 1 in series, and 2/,p/3 in the reverse direction through phase 2, so
3
that i, = i, = 7sp/3 and i> = 2/jp/3.
The 2:1 ratio between the currents in the two parallel branches of the
delta is intuitively clear if it assumed that the currents are resistance
limited while the sum of the EMFs ey+e^ = e^. This EMF condition is
satisfied by the EMF waveforms in Fig. 10.4, but it is not always the case
because it depends on having the correct magnet polearc and coil pitch.
(See Chapter 5). When the current is being regulated (chopped) by Q1
to a value within the hysteresisband around J , the 2:1 division may not
be obvious, but is proved below.
AU branches of the circuit are inductive, so that when Q5 switches off the
current in line C continues to flow, causing diode D2 to become forward
biassed, exactly as in the wye circuit This clamps the positive terminal of
phase 3 close to the negative rail, as shown in the freewheeling circuit
diagrams of Fig. 10.10. At the same time, although Q1 is on, the current
in line A is initially zero. The positive terminal of phase 1 is held at
+Vt~Vd. The negative terminal of phase 1 is held close to zero by Q6, so
that normally the current tj begins to rise. The circuit condition is shown
1015
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
in Fig. 10.9a. Note that there is as yet no current in line A, even though
Ql is on.
(a) Main conduction mode (b) Q1 chopped
Fig. 10.9 "Build" meih during commutation and chopping  delta connection
By similar reasoning the voltage across phase 2 is close to zero, and the
current in phase 2 therefore freewheels. The voltage across phase 3 is
~(VSVd) initially, and the current jg begins to decay. The freewheeling
mesh is shown in Fig. 10.10a. This process continues until Iq reaches
zero, at which point D2 switches off and begins to increase in the
opposite (negative) direction. There is now no conduction path in line
C. There is only one loop for current to flow through the converter, that
is, the loop through Ql and Q6, assuming that both transistors remain
on. The current in this loop divides between the two parallel branches
in the deltaconnected motor, and eventually it is expected that a steady
state will arise with ij = 2/sp/B and ig = ^ =  /sp/3, before the next
commutation. This final condition is shown in Fig. 10.9a.
1016
10. E l e c t r o n ic C o m m u t a t io n o f S q u a r ew a v e M otors
e f hjri 4 >h
A
\ 4
l A ! > ) ' \ }
1017
D e s ig n o f b r u s h l e s s pe r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
1018
10. E le c t r o n i c C om m utation o f Squarew ave M o to r s
Pi (10.41)
L" 
M"
Pi  ~ M '* * Rn ] (10.42)
I" (10.44)
II
M" (10.45)
*
U
*fwh  l) (10.48)
^ L (
(10.49)
Hig;
1
Jb
i
i
D.
z, fwh
1019
D e s ig n o f b r u s h l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
In Period B there is only one active mesh, but this divides into two
parallel branches in the deltaconnected motor. Accordingly there are
two differential equations. With D2 off,
4 = h, (10.50)
VUA = v\ = ei + R i\ + L P \ + 2 M Pi< (10.51)
and
= ~r2 ~v3
Kbld (10.52)
=  ( V ^ )  ZOh+Jb) 
Solving these equations for p\ and p%, we get
ks7  *4 *
Pi =
81 1 l +M 2
(10.53)
, _ 2 A/2 1
L* M\
_ ["( ^bld + " 2 A//7t
A 2(+A0
where
1020
10. E l e c t r o n ic C o m m u t a t io n o f Sq u a r e w a v e M otors
(10.57)
(10.58)
To find the final values ijF, and i^y, again assume that by the end of
Period B the line current has arrived in the hysteresisband of the
currentregulator, and that this band is a very small percentage of isp; see
Fig. 10.7. The current A is essentially a DC value, and can be regarded
as a DC source fed to the two parallel circuits of Fig. 10.11, from which
the following equations can be written down:
Hid ~ e i + R i A (10.59)
Hid = + **j)  ( 4 + (10.60)
Note that i,, ig and i$ have all been taken as positive when flowing away
from the line terminals A,B, and C respectively, as in the original circuit
diagram, Fig. 10.2. The line current iA is given by
ja = h h (10.61)
Solving these equations for i1F and igF,
/IF  2 ; 
3 A
+ % * *
3 /?
(10.62)
(10.63)
O o
PHASE 1
while
%  j ' .  \ h v <1 )
The current in the branch containing only one phase is thus twice the
current in the branch containing two phases. Since equations (10.6266)
do not contain Vb1d> they are independent of the state of the chopping
transistor Q l and are valid for all values of dutycycle including 1.
Equations (10.62) and (10.63) show that if the loop EMF e, + ^ + % is
not zero, the division of current between the phases of the delta is
disturbed from the ideal 2 /3 :l/3 ratio. In a severe case this can prevent
the motor from reaching the desired torque, and it may add considerably
to the losses.
Of course, the attainment of a steady DC line current at the end of
Period B is possible only if there is sufficient voltage, i.e., if Jqj s 1. For
a given value of iA (e.g., iK = /sp), the dutycycle, Vqj can be calculated
directly from equations (10.37),(10.59) and (10.65) as
_ el * (2R/3 + # q)^.p Vd + Vq (10.67)
K  K, + t'd ^
If this expression gives Jqj < 1, the initial conditions can be assigned
from equations (10.5658), with *j, ^ and ^ obtained from equations
(10.6263). If, on the other hand, Sqj turns out greater than 1, it means
that there is insufficient voltage to arive the line current up to the set
point value I . This can mean one of two things. Either the setpoint is
greater than the resistancelimited DC value of the current at the end of
the 60 base interval. Or, the current is never reaching a steady state
within the 60 interval. In the first case the final steadystate DC value
can be calculated from the DC loop equations with ^ = ig :
1022
10. E l e c t r o n i c C o m m u ta tio n o f S q u a re w a v e M o t o r s
* 2V 2 *qO\ ~ h) = + R l\ (10.68)
=  ( e j + ,)  7Ri3
r j 3 + /?y,
2 + (e , + Cj + = o (10.69)
to which the solution is
(10.70)
1023
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
Building Freewheeling
Current Current
1024
10. E lectronic Commutation o f Squarewave m o t o r s
' 7 T
Freewheeling
current
e1 , Phase 1 EMF
J
 30 90 150
0 180
_ .... Current regulated
current^ y chopping
Freewheeling current
(May contain chopping ripple
coupled from other phases)
Fig. 10.13 Halfbridgc unipolar 3phase waveforms
current at the setpoint value 7jp) assuming that it ever reaches this level.
I f there is insufficient voltage for the current to reach /5p, then it is
limited instead by the combined effects of resistance, inductance, and
EMF. This condition tends to arise at high speed.
10.5.4 Statespace averaged voltages
The "build" and freewheel voltages are defined by the connection
equations
Kbld = (1 0.72)
1025
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
 v2. (10.73)
where v,, v^, are the voltages across phases 1,2,3 expressed by
equations (10.24).
Ql is the controlled (chopping) transistor, and
* *Q.[ k  yq  v ) + (i  v [  v j; (1074>
Kfwh =  <1075)
* = L 1 M,.2 [L 4  M yl ] (10765
* =ri
L . *M1~MV'+ L V' ] * (10>77)
where
<=  R h\ (1078)
r ' =  Vd  (JR *  e, (10.79)
These equations hold until i^ reaches zero. Then the freewheeling period
A terminates. In the following period B only phase 1 conducts. The
controlling equation is:
/>. = 3 <1080)
1026
10. E l e c t r o n ic C o m m u t a t io n o f S q u a r ew a v e M otors
(10.81)
(10.82)
*Q I = vs V H +( 4 r 4 , H p
Jqj cannot take a value greater than 1. If equation (10.82) gives a value
greater than 1, the regulator will be saturated with Jqj = 1, and i1F will
be given by equation (10.81) with Jqj = 1:
10.6 Overrunning
Another conduction mode which occurs in all of the circuit configura
tions is the regeneration mode, when the generated lineline EMF
exceeds the supply voltage. In this case the current may flow in the
reverse direction back to the supply, as shown in Figs. 10.5d and 10.6d for
the wye connection and Figs. 10.9d and lO.lOd for the delta connection.
Referring to Fig. 10.5 if, reverse current flows through the diodes D1 and
D6, and these diodes communicate the supply voltage to the series
combination of phases 1 and 2 in opposition to the lineline EMF. The
reverse current is unaffected by the chopping of either transistor Q l or
because it flows through D1 and D6. Accordingly, Fig, 10.6d shows
Only the freewheeling current in phases 2 and 3, which is independent
of the reverse current in phases 1 and 2.
This condition tends to arise at speeds close to, or above, the noload
Hid  K  2 vd (10.84)
speed, when the load may be overhauling or overrunning the motor.
The voltage equations are as follows : for both the wye and the delta
connections, where Vbld is related to the motor voltages by equations
(10.5) and (10.35) respectively.
1027
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
1028
10. E l e c t r o n ic C o m m u t a t io n o f S q u a r ew a v e M otors
0 . 60 
0. 40
0 . 20 
0 .4 0 0. BO 1 .2 0 1 .6 0 2 .0 0
ELECTRICAL DEGREES x 1.0 e 2
1029
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
1030
10. E l e c t r o n ic C o m m u t a t io n o f S q u a r ew a v e M otors
This condition can be simulated on the computer, but it cannot be
calculated directly (unless the backEMF is perfectly flat and all voltdrops
ar.d losses are known exactly).
Al the noload speed, it is possible for the backEMF ^ to exceed the
supply voltage for short periods during the commutation zone, as shown
in Fig 10.16. When this happens, di/dt becomes negative and the line
current tends to decrease; it may even become negative as shown in Fig.
10.17. The simulated current waveform shown in Fig. 10.17 is for a 4
po)c. 12slot machine at 3750 rpm, with windage and friction loss
arbitrarily set to zero. The electromagnetic torque waveform has an
average value of practically zero, and since the windage and friction loss
U set to zero, this is also equal to the shaft torque. The noload speed is
therefore 3750 rpm, compared with the value 3655 rpm calculated from
equation (10.85), a difference of 2.5%.
The windage and friction power of the example motor is proportional to
speed cubed and is 7W at 3000 rpm. When these figures are incorpo
rated in the computer simulation, the noload speed falls to 3625 rpm.
The corresponding waveforms are shown in Fig. 10.18. This value is
closer to the value calculated from equation (10.85), but the apparent
l.. i t. (y a w oMtHii,
Tftapa] * .0*0
0.BQ
[\ f\ \ y  \\
am
CUoltrl 1.0*1
<.00 a ^ x c w d * [24V] atthla point
x y 
^ ____ ^ ^
2.00
4.00
rMi K 1.0t2
tf.oa / M e a n torque * 0
4.00
2,Du
a.tfr
/\ / T a A A A S.KK^.SO s.
4.00
__ Doip* BOfiu#n [l*e dol x 1.0*2
fig 10.17 Line current (top), lineline EMF (centre), and torque waveforms at 3750
rev/min, with windage and friction assumed zero
1031
D e s ig n o f b r u s h l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
Fig. 10,18 Line currcnt (top), linelincEMF (centre), and torque waveforms at 3625
rev/min, with windage and friction equal to 7W at 3000 rev/min
accuracy of the simple formula is fortuitous, because the error due to the
neglect of windage and friction in the simple formula is compensated by
the error due to the assumption of a perfectly flattopped backEMF
waveform. The true noload speed must be determined iteratively by
successive simulations. At noload the difference between Vt and e11 is
just enough to raise the current to the level needed to equal die windage
and friction torque.
An exacting test of the noload speed calculation is to compare it with
the measured value, and the results of such a test are summarised in
Table 1 for the motor whose current waveform is shown in Fig. 10.14. In
this case the simple formula is unable to predict the correct value, even
when the supply voltage is multiplied by the modulating index or duty
cycle of 0.30. The simulated waveforms for this condition are shown in
Fig. 10.19.
1032
10. E l e c t r o n ic C o m m u t a t io n o f S q u a r ew a v e M otors
T able I
M easured and calculated N o L oad S peed
Fig. 10.19 Simulated line current (top), lineline EMF (centre), and torque
waveforms for motor of Table 1 at 3472 rev/min
Further insight can be obtained by considering what happens as the
motor speed rises steadily, with fixed commutation angles, fixed supply
voltage, and no current limit. At low speeds and the current
Waveform is generally positive, with positive torque much greater than the
windage and friction torque. At the noload speed, the electromagnetic
1033
D e s ig n o f b r u s h l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
torque isjust sufficient to overcome the windage and friction torque. The
DC supply current is still positive, as it supplies all the losses.
At higher speeds, the shaft torque becomes negative, and a mechanical
prime mover is required. At first, at speeds only slightly higher than the
noload speed, the electromagnetic torque may still be positive
(motoring), even though the shaft torque is negative due to the windage
and friction. At some speed the electromagnetic torque is zero: the prime
mover is then supplying all of the windage and friction torque, while the
DC supply provides all the electric and magnetic power loss. At still
higher speeds the average electromagnetic torque becomes negative
(generating). The average DC supply current remains positive until the
machine is going fast enough so that the generated electromagnetic
power exceeds the electric and magnetic power loss. This speed is the no
load speed for generating. Between this speed and the original noload
speed for motoring, the machine absorbs power from both the mechanical
and electrical "ports". At higher speeds, it becomes a pure generator.
The speed ranges are illustrated in Fig. 10.20 which shows the shaft
torque and the DC supply current. Motoring is when both are positive,
and generating is when both are negative. "Absorbing" is when the
torque is negative and the DC supply current is positive. The noload
References
1, Miller TJE [1988] Switched reluctant* motor drives, PCIM Reference Book, Intertec
Communications, Ventura. California
2. ElectroCraft Handbook, Fifth Edition, August 1980, ISBN 0960191402
). Bolton HR and Mallinson NM [1986] Investigation into a class of brushle.ts DC motor
with quasisquan voltages and currents, IEE Proceedings, Vol. 133, Pt. B, No. 2, March
1986, pp. 103111.
1035
11. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION BY TEST
11.1 Introduction
Many performance issues have been dealt with of necessity within some
of the previous chapters, in order to provide background and justification
for the rotor and stator design methods. However, several important
performance parameters must be considered more carefully in order to
facilitate a proper design for a particular application. For example, the
speed vs. torque curve has been mentioned, but a more detailed
presentation is given. This treatment leads up to the issue of sizing a
brushless motor at the outset before detailed design is performed. The
problem of heating is also related to the sizing, materials used, and
cooling methods. Temperature rise is a very difficult parameter to
calculate unless the thermal time constant has been measured on an
actual sample. Finally in this chapter, the socalled basic brushless motor
constants will be summarized to illustrate how the design is summarized
in terms of the performance specifications, why some of the motor
constants are desired, and how they characterize a particular motor.
111
D e s ig n o f b r u s h l e s s pe r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
The following parameters should be measured after the first samples are
built. A schematic diagram for each test is provided.
1. BackEMF for each phase, using a synchronous motor to
drive the test motor and view the generated voltage on an
oscilloscope.
2. Resistance and inductance/phase.
3. Speed vs. torque & current vs. torque curve using xy
plotter and dynamometer.
4. Thermal resistance.
5. Torque linearity with increasing load, to determine effects
of stator currents (armature reacdon).
6. Torque ripple at very low speed using a large inertia driven
by a 15 rev/min gearmotor.
112
11. P er fo r m a n c e e v a l u a t io n by t e s t
113
D e s ig n o f b r u s h l e s s pe r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
where E is the value of the opencircuit voltage per phase at the same
speed. The shortcircuit current may well be much larger than rated
current, and may even be sufficient to partially demagnetize the magnets,
so this test should be conducted with caution. It is important not to apply
the short circuit suddenly while the machine is running, but to connect
the short circuit while the machine is stationary and then bring the speed
up slowly to the test value. This is because a sudden shortcircuit
produces a higher transient current with DC offsets that may well
demagnetize the magnets.
With interiormagnet motors, i.e. salientpole motors, it is necessary to
measure Aj and separately. The shortcircuit test can still be used to
measure which replaces in equation (11.2), but X poses more of
a problem. The slip test normally conducted with woundfield synchro
nous machines may not be suitable with permanent magnet motors
because the excitation cannot be turned off and large currents would
flow when E and V were out of phase. These currents might
demagnetize the magnets. A simple method is to load the machine with
a threephase resistive load following the shortcircuit test, and measure
the current generated into the resistance, it is necessary to measure also
the phase angle y between and the current, and this can be done using
the motor encoder and an oscilloscope displaying the current waveform
along with the index pulse from the encoder, (The phase relationship
between E and the index pulse can be recorded in an opencircuit test).
Then equations (6.9097) can be used to reconstruct the phasor diagram
anti extract a value for X .
115
D e sig n o f b r u s h l e s s pe r m a n e n t  m a g n e t m o t o r s
Fig. 11.3 Measurement and plotting of speed and current versus torque
116
11. P e r fo r m a n c e e v a l u a t io n by t e s t
standards for the plates in order to relate one motor to another. It would
be advisable to review the test conditions of the published data provided
by the competitor and use the same size plate for a heat sink.
The thermal resistance test can be performed with natural or forced
cooling, provided that the conditions are carefully recorded. Further
more, if the temperature rise of the winding is plotted as a function of
time, the initial rate of rise gives the thermal capacity of the motor.
Together with the thermal resistance, this can be used to estimate the
temperature rise under intermittent loading, as explained in Chapter 15.
119
D e s ig n o f b r u s h l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
1 5 RPM
but this method should never be used because the compass needle is
liable to be remagnetized by motor magnets in an unpredictable
direction.
A very good and simple test for the degree of magnetization of a magnet
is shown in Fig. 11.7. The magnetized rotor is fitted into a closefitting
steel cylinder which has a search coil wound in two semiclosed slots very
close together. As the rotor is rotated within the ring, the EMF generated
in the search coil can be integrated to give the flux passing through the
search coil, and this is a good measure of the remanent fluxdensity if the
rotor is a close pushfit within the steel ring. A Hall element can be used
instead of a search coil wound in slots. Alternatively, a Grassot fluxmeter
can be used with the search coil.
DRIVE SUPPLY
DATA
ACQUISITION
+
PROCESSING
T/S
POWER
LOAD ANALYSER
CONTROL TORQUE
SPEED T/S
XL
LOAD TEST
MACHINE T/S MACHINE ENCODER
In Fig. 11.9 the data acquisition system has the capability of sampling
voltage or current waveforms at up to 10 million samples per second with
12bit resolution (1 part in 4096). Waveforms with up to 64Ksamples can
be recorded, and many systems can record far larger numbers of samples.
It is important in power electronics and motor drive testing to have
differential inputs on measuring instruments, to avoid the problem of
singleended input terminals (on oscilloscopes particularly, these are
usually grounded for safety).
Modem "wattmeters" are electronic, with the capability of measuring
voltage and current waveforms with harmonic content up to 400kHz or
more. They can typically provide peak, mean, and RMS readings of
voltage and current as well as mean and peak power, and some
instruments can even provide a harmonic analysis like a spectrum
analyzer.
1113
D e s ic n o p b r u s h l e s s pe r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
LOAD TEST
MACHINE T/S MACHINE ENCODER
fig. 11.9 Precision dynamometer configured for complete drive system testing
Electronic wattmeters can also be set up for the 2wattmeter method, or
the 3wire, 3wattmeter method, or the 4wire, 3wattmcter method in 3
phase systems. Such wattmeters are necessary especially when measuring
the separate efficiencies of the motor and its controller, because the
motor voltage and current waveforms generally are rich in harmonics.
Even with AC line current waveforms at the input to rectifiers etc., the
electronic wattmeter is a necessary instrument for power measurements.
The oscilloscope (Fig. 11.9) may not be an essential part of the
instrumentation, but is essential during setup to make sure that
everything is working properly and to help solve problems. Oscilloscopes
used in power electronics and motor drives work should have at least one
set of differential inputs, and digital storage oscilloscopes are preferred,
with singleshot (nonrepetitivc) sampling rates of at least lOOMs/s. Many
digital storage oscilloscopes have optional waveform processing
calculators which can be used to determine peak, mean, and RMS values
and even to multiply waveforms together and calculate mean power.
1114
11. P e r fo r m a n c e e v a l u a t io n by t e s t
E le c tro n ic ^
w a ttm e te r s
Digital scope
Load m a c h in e !
D a ta a c q u is itio n s y s te m
Tig. 11.10 Layout of precision dynamometer. Note the current probe amplifiers next
to the wattmeters; the inline torque transducer; and the emergency stop
button. The safety glass window at right permits tests to be observed from
outwith the dynamometer room when necessary.
The instruments and computer must be electronically linked, preferably
via the IEEE488 bus and protocol, or equivalent system. Software is
available from companies such as National Instruments and many of the
instrument makers (HewlettPackard, Tektronix, etc) for managing and
coordinating the instruments and for controlling the data acquisition and
processing. Any laboratory wishing to set up a precision dynamometer
should consult the suppliers of test equipment, measurement transducers,
and even complete dynamometers, for expert advice. Many engineers will
be amazed at the capability of modern instrumentation. Money invested
in good test equipment is well spent because it lasts for a long time and
gives quality information on the operation of prototypes and products.
To paraphrase Lord Kelvin, if you cant measure it you dont understand it.
1115
D e s ig n o f b r u s h l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
References
1. Jones CV [1968] Unified theory of electrical machines, Butterworthl
2. Miller TJE [1981] Methods for testing permanent magnet AC motors, IAS Annual
meeting, Toronto, October 1981
3. Parker RJ [1990] Advances in permanent magrulitm, John Wiley and Som, ISBN ft
471822930
4. Staton DA and Miller TJE [1992] Validation of PC.CAD Using a Precition DynamomtUr,
International Conference on Electrical Machines (ICEM), Manchester, 1517 Sep
92,12211225
1116
12. SIZING & COMPUTERAIDED DESIGN
12.1 The modem design environment
The most usual situations which require a new brushless motor design
include a set of performance specifications and a physical size or
envelope. It is seldom that the performance requirement is given and
the size is open. In many cases a new performance specification must be
met through minor modifications to existing laminations and other
components, in order to avoid additional tooling costs.
When new designs are evolved from old ones, computeraided design is
valuable in two particular ways:
1. Calculating and evaluating a large number of options,
often characterized by small changes in a large number of
parameters; and
2. Performing very detailed electromagnetic and mechanical
analysis to permit the design to be "stretched" to its limit
with confidence, while avoiding the need for a large
prototyping and test program, which would be expensive
and timeconsuming.
Modern computer methods are rapidly reaching the stage where a new
prototype can be designed with such confidence that it will be "right first
time", without the need for reiteration of design and test that would
otherwise be necessary.
The computeraided approach to design goes handinhand with the
moder design engineering environment. Custom designs are increasingly
required within a very short space of time, while cost pressures force the
designer ever closer to the limits of materials and design capabilities.
Moreover, customers are becoming ever more sophisticated in their
requirements, and may specify (or ask to see) particular parameters that
traditionally were part of the "black art" of the motor builder. Often
these parameters are required for system simulation purposes long before
the motor is actually manufactured. Regulatory pressures on matters such
as energy efficiency, acoustic noise, and EMC also continually tighten the
constraints on the motor designer.
121
D e s ig n o f b r u s h l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
TOV = 4 r s<k ( 1 2 2 )
Hence
K = Z a = Z try (12.4)
n
The airgap shear stress o is measured in lbf/in or "psi". If Z>r and 1^.
are in inches, then T is in lbfin. Note that an airgap shear stress of a =
1 lbf/in 2 corresponds to TRV = 13.8 kNm/m3. Typical values of K are
given in Table 12.1.
Electric and magnetic loadingsThe electric loading A is defined as the linear
current density around the airgap circumference:
^ _ Total ampere conductors _ 2 /n A ^J ^ (12 5)
Airgap circumference trDr
122
12. S iztnc & C o m p u t e r a id e d d e s ic n
where I is the RMS phase current, m is the number of phases, and Nph
is the number of turns in series per phase.
The magnetic loading B is considered as the average fluxdensity over the
rotor surface. In AC motors the fluxdensity is distributed sinusoidally so
that the fundamental flux per pole is given by
$  B * wD' L* ( 12 .6)
1 2p
123
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s pe r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
(or radius) appears squared in any expression for specific output On the
other hand, if the length is increased, only the flux increases, not the
current. Therefore the length appears linearly in the specific output.
Thus the specific output is proportional to D ^ L ^, or rotor volume. In
practice as the diameter is increased, the electric loading can be
increased also, because the cooling can be made more efficient without
reducing the efficiency. Consequently the specific output ( t r v ) increases
faster than the rotor volume.
For totallyenclosed motors the lower values of o, TRV, and ATwould apply
with natural convection, while the higher values would apply with forced
air cooling supplied by an external or shaftmounted fan.
It is of interest to relate the electric loading to the current density in the
slots. With a slot depth of 15mm, a gross slot fill factor of 40%, and a
tooth width/pitch ratio of 0.5, the current density is
J =  
Slotfill x Slotwidth/slotpitch * Slot depth ( 12. 10)
= 
0.4 x 0.5
* 15 = 6.7 A/nun2.
Typical values of current density for use in different applications are
given in Table 12.2.
Condition A/mm A /in2
Totally enclosed 1.55 10003000
Airover 510 30006000
Fancoolcd
Liquid cooled 1030 600020000
liquid cooled motors would have a passageway around the entire outside
diameter of the stator with a cooling fluid circulating to remove the heat
The higher numbers would be appropriate to motors in which, in
addition to the outside cooling jacket, there would be tubes up and down
the slots potted in epoxy. If hollow conductor wire is used with cooling
fluid circulating inside, no potting is necessary. (This is called "direct
conductor cooling").
When a variety of motor types and sizes of machines are evaluated to
determine their airgap shear stress at their name plate ratings, a broad
range of values is encountered, with variations as much as 2000% for a
given motor type. It is, therefore, difficult to use this method of "sizing"
a design unless a particular airgap shear stress figure can be associated
with a particular method of construction and cooling. The permanent
magnet brushless motor will exhibit a more consistently predictable
airgap shear stress than most other types of motors, because for each
different magnet grade the magnetic loading is fixed within fairly narrow
limits, while the method of construction and cooling is reasonably
consistent among different motors.
After the magnet grade has been selected and the first estimate made of
the rotor diameter and active magnetic length, the stator OD can be
estimated. For interiorrotor motors, the rotor diameter can be divided
by 0.45 to 0.50 to arrive at a stator lamination OD. For exteriorrotor
motors the rotor OD is determined by adding twice the magnet thickness
plus twice the rotor cup thickness to the rotor diameter Dr. These
dimensions are calculated according to the practice described in earlier
chapters.
Option 7...
(c) TJE Hiller,HI HcCllp.DA Staton. SPEED Laboratory. Glasgow University. 1994
Licensed to Prof. TJE Miller
nlp: Choose an o p t i o n by p r e ssing thu h iyh I iyiited ken.
127
DESICN o f b r u s h l e s s pe r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
128
12. S iz in g & C o m p u t e r a id e d d e s ig n
Help; F2 Edit FAB Kent field Shift<Tgb frev field Ctil*S Save ESC Exit
Fig.12.5 shows the winding editor which can be used to modify or build
any form of winding. The program can automatically build concentric,
lap, and fractionalslot windings, but it also provides a facility for
insertingcoils entirely at the users discretion. Regardless of the number
or disposition of the coils, the program can calculate the backEMF
waveform, the resistance, selfand mutual inductances, and the
performance with squarewave or sinewave drive.
129
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s pe r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
Uinding Parameters
DdgTypa Lap Throw 5 Co i1E/P 1 TC 10
HSH 1 PPftTHS 1 Ext B.000 Liner B.4B8
WireSpec BareDIo Wire 1.226 Skew B.60B
Control Parameters
KPH 2006.006 Conns* 3Ph Uua Idaus Square Su Ctl C120 Q6
ISP 10,990 DuCy 1.000 CFrq 5.BBS Us 24.B00
0* 1.000 If b .b b s IM 0.600 THB 9.000
fltfcer Parameters
IUU n ita tm UdgTemp HagTenp
bDDDnm
25.000 25.0B8 Ik B.BBB
Uf0 0.006 RPMB oqqq UUU HUFT 2.000 XLph 1.060
XFs 1.000 Xrl 1.900 XET 1.008 XBtpk 1.0BB
TenpCalc DegCU DegCU 0.100 HTranflct IB.BBS HTranEnd 6.0GB
flubSent 20.000 EndFI11 0.500 1Of \
 Helji: Shaft radius FlHulp 
Fig. 12.6 Template editor for input data in PCBDC
1211
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a c n e t m o t o r s
yw x 1.00
<^WMyyVWwvHyvvwwvv\yyvvvvvm^y^
B Miscellaneous:
in terms of A, and the other "output" quanddes are calculated from the
nodal values of A in the "postprocessing" phase.
Within one element, the vector potential is assumed to vary according to
a simple shape function, which may be a linear, quadratic, or higher
order function of the three sets of node coordinates for the vertices of
the triangular element. Linear elements give the fastest solution but the
least smoothness in the field variation.
Modem finiteelement software is extremely robust and accurate, and has
innumerable features to assist the user to set the problem up and extract
the engineering parameters of interest. However, the point should be
made that the finiteelement method differs from rapiddesign software
like PCBDC in two important ways:
1 . The finiteelement method is generally limited to one specific
type of problem, such as electromagnetic or thermal analysis,
whereas rapid design software calculates a wide range of
parameters ranging from weights and inertias through to
performance and dynamic waveform calculations, temperature
rise, and many nonelectromagnetic parameters.
2. The finiteelement method is intended for accurate analysis,
and the emphasis on accuracy means that setup and execution
time is much longer than with rapiddesign software. A typical
simple finiteelement exercise might take days or weeks, but a
complete motor can be designed in less than one day with a
program like PCBDC. Inevitably, PCBDCs electromagnetic
calculations cannot be expected to be as accurate as those of the
finiteelement method, although the difference in accuracy is
often too small to be of concern. On the other hand, many
detailed problems such as the calculation of cogging torque,
which are beyond the scope of rapiddesign software, may require
extremely lengthy finiteelement calculations lasting several weeks.
Application of the finite element method to machine design involves
three stages:
1. PreProcessing
2. Field Solution
3. PostProcessing
1214
12. S iz in g & C o m p u t e r a id e d d e s ig n
12.4.2 PreProcessing
In most cases this is the most userintensive part of finiteelement
analysis. Three tasks must be performed:
1. Mesh Generation
2. Material Definition
3. Problem Definition
Mesh, generation involves division of the motor crosssection into a set of
triangular elements (2D solutions) or division of the motor volume into
'bricks' (3D solutions). Modem mesh generation is carried out using
either interactive graphical techniques (using conventional CAD drafting
software such as AUTOCAD, or using the internal specialist drafting
facilities of the finiteelement software itself. Another alternative is the
use of using specialist mesh generation code written in a highlevel
language or command file.
Interactive graphical mesh generation is the quickest way to form a finite
element mesh in the majority of cases. However, a drawback of using this
technique is that when it is required to calculate a series of solutions for
motors of the same general type, but with different dimensions, it will
usually be necessary to generate the mesh individually from the
beginning for each case. This problem can be overcome by writing
specialist meshgeneration software, which may be in the command
language of the finiteelement program, or alternatively in C, PASCAL or
FORTRAN. The interface to the finiteelement program may m e a
standard data format such as .DXF or a format specific to the particular
vendor. This method of mesh generation is especially useful when
generating a range of meshes for motors of similar type but having either
different dimensions or different rotor positions.
Specialist mesh generation software calculates the coordinates required
to define the motor geometry. The crosssection is usually split up into
regions representing different "materials" such as currentcarrying
conductors, air, steel, and magnets. Each region may define a different
component used in the construction of the motor, for example, the shaft,
rotor core, magnets, stator lamination, airgap, etc. In most cases it is
beneficial to split the components further into smaller polygons along
lines of symmetry.
1215
D e s ig n o f b r u s h l e s s pe r m a n e n t m a c n e t m o t o r s
Fig. 12.11 Finiteelement mesh for one polepitch of a. brushless DC motor, showing
the use of periodic boundary conditions
The node spacing on the central sliding surface is set to a constant such
thatit is possible to rotate the rotor by any multiple of this constant. Fig.
12.10 shows a mesh in which the airgap region is divided into four layers
and the sliding surface is central to the airgap. Fig 12.11 shows the full
mesh for one polepitch of the same motor.
Fig. 12.12 Leakage flux paths in n "spoke" type brushleu permanentmagnet motor
Problem definition involves the application of the correct boundary
conditions, imposing the correct current densities in the appropriate
winding elements, and definition of the direction of magnetization of
magnets. Periodic boundary conditions should be used if possible, as
they make it possible to model only a fraction of the crosssection (Fig.
12.11). For example, in the case of a 4pole motor, if the number of
slots/pole is an integer, it is only necessary to model the motor over one
pole pitch.
12.4.3 Field Solution
The solution of the discretized partial differential equation uses
specialized mathematical algorithms developed over many years [4]. The
algorithm is often based on the minimisation of an energy functional,
that is, a mathematical function that is related to the stored potential
energy in the field.
1218
12. S iz in g & C o m p u t e r a id e d d e s ig n
The discretization transforms the partial differential equation into a large
number of simultaneous nonlinear algebraic equations containing the
unknown node potentials. Iteration is essential and the NewtonRaphson
and congjugategradient procedures are widely used. With linear
elements, the potential is assumed to vary linearly between nodes and the
flux density is constant within each element. Current density is also
assumed to be constant within each element associated with a winding.
12.4.4 PostProcessing
The field solution is in terms of magnetic vector or scalar potential, but
the design engineer needs quantities such as flux densities, force and
torque. The extraction of these quantities from the potential solution is
called postprocessing. A good interactive graphics facility is important for
SO that the essential information and parameters can be extracted from
the large number of node potentials effectively and quickly. Finite
element analysis can be used to generate the following output:
1. Flux plots. These are especially useful for forming a picture of the
flux. They can also be used for estimating leakage flux and
calculating leakage permeanccs. Fig 12.12 shows a flux plot for a
spoke type motor, in which the finiteelement method is useful for
calculating rotor leakage flux.
2. Fhtx calculations. The flux between two points of interest is
calculated from the difference in vector potential at the two
points, multiplied by the axial length. This calculation can be
extended to obtain fluxfiwAagtf, and hence inductance of windings.
8. Fhix density contours. Coloured filled zones can be used to indicate
areas of high local saturation. Flux density values at any point can
be readily obtained by using a cursor.
4, Graphs offlu x density variation. The required component of flux
density (radial, xcomponent, ycomponent etc.) can be plotted
along a predctermined path. For example, the variation in radial
component of airgap flux density can be plotted around the rotor,
and examples are shown in Figs. 12.8 and 12.19.
Flux density vector plot A field of arrows is plotted over the cross
section, representing the local flux density vector.
1219
D e s ig n o f b r u s h l e s s pe r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
While the magnet flux remains substantially constant, the field set up by
the armature windings is proportional to the current. Motors are usually
designed such that the armature reaction does not affect the torque per
ampere, ky. Under heavy load conditions armature reaction is liable to
decrease kT.
Even under normal load conditions, the distortion in the airgap flux
density distribution tends to increase the core losses. It is not unusual for
the core losses at rated load to be double the noload value, even though
Jfcf may not vary significantly between noload and full load. This is
because depends on the magnet flux alone, whereas the core losses
depend on the total airgap flux and its distribution.
The effects of armature reaction can be classified into 9axis effects and
tfaxis effects:
1. faxis : crossmagnetization or distortion
2.daxis : demagnetization or reduction of airgap flux density.
These effects are illustrated with the help of flux plots and flux density
graphs generated using finiteelement analysis. A small squarewave
brushless DC motor with four poles and twelve slots is used as an
example.
The examples can be understood by looking first at the flux distribution
set up by the magnets alone, then at the flux distribution set up by the
armature current alone, and finally at the superposition of both, keeping
in mind the fact that the superposition is nonlinear due to magnetic
saturation effects.
12.5.1 Opencircuit flux distribution
Fig. 12.13 shows the flux distribution created by the rotor magnets
alone. This is also referred to as the opencircuit flux distribution since
the armature or stator windings are not excited in this case.
Many important features are immediately apparent in Fig. 12.15, for
example, the radial magnetization of the magnets, the concentration of
flux in the teeth, and the variation of fluxdensity in the stator and rotor
yokes.
1221
D e s ic n o f b r u s h l e s s pe r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
Fig. 12.13 Flux distribution due to magnets acting alone (opencircuit condition)
Closer examination shows more subtle effects such as the fringing around
the slot openings, discussed at length in Chapter 8. The high coercivity
and low recoil permeability of the magnets is the reason for the extreme
regularity of the field lines in the magnets. "Hard" magnets such as
ferrite or rareearth magnets act as "rigid" sources of flux, and there is
very little distortion of the field inside the magnets due to slotting.
12.5.2 Armature reaction field alone
Fig. 12.14 shows the flux distribution set up by the armature currents
acting alone, assuming twophaseon operation with a severe overload.
The airgap as seen by the armature includes the magnet thickness and
hence appears as a highreluctance path for the armature field. The
magnets are considered to be removed or unmagnetized, and have no
effect on this distribution. Note that the flux encircles the ampere
conductors in the manner of Amperes Law, and appears in four loops.
1222
12. S iz in g & C o m p u t e r a id e d d e s ig n
Kg. 12.14 Flux distribution due to 'armature current acting alone (two phases on).
The dotj and crosses show the polarities and locations of the armature
currents. There are approximately 1600 Ampereconductors per slot, with
a high value of current density (17.3 A/mm2).
A proportion of the flux in each loop crosses the long airgap into the
rotor yoke twice. Most of the remainder crosses the toothtops, while a
small fraction travels circumferentially around the space left by the
magnets. These separate components of flux are estimated by simple
formulas in Chapters 5 and 6, in the calculation of the selfinductance of
ihe winding and the mutual inductance between windings. The
somewhat complex shape of the flux paths shows that this type of
calculation can only ever be an approximation, although surprisingly
accurate results are often achieved. With finiteelement analysis, the
inductance can in principle be calculated more accurately.
Note that all the fluxplots shown here are twodimensional, and three
dimensional effects (endeffects) are neglected.
1223
D e s ig n o f b r u s h l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
Fig. 12.15 Resultant fluxdiatribution with magnets and crossmagne tizing armature
reaction. The currents are as defined in Fig. 12.14.
The inductance associated with the flux pattern in Fig. 12.14 is a static
inductance, which is directly useable in timestepping simulation of
squarewave or sinewave brushless motors, but is quite distinct from the
synchronous reactance discussed in Chapter 6.
The synchronous reactance cannot be directly calculated from a static
finiteelement fluxplot, except in the special case when the windings and
the flux are perfectly sinedistributed. In the general case, the
synchronous reactance calculation requires the stepping of the rotor
through at least one electrical revolution, followed by a differentiation of
the fluxlinkages of the phase windings and a harmonic analysis to extract
the fundamental component. This is because the synchronous reactance
is defined for a fundamental spaceharmonic field so that it can appear
correctly in the phasor diagram.
1224
12. S iz in g & C o m p u t e r a id e d d e s ig n
Values qIB M O D
___ V bIu m o IBM OD
Fig 12.16 Variation of airgap fluxdensity under one pole. Dotted line : magnets
alone. Solid line : resultant with crossmagnetizing armature reaction.
12.5.3 Crossmagnetization
The crossmagnetization effect is greatest when the rotor magnet field is
in quadrature with the armature field, as in Fig. 12.15. Many significant
features of the effect of armature reaction can be observed from Fig.
12.15, most important of which is the increase in fluxdensity at the
leading tip of die magnet pole and the decrease in fluxdensity at the
trailing tip. This effect is illustrated in Fig. 12.16, which shows the
variation of airgap flux density under one magnet pole around the
airgap. The dotted line corresponds to Fig. 12.13 showing the variation
in flux density due to magnets alone. The solid line corresponds to Fig.
12.15 showing the resultant distorted flux distribution when both
magnets and armature current are present.
12.5.4 Demagnetization
The demagnetizing effect is greatest when the axis of symmetry of the
magnet (the <axis) is aligned with the axis of symmetry of the armature
1225
D e s ig n o f b r u s h l e s s pe r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
Fig. 12.17 Flux distribution due to magnets acting alone. The rotor is turned 45*
clockwise relative to its position in Fig. 12.13
ampereconductor distribution. Fig. 12.17 is again the opencircuit flux
distribution due to magnets alone, but the rotor is rotated 45 degrees (90
electrical degrees) to align the two axes as required.
The armature ampereconductor distribution remains unchanged from
that of Fig. 12.14, and the resultant flux distribution is shown in Fig.
12.18. The airgap flux density at the centre of the magnet is much less
than the opencircuit value in Fig. 12.17. The MMFs of the magnet and
the armature current combine in the region of the quadrature axiSj
where the flux is forced to return from one magnet pole to the next
across the toothtops, rather than following its normal course through the
teeth and round the stator yoke. The stator yoke flux is gready reduced.
The armature reaction in all these examples is for very high current,
corresponding to lockedrotor condition.
1226
12. S iz in g & C o m p u t e r a id e d d e s ig n
Fig. 12.18 Resultant flux distribution with magnets and demagnetizing armature
reaction. The magnet (taxis is aligned with the axis of symmetry of the
armature ampereconductor distribution, such that their MMFs are in
opposition
In Fig. 12.19 the dotted line shows the variation of flux density around
the airgap with the magnets acting alone. The solid line shows the flux
density variation when both magnets and armature current are present.
Note that both the crossmagnetizing and demagnetizing components of
armaturereaction MMF distort the airgap flux waveform and introduce
additional timeharmonics into the variation of the fluxdensity in the
teeth and yokes. This is the main cause of increased eddycurrent loss in
the core. The peak fluxdensity is also increased, and this contributes to
an increase in the hysteresis loss. It is difficult to estimate the magnitude
of these effects by simple formulations, but the finite element method
quickly brings the effects to light and provides an accurate means for
estimating them with a high degree of confidence.
1227
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
Fig. 12.19 Airgap fluxdensity variation under one pole with strong demagnetizing
armature reaction. Dotted line : magnets alone. Solid line ; resultant.
References
1. Fouad FA, Nehl TW and Dcraerdash NA [1981] Magneticfield modelling ofpermanent
magnet type electronically operated synchronous machine* using finite elementi, IEEE
Transaction], Vol. PAS100, No.9, pp. 41254135
2. Reece ABJ : Electrical machine* and electromagnetics  computer aids to design, CJEC
Review, Vol.5, No.l, 1989, 3441.
3. Hamdi ES, LicariaoNogueira AF and Silvester PP [1993] Torque computation
mean and difference potential':, IEE ProceedingsA, Vol.140, No,2, 151154.
4. Lowther DA and Silvester PP [1986] Computeraided detign in magnetics, Springer
Verlag.
5. Opera2d Reference and User Guide, Vector Heidi Ltd., Oxford
6. Fitzgerald AE, Kingsley G and Umam SD [1990] Electric Machinery, fifth edition,
McGrawHill
1228
13. EXAMPLES CALCULATED BY HAND
13,1 Introduction
The use and proliferation of brushless permanentmagnet motors over
the past ten years or so has been largely applicationspecific without any
standardization. For example, the motors used in computer hard disc
storage drives have been designed to keep pace with developments in the
disc drive. In a short period the data storage capacity of Winchester disc
drives increased 100fold: the access time decreased by a factor of 10, and
tht! drive envelope decreased by a factor or 3 or 4. Needless to say, the
bmshless drive motors used in these drives have evolved at a comparable
Tiiie
Another example of an applicationspecific brushless motor family is the
higli performance servo motor used to drive specific loads without the
use of gearing or clutches and brakes in order to achieve elegant
programmable motion. The configuration of these designs is driven by
high torque to inertia and ease of cooling the stator. Based on a casual
inspection of most vendor offerings it would appear that there are some
similarities, but their differences are more significant. It would seem that
among the various designs of similar motors each designer is able to
achieve acceptable performance for a particular physical size using
different magnet grades, number of poles and stator coils. There is also
a wide variety of feedback sensors in use. The author assumes that these
differences in design details from one vendor to another are attributed
principally to economic issues relative to each manufacturing operation.
The other possible reason would be that each designer achieves
acceptable results using design parameters which are within his or her
scope of understanding and experience.
Other motor products such as AG induction motors seem to all be alike.
If you disassemble them it is difficult to discern one from the other. DC
brush type motors are somewhat the same in their configuration. Most
companies which have developed brushless servo motors have been
known for their DC motors not AC motors. The large US induction
motor manufacturers were the last ones to enter the brushless AC or DC
servo business with new products so their design approaches are
somewhat different from those of the DC motor companies.
Most recently there have been several significant developments of
131
D e s ig n o f b r u s h l e s s pe r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
133
D e s ig n o f b r u s h l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
The laminations, stack lengths, stator ID and winding area are fixed.
Since the brushless motor must be low in cost to be competitive in the
adjustablespeed market, the use of the highest grade Ferrite magnet in
terms of remanence must be employed. The coercivity is less important
because the lowcost magnet is best utilized with extra thickness to
prevent demagnetization. The inverter drive will provide ultimate
protection because the drive transistors will be protected with a current
limit circuit which also protects the magnets from demagnetization. The
highest possible flux/pole is then the main objective.
The AllenBradley/TDK material known as FB4B is easily selected for its
properties given in Table 13.2:
4000 G
3200 Oc
c, 3300 Oe
Temp. coeiTt. of Br o.i8 % r c
T able 13.2 P roperties o f A l l e n Bradley /T D K fb4b m agnet
A B /H curve from the vendor catalogue is shown in Fig. 13.2 complete
with the loadline due to the magnetic circuit airgap and the loadline
resulting from the stator current
The general practice of using mechanical airgaps of 0.030" nominal with
Ferrite permanent magnets in DC commutator motors is applied to this
brushless motor design. Since the speed is not intended to exceed 4000
rev/min, the only magnet retention will be a 3M structural adhesive
between the rotor lamination stack and the magnet arc inside radius.
To achieve a maximum flux at +60 C rotor operating temperature, and
to prevent demagnetization at the peak current at starting, an
approximate permeance coefficient B/H of 10 is selected (see Chapter
4). This translates to a magnet thickness of 0.300":
B IH  iM  10;
g (13.1)
= 10 * 0.030 = 0.300in.
134
13. E x a m pl e s c a l c u l a t e d By h a n d
]GBj M
Pig 13.2
135
D e s ig n o f b r u s h l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
r rev/min poles
= 6 60 2 (13.2)
rev/min * poles
20
136
13. E x a m pl es c a l c u l a t e d by h a n d
excessive due to the 12slot winding pitch. The choice could be either a
4polc rotor or an 8pole rotor. In either case a doublelayer lap winding
could be used with 24 coils or 8 coils per phase. The lap winding
requires hand insertion. The most practical choice for automatic
insertion is a singlelayer winding pattern of 12 coils with 4 coils per
phase, i.e. a concentric consequentpole winding. If this pattern were
used with a four pole rotor, there would be 2 concentric coils per pole
per phase, which would probably require coil insertions of a single phase
at a time. With the use of the &pole rotor, the concentric winding has
only one coil per pole per phase, permitting automatic insertion of all 12
coils into the stator in one stroke of the machine, which certainly speeds
up production.
So far the design parameters can be summarized as follows:
Next to be determined are the pole arc and winding connections, wye or
delta. Reference can be made to the generic backEMF wave shapes For
3 slots/pole, shown in Fig. 3.15a and b. The controller will either be a 6
step squarewave drive energizing only two phases at a time, or a sinewave
drive with current in all three phases simultaneously. The 6step drive is
much lower in cost for this size of motor than the sinewave drive and
probably more suitable for this product for the market it would serve. If
that is the case, the selection of a delta connection would be appropriate
with a magnet polearc of 2/5 of one polepitch or 30. If a fullpitch
magnet arc of 45 is chosen the wye connection should be used,
otherwise the thirdharmonic circulating in the delta would be excessive.
138
13. E x a m ples c a l c u l a t e d by h a n d
half of the magnet thickness would be wasteful, due to leakage from pole
to pole at the overhang. The resulting rotor lengths are determined by
adding the magnet thickness to the stack length
Short rotor length Lrl = 1.25 + 0.31 = 1.56 in. (min);
(13.3)
Long rotor length= 2.50 + 0.31 = 2.81 in. (min).
The magnet pole area is calculated as follows:
poles (13.4)
n *_2.3j * 1.56 _ j 42 in 2 for short stack
8
and
Anp = n g = 2.56 in 2 for long stack. (13.5)
With the magnet fluxdensity at 60 C equal to 3300 G (Fig. 13.2),
$ = BmAm * 2.542
m m (13.6)
= 3300 * 1.42 * 2.542 = 30,234 lines for short stack
and
$ = 3300 x 2.56 * 2.542 = 54,506 lines for long stack. (13.7)
In Wb, = 3.023 x 10 "4 for the short stack and 5.451 x 10 ~4 for the
long stack. The magnet poles should be tooled using the minimum
number of lengths to provide the two stack lengths. One possibility for
this motor would be two lengths, 0.70" long and 0.86" long. Sixteen arcs
0.70" would yield the 2.81" rotor magnet and four 0.70" arcs plus four
0.86 long arcs would yield the 1.56" long rotor magnet in a staggered
configuration so that the slot openings between them do not line up.
The spaces caused by the plus zero to minus 0.5 tolerances on the 90
arc angle would cancel.
1310
13. E x a m pl es c a l c u ij \ t e d by h a n d
The other possibility is to tool the correct length for each stack length
of 1.42" and 2.56" to eliminate the extra labour of the rotor assembly
when handling so many arcs. Even though the number of arcs to be
tooled is the same as for the shorter lengths, the longer arcs do not offer
the flexibility of adding other rotor lengths without tooling another arc.
The next step is to estimate of the number of turns per coil. One way to
do this is via the EMF constant Sincc the maximum operating speed
is to be 4000 rev/min, a good rule of thumb for a Ferrite motor is to
begin with the rated speed at 80% of the noload speed, giving
and
<*>nl = ^ = 524 rad/s. (13.9)
(For rareearth magnets 90% would be a good place to start.) The
inverter will be powered from 115V AC single phase, fullwave rectified
to provide a 160V DC bus. A rough calculation of the EMF constant
and torque constant kj. can be determined by setting the backEMF at the
noload speed equal to the DC bus voltage, neglecting losses. Thus
[ L  D\1vVsloLs
Tooth area = wT
= 0.230 * I fI 4 ~ 3 I x
(13.14)
 * 24
Z'f
2
= 3.15 in2.
The nearest wire gauge is AWG #19 with a maximum diameter over
insulation of .0386, a bare wire diameter of 0.0359", a resistance at 20C
of 8.0293/1000ft, and a weight of 64.04 oz/lOOOft.
The winding resistance can be calculated after the mean length of turn
(MLT) is determined as twice the slot pitch to the average centre of the
slot opening plus twice the stack length plus two times the allowance for
end turn height on the automatic insertion machines: for the short
machine
MLT = 2 x (1.25 + 0.375) + 2 * 1.785 = 6.82 in. (13.17)
For the long machine MLT = 9.32". The resistance per coil is therefore
j _ ^RMS
Bare wire area
8 74 (13J9)
  = 8,634 A/in2.
4 x 0.03592
1313
D e s ig n o f b r u s h l e s s pe r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
t = i i X ( M f X 266 + l i , ( M Y X f M 6 ?
R 2 UOj 60 2 ^ 1.0 J { 60 ) (13.20)
= 1.08 + 3.89 = 5.0 W/lb.
From the stator dimensions calculated earlier the iron volume is
approximately 16 in3 and if the density is 0.28 lb/in 8 the core weight is
16 x 0.28 = 4.6 lb. Therefore the corc losses are approximately 5.0 x 4.6
a 23 W If bearing and friction losses at 5 W are added, the total losses
at 44 A are 38 + 23 + 5 = 66 W, for an efficiency of 554/ (554 + 66) x
jftf) = 89.3%. At the 8.8 A operating point the total losses are 153 + 23
f 5 = 181 W and the efficiency is 1107/(1107 + 181) x 100 = 86.0%. An
obvious improvement would be to build the motor with thinner
laminations or to use a higher grade of core steel, but these efficiency
figures are considerably better than what could be achieved by the
induction motor in the same lamination, which would probably have
twice the losses at a comparable operating point
With no currentlimit in the inverter the lockedrotor current could be
as high as 160/1.97 = 81 A, assuming no impedance or voltagedrop in
the supply.
In Fig. 13.2, a loadline was drawn on the vendor B /H curve for the FB4B
rotor magnets at the maximum rotor operating temperature of 60C.
The maximum allowable demagnetization field Hmax can be taken from
the plot at 20 C as 3200 Oersteds. The demagnetization current with
wye connection can be calculated from equation (3.6) using this Hmax
value, assuming a = 1 parallel path through the stator. With two phases
on, the number of conductors carrying current is z = 54 turns/coil x 4
coils/phase x 2 conductors/turn x 2 phases = 864: thus
1000 x 4 x l x 4 x (0.30Q 4 0.Q30) x 320Q
1315
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
1316
13. E x a m pl es c a l c u l a t e d by h a n d
1317
D e s ig n o f b r u s h l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
Motorinhub requirement*
Exteriorrotor motor
Very little space available
Minimum cost
Long life
Low noise
Constant ambient temperature
Low power density
T able 13.6 G enera l r e q u ir e m e n t s o f c o m pu t e r d isc drive
These motors produce very litde starting or running torque which means
that the cogging or detent torque must be kept to an extremely low level.
This will also help to reduce the audible noise. To accomplish this, the
rotor poles or the stator should be skewed. In addition, the stator teeth
tips should be as thick at their root as they are long, extending from the
tooth, to prevent tooth tip saturation.
This also reduces cogging and audible noise. The stator slot openings
should be very small, just enough for the magnet wire to enter. Ihe use
of needle winders for interior stators is not recommended because too
much air space is required for the needle. 'Ihe winder of choice is known
as a "fly winder" with winding jaws or guides to feed the wire into the slot
openings.
1318
13. E x a m ples c a l c u l a t e d by h a n d
1319
D e s ic n o f b r u s h l e s s pe r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o to rs
1.0 B/H = 4
14
B (kG)
12
10
8
6
4.9 kG
4
1320
13. E x a m pl es c a l c u l a t e d by h a n d
= ir/feA x 4 y
p 8 45'
ir x 0.695 x 0.370 wX 43 (13.22)
8 45
= 0.097 in2.
Consequently the flux/pole is
>  ^ A p *2.54 2
(13.23)
= 4900 x 0.097 x 2.54* = 3066 lines
or 30.7iWb/pole. The next step is to check the flux density in the 0.050"
thick rotor yoke. The flux 4> for each of the 8 poles is split into two
paths in the rotor yoke, giving
B =  59^6/2 = 12 g4 kG (13.24)
v 0.050 x 0.370 x 2.542
or 1.57 T. This value is acceptable as the soft iron of the magnet return
path material is saturated at 18 kG using lowcarbon steel. If a sixpole
magnet ring were used, the flux/pole would be 33% higher but the same
yoke thickness could be used. A summary of rotor dimensions which have
been determined so far is given below.
1321
D e s ig n o f b r u s h l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
The stator outside diameter equals the rotor inside diameter minus twice
the airgap:
Ds Dn ' (13.25)
= 0.695  0.020 = 0.675 in
or 17.1 mm. For an 8pole motor there are very few practical choices for
the number of slots for such a small compact design as is being
attempted here with the rotor on the outside. 6, 9 or 12 are probably the
only possibilides. The 6slot stator would be easy to wind, but with so few
coils the end turns would be too large to fit into the space. The 12slot
stator would work very well in a large enough diameter motor to have
enough circumference on the stator lamination for 12 slot openings.
The best selection might well be the 9slot stator with 8 rotor poles in
terms of endturn height and slot openings. The other significant
advantage is that only 1 out of 8 pole edges would line up with a slot
opening at any time during rotation. This results in a low cogging
torque. The disadvantage of the 8pole, 9slot design is that both known
winding patterns can cause unbalanced magnetic radial loading which is
said to cause noise problems, (cf. Fig. 3.12). If that is the case, perhaps
a 6pole rotor should be considered with a 9slot rotor. However, if space
permits the 8pole 12slot design would yield a good motor with low
cogging and quiet running.
Continuing with the 8pole, 9slot design, the lamination stack length
must be selected before the tooth thickness can be determined. The rule
of experience used from the interiorrotor example was that the magnet
should overhang the stack by about 1/2 its thickness for fullpitch poles.
The magnet length in the axial direction is 0.370" and the thickness is
0.040" so the stack length Lstk should be about 0.330 max. If .018" thick
laminations are used of M19 annealed stock, about 18 laminations would
be required, which would figure out to 0.324" nominal, plus or minus
some tolerance. It is possible that 0.014" thick laminations should be
used for lower losses.
With an allowance of 18 kG in the stator teeth, and based on the
assumption that each of the 9 teeth will collect the flux from a single
pole, the tooth width can be determined as follows, allowing for 3
leakage factor (gap flux/magnet flux) of 0.9:
1322
13. E x a m pl es c a l c u l a t e d by h a n d
9 BjL<k * 2.S42
* (13.26)
0 9 * 8 * 3066' 9 = 0.0652 in.
18,000 0.324 x 2.542
The lamination cross section can be drawn to scale, preferably on a GAD
system so that the winding area can be determined by the computer. The
slot openings are maintained at 0.040" 0.001" with a careful tooth tip
shape using tapered teeth and a 0.030" radius in the comers of the tip
so that tip saturation will not cause cogging.
The CAD system reveals a total slot area of 0.0132 in 2 or 8.52 mm2,
allowing for 0.005" buildup of epoxy insulation, i.e. 0.0066 in 2 for each
coilside in a doublelayer winding. The mean turn length is easily
calculated as before using twice the stack length plus twice the tooth
thickness plus insulation and four times the coil thickness which is
estimated as 0.04": thus
1323
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
vary from motor to motor. The method of holding the stack can be best
implemented by one of three ways listed below:
Press laminations on to a knurled shaft; epoxy coat; and wind
Clamp the lamination slack in alignment fixture; epoxy spray coat; wind;
then press on to shaft
Have the stamping die fabricated to provide cleatcd or dimpled stacks from the
punching operation; Insulate and wind
T able 1 S.l 1 M eth o d s o f fabricating stator
The actual choice depends on the production system of the motor
vendor plus the details of the mechanical design of the motor such as
how the starts and finishes of the phase windings will emerge from the
wound stack, under the ball bearings and out to the driver board.
The next step is to determine the number of turns per coil and the wire
gauge which will fit into this small lamination slot with a terminal
resistance acceptable to the design. With reference to Fig. 3.12b, a delta
connection with fullpitch magnet arcs would have excessive third
harmonic in the phase EMF and this would cause circulating current in
the delta. This could be avoided by magnetizing the magnets in such a
way as to get 120 magnet arcs. Alternatively a wye connection could be
used. If the wye connection is used with full magnet arcs and one slot
pitch of skew, the Fourier series analysis shows that the commutation
zone average backEMF is 65.6% of the formula value. The specification
for is 1.5 V/krpm = 0.0143 Vs/rad so that Aj = 0.0143 Nm/A or 2.03
ozin/A. Using equation (3.3) or (7.28), and again using the leakage
factor (gap flux/magnet flux) of 0.9,
7  x k*n x 1 x 1
3
2 <bpy 0.656 0.9 ......
(13.28)
= 2 x 00143 x 7r x 1 x _ 1_ = 93Q
2 3,066 *10' x 4 0.656 0.9
1325
D e s ig n o f b r u s h l e s s pe r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
0.0066 in 2 and the MLT to be 1.05". Therefore, the winding gauge and
the terminal resistance can be determined using the same method as in
the previous example:
^slot 'slot
\ N (13.29)
0.0132 x 0.6 0.0087 in.
2 * 52
No. 32 AWG wire is 0.094 over insulation with a bare wire diameter of
0.0080" nominal. The resistance per 1000 ft. is 162.0 Q at 20 C and its
weight is 3.28 oz/1000 ft. The resistance per coil is determined as follows:
With three coils per phase the phase resistance is 3 x 0.737 = 2.2 Q and
with wye connection the lineline resistance is 2 x 2.2 = 4.4 Q at 20C or
5.35 Q at 75C.
The specification called for 1 ozin of torque at speed, requiring a
current of 1/2.03 = 0.5 A. At 75C winding temperature the copper
losses would be 0.5 2 x 5.35 = 1.34 W. The RMS current in each phase is
0.5 x 7(2/3) = 0.408 A, so the RMS current density is 0.408/(k /4 x
0.0082) = 8120 A /in2.
13.4 Summary
The basic process of manual calculation of a design is the same for all
brushless motor designs including servo motors. The requirement,
packaging, cost and production methods help the designer select the
magnet grade, interior vs. exterior rotor, number of slots, poles and
winding method. The performance goals are laid out, the flux per pole
is calculated, then the turns per coil and finally the wire gauge and line
to line resistance and the losses.
This process can be reproduced on the computer using either
spreadsheet formulations of the basic design formulas, or powerful
1326
13. E x a m pl es c a l c u l a t e d by h a n d
1327
14. CONTROL SYSTEMS PERFORMANCE
14.1 Introduction
Brushless permanentmagnet motors have a linear torque/current
characteristic, low torque ripple, and fast response. This makes them
highly suitable for controlling speed, position or torque, either in a
singlequadrant variable control mode, or as fourquadrant servomotors
with reverse speed capability and dynamic braking.
This chapter describes the brushless permanentmagnet motor and its
controller as a control system. It includes a review of the simplified
mathematical models that describe the motor and controller, followed by
the main types of control system. Control system design is described in
relation to closedloop operation, frequency response, step response,
stability, steadystate error, root loci, lead/lag compensation, pole
placement, and robustness. The design and tuning of PID controllers is
discussed in both linear (analog) and digital forms. Ztransform methods
are described for discrete digital systems. The chapter concludes with a
review of modern control methods including adaptive control, optimal
control, and observers.
141
D e s ig n o f b r u s h l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
142
14. C o n t r o l systems perfo rm a n ce
JW *U)
unit impulse S (<) I l
unit step 2 z
s z 1
1 z
O '" s*a z  e~ T
cos co0/ s 2{z~ cos 0l> T)
S2 * 0)02 z 2 2 z cos (J T* 1
<>0 z sin u T
sin ai0t z 2  2z cosu>T+ 1
4Z + 0>02
s+a X / e 'sTcos(i) 7)
e~* cos Ci)</ (s + a)2 + (002 z 2  2ze~aTcos a) T+ e'2aT
e 'at sin G)0/ o ze~Brsm<i>r
(s + a)2 + co02 z 2  2 ze'aTcosu> T + e 2fl3"
Table 14.1 T able o f L aplace a n d z tra n sfo r m s
A t) = ~2irj [ T f i s ^ d s (14.3)
In many cases this contour integral does not need to be evaluated: instead,
the function F{s) that is to be inversetransformed is expanded by partial
fractions into a collection of simpler expressions that are in a standard
table like Table 14.1. After inverse transformation of the partial fractions,
the resulting time functions are added together to get the overall time
function required.
143
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
*<8
Fig. 14,1 Step response associated with various pole positions in the complex plane
144
14. Control systems performance
14.2.2 Transfer functions
A transfer function represents the relationship between the driving
(input) signal and the response (output) of a dynamic system. It is
defined as the ratio of the Laplace transforms of the system output and
input, assuming zero initial conditions. With this definition, the transfer
function concentrates on the relationship between one output and one
input. If there are many inputs and many outputs, there will be a
different transfer function for every pair of input and output signals.
The roots of the denominator of the transfer function are known as the
system poles. (See also section 14.5.5). They are often plotted on the
complex plane as in Fig. 14.1. They describe the dynamic characteristics
of the system. If any pole has a positive real part a, it means that there
is an exponentially increasing element in the response and the system is
unstable. If the poles have nonzero imaginary parts, it means that the
response is partly oscillatory. This can be seen in Fig. 14.1. Negative real
poles indicate an exponentially decaying response. Complex poles always
come in pairs, with equal and opposite imaginary parts, i.e. conjugates.
14.2.3 Example of a DC or brushless DC motor
In Chapter 1 it was shown that the DC and brushless DC squarewave
motors can be represented by the same simple model in which V
represents supply voltage, /is armature current, / is armature resistance,
kE is the EMF constant, kj is the torque constant, Tc is the motor torque,
J/ is the rotor inertia, a is the rotational acceleration, and gjm _ is the
angular velocity. Armature inductance is assumed to be zero and any
mechanical shaft resonance is ignored.
We have seen in Chapter 1 and elsewhere that the speed is essentially
controlled by the voltage: in the steady state, assuming the load torque
is zero, the speed is given by equation (1.7) as
V= RI+ *E m; (15.4)
Tt = k , /; (14.6)
re = /a  (14.7)
and
(14.8)
dt
 a .
146
14. C o n t r o l system s p e r f o r m a n c e
14.3 Modelling drive components
In developing a controller for a servo system, it is necessary to create a
model of the "plant", which is that part of the system consisting of the
motor, the drive, the position and/or velocity transducers, the load, and
any mechanisms such as actuators or gear trains. Most control system
design methods require a linear plant model. This means that the
coefficients in the differential equations are constant: i.e., independent
of time and of speed, voltage, etc. If the plant model is not linear, it can
sometimes be linearised for small variations about an operating point
using "perturbation analysis.
14.3,1 Brushless PM motor model including inductance
The simple dynamic model of the brushless DC motor can be extended
to include the effects of inductance as follows. The electrical equivalent
circuit is shown in Fig. 14.2. E is the backEMF, equal to The
electrical equation of the motor is
V =L ~ +R I + (14.12)
dt b m
We can assume that the magnetic field is constant and that the
electromagnetic torque T is proportional to current:
T =V  <1413)
The mechanical properties of the motor are the inertia Jm and friction
torque Tf. Friction is often a nonlinear function of speed, and it is usual
to allow for a "viscous damping term" Dv>m, to represent at least that part
of the friction that is proportional to speed. The load can often be
Ia R La
147
D e s ig n o f b r u s h l e s s pe r m a n e n t m a c n e t m o t o r s
T = <V ~ (14.16)
Ls + R
Neither friction torque, 7} nor load torque TL affects the motor transfer
function, so they can be set to zero. The mechanical differential equation
(14.14) then transforms into
T = (/m * JL) s u m + (14.17)
(14.19)
\Xs) (L s * * )[(/ + f j s + D] * kEk ,
149
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s pe r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
14.3.3 Transducers
When a motor is used as part of a control system, it is desirable to
measure some output variables of the system for comparison with the
desired values. Velocity and position are common examples. In position
servos, it is usual to have feedback of both position and velocity. One
solution is to measure position using an encoder and to use electronics
to calculate velocity from the encodcr output. Alternatively, resolvers may
be used with resolvertodigital converters.
14.3.4 Load effects
The load affects the performance of the control system. For example, a
high load inertia JL slows the response, and a variable load torque can
cause unwanted speed variations. It is therefore important to account for
the load when modelling the system and to design the controller to be
sufficiently robust to allow for variations in the load.
1411
D esign of brushless permanentmagnet motors
transfer function of the plant, and o rcf is the speed reference signal at
the input. The feedback loop tends to reduce the error between the
actual motor speed and the reference speed. Often the error signal is
amplified to increase the gain, as shown in Fig. 14.3. The amplification
may include "dynamics", such as the parallel addition of a term
proportional to the integral of the error signal. Accordingly the error
amplifier has its own transfer function C(j) as shown in Fig. 14.3. The
controller C(s) is designed to optimise certain system properties such as
robustness, stability and bandwidth, and it is sometimes known as a
compensator.
The transfer function of the closed loop system shown in Fig. 14.3 can
be derived easily as follows. If the error signal is represented as E(s) then
from Fig. 14.3
r(s) = 0 W{s) x B{s) and E{s) = U(s)  Y(s) ( 1422)
so that by eliminating (j),
n s ) _ a s) m s) (1428)
U(s) 1 + a s ) W {S)'
This expression is written in terms of a general output variable Y(s) and
a general reference signal U(s). The denominator is significantly changed
by closing (he feedback loop, and so also is the gain. The system poles,
and therefore all its response characteristics, can be cxpected to be
significantly modified by loop closure, and later sections will examine
how these changes can be controlled.
14.4.2 Speed controls and servo systems
A speed controller that controls forward speed only, and is not capable
of producing a negative or braking torque, is known as singlequadrant
control, Fig. 14.4. It operates in only one quadrant of the spced/torque
plane. A true servo system operates in all four quadrants. That is, it can
produce motoring or braking torque when the motor is running in
either direction.
A control system alters a dynamic system to give more accurate control
of speed, position, etc., and it is often required to meet other
performance objectives such as robustness, stability, and rapid response.
1412
14. Control systems performance
1413
D e s ig n o f b r u sh l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t m o t o r s
ERROR SIGNAL
Fig. 14.5 Block diagram of a hybrid position and velocity control system
* The dccibel i> defined as 20 !og]n((7), where G is the ordinary value of the gain. Some
normalization may be necessary to express the gain in dimensionless units or perunit
before calculating the decibels.
1416
14. CONTROL SYSTEMS PERFORMANCE
PHASE U G H
Fig. 14.6 Bode diagram of a firstorder motor drive system with a single poic at
*i.kt/RJ.
1417
D e s ig n o f b r u s h l e s s p e r m a n e n t m a c n e t m o t o r s
14.5.2 Bandwidth
The bandwidth of a system is the frequency range over which the gain is
within 3 dB of the maximum gain. In servo drives the maximum gain is
usually the DC gain, reflecting the fact that slow variations in the demand
for velocity or position changes can be followed with high accuracy and
little phase shift. In order to follow rapid changes in the demand signal1
with high accuracy and minimal phase shift, the system requires a high
bandwidth. The bandwidth is generally different for different controller.
A torque control can generally have a much wider bandwidth than a
velocity controller, mainly because of the effect of inertia in