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Dedicated to

Dr. Ruma Purkait

Whose parental love, Sacrifices and


Sustained efforts enabled me to acquire
knowledge.

i1
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

All praise to ALLAH who is most beneficent and merciful. He endowed in


me requisite knowledge and ability to produce this piece of work. I bow down to
him in gratitude with all humanity from the depth of my heart

I wish to record my gratitude to all the residents of my field area for their
benevolent support and co-operation during the field work.

Thanks to the Anthropology Department of Dr. H. S. Gour University, Sagar


(M.P), India.

I find almost no words to express my gratitude towards my PhD supervisor


Dr. Ruma Purkait . The knowledge I gained under her supervision played a major
role in research and will continue to do so in my professional career.

I express my heartfelt thanks to dissertation supervisor Dr. Rajesh Gautam and


Prof. A. N. Sharma, Head of department, for their valuable suggestions, help and
support during the dissertation work.

No words found for my parents whatever I am today it is because of their


prayer, loving care and sincere endeavors.

ii
2
CONTENTS

Acknowledgements ii

Chapter No. Title Pg.No.

Chapter-1 Introduction IV-14

Chapter-2 Area and People 15-44

Chapter-3 Materials and Methods 45-60

Chapter-4 Results 61-114

Chapter-5 Discussion 115-122

Chapter-6 Conclusion 123-129

Chapter-7 References 130-139

iii
3
CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

4
iv
Anthropometry, the scientific description of the physical characteristics of the human
body, has existed for just over three centuries. The first appearance of the term is
associated with Johann Sigismund Elshotz (1654) who used it in his doctoral
dissertation at the University of Padua.

Anthropometry may be defined as a conventional system of measuring the


human body. It provides scientific methods and techniques for taking various
measurements and observation on the living man and the skeleton.

Anthropometry deals with techniques for measuring different parts of the


human body. Juan Comes defined anthropometry as the systematic techniques for
measuring and taking observation on man his skeleton, limbs, trunk etc; as well as the
organs by the most reliable means and scientific method.

The idea of measuring the body and its parts, and using the means of such
measurements to describe the ideal type for a given group, rather than relying on the
ancient canons came up in the nineteenth century.

A separate term known as Cephalometry is used when the measurements


are taken on the Head and Face only.

Anthropometry helps in studying human evolution and human variation. It


plays a very important role in racial classification and indicates similarities and
differences among different population described all over the world.

Anthropometry is very important in biotypology. The studies of human growth


in various populations of the different regions of the world and also of different ethnic
affiliations are based on anthropometry. Anthropometry plays a vital role in the
measurements of many functions of the human body. Even changes in the human
body parts are measured from birth to adulthood to trace the trend of growth (Purkait
2011)

5
In the field of sport activities, anthropometry can be fruitfully used. Nutritional
status of population can also be determined through anthropometry. Nutritional
anthropometry concerns with the measurement of the variation of the physical
dimensions of the gross composition of the human body at the different age levels
and degrees of nutrition and give valuable information covering certain malnutrition
in which the body size and gross body composition are effected (Jelliffe, 1966).

In the field of Medicine and surgery correlation between various kind of body
build and disease have been observed. It is also used in criminology and penology.
Osteometry, another branch of Anthropometry which deals with measurement of
bones finds its use in forensic anthropology. Reconstructing the identity of an
unknown person from bones by estimating the stature, ethnicity and sex (Purkait
2001a & b, Purkait 2002, Purkait & Chandra 2002, Purkait & Chandra 2004, Purkait
2005).

One of the major advances of 20th century Physical Anthropology has been the
recognition of the importance of the population as the unit of the study, rather than
the individual or type. Anthropometric data are analyzed in terms of the means and
standard deviations of measurements and indices, allowing statistical comparisons of
similarities and differences between groups. Despite the development of population
statistics, the typology approaches is still used occasionally.

Another achievement is the decision arrived by the International Committee for


Standardization of Anthropological Techniques establishment in London, in 1932,
that a standardized anatomical nomenclature is used in definition and best instrument
be used for specific purpose i.e. for living or dead material

One of the cornerstones of the typological approach was idea fixity of the
type. Type features were thought to be inherited unchanged, without modification
by the environment. Along with a shift of interest to the study of variation came an
understanding of the environmental influences in producing human differences
(Spier, 1974; Hajanis, 1974; Jordaan, 1976; Szopa, 1978 and Matsumoto 1982).

6
Boas (1911) found a difference in cephalic index between European immigrants to
North America and their children, the later being more dolichocephalic. Similar
results were reported by Herskovitz (1930) and Goldstein (1936) for Jews and
blacks, while Hrdlicka (1920) indicated that the cephalic index is influenced by the
size of the palate and shape of the nasal aperture, (Molnar, 1975). Nasal index is a
function of two dimensions whose variance is due to two different environment
influences, heat and humidity (Kelso, 1970).

Numerous studies are still being carried out, particularly in Eastern Europe
where extensive research into population difference in craniofacial dimension and
proportions has been published in the past 35 years (Hajnis and Dobisikova, 1968;
Zizkova, 1968; Figalova and Smahel, 1972, 1973 & 1974; Figalova and Hajnis, 1974;
Bruzek & Hajnis 1976 and Hajnis & Blazek, 1982).

In India Anthropometry was the main tool of study for the early workers.
Ethnologist like Thurston (1909), Risley (1915), Von Eickstedt (1934), collected a
large quantity of Anthropometric data from various population of Indian Sub-
continent and classified the Indians in different racial elements.

Gupta and Dutta (1966) published an impressive bibliography with important


result of various works in the field of anthropometry. Rakshit (1964), Sen (1967) and
Malhotra (1978) showed by their works that single character like Cephalic index of
population are more useful in understanding the composition of different elements
among the Indian population groups. It was further observed that some of these
measurements vary both spatially and vertically (caste wise), thus helping us to
understand the effect of migration and more evolutionary factors operating at
endogamous level.

HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT

The origin of anthropometry was very ancient as long as the old Egypt and
Greece. The artists formulated various standard canons for the human body. The

7
scientific anthropometry however began with Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1752-
1840) who laid the foundations of craniology. He classified mankind into different
races on the basis of skull form as seen from above (norma verticalis). He
distinguished three types (i) square (ii) long and (iii) laterally compressed.

Peter Camper in the same century was responsible for studying the facial form
and developed the facial profile angle to measure the extent of pronagthism. While
Charles White developed measurement for long bone-osteometry and worked on the
upper limb of the Chimpanzees, Negroes and Europeans.

Broca, Flower and Turner further developed the study of the skulls on the
foundation laid by Blumenbach. Broca in 1875 published a paper containing
instruction regarding craniometry and craniology. He detailed the methods of
collecting and preserving weak and brittle bones. He also defined the measurements,
landmarks, to be used as well as the instrument required in taking them. Flower also
invented a sliding caliper with curved arm on the one side and straight arms on the
other, which later came to be known as Flowers caliper.

Craniometric conferences were held at Munich (1877), Berlin (1880)


.Thirteenth General Congress of the German anthropological society was held at
Frankfurt in 1882, in which 8 out of 47 measurements described by Broca and 31 of
the Frankfurt agreed for the practical ones. The plane in which the skull should be
oriented for examination was also different Eye Ear Plane or Frankfurt Horizontal
was used by Germans.

Paul Topinard, a close associate of Broca also suggested a new series of


anthropometric measurements which were experimental in nature and some of them
were needed to be discarded. Bertillon at the same time developed the Bertilllon
system of measuring and identifying criminals

This resulted in the development of two different schools in Anthropometry


known as German and French schools. Although Research workers in other countries

8
following techniques of either one school or other, usually adopted these techniques
with certain modifications.

All this resulted in utter confusion, and the need for an international agreement
was seriously felt.One such attempt in this direction was initiated by Collignon in
1892, but without much success. The next attempt was made in 1892 at the XII
International congress of Prehistoric Anthropology and Archaeology held at Moscow,
but nothing substantial was done.

However, at the XIII International congress of prehistoric anthropology and


archaeology was held at Monaco in 1906. An International Agreement on
caniometry was prepared and circulated widely in this congress. The German
congress in 1912 approved the International agreement for unification of the
measurements on the living subjects and are of fundamental importance to all
student of anthropometry. In 1932, the international Committee for standardization of
anthropological techniques was established in London with members coming from 20
different countries. This committee ventured to suggest that a standardized
anatomical nomenclature must be used in definitions and best instruments be used for
specific purposes.

In 1935, the American association of Physical Anthropologists formed an


advisory committee on Anthropometric Interests, with Hooton, Hrdlica, Schulz,
Terry, and Todd as its members. They gave a serious thought to widen scope of the
field of the Anthropometry.

In 1950 Viking Fund organized a seminar of group of Physical Anthropologists


under direction of Washburn to learn about the technical innovation in physical
anthropology.

The trend to think in the terms of standardization methods and techniques


continued and various papers of different workers outlining the efforts in this

9
connection were published in different journals and presented at various professional
conferences.

Recognizing the valuable work done by pioneers in the study of Indian people
like Ruggery, Eicksted, Risley, Guha, Karvey, Majumdar, Biswas, and others, at the
University Grant Commission sponsored Summer School in Anthropology in 1965,a
committee was formed under the chairmanship of Biswas to select the type and
number of measurements as well as define the measurements and specify the
instrument to be used. This committee comprised by most of the leading physical
Anthropologists of India suggested measurements essential for racial and growth
studies.

To Rudolf Martin goes the credit of making an attempt to produce a complete


text book on Anthropology. He (1914) succeeded in defining more than 100
measurements on the living and quite so many on the skeleton. In addition he gave a
number of indices. He also devised a few instruments. A large amount of data was
collected by him and his students .which continue to act as a light house for all
students of Physical Anthropology.

In 1918, Wilder published a laboratory Manual of physical anthropology in


English, which was based mainly on Martins first edition. In 1919, appeared a
volume on anthropometry prepared by Hrdlica who suggested 36 somatic
measurements and indices besides describing techniques of measurements for
skeletal material.

Since World War 1st, Anthropometry has been employed to give standard sizes
for different kinds of equipment in different services and industry. They have been
specially used by air force. Mortant, Hooten, White and Hertberg who along with a
number of the anthropologist have not only added new dimensions to anthropometry,
but also defined measurements, improved techniques, and devised new instruments.

10
Since Quetelet, Anthropologists have felt the necessity of utilizing statistical
techniques for presentation and analysis of the data. The general statistical procedures
have been improved upon by different workers. Special mention may be made of
Mahalonobis, Rao and Sanghvi who have further improved the coefficient of racial
likeness and index of consanguinity

Anthropometry may conveniently be subdivided into the following sections:-

(a) Somatometry:- It is the measurement of the living body including head and
face.

(b) Osteometry:- It is the measurement of the skeletal including long and short
bones.

(c) Craniometry: - It is the measurement of the skeletal, brain-cavity (Neurocranium)


and face (Splanchnocranium).

Anthropometry and Nutrition: A Review

Anthropometry is considered to be an important tool for assessing nutritional


status of individuals or of the community. Nutritional anthropometry concerns with
the measurement of the variation of the physical dimensions and the gross
composition of the human body at different age levels and degrees of nutrition. It
gives valuable information covering certain types of malnutrition in which bodily
size and gross body composition are affected (Jelliffe, 1966). Knowledge of the
nutritional status of a community is necessary to have a comprehensive idea about its
development process, as under nutrition is one of the major health problems in the
developing countries. It was reported that the basic causes of under nutrition or
malnutrition in developing countries are poverty, poor hygienic conditions and little
access to preventive health care (Mitra, 1985; WHO, 1990). Inadequacies in
nutritional intake or under nutrition can be considered as a major source of many
adverse effects on the growth and health of individuals (Gorden et al., 1968).

11
Anthropometric measurements like stature, sitting height, weight and indices
based on these measurements like body mass index (BMI) have been extensively
used to define the extent of malnutrition Boas (1911), Guthe (1918) and various other
workers have shown that there were changes in head length and head breadth with
increasing age, migration, nutrition etc.

Fischer (1936) stated that with increase in height the skull becomes somewhat
more elongated. He elaborated that height of an individual is partly conditioned by
nutrition and other factors during growth period this may result in the increase or
decrease of cephalic index corresponding to the increase or decrease in height.

Aykroyed (1938) described the importance of the measurement of the arm,


chest and hip circumference to detect malnutrition. Nabbarro and McNab (1980)
concluded from their study that anthropometric assessment is a valuable approach to
the identification of the acutely malnourished children.

Body Mass Index (BMI) can be a good parameter to grade chronic energy
deficiency in adults (Naidu et al., 1991; Ferro-Luzzi et al., 1991; Knongsdier, 2001;
Adak et al., 2006; Goutam et al., 2006).

Various studies on assessment of nutritional status was reported from India by


Trivedi et al., (1971); Bhandari et al., (1972); Godre, (1973); Gupta et al., (1979);
Rama Kutty et al., (1981); Dewey, (1983); Choudhary and Visweswara Rao, (1983);
Rao et al., (1990); Khongsdier, (2001); Adak et al., (2006) and Goutam et al., (2006).

General Purpose of the Study:

Rationale of the Study:

India is a very big country with wide variation in population, region, climate
etc. Many of its region and population are identified for poor natural subsistence as
well as poor socio-economic condition. The central India is a heterogeneous region
which is also known for its heterogeneity for its population and other conditions. The

12
Anthropometric study in this region is hardly available or it is limited to very few
population or sub region. Simultaneously most of these studies are based on age old
data. The Anthropological survey of India conducted a country wide anthropometric
survey between 1960s and 1970s. It is also an old data. Since that time,
approximately during five decades tremendous changes occurred in this region as
well as in the country and the world. One such changes can be quoted is 'Green
Revolution'. Globalizations, Urbanisation, Modernization and Industrialization are
other factors which are continuing and changing almost all the sphere of human life.
Therefore, there are apparently two reasons behind the present study. The first one is
unavailability of data related to anthropometric characteristics of Central India
population and provide recent information regarding Anthropometric characteristic and
nutritional status of the population and the region as due to changes in living
conditions, their characteristic are at the influenced. The second reason is to conduct a
micro level anthropometric survey and to find out the anthropometric and nutritional
differences among the population during four and five decade.

Aims and Objectives:

Aim:

The present study was done on Central Indian Population including Muslims,
Brahmans, Gonds, Lodhis and Ahirwars with an aim to study anthropometric and
nutritional characteristic with their different socio-economic, demographic and
religious background.

Objectives:

1. To study the body dimension viz. Stature, Sitting height, Weight, Chest
circumference, Hip circumference, etc. among five different population of
Central India.

2. To study the Cranial features viz. Head Length, Head Breadth, and Head

13
Circumference etc. among five target populations.

3. To study the facial features like - Bizygomatic breadth, Bigonial breadth,

Nasal height, Nasal breadth etc.

4. To study the anthropometric characteristic among the target


population of different socio-economic, demographic and
religious background.

5. To find out the level of nutrition among different segment of


target population.

6. To compute different indices of head, face and body


measurements computed for elucidation of facts.

14
CHAPTER II

AREA & PEOPLE

15
15
Madhya Pradesh

The state of Madhya Pradesh is one of the largest states of India, in terms of
area, and 7th in population size. It covers 11.6 % of geographical area of the country.
It is unique in the sense that it has no sea and no international border. Though it has
no Himalayas, yet it has some extremely charming hills and mountains and has some
big rivers. As its name implies, the state is centrally located and is often referred to as
the heart of India. It is bounded by as many as seven states. The state came into
existence in the year 1947 by unification of Central Province and Berar. Following
the state reorganization within the Indian Union, it was formed on 1st November
1956. But again on 1st November 2000, it was divided into two parts one was Madhya
Pradesh and the other one Chhattisgarh. Uttar Pradesh bound the state in the north,
Chhattisgarh in northeast, and Maharashtra in the south, Gujarat in the west and
Rajasthan in the northwest. The state is situated in the Central India and lies between
2652 and 1746 of North latitude and 741 and 8423 East longitude. Madhya
Pradesh consists of a plateau with a mean elevation of 1600 ft above sea level,
interspersed with the mountain of the Vindhay and Satpura ranges. The main river
systems are the Chambal, Betwa, Sindh, Narmada, Tapti, Mahanadi and Indravati.

Ethnic History of Madhya Pradesh:

India is inhabited by various endogamous groups. Central India is buffer zone in


this respect which received the waves of people from divergent geo-climatic
setups. In this way the diversity in the morphological features of the population of
the Madhya Pradesh is quite remarkable. We find here people of various ethnic
stocks with varying physical features like fair skin, tall stature and thin lips living
side by side with people of dark skin, medium to short stature and thick lips. The
color of the hair also varies from dark black to medium brown. In texture the hair
also varies from straight to wavy to curly. Such morphological variations are not
limited to these physical characters only, but can be found in other traits also. This
diversity in physical form tells us beyond doubt that various ethnic strains have

16
contributed to the present diversified
d physical forms of this popuulation. There must
have been successive wavees of migration of different ethnic stocks, which must
have interbred with the nattive population and thus must have added
a to the ethnic
diversity of this area.

Map shows Loocation of the State Madhya Pradesh


h in India

17
But when we came to the reconstruction of the ethnic history of this area we
find that we do not have enough material to work upon. Thus, we were compelled
to make conjectures about the migrations of different ethnic stocks in this area,
which results in a lack of uniformity of opinions.

The migration of different ethnic strains in the area is related to those of


different ethnic stocks in the subcontinent. Many anthropologists have studied the
problem of ethnic migration in India but their views differ regarding the exact
nature and impact of the different migrant ethnic stock. Hutton (1931) is of the view
that earliest inhabitants of the Indian sub-continent were probably the people of
Negrito stock. But this stock has apparently not left much impact on the Indian
populations. Thus Negrito was followed by the proto Australoid, which in turn were
followed by the Mediterranean who had some knowledge of agriculture, and who
erected megaliths for the dead. Many forest tribes of Madhya Pradesh bear the
stamp of these early Mediterranean from Europe. Guha (1931) is in agreement with
this view while Majumdar (1957) believes that the present tribal population of India
does not justify a Negrito substratum in this country.

After the recent division of Madhya Pradesh the area of the state is 3,08,252
square kilometers. The population is 6, 03,85,118 as per census of India (2001).
Religion wise population of Madhya Pradesh in the year 1991 and 2001 as per
Census of India 1991 and 2001 is depicted in the table given below.

Religion 1991 2001


Hindus 4,45,95,604 5,50,04,675
Jains 44,71,11 54,54,46
Buddhists 16,80,16 20,93,22
Sikhs 11,05,06 15,07,72
Muslims 2,98,31,27 3,84,14,49
Christians 12,39,61 17,03,81
Total 4,85,66,242 6,03,48,023

18
Growth rate during laast decade was 27.2% and the sex ratiio was found to be
919 female per 1000 of malles. For the purpose of administration the state is divided
into 12 revenue commissioonaires, 48 districts and 172 tehsils. Out of these 48
districts of Madhya Pradeshh, Sagar is one of them. Literacy rate for
f total population
of Madhya Pradesh is 64.1 % with male literacy rate of 76.8% and
a female literacy
rate of 50.28%. The tribal are
a in large numbers in the state and constitute
c one fifth
of the total schedule tribe poopulation of India.

Madhya Pradesh is a state of India which is highly rich inn vegetation. About
96,130 Sq.Kms. area of staate is under forests.Madhya Pradesh is
i called the "Soya
Capital" of India. It has its own
o identity as a Soyabean producingg area of the world.
It produces 80% of the total production of the country.

Map Shows Location


n of Sagar District in Madhya Pradesh

19
Madhya Pradesh is one of the mineral rich states of India where large mineral
deposits are not only available but their extraction is also being carried out. The
state is well known for coal, iron, bauxite, limestone and manganese. The Panna
region is famous for the production of diamonds, one of the few known sources of
the precious stone in the country.

The State is also rich in wild life. Tigers are found in many parts of the state.
There are as many as ten Biosphere reserves and thirty wild life sanctuaries. The
tiger Leopard, Deer, Chital, Sambal, Barasingha, Neelgai and Gaur are among the
animals protected. Kanha is among the more notable Tiger reserve in the state.

SAGAR DISTRICT

The main occupation of people is predominantly agriculture and most of the


population depends on it for its livelihood. Nearly 44% of the available land is used
for cultivation; only about 18% of the cultivated land is being irrigated.

Madhya Pradesh has been part and parcel of the main current of Indian
history and culture from ancient times. It was part of the Mauryan Empire, based in
Patliputra (modern Patna) and the great Ashoka, grandson of the founder of the
dynasty Chandragupta Maurya in Madhya Pradesh.

In the Bagh caves, about 160 Km. from Indore, ancient paintings resembling
those at Ajanta, in Maharashtra, and they are believed to belong to a period between
the 5th and 7th centuries A.D., to be seen. Rock shelters and Rock paintings of
Shamla hills, Rashtriya Manav Sangrahalya Bhopal is also unique. From prehistoric
point of view Narmada is also important. From its bank the famous fossils of
modern man was discovered which is named Homo narmadanensis.

The river Narmada originate from Amarkantak and flow westward and a little
distance away the river Son originates to flow eastwards which is most unusual
phenomenon anywhere in the world.

20
M
MAP OF SAGAR DISTRICT

Study Area: District Sagarr

The district of Sagar lies in the north central region of Maadhya Pradesh. It is
situated between 23 10' annd 24 27' north of equator and 78 4' and 79 21' east of
meridian. The district has a truly central location in the counntry. The tropic of
cancer passes through the soouthern part of the district.

Sagar is centrally situuated in Madhya Pradesh and is a headd quarter for district
and division. The district is bounded on the north by Jhansi districct of Uttar Pradesh,
on the south by the district of
o Narsinghpur and Raisen, on the west by the district of

21
Vidisha and Damoh on the east, on the north- east and northwest the district adjoins
Chhatarpur and Guna district respectively.

Total area of Sagar district is 10,252 Sq. kms. It is the 16th largest district in
size of the state, which is roughly shaped like a triangle with its vertex in the south
and base in the north. The largest extent of the district is along the southeast to
northwest direction and is about 105 miles.

Sagar district consists of 9 tehsils namely:-

(I) Sagar (ii) Banda (iii) Khurai

(iv) Rehli (v) Devri (vi) Bina

(vii) Garhakota (viii) Kesli (ix) Rahatgarh

Formation of Sagar District

Sagar town as such does not have a long and historical background. Some three
centuries ago, Udham Shah, a Gond king marked the birth of Sagar in 1660 on the
banks of a lake after which it has been named. The Garpahara, situated some 6 miles
northwest of the town, is said to be the old Sagar, which was founded by the Gond
king. The construction of a small port and the settlement of a small village, Parkota,
by the Gond king, made the town conspicious. The old Parkota, which stands on the
bank of Sagar Lake today, is one out of its 29 municipal wards of the present town of
Sagar. Later on, Anup Shah named Sagar as Anup Nagar. Bundelas and Marathas
changed this name in due course of time and, subsequently, it came to be known as
Sagar, named after the big Sagar Lake.

Sagar lies in the heart of India and Bundelkhand too. It is touched by the
Vindhya Pradesh on the north. It is the living representatives of Bundelkhand
culture. The people of Sagar speak Bundelkhandi dialect, which shows a greater
affinity to the cultural heritage of Bundelkhand. Moreover, from the national point
of view, Sagar has played an important role in the freedom movement of 1857 too.
22
Its contribution to the political upsurge is memorable. The result of this
participation of Sagar in the freedom movement of 1857 and of 1947 brought Sagar
to prominence from administrative point of view. After independence too, the
strategic importance of Sagar cannot be denied as there is one of the biggest army
cantonment in the city.

Population

The Sagar is inhabited by the population of poly ethnic, religious and lingual
background. The diversity in morphological features of the population is well marked
in Sagar. There must have been successive waves of migration of different ethnic
stocks, which must have interbred with native population thereby adding to the ethnic
diversity of this area. The population of Sagar District according to the census report
(Census of India, 2001) of 2001 is estimated to be 20, 21,783. (male - 10,73,032,
female - 9,48,751) with rural population of 14,30,421 (male - 7,60,970 , female -
6,69,451) and urban population 5,91,362 (male 3,12,062, female - 2,79,300).

Language

Hindi is the main language spoken in the district. In Sagar district majority of
the population speaks only one language Hindi. It is supposed to be linguistically a
homogenous district. It lies on the southern part of Bundelkhand tract and is
characterized by the standard Bundeli dialect of western Hindi. Both the Nagri and
the Kaithi characters are used in writing Bundeli. Nearly 98.16% speaks Hindi
followed by, Marathi 0.66%, English 0.1%, Gujrati 0.17%, Punjabi 0.3% and Sindhi
0.61%. Hindu, Muslims, Jains and Christians are main religious groups in the district;
Sikhs and Budhists are among other groups. Religion wise population of Sagar town
in the year 1991 and 2001 as per Census of India is depicted in the table given below.

23
Religion 1991 2001

Hindus 15,23,602 18,68,720

Jains 48,117 59,931

Buddhists 66 1,668

Sikhs 3,883 2,819

Muslims 66,466 83,815

Christians 3,845 4,525

Total 16,47,736 20,21,987

Geographical and Physical Features

The topography and landscape of Sagar is full of hillocks and valleys. The
topography has affected the residential pattern of the city. The city is situated around
the lake. Each locality on the town is built on a separate hillock.

Major part of the district is covered by the Deccan. The rich fertile soil of
Sagar district is black, but the hilly tracts are covered with murmur soil, generally red
and yellowish-red in colour. Sagar town itself has both the rich black soil in its
immediate outskirts and in the municipal area. Most of the population of Sagar town
is living on the hills, such as Purbiau Touri, Itwari Touri and Shukrawari Touri.

Chief Mountains

Only one series of mountain Vindhyachal surrounds the Sagar district. Under
the series of Vindhyachal Mountain are Pariyatra, Chitrakoot, Mekal, Kruksh,
Krushyamook.

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Rivers

Sonar, Dhasan, Bina and Betwa are the main river in the district. These are
tributary of Chambal, Yamuna, Betwa, Ken, Son and Vardayini.

Climate

Mansoon brings rain in the district. There are three chief seasons -

(i) Summer This season starts from March and ends in the mid of June. Average
temperature of this season is 30 C, Occasionally the highest temperature
reaches to 45 C too.

(ii) Rainy - July to October is rainy season in the district. Average rain fall is 120
cms.

(iii) Winter - November to Feburary is the coldest season of the district. Average
temperature of this season is 16 C, in the night it may fall up to 5 C.

Its tropical location forecasts a tropical climate marked with hot summers and
cold winters. But its altitude which is a little over 1800 ft above sea-level marks a
natural fall in the temperature with the resultant cooler winters. The maximum
temperature during the hottest summer days rises up to 110 F. The average rainfall
of the town as recorded by the Municipal Corporation over a number of years, comes
to 1200 mm. The first break of monsoons arrives in the month of June, usually
towards the end of the month, and July and August witness heavy rains.

Economic Structure

Economy of Sagar is based on agriculture and small scale industries. It is well


known for manufacturing and supply of country cigarette (Bidi). There are 43 unit of
famous Bidi udyog in Sagar city.

Mineral water plant, plastic industries, wood industries are also at Sagar.
Beside district headquarter Sagar; Bina, Khurai, Rehli, Deori, Banda, Pathariya,

25
Naryavli, Jaruvakheda, Rahatgarh, Malthon, Sehora, Dhana, Kesli, Tada,
Tendudheda, Gour Jahmer etc. are the chief small towns and market places from
which necessary articles are supplied to the inhabitants of the district.

This district is still lagging behind in the economic development. The


economic system of the district is entirely dependent on agricultural products, forest
products and Bidi udyog and Agarbatti udyog.

The rich occurrence of valuable wood in the forests has a great impact on the
economic life of the town where wood saving and timber yards form one of the major
industries. Bidi industry marks another important feature in the town's economy. This
industry has gained a favourable response in Sagar town because of cheap and
abundant labour supply and abundance of tendu leaves in the jungles of the district.
Oil mills and soap factories also need a mention in this context. There are other
industries in the town which includes mostly cottage industries like brass-ware, black
smithy, pottery and bricks and tiles making. But most of these cottage industries are
monopolized by the different caste people as their traditional occupation. Brassware
manufacturing is the occupation of the Tameras. Blacksmithy is the traditional
occupation of Lohars. Badhai pursue their craft of carpentry and Sonars follow their
silver-gold ornament manufacturing. Basors, the drum-beaters, have specialized in
making broom-sticks and basketry, the Kumhars are famous for pottery, and the
Badheraas are famous for making bricks and tiles. The Julahas are specialized in
weaving. The Ahirwars are specialized for shoe-making and leather work and the
Telis still pursue their traditional mode of earning livelihood by oil mill. Dairy is
another important traditional occupation which is practiced by the Yadavas. The
economic structure of the town is conventional but on the other hand there are some
fairly developed centres too. These are the branches of banks, restaurants, shops,
stores, cafes, stalls etc.

26
Towns, Villages and Amenities

The district at present comprises of 9 Tehsils, 11 Blocks and 18 Community


Development Blocks. It has 13 towns, 11 Janpads and 753 Gram Panchayats as per
census of India (2001). Sagar district consists in all 2,105 villages including 2,089
revenue and 16 forest villages. The availability of essential civil amenities viz
education, medical, drinking water etc. are cited below. It should be noted that
villages are still lacking these facilities as 88 % villages do not have medical
facilities, only 66% have market even 6% villages have access to save drinking
water.

S. No. Amenities No. of Villages Percentage

1 Education 1693 92.89

2 Medical 208 11.61

3 Drinking water 1703 94.61

4 Post and Telegraph 318 17.66

5 Market/hat 120 6.66

6 Communication 398 22.22

7 Approach by pucka road 403 22.38

8 Power supply 1501 83.39

Source: Bhatt, S.C. (1997)

Agriculture and Forest

Agriculture which is chief source of livelihood is dependent on the rain of


monsoon. Gross cropped area in the district is 67,136 Sq.Km. and net area shown in
the year 2001 is 10,252 Sq.Km. Percentage of total irrigated area to gross cropped

27
area is 8 %. Main crop grown in the district are Wheat, Soyabean, Corn, Maize and
Lentil etc. 8351 Sq.Km area of the district have dense forest of mixed type. It is 13%
of the total area of the district. The district also has a wild life sanctuary known as
Nauradehi wild life sanctuary.

Sagar district is fairly rich in natural flora and fauna. The forests of the district
are well known for their forest products. The important trees found are Teak, Saj, Sal,
Tinsa, Bija, Sisam, Kher, Tendu and Bamboo.

Industrial Development

There is extremely lack of major industries in the district. There are only some
industries related to agriculture and bidi and agarbatti. These are easily countable on
the finger tips. This is the reason of economic backwardness of this district. There are
sufficient raw material including man power but there is lack of money for the
investment. So the local population is poor and exploited by migrated industrialists.

Business

A total of 37 % population of the district is working population, out of which 63 %


are farmer, 31 % are agricultural laborers and 15 % are employee in other services. Due to
lack of industries the district is suffering from the problem of unemployment and poverty
(Bhatt, 1997).

Electricity

Almost whole district including 1,777 villages is electrified. But there are still some
villages which are deprived of this facility. Simultaneously irregular supply or power cut is
major problem now days.

Post, Telegraph and Telephone

In this district there is one main post office, 28 sub post offices, 189 additional
post offices, 13 telegram offices and 103 public telephone offices. Beside public

28
telephone department (BSNL), there are some renowned private service providers in
respect of fixed as well as mobile telephone.

Medical Facilities

There is one Medical college and one district hospital, 29 Public health centers,
245 sub health centers, 01 Tuberculosis institute and 28 Ayurvedic hospitals. Except
these there are also several private hospitals, nursing-homes and clinics.

Chief Tourist Places

Historical temples

Historical temples of Sagar Districts are the (i) Airan, (ii) Shiv Mandir,
Madouli, (iii) Vishnu Mandir, Vinayaka, (iv) Surya Mandir, Rehli, (v) Harsiddhi
Devi Mandir, Rangir, (vi) Shiv Mandir, Patan, Rahatgarh.

Historical forts

Historical forts of Sagar Districts are the (i) Rahatgarh fort, (ii) Dhamoni fort,
(iii) Garhpehra fort, (iv) Garhakota fort and (v) fort of Shahgarh. Some temples and
forts (i) Garhakota fort, (ii) Patnaganj, Rehli temple, (iii) Shahgarh fort and (iv)
Khimlasa temple have wall paintings of archeological importance.

Prehistoric Sites - Caves and Rock Paintings

There are several rock art sites which belongs to upper Paleolithic and
mesolithic times. The site and distance from Sagar is given below.

Dhamoni - 40km

Khanpur - 30-35 km

Aabchand - 35 km

Rangir - 25 km

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Jerai - 50 km

Garhawali, Maulaali - 8km

Chief fairs of the district

(i) Bhapel fair just 6 km. away from Sagar to Bhopal Road is famous for Makar
Sankranti fair.

(ii) Sanoda near Parsouriya at Jabalpur Road is famous for Makar


Sankranti fair.

(iii) Garhpehra fair is famous for Hanuman Jayanti.

(iv) Rangir fair is known for Nav Ratri festival.

(v) Rimjhiriya fair is known for Goverdhan Pooja after Diwali.

(vi) Barman fair is known for Makar Sankranti festival.

(vii) Barghat fair is known for Makar Sankranti festival.

PROFILES OF VILLAGE/ AREAS:

VILLAGE:-

BAMHORI BEEKA

Bamhori Beeka is situated 10 kms south of Sagar on Sagar Deori road. This is
a small village inhabited by people of five castes namely Brahmins, Dangi, Patel,
Ahirwar and Gonds. The total population of this village is 1326 persons
approximately. There is a Gram Panchayat in the village.

Education

There is one Government High School and one Anganwadi center in the village.

30
Language and Religion

Bundelkhandi Hindi is spoken by the common people. Nearly all the residents
of the village are Hindu by religion.

Medical Facility

The Jan Swasthya Rakshak, auxiliary nurses and midwifery (ANM) come to
visit the village every week. Every tuesday is scheduled for vaccination.

Occupation
This village is totally agricultural based. About 70 % people are farmers and
30 % are agricultural labourers.

CHITTORA

Chittora village is situated 21 kms south of Sagar on Sagar Rehli road. This is a
village inhabited by Lodhis in abundance. Brahmins, Ahirwars , Jains and Patels are
the other caste groups residing in the village. The total population of this village is
3219 persons approximately. There is a Gram Panchayat in the village.

Education

There is one Government Higher Secondary School and one Aganwadi center
in the village.

Language and Religion

Bundelkhandi Hindi is spoken by the people. Nearly all the residents of the
village follow Hindu religion.

Medical Facility

In general the health care facility available in village poor though the Jan Swasthya
Rakshak, auxiliary nurses and midwifery (ANM) come to visit the village every
week. Every tuesday is scheduled for vaccination.

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Occupation

The primary occupation is agriculture, about 70 % people are farmers and 30


% are agricultural laborers. The secondary occupation is bidi making.

CHINNOUA

Chinnoua village is situated 21 kms north of Sagar on Sagar Rehli road. This is
a village inhabited by Gonds in abundance. Brahmins, Ahirwars, and Patels are the
other caste groups residing in the village. The total population of this village is 2316
persons approximately. There is one Government School and one Anganwadi center
in the village.

Language and Religion

Bundelkhandi Hindi is spoken by the common people. Nearly all the residents
of the village follow Hindu religion.

Medical Facility

Alike other village this village also visited by Jan Swasthya Rakshak, auxiliary
nurses and midwifery (ANM) every week.

Occupation

This village is totally agricultural based. About 50 % people are farmers and
50 % are agricultural labourers. Tribes also collects minor forest product from
adjoining forests.

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PEOPLE

The Sagar district is inhabited by the people of different social and cultural
backgrounds which also vary biologically. By the point of view of strength of
population Hindu are dominant followed by Muslims. The population of follower of
other religion is meager. The Hindus are divided into various caste groups. Broadly
they can be divided into general caste (Brahmin, Kshatriya etc.), other back ward
caste (OBC) and scheduled caste (SC). Beside this the district is also inhabited by
different tribal population (Scheduled Tribe or ST).

In the present study an attempt has been made to cover the samples from
different segments of population. From general caste, Brahmins were selected, from
backward caste Lodhis were taken. In the same way among scheduled castes
Ahirwars were studied whereas among Tribes Gond which are found in
preponderance were studied. Muslims are also in significant numbers in the district
and were also chosen for the present study. A brief ethnographic account of each
target group is presented here for elucidation of socio-cultural, historical and ethnic
variation among them.

MUSLIMS (Muhammadan)

The Muhammadans numbered nearly 10,15,96,057 persons in India as per


Census of India ( 2001) or about 12.1 percent of the population.

Origin

When the Gond Raja of Deogarh embraced Islam after his visit to Delhi,
members of this religion entered his service. He also brought back with him various
artificer and Craftsmen. (The cava by of the Bhonsla Raja of Nagpur was largely
composed of Muslims, and in many cases their descendants have settled on the land).

About 14% of the Muslim returned caste names. The principal castes are the
Bohra and Khoja merehant who are of the Shiah sections and the cutchis or memans

33
from Gujrat who are also traders. The resident caste of Muslims are the Bahnas or
cotton-cleaners., Julahas, Weavers, Kacheras, Glass bangle-makers; Kunjras, Green
grocers; Kasais, Butchers; and Rangrez caste of dyers who dye with safflower. The
Fakir or Muslim beggars are also considered a separate caste.

The Muslims are usually divided into four classes, Shaikh, Saiyad, Mugal and
Pathan. The term Saiyad means a descendant of Ali, the son-in-law, and the lady
Fatimah, the daughter of the Prophet.

The title Sheikh properly belongs to three branches of the Quraish tribe or that
of Muhammad, the Siddikis, the Farukis and the Abbasis. The term Sheikh means an
elder, and is freely taken by person of respectable position.

The Pathans were originally the descendants of Afghan immigrants (It is not
all likely that the bulk of the Muslims who returned themselves as Pathan in Central
India really are of Afghan descent). The Pathan men add suffix Khan to their names
and women add Khatun to their names.

The Mugals are of two classes, Irani or Persian who belongs to Shiah section,
and Turani, Turkish or Tartar who are Sunnis. Mughals prefix Mirza and suffix Beg
in their names.

Physical Feature

They are of tall to medium statured with fair to wheatish complexion. Their
hairs are black in colour and medium in texture. Eyes are dark brown and have
convex or straight and broad nose. They have well developed musculature. Males
mostly keep beard.

Food habits

Muslims prefer non-vegetarian diet (Halal i.e. they take meat which is given in
their Hadees sharif).

34
Dress and ornaments

Their dress and ornaments are of the type commonly used by Muslims all over
the country. Males wear Kurta and Paijama and Topi on their head, and women wear
Salvar Kurta. But in present scenario they used to wear modern clothes, like Jeans T
shirts, Sari etc.

Marriage Customs

The wedding is however usually accompanied by feasts and celebrations. The


wedding ceremony is known as Nikah and the Reception is called as (Dawat-e-
walima). Several Hindu ceremonies are also included, such as the anointing of the
bride and bridegroom with oil and Turmeric and Rubbing of the hands and feet of the
bride groom with Mehndi or Red henna. The marriage is usually arranged and the
ceremony of betrothal held at least 4 month before the marriage date is fixed.

Generally marriage is prohibited between near relatives, but not between first
cousins. A man cannot marry his foster mother or foster sister, unless the foster-
brother and sister were nursed by the same woman at intervals widely separated. A
man may not marry his wifes sister if his wife is alive unless she has been divorced.
A Muslim cannot marry a polytheist, but can marry to Jew or Christian. The Kazi
perform the ceremony, and reads four chapters of the Kora with the profession of
belief, the bride and groom repeat them after him. The parties then express their
mutual consent. A dowry or Mehar must be paid to the wife. The husband and wife
can divorce by merely repeating the prescribed sentence (Talak). Polygamy is
permitted among Muslims to the number of four wives but it is very rare in Central
India. Widow marriage is permitted in Muslims.

Religion and social customs

The five standard observances of the Muslims are the Kalima or creed; Salat or
the five daily prayers; Roza, the thirty days fast of Ramazan; Zakat the Legal alms;
and Hajj the Pilgrimage to Mecca, which should be performed once in a lifetime.

35
The principal festivals are the two Eids (Eid-ul-fitr and Eid-ul azha) and
Muharram. The month of Muharram is the first of year and the first ten days are
devoted to mourning for the death of Hussain and his family.

The Eid-ul-fitr is held on the first day of the Tenth islamic month shawwal, on
the day after the end of the fast of Ramzan. On this day people assembled in Eidgah.
Here prayers are offered and spend rest of the day in feasting and merriment.

The Eid-ul-Azha, the feast of sacrifice is also called Bakrid. On this day like
other Id the People assembled for prayers at Eidgah. On returning home head of
family sacrifices the sheep, camel, hen, goat etc in the name of Allah.

Occupation

Majority of Muslims are laborer by occupation, some of them are small scale
traders like shopkeepers tailor, repairer of automobile and vehicles. Very few have
well established business and some are employed in government and private sector
services. They are good mechanics, Kabadi, Chicken and mutton seller. But hardly
any Muslim practice agriculture.

Brahman (Baman)

Brahman is the well known priestly caste of India and the first of the four
traditional castes of the Hindu Scriptures. The caste is spread all over the state.

Origin:

The name Brahman is said to be from the root brils or vrili meaning to
increase. According to Hindu methodology the God Brahma is considered as the
spirit and soul of the universe, the divine essence and source of all being. Brahman is
originally denoted by one who prays or a worshipper or recites of a human. Brahman
is the common term used in the Vedas for the officiating priest.

36
Risley (1919) remarks on the origin of the caste The best modern opinion
seems disposed to find the germ of the Brahman caste in the bards, ministers and
family priests who were attached to the king household in Vedic times. In the earliest
ages the head of every Aryan household was his own priest, Gradually, families or
guilds of priestly singer arose, who sought service under the kings, and were
rewarded by rich presents for the hymns or praise and prayer recited and sacrifices
offered by them on behalf of their masters. As time went the sacrifices became more
numerous and mass of ritual grew to such an extent that the employment of family
priests, formerly optional, now became a sacred duty. The Brahman obtained a
monopoly of priestly functions and a race of sacerdotal specialists arose. The
Brahman thus remained the only class with any real education and acquired a
monopoly not only of intellectual and religious leadership, but largely of public
administration under the Hindu kings.

Physical features:

They are tall to medium with complexion fair to wheatish. Their hairs are black
in colour and medium in texture. Eyes are dark brown and have convex or straight
and broad nose. They have well developed musculature.

Social Status:

The Brahmans are considered supreme in Hindu society. He never bows his
head in salutation to anyone who is not a Brahman and acknowledges with a
benediction the greetings of all other classes.

Occupation:

In former times the Brahman was supposed to confine himself to priestly


duties, learning the Vedas and giving instruction to the laity. But now most Brahmins
have abandoned the priestly calling and are engaged in Government services and the
professions and agriculture. Some Brahmans act as astrologer and foretell events.
Now days Indian polity is dominated by them in many places.

37
Dress and Ornaments:

Males wear shirt and pant but older ones wear dhoti and kurta, females wear
sari. Married females wear glass bangles and golden ornaments like chura on arm,
kardhani around waist, nose ring, ear ring different type of necklaces and
mangalsutra, a symbol of marital status around their neck. They also wear bichiya
and anklets in foot made up of silver. Brahman boys are invested with the sacred
thread between the ages of five and nine. Thread is made up of three stands of cotton,
which is called "Janeu".

Food habits:

They are living on a rich diet consisting of milk, chapati dal, rice fruits and
vegetables. All are purely vegetarian. But now days they also take non-vegetarian
diet and liquor.

Marriage customs:

Arrange marriage is common among Brahmans. The parents play vital role in
selection of mates for their children. The horoscopes of the children are being
matched among the well to do. A bridegroom price is usually paid, which varies
according to the social status of the boys Sept. The marriage involves mainly three
ceremonies. Betrothal ceremony is known as Ring ceremony or Goud Bharai held
at brides house. Another ceremony held at grooms house in which lots of gifts
along with money of dowry was given to groom and his family members is known as
Tika Phaldan. These two ceremonies were done few days or months before
marriage. In the main ceremony of marriage two feasts are given by brides father to
caste fellows, one called katchi pangat, food which is cooked, with water and another
pakki pangat, food cooked with ghee or oil. According to Hindu law a Brahman
should not marry a girl of his mothers or maternal grandfathers gotra.

38
Social Status:

According to the old custom if a Brahman touches a man of an impure caste as


Ahirwar or Basor, he should bath and change his cloth and if he touches a sweeper he
should change his sacred thread, "Janeu".

GOND

Gond is the principal tribe of the Dravidian family and perhaps the most
important of the non-Aryan or forest tribes in India. In Madhya Pradesh, Gond
occupies the wide belt of broken hill and forest, which forms the Satpura plateau, and
is mainly comprised in the Chhindwara, Betul, Seoni and Mandla Districts. Certain
blocks of Sagar district are dominated by them.

Origin:

The derivation of the word Gond is uncertain. It is the name given to the tribe
by the Hindus or Muhammadans, as their own name for themselves is Kiotur or Koi.
General Cunningham considered that the name Gond probably came from Gauda, the
classical term for part of the United Provinces and Bengal. Sir G. Grierson states that
the Telugu people call them Gond or Kod (kor). Probably the designation Gond was
given to the tribe by the Telugus. They (Gond) speak a Dravidian language of the
same family as Tamil, Kanarese and Telugu, and therefore it is likely that they came
from the south through Chanda and Baster. During the 14th century and afterwards
the Gonds established dynasties at Kherla in Betul, at Deogarh in Chhindwara, at
Garha-Mandla, including Jabalpur and Chanda.

Marriage Customs:

A man must not marry in his own Sept or in one which worships the same
number of Gods, in localities where the classification of septs according to the
number of gods worshipped obtains. Inter marriages between septs which are
bhaiband or brothers to each other is also prohibited.

39
The most distinctive feature of a Gond marriage is that the procession usually
starts from the brides house and the wedding is held at that of the bridegroom, in
contradiction to the Hindu practice. Polygamy is freely allowed, and the few Gonds
who can afford the expense are fond of taking a number of wives.

Physical Features:

Gonds are darker in complexion. Their bodies are well proportioned. They
have roundish head, distended nostrils, wide mouth, thick lips, straight black hairs
and scanty beard and moustache. Gond men are tall and more strongly built. The
broad flat nose is still characteristic of the tribe as a whole.

Occupation:

The Gonds are mainly engaged in agriculture, and the great bulk of them are
farm servants and laborers. A few of them are also employed in government services.

Food habits:

The Gonds have scarcely any restriction on diet. They eat fowls, beef, pork etc.
Khalok and Raj Gonds usually abstain from beef and the flesh of the buffalo.
Excessive drinking is common among the Gonds.

LODHI

Origin and traditions:

The Lodhis belongs originally to the Ludhiana District and took their name
from it. Their proper designation is Lodha, but it has become corrupted to Lodhi in
Madhya Pradesh. They derive the name from Lod, a clod, according to which Lodhi
mean 'Clodhopper'. Another view is that the name is derived from the bark of the
Lodh tree, which is collected by the Lodhas in Northern India and sold for use as a
dyeing agent.

40
According to hearsay the first Lodhi was created by Mahadeo from a
scarecrow in a Kurmi womans field and given the vacation of a farm servant. But the
Lodhi claim them to Rajput ancestry and trace their origin from Lava, the eldest son
of Raja Ramchandra of Ayodhya.

In Sagar District they have become landholders and are addressed as Thakur,
ranking with the higher castes.

Physical Features:

They are of tall to medium statured with fair to wheatish complexion. Their
hairs are black in colour and medium in texture. Eyes are dark brown and have
convex or straight and broad nose. They have well developed musculature. Lips are
mostly thick.

Food Habits:

They are living on a rich diet consisting of milk, chapati, dal, rice fruits, and
vegetables. Most of the males are non vegetarian while females prefer vegetarian
diet.

Dress and ornaments:

Males wear shirt and pant but older ones wear dhoti and kurta, females wear
sari in northern style. Married females wear glass bangles and golden ornaments like
chura on arm, kardhani around waist, nose ring, ear ring, different types of necklaces
e.g. thusi, tijaana etc. and mangalsutra, a symbol of marital status around their neck.
They also wear bichiya in toe and anklets in foot made up of silver.

Marriage customs:

Arrange marriage is common among Lodhi. Premarital alliances are not


excepted and discouraged. The parents play vital role in selection of mates for their
children. The horoscopes of the children are being matched among the well to do. A

41
bridegroom price is usually paid, which varies according to the social status of the
boys Sept. The marriage involves mainly three ceremonies and is alike with
Brahmins. Betrothal ceremony is known as Ring ceremony or Goud Bharai held at
brides house. Another ceremony held at grooms house in which lots of gifts along
with money of dowry was given to groom and his family members known as Tika
Phaldan. These two ceremonies were done few days or months before marriage. In
the main ceremony of marriage two feasts are given by brides father to caste fellows,
one called katchi pangat, food which is cooked, with water and another pakki pangat,
food cooked with ghee or oil

Religious and social customs:

The Lodhis are Hindus and celebrate all Hindu festival in the same way they
warship devotee. They pay special reverence to the goddess Durga or Devi as the
presiding deity of war. They worship her during the months of kunwar (September)
and chait (March) and call it Navaratri and at the same time pay reverence to their
weapons of war, swords and guns, knives and spears.

Occupation:

They consider the traditional occupation to be military service, but nearly all of
them are now engaged in agriculture.

Social Status:

In the Hindu caste structure the Lodhi are at the fourth position, Brahmin are at
the top, at second there are Khatriya, at third position there are Vaishya, but they are
placed on a better position than the Schedule caste (Ahirwar). Most of them are in a
better financial position than the other castes of the village.

AHIRWAR

According to the traditional theory of Varna, those who sprang from the mouth
of Brahma (The Creator) were called Brahmins, from the arms were called the

42
Kshatriyas, from the thighs were called the Vaishyas and from the feet were called
the Shudra. As the Shudra were suppose to have sprung from the lowest part of the
body they were relegated to the lowest position in the Varna hierarchy. The schedule
castes of today are of the Shudra Varna.

The Ahirwar comes under the scheduled caste. The term scheduled caste is
coined for group of castes who were untouchable and deprived socially and
economically. Ahirwar (Chamar) is the caste of tanners and menial laborers. The
name is derived from the Sanskrit Charmakara, a worker of leather. Risley (1919)
states, that Ahirwar trace their origin from Ravi or Raidas, the famous disciple of
Ramanand at the end of 14th century.

Physical features:

They are of light to dark brown complexion, lips thin, hair texture medium,
black brown hairs, medium musculature, medium stature, nose concave- convex and
eyes dark brown.

Food habits:

Economically Ahirwars are at lowest rung and survive on a less nutritious diet
consisting of vegetables, dal and rice. Though they are non vegetarian but can hardly
afford non- vegetarian food.

Dress and ornaments:

Their dress is similar to Dangis. Married females wear same ornaments as


Dangi females only difference is that instead of gold they wear ornaments made up of
silver and gillet and hardly of gold.

Marriage

They practice exogamy; generally the union of first cousin is prohibited.


Parents play important role in selection and acquiring of mates for their children. A

43
bride price is paid. Sometimes after the wedding the bride is taken to her husbands
house to live with him and on this occasion a simple ceremony known as Chowk or
Pathoni is performed. Widow commonly remarry and may take her second husband
from anybody except her blood relations. Sometimes without a formal marriage
ceremony the widow or deserted wife may start living with another man.

Religion:

They worship the ordinary Hindu and village deities and observe the traditional
Hindu festivals. They also worship their ancestors, known as Marri who is
represented by a lump of clay kept in the kitchen.

Social status:

The Ahirwar ranks at the very bottom of the social scale. They live in hamlet
generally away from main village even they have separated well or handpumps for
drinking water. Although the untouchability is discouraged by law but it is still being
practiced in rural India.

Occupation:

Most of the Ahirwars are still engaged in their traditional occupation of tanning
leather work and as agricultural laborers. Along with this they are also practicing bidi
making.

44
CHAPTER III

MATERIALS & METHOD

45
45
Materials

The data for the present cross-sectional study was collected randomly from
adult males belonging to Muslim, Ahirwar, Gond, Lodhi and Brahmin caste groups.
These subjects are residents of Sanichari Touri of Sagar city, Bamhori Beeka village,
Channaua village, Chittora village respectively of Sagar District.

Sample Size

Total of 258 samples were included in the present study from three villages
and Sagar city. From Bamhori village 50 samples, 56 from Chinnoa, 50 from Chittora
and 102 from Sagar city were taken. These samples belongs to five different
populations, 51 from Brahmin, 50 from Ahirwar, 56 from Gond, 50 from Lodhi and
51 from Muslim population. In this way in the present study Hindu, Muslim, Tribe,
Schedule caste and backward caste were measured for different anthropometric
measurements. The age of subjects selected for study ranges between 18 - 50 years.
Caste and area wise distribution of samples were shown below (Table 3.1).

Table 3.1: Caste and area wise distribution of samples

Location Total

Caste Bamhori Chinaoa Chittora Sagar

Brahmin 0 0 0 51 51

Ahirwar 50 0 0 0 50

Gond 0 56 0 0 56

Lodhi 0 0 50 0 50

Muslim 0 0 0 51 51

Total 50 56 50 102 258

46
Methodology

Selection of Study Area:

Multistage stratified sampling procedure is adopted for the present


investigation considering the diversity of Indian continent. Central India is the
representative of the continent in various aspects. From the ethnic point of view
Madhya Pradesh is very rich. People of many socio-economic background and castes
like Brahmin, Kshatriya (Thakur), Jain, Vaishya, Muslim, Christian, Sikh, Ahirwar,
Kori etc. inhabits in this state. Madhya Pradesh is a state with rich heritage of tribal
culture. Baiga, Bhil, Gond, Agarias, Murias, Oraon and many other tribes and their
subdivisions are found in Central India. Impact of other ethnic stock residing in
neighbouring states also observed in the people of Central India. Though Madhya
Pradesh ethnicity is rich and significant but it is one among the states with the poor
nutritional status. Therefore for present study the Madhya Pradesh is found suitable
among Indian states. In Maldhya Pradesh there are 48 districts. The Sagar is located
in the center of the state therefore it is selected for the present investigation.

Study Techniques

Sampling:

The subjects were selected at random and due care was taken to include only
those persons who were physically and mentally normal and free from any
abnormality and orthopedic deformation. From Sagar district rural and urban both
kind of settlements were chosen to draw the sample. Though the sample size is
limited each caste group consist of statistically viable number of subject. Out of total
258 samples 102 respondents were taken from urban area and 156 were taken from
rural area. Different segments of the population were given proper representation.
Respondents were taken from different religious backgrounds viz. Hindu (207), and
rest 51 were Muslims. Among Hindus two different varna or caste were given proper
representation. Brahmins were taken as representative of General caste. Among

47
backward caste Lodhis were found suitable and among Scheduled caste Ahirwars
were selected. As Madhya Pradesh is rich in tribal population, Gonds tribe was taken
for the present study.

The Estimation of Age:

The usual difficulties were experienced in the assessment of age. Ages were
estimated with reference to outstanding events remembered or by comparison with
individuals of known ages or recorded from available birth records as well as the
evidence of their external appearance. Besides these Genology is constituted to
determine the age of the individual.

Measurements:

The respondents were first informed about the purpose of the investigation and
then interviewed to elicit general information pertaining to their personal details.

The following investigations were undertaken on each subject -

1. Anthropometric Measurements of:

(a) Projective height and

(b) Cranial and Facial features

2. General information and specific information regarding the socio-economic


status, education, marital status, status in family, dietary habits, morbidity,
income etc.

1. Anthropometry:

Anthropometry includes the measurements of man whether on living or on the


skeleton of a man. The somatometric and cephalometric measurements were dealt
here.

48
Anthropologist had devised number of measurements for describing the
morphology of man. These measurements were defined on the basis of anatomical
landmarks and have been in use for hundreds of year. They are useful in comparing
various kinds of man, living in different geographical regions. Ethnic comparisons
were also made on the basis of these measurements. Morphological methods of
Anthropology also provide an understanding of correlation of forms and functions of
various parts of human body. Recently morphological methods have been employed
for devising proper equipment for industry and defense forces. Combining with
physiologist, psychologist and engineers, anthropologists have helped in designing
the space-ship for the convenience of the astronauts. They have made valuable
contributions in the designing of air crafts, uniforms and other specialized
equipments for defense personnel. Anthropometric surveys provide norms about the
physique of national population. Changes in different trends were studied by such
consecutive surveys for a number of years.

Measuring Methods:

Anthropometric measurements such as height, weight, certain widths, girths


and facial measurements of adult of different population groups provide valuable
information related to morphological difference among them. In the present study
only those measurements have been selected which besides throwing light on the
anthropometric and nutritional assessment.

For the present work 15 measurements were taken. All the measurements were
taken in accordance with the techniques prescribed by Martin and Saller (1957). The
bilateral measurements were taken on the left side of individual with the minimum
possible clothing. The landmark marked shown on the face is depicted in Fig. 1 and
2. The instruments used were checked for their accuracy at frequent intervals. Mean,
standard deviation, and percentile for the measurements were calculated.

49
Fig. 1. Landmarks in Frontal view

Fig. 2. Landmarks in Profile view


50
The following measurements were taken on each individual:

1. Weight (Fig.8)

Project Height

2. Height Vertex (Fig.9)

3. Sitting Height Vertex (Fig.10)

Head Measurements

4. Maximum Head Length

5. Maximum Head Breadth

6. Minimum Frontal Breadth

7. Breadth of Bizygomatic Arch

8. Bigonial Breadth

9. Nasal Breadth

Height Measurement on the Face

10. Total Facial height

11. Upper Facial Height

12. Nasal Height

Girth/Circumference

13. Head Circumference

14. Chest Girth (Fig.11)

15. Hip Girth

Height was recorded using an anthropometric rod, while weight was recorded
by a portable weighing machine. Other measurements except circumference were
taken with the help of Sliding caliper, Spreading caliper. Circumferences were taken

51
with tape. All the measurements were recorded in centimeters except for the weight,
which was recorded in kilograms.

The techniques employed were those given by Martin and Saller (1957). The
following instruments were used for taking measurements:

Anthropometer Rod (Fig.3)

Weighing machine (Fig.4)

Sliding Caliper (Fig.5)

Spreading Caliper (Fig.6)

Measuring Tape (Fig.7)

The definition of the anthropometric measurements as per given by Martin and


Saller (1957) are:

1. Body Weight - Weight was taken by means of standard weighing machine with
fine accuracy. The subject should wear minimum number of clothes and does
not weighed just after he has taken meals.

2. Height vertex or Stature: It measures the vertical distance from vertex (v) to
floor.

Vertex (V) - It is the highest point on the head when the head is in eye-ear (FH)
plane. This is not an anatomical determined point and is dependent on the orientation
of the skull.

Instrument used: Anthropometric Rod

Technique: The subject was told to stand erect, feet together and the back of the
heel, upper back and occiput touching the anthropometer rod the head being held in
the horizontal position. The sliding arm of the anthropometer rod was gradually
brought to touch the vertex. Direct reading was noted.

52
INSTRUMENTS

Fig. 4. Weighing Machine


M

Fig. 3. Anthropometer Rod

Fig. 5. Sliding Caliper

Fig. 7. Measuringg Tape


Fig. 6. Spreading Caliper

53
Measurements

Fig. 8. Weight
Fig. 9. Statu
ure

Fig. 11. Chest Circu


umference
Fig. 10. Sitting Height

54
3. Sitting Height Vertex:

It measures the vertical distance from vertex to the sitting surface of the
subject when stretched i.e. when the vertebral column is stretched to its maximum.

Instrument used: Anthropometer Rod

Technique: Subject is said to sit on a horizontal surface with head in eye-ear plane
and his body stretched to the maximum. The shoulders should run parallel, the thigh
should be almost horizontal and the knee does not allowed to bend. Anthropometer
rod is held at the back of the subject.

4. Maximum Head Length:

It measures the straight distance between glabella (g) and opisthocranion (op)
i.e. the most projecting point on the dorsal surface of the head in the mid sagittal
plane.

Glabell (g): It is the point on the protuberance of the lower forehead above nasal root
and between the eye-brow ridges intersected by mid-sagittal plane.

Opisthocranion (op): It is the most posterior point on the posterior protuberance of


the head in the mid sagittal plane.

Instrument used: Spreading caliper with blunt end.

Technique: Spreading Caliper held in such a manner that the tips of the caliper are
free to touch head.

5. Maximum Head Breadth: (eu-eu)

It measures the straight distance between the two euryon (eu) i.e. maximum
breadths taken at right angle to mid-sagittal plane wherever found.

Euryon (eu): It is the most laterally placed point on the side of the head.

Instrument used: Spreading Caliper with blunt end.

Technique: Keep the head in that manner that the landmark lies in the horizontal and
frontal plane. The spreading caliper held in such a manner either behind or in front of

55
the subject that the joint of the Caliper is in the mid saggital plane of the head. Now
slide the tips of the caliper from forward to backward. Take the maximum reading.

6. Minimum Frontal Breadth (ft-ft):

It measures the straight distance between the two frontotemporalia (ft). Mark the
two points before taking the measurements.

Fronto temporale (ft): It is the most anterior and inner point on the linea temporalis
on the frontal bone. This point lies usually slightly higher than the tangent drawn on
the highest elevation of the upper margins of the eyebrow ridges.

Instrument Used: Spreading Caliper

Technique: Keep the subjects head in eye-ear plane and put the spreading caliper
horizontally to the head and put the blunt end on the land mark. Take the reading.

7. Bizygomatic Breadth (zy-zy):

It measures the straight distance between two zygion (zy) on the zygomatic
arch. The greatest breadth of the bizygomatic arch is usually found near the ear and
not on the cheek.

Zygion (zy): It is the most lateraly placed point on the zygomatic arch.

Instrument used: Spreading Caliper.

Technique : The tips of the spreading caliper was held between thumb and first
finger about 2 cm away from tragus and slide the tip slowly over the zygomatic arch
in such a manner that the thumb touches the upper margin and first finger, the lower
margin of the zygomatic bone. The joint of the caliper, must lie in the mid sagittal
plane of the head.

8. Bi gonial Breadth: It measures the straight distance between the two gonia (go).

Gonian (go): It is the lowest posterior and most lateral point on the angle of the
lower jaw. This point lies on the lateral side of the angle.

Instrument used: Spreading Caliper.

56
Technique: The tips of the spreading caliper were placed on the sides of the margin
with the first finger supporting gonion. Measurement was taken on the lower side of
gonion.

9. Nasal Breadth:

It measures the straight distance between the two alaria (al).

Alare: The most laterally placed points on the nasal wings.

Instrument used: Sliding Caliper.

Technique:

The tips of the spreading caliper were held between thumb and first finger.
Slide the tip slowly near two alare keeping the caliper horizontal. Take the reading.

10. Total Facial Height:

It measures the straight distance between nasion (n) and ganthion (gn).

Nasion (n): It is the point on the nasal root intersected by mid-sagittal plane. Nasion
usually lies in the level of the medial end of the eye-brows mostly at the lower
margins and not at the height of the eye-brows.

Gnathion (gn): It is the lowest point on the lower margin of the lower jaw intersected
by the mid-sagittal plane. This point can be palpated on the lower jaw from behind
and slightly anterior to chin.

Instrument used: Sliding Caliper.

Technique:

Keep the head in eye ear plane. The sliding caliper should be held vertically in
such a manner that the joints of the Caliper is in the mid saggital plane of the head.
Now slide the tips of the caliper upward to downward to keep the two arms of caliper
on the particular landmarks. Take the reading.

57
11. Upper Facial Height:

It measures the straight distance between nasion (n) and stomion (sto).

Nasion (n): Same as defined before.

Stomion (sto) : It is the point where the slit of the mouth with close lips cuts the mid-
sagittal plane.

Instrument used: Sliding Caliper.

Technique:

Keep the head in eye ear plane. The sliding caliper should be held vertically
in such a manner that the joints of the Caliper is in the mid saggital plane of the head.
Now slide the tips of the caliper upward to downward to keep the two arms of caliper
on the particular landmarks. Take the reading.

12. Nasal Height:

It measures the straight distance between nasion (n) and subnasale (sn).

Nasion (n): Same as defined before.

Subnasale (sn) : It is the point where the lower margin of the nasal septum meets
the integument of upper lip.

Instrument used: Sliding Caliper

Technique:

Hold the sliding caliper in right hand in such a manner that the lower arm of the
caliper touches subnasale and the upper arm of the caliper is held between thumb and
first finger on nasion. Note down the reading.

13. Head Circumference:

It measures the maximum circumference of the head taken horizontally.

Instrument used: Tape

58
Technique:

Hold the tape with the left hand on glabella and take it with right hand over the
left side to opisthocranion, then over the right side back to glabella. Tape should be
wound around the head at the same level.

14. Chest Girth:

It measures circumference of the chest of the subject when he is breathing


normally.

Instrument used: Tape

Technique:

The tape should be held horizontally at the level of nipples passing over the
lower scapular angle. The arms of the subject may be raised before fixing the tape
around the chest but in no case they should be allowed to remain horizontal. The arm
should rest normally while taking the measurement.

15. Hip Girth:

It measures the circumference of the hips at their widest portion.

Instrument used: Tape

Technique:

Subject should keep his feet close to each other. The tape should fe fixed
around the hip. Take the maximum reading.

Field Work and Data Collection:

After selection of study area through multistage stratified sampling technique


three villages and one urban area were chosen for collection of data taking five
different kinds of population under consideration. Before starting collection of data
one or two visits of field area were taken for rapo building. Proper consent was taken
from individuals by briefing them the objectives of the study.

59
A semi structure schedule was prepared to collect the data related to socio-
economic and demographic background of the individuals. Thereafter,
anthropometric measurements were taken on each individual who came forward
willingly to participate in the study. The data were collected during August to
October month of the year 2006. A mediator such as Village Pradhan, Community
Head, School Teacher and Health Workers were taken for the help of data collection.
For technical assistance senior scholars and ex-students were requested who have
properly expertise in the field of anthropometry. Before starting data collection, each
and every technical aspect was learned through rigorous discussion and lab
experiment under the supervision of supervisor and senior teacher of the department.

Secondary Data Collection:

The secondary data is relevant to the objective of the study. People and area
were taken from various published and unpublished works. Gazetteer, District
Statistical Hand Book was also consulted for the secondary information.

Processing and Analysis of Data:

After collection of the data, it is tabulated in a master table. An excel work


sheet (MS-Excel) Computer Software was prepared through logical validation to
enter the data accordingly. The data was entered in the worksheet to remove the error.
The data was filtered. After that the whole MS-Excel worksheet was converted into
SPSS file in which tabulation, cross-tabulation, different statistics and regression
analysis were done.

60
CHAPTER IV

RESULTS

61
61
This chapter composed of the findings of three important aspects
of the sample viz. Background characteristics, Anthropometric characteristics and
Nutritional assessment. The Background characteristics includes age wise
distribution of the samples, their educational and occupational profile, their marital
status, family type, family size, number of children they have, status of individual in
their family, their dietary habits and their morbidity profile. In the same way,
Anthropometric characteristics include the statistical and graphical representation of
cephalo-facial and other body measurements with respects to their castes. Finally the
nutritional assessment and chronic energy deficiency among populations under study
were presented using the body mass index (BMI).

Background Characteristics:

The present study was confined to Anthropometric measurements and


Nutritional assessment of five different population of Central India, in which samples
are drawn from three villages and one urban settlements of Sagar district, Madhya
Pradesh. A total of 258 adult male individuals of different socio-economic
background of five population - Brahmin (51), Ahirwar (50), Gond (56), Lodhi (50)
and Muslim (51) of age 20 to 50 years were measured for 15 Anthropometric
measurements viz. stature, sitting height, weight, chest circumference, hip
circumference and various measurements of head and face etc. The socio-
demographic background of samples was illustrated in the following paragraphs and
tables.

62
Age group:

It is evident from Table 4.1 that the samples included in the present study belong to
20 - 50 years of age. One third of the total samples (33.3%) were of 20-24 years of
age. 26.4% of sample belongs to 25 - 29 years of age. In this way approximately 75%
of the samples were below 35 years of age group. The caste and age wise distribution
of sample reveals that approximately 50% of Muslims included in the present study is
below 25 years of age group. While in other caste groups 60 - 70% of populations are
above the 25 years of age. The vivid description of age and caste wise distribution of
sample can be seen in the Table 4.1.

Table 4.1: Age group wise distribution of the Sample


Age Caste Total
Group Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim
in
years N % N % N % N % N % N %
20-24 18 35.3 15 30.0 13 23.2 15 30.0 25 49.0 86 33.3
25-29 14 27.5 12 24.0 16 28.6 14 28.0 12 23.5 68 26.4
30-34 6 11.8 7 14.0 11 19.6 8 16.0 6 11.8 38 14.7
35-39 4 7.8 8 16.0 11 19.6 4 8.0 1 2.0 28 10.9
40-44 4 7.8 7 14.0 3 5.4 7 14.0 4 7.8 25 9.7
45-49 5 9.8 1 2.0 2 3.6 2 4.0 3 5.9 13 5.0
Total 51 100 50 100 56 100 50 100 51 100 258 100

63
60

50

40
Percentage

30

20

10

0
Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim
Population
20-24 25-29 30-34

Fig. 1 : Comparative bar diagram of age group distribution of different caste.

Education:

The educational profile of samples included in the present study is given in Table 4.2.
It is evident from Table that 2.7% of total samples were illiterate, 21.7% were just
literate, 26.0% attained education up to primary level, 23.3% attained education upto
middle level and 17.4% attained education up to higher secondary level, whereas
7.8% samples were found Graduate qualified. The highest proportion (33.3%) of
graduate individual were found among Brahmins and only 6.0% graduate were
recorded among Ahirwars, whereas, none of the among rest three, were found anyone
graduate. The highest proportion 7.1% of illiterate was found among the Gond.
Similarly highest proportion 64.3% of just literate was found among Gond.
Approximately 80% of the Muslims were primary and middle educated. In the same
way among Lodhi, the proportion that attained education up to higher secondary level
is 36%.

64
Table 4.2: Educational profile of the studied population.

Caste
Total
Education Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim

N % N % N % N % N % N %

Illiterate 0 0 0 0 4 7.1 2 4.0 1 2.0 7 2.7

Literate 7 13.7 5 10.0 36 64.3 5 10.0 3 5.9 56 21.7

Primary 9 17.6 15 30.0 9 16.1 11 22.0 23 45.1 67 26.0

Middle 5 9.8 16 32.0 7 12.5 14 28.0 18 35.3 60 23.3

Higher
10 19.6 11 22.0 0 0 18 36.0 6 11.8 45 17.4
secondary

Graduate 17 33.3 3 6.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 7.8

Above
3 5.9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1.2
graduate

Total 51 100 50 100 56 100 50 100 51 100 258 100

70
60
50
Percentage

40
30
20
10
0
Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim
Population/Caste
Illetrate Litterate Primary
Middle Hgher secondary Graduate

Fig. 2 : Educational profile of respondents

65
Occupation:

India is known for stratified caste system of Hinduism in which occupation is


determined by birth. Each caste has to practice a particular traditional occupation.
Broadly it is categorized into four Varna. These are Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and
Shudra. The Varna-Brahmin is the supreme and there is only one caste i.e. Brahmin
in this Varna which is supreme among all the Hindu caste. The traditional occupation
of the Brahmins is performing Puja in temples as well as in Individual houses. They
also perform puja at community level like Durga Puja, Ganesh Puja etc. They are also
large land owners among all the caste but ploughing is considered as sin among them.
The Table 4.3 reveals current occupational profile of respondent as 45.7% are
labour, 26.7% are agriculturist, 14.7% are engaged in business, 6.6% are students,
1.9% having government job, 2.7% are in private job and 1.6% are engaged in other
occupations.

Table 4.3: Occupational profile of the respondents.


Caste
Total
Occupation Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim
N % N % N % N % N % N %
Labour 14 27.5 26 52.0 49 87.5 0 0 29 56.9 118 45.7
Agriculture 3 5.9 9 18.0 7 12.5 50 100 0 0 69 26.7
Business 13 25.5 6 12.0 0 0 0 0 19 37.3 38 14.7
Student 9 17.6 6 12.0 0 0 0 0 2 3.9 17 6.6
Govt.servent 2 3.9 2 4.0 0 0 0 0 1 2.0 5 1.9
Private job 7 13.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 2.7
Others 3 5.9 1 2.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 1.6
Total 51 100 50 100 56 100 50 100 51 100 258 100

66
120

100

80
Percentage

60

40

20

0
Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim
Population/Caste
Labour Agriculture Bussiness Student

Fig. 3: Comparative bar diagram of occupation among different caste.

While Brahmins were considered as supreme varna in Hindu caste system, the
Ahirwar occupies the lowest varna i.e. Shudra. Their traditional occupation is leather
work. They act as scavenger for their livelihood. They manufacture repair and sale
leather goods like shoes etc. as evident from Table 4.3.

In the post independent era Indian population was classified as general caste,
backward caste, schedule caste and tribe etc. The Lodhi belongs to the group of
backward caste. Traditionally they are agriculturist. According to the present
investigation cent percent Lodhi's are found to be engaged in agricultural practices,
although they have secondary occupations like small scale business, retail shop,
floor mill and very few are engaged in government and private services.

In the present study, as urban dwellers, muslims were taken into consideration.
They were found to engage in occupation like Labour (56.9 %), business (37.3 %),
and government services (2 %).

67
To find out a comprehensive picture, in the present study, a schedule tribe viz. Gond
is included. Gond is one of the biggest tribal groups of India, which spreads from south to
the central and northern region of the country. Mostly they are forest dwellers. But in
modern era they started practicing agriculture. In the present study it was found that 87.5 %
Gonds were engaged as laborer and 12.3 % practice agriculture.

Marital Status:

The Table 4.4 reveals that 52.7% of the samples in the present study were
married and 47.3% were unmarried. The highest proportion of the married
individuals (78%) was found among Lodhi where as lowest proportion of the married
individuals (35.3%) was found among muslims. The proportions of married
individuals among Gonds were recorded as 58.9%, among Ahirwars 54% whereas in
Brahmins only 37.3% samples were married.

Table 4.4: Marital Status and caste wise distribution of the sample.
Caste Total
Marital
Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim
status
N % N % N % N % N % N %

Married 19 37.3 27 54.0 33 58.9 39 78.0 18 35.3 136 52.7

Unmarried 32 62.7 23 46.0 23 41.1 11 22.0 33 64.7 122 47.3

Total 51 100 50 100 56 100 50 100 51 100 258 100

68
100
80
Percentage

60
40
20
0
Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim
Populations
Married Un married

Fig. 4 : Comparative bar diagram of Marital Status among different caste

Family Types:

In the present study the samples included belongs only to two types of family.
60.9% samples belong to nuclear family, whereas 39.1% sample belongs to joint type
of family. As evident from Table 4.5 that nuclear family is the predominant feature of
muslims (70.6%) whereas joint family is predominant among Lodhi (46%). Ahirwars
were second in nuclear family with 66% and Brahmins occupies third position with
58.8% nuclear families. This is an important finding that in rural areas the joint
families still found in significant proportion.

Table 4.5: Family Types and caste wise distribution of respondents.


Caste
Family Total
Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim
type
N % N % N % N % N % N %
Nuclear 30 58.8 33 66.0 31 55.4 27 54.0 36 70.6 157 60.9
Joint 21 41.2 17 34.0 25 44.6 23 46.0 15 29.4 101 39.1
Total 51 100 50 100 56 100 50 100 51 100 258 100

69
80
70
60
Percentage

50
40
30
20
10
0
Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim
Population
Nuclear Joint

Fig. 5 : Comparative bar diagram of Family type among different caste

Family size:

In many demographic studies it was found that population density within the country,
region or family have certain implications. The number of individuals living together in
a family constitutes family size. In the present investigation it was found that among
studied population the family size vary from 2 to 18 individuals. The Table 4.6 reveals
that the bigger families were found in higher proportion among Ahirwars (22%). In the
same way the smaller families were found in higher proportion among Gonds (80%).
Medium size family with 5 to 8 person depicts the feature of Muslims (62.7%). Among
total population the medium size family dominates with 48.1 % followed by small
family (41.1%) and the proportion of big size family is only 10.9 %. Here small family
constitutes 4 individuals, medium size family constitutes 5 to 8 individuals and big size
family constitutes 9 and more members in a family.

70
Table 4.6 : Family size and caste wise distribution of respondents.
Caste
Family Total
Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim
size
N % N % N % N % N % N %
Small 23 45.1 11 22.0 45 80.4 16 32.0 11 21.6 106 41.1

Medium 24 47.1 28 56.0 11 19.6 29 58.0 32 62.7 124 48.1

Big 4 7.8 11 22.0 0 0 5 10.0 8 15.7 28 10.9

Total 51 100 50 100 56 100 50 100 51 100 258 100

90
80
70
60
Percentage

50
40
30
20
10
0
Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim
Population
Small Medium

Fig. 6: Comparative bar diagram of Family Size among different caste

71
Number of Children:

Table 4.7 reveals that 59.3% samples do not have any children, 12.8% having only
one child and almost in the same proportion (12.4%) having two children and
approximately 15% were having three and more children. The highest number of
children recorded as 6 from one individual (0.4%). Approximately one fourth (25%)
of the Gonds have 3 or more number of children. In the same way slightly less than
one fourth (24%) Ahirwars were having three or more number of children. Among
Muslims 86.3% of the samples included do not had children.

Table 4.7 : Number of Children and caste wise distribution of respondents.


Caste
No. of Total
Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim
children
N % N % N % N % N % N %
Nil 37 72.5 26 52.0 30 53.6 16 32.0 44 86.3 153 59.3

1 6 11.8 2 4.0 8 14.3 13 26.0 4 7.8 33 12.8

2 5 9.8 10 20.0 4 7.1 11 22.0 2 3.9 32 12.4

3 2 3.9 6 12.0 6 10.7 5 10.0 1 2.0 20 7.8

4 1 2.0 2 4.0 6 10.7 5 10.0 0 0 14 5.4

5 0 0 3 6.0 2 3.6 0 0 0 0 5 1.9

6 0 0 1 2.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0.4

Total 51 100 50 100 56 100 50 100 51 100 258 100

72
Status in family:

It is evident from Table 4.8 that 48.8% of the individuals included in the present
study were head of the households and 43% were son and they were self
dependent, only 8.1% samples were dependent on son. Approximately 70%
samples from Gond were head of the household whereas 30% among them were
self dependent son. The highest dependency of son was found among Brahmin
(23.5%), whereas among Ahirwars and gonds in the present study none of the
son were found dependent. Almost all the samples included in these two caste
groups were self dependent. This is an important finding that still in simple
societies every adult have to earn for his own livelihood. They were hardly
dependent on the parents. Among Muslims the dependency of son was found
least (7.8%). In case with dependency of son the Lodhis stands in second
position with 10%.

Table 4.8: Status in family and caste wise distribution of respondents.


Caste
Total
Status in family Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim
N % N % N % N % N % N %
Head of household 22 43.1 30 60.0 39 69.6 21 42.0 14 27.5 126 48.8

Self dependent son 17 33.3 20 40.0 17 30.4 24 48.0 33 64.7 111 43.0

Dependent son 12 23.5 0 0 0 0 5 10.0 4 7.8 21 8.1

Total 51 100 50 100 56 100 50 100 51 100 258 100

73
80
70
60
50
Percentage

40
30
20
10
0
Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim
Population
Head of household Self dependant son

Fig. 7: Comparative bar diagram of Status in family among different caste

Dietary Habit:

The Sagar district is a part of Bundelkhand region. In this region the staple
food of population is wheat, pulses and vegetables. Occasionally they also take rice
and other food stuffs. The Muslims of this area are predominantly non-vegetatian and
they usually prefer nonvegetarian diet atleast once in a day, preferably in the dinner.
Their non-vegetarian item includes chicken, egg, meat of goat, buffalo etc. The
Gonds were also found cent percent non-vegetarian. The frequency of intake of non-
vegetarian diet among them was less than Muslims. They hardly can afford non-
vegetarian diet as well as their content of non-vegetarian item was also different from
Muslims. They do not take beef but they enjoy eating Pork. The Ahirwars were also
predominantly non-vegetarian (80%). Just opposite to Muslim, Gond and Ahirwar,
the Brahmins and Lodhis were strictly vegetarian, none of the respondents were
found to be non-vegetarian (Table 4.9).

74
Table 4.9: Dietary habits and caste wise distribution of respondents.
Caste
Total
Dietary Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim
N % N % N % N % N % N %

Vegetarian 51 100 10 20.0 0 0 50 100 0 0 111 43.0

Non
0 0 40 80.0 56 100 0 0 51 100 147 57.0
Vegetarian

Total 51 100 50 100 56 100 50 100 51 100 258 100

120

100

80
Percentage

60

40

20

0
Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim
Population
Vegiterian Non vegeterian

Fig. 8: Comparative bar diagram of Dietary among different caste

75
Morbidity Profile:

Morbidity profiles of the respondents were taken. They were enquired for any morbid
condition or sickness during last three months from the date of investigation. It was
found that 69.7% of the total population experienced either one type or multiple kind
of illness during last three months. Through case study, focus group discussion
(FGD) as well as through in-depth interview it was found that most of the
respondents were suffering from malaria, seasonal fever, cough and cold. In a village
named Chittora from where the samples of Lodhi caste were drawn 94% of the
respondents were suffering from Dengu a type fever which is known as Chicken
Guniya.

Table 4.10: Morbidity profile and caste wise distribution of respondents.


Caste
Total
Morbidity Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim

N % N % N % N % N % N %

Yes 29 56.9 22 44.0 41 73.2 47 94.0 28 54.9 167 64.7

No 22 43.1 28 56.0 15 26.8 3 6.0 23 45.1 91 35.3

Total 51 100 50 100 56 100 50 100 51 100 258 100

76
100
90
80
70
60
Percentage

50
40
30
20
10
0
Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim
Population
Yes No

Fig. 9 : Comparative bar diagram of Morbidity among different caste.

Anthropometric Characteristics:

Anthropometric characteristics of an individual as well as population have


many implications not only for anthropologist, but other sphere of people like
businessman (especially cloth manufacturers and merchant) shoe maker, medical
practiceners, army people etc. Anthropometric characteristics are used for racial
identification and classification. In this way the anthropometric characteristics have
many practical uses. Keeping in mind the important of issue various anthropometric
measurements taken on target population is being summarized in preceding
paragraph.

77
Body dimensions:

It is evident from Table 4.11 that mean stature vary from 164.47 among Gonds to
167.86 ( 6.81) among Ahirwars. The Lodhi were at second position with mean
stature of 167.26 ( 5.77) where as Brahmins occupies third position with mean
stature of (165.49) ( 6.23). Population wise standard error of mean median
mode and range is also evident from the Table.

Table 4.11: Comparative mean dispersion and range of body measurements


among population of Sagar district, Madhya Pradesh.

Statistics Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim


Total
Stature Mean 165.49 167.86 164.48 167.26 164.88 165.95

SD 6.23 6.81 6.41 5.77 8.03 6.77

SE of
Mean 0.87 0.96 0.86 0.82 1.12 0.42

Median 166.80 168.10 163.40 168.15 166.00 166.80

Mode 157.10 169.50 157.10(a) 168.00 160.00 163.00

Minimum 153.80 151.60 153.80 152.10 133.00 133.00

Maximum 177.20 184.80 181.10 175.60 177.10 184.80

Sitting Mean 83.96 85.55 82.63 84.52 85.50 84.39


Height
SD 3.18 2.99 3.32 3.10 3.54 3.39

SE of 0.45 0.42 0.44 0.44 0.50 0.21


Mean

78
Median 83.80 85.45 82.10 84.55 86.00 84.25

Mode 84.00 82.00(a) 81.00(a) 84.30(a) 87.50 84.00(a)

Minimum 76.10 77.60 73.80 77.40 77.30 73.80

Maximum 90.10 92.00 90.40 92.70 94.00 94.00

Chest Mean 80.95 81.94 81.12 80.75 80.90 81.13


Circumfere-
SD 4.84 6.24 4.06 4.90 6.11 5.25
nce
SE of 0.68 0.88 0.54 0.69 0.86 0.33
Mean

Median 80.00 81.85 80.75 80.75 79.50 80.50

Mode 77.00 77.00 77.00 79.00 75.00 79.00

Minimum 69.00 69.00 71.50 70.50 71.50 69.00

Maximum 92.50 98.50 91.50 94.50 103.50 103.50

Hip Circum Mean 71.95 73.66 71.67 74.87 72.43 72.88


ference
SD 7.79 8.44 5.44 7.86 8.92 7.77

SE of 1.09 1.19 0.73 1.11 1.25 0.48


Mean

Median 71.00 72.25 71.00 75.90 71.50 72.00

Mode 69.00 66.00 70.00(a) 76.00 66.00 69.00

Minimum 55.10 60.40 55.10 62.00 59.50 55.10

Maximum 92.40 99.50 90.50 101.30 101.30 101.30

79
Relative Mean 48.96 48.86 49.36 48.35 49.14 48.94
chest girth
SD 3.08 3.87 2.48 3.54 3.97 3.40
Index
SE of 0.43 0.55 0.33 0.50 0.56 0.21
Mean

Median 49.01 48.60 49.29 47.55 47.83 48.67

Mode 50.30 40.3(a) 48.40 44.00 41.0(a) 50.3(a)

Minimum 41.30 40.30 44.50 40.90 41.00 40.30

Maximum 56.10 60.80 56.50 58.10 60.40 60.80

a Multiple modes exist. The smallest value is shown

As exhibited from Table 4.12 that most of the population (69%) were of
medium to short stature among the population under study and 30% were
found tall. The vivid description and distribution of studied population as per
classification of stature i.e. very short, short, lower medium, medium, and
upper medium, tall and very tall is depicted in Table 4.12.

Table 4.12: Caste and stature wise distribution of the population

Caste Total
Stature
Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim
Category
N % N % N % N % N % N %
Very short 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 3.9 2 0.8
(130.0-149.9)
Short 13 25.5 4 8.0 18 32.1 8 16.0 11 21.6 54 20.9
(150.0-159.9)
Lower
medium 10 19.6 10 20.0 11 19.6 3 6.0 7 13.7 41 15.9

(160.0-163.9)

80
Caste Total
Stature
Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim
Category
N % N % N % N % N % N %
Medium 3 5.9 7 14.0 7 12.5 8 16.0 10 19.6 35 13.6
(164.0-166.9)
Upper
medium 11 21.6 13 26.0 5 8.9 13 26.0 7 13.7 49 19.0

(167.0-169.9)
Tall 14 27.5 13 26.0 14 25.0 18 36.0 14 27.5 73 28.3
(170.0-179.9)
Very tall 0 0 3 6.0 1 1.8 0 0 0 0 4 1.6
(180.0-199.9)
Total 51 100 50 100 56 100 50 100 51 100 258 100

40
35
30
25
Percentage

20
15
10
5
0
Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim
Population
Very short Short Lower medium Medium
Fig. 10: Comparative bar diagram of Stature among different caste.

81
Table 4.13 : Caste and Chest type wise distribution of the population
Caste
Total
Chest Type Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim
N % N % N % N % N % N %
Narrow
37 72.5 37 74.0 41 73.2 39 78.0 34 66.7 188 72.9
chest(<50.9)

Medium
chest(51- 13 25.5 10 20.0 14 25.0 9 18.0 13 25.5 59 22.9
55.9)

Broad
1 2.0 3 6.0 1 1.8 2 4.0 4 7.8 11 4.2
chest(56>)

Total 51 100 50 100 56 100 50 100 51 100 258 100

90
80
70
60
Percentage

50
40
30
20
10
0
Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim
Population
Narow chest Medium chest Broad chest

Fig. 11: Comparative bar diagram of Relative chest girth index among
different caste.

82
Chest Circumference:

The chest of the population varies from 69 to 103.5 cm. The mean chest
circumference was estimated to be 81.13 5.25 cm. The highest mean of chest
circumference was found among Ahirwars (81.94 6.24) and lowest was found
among Lodhis (80.75 4.90 cm). The population wise details of other central
tendencies range and dispersion was exhibited in the Table 4.11.

The relative chest girth index was computed for each individual (Table 4.13).
The mean for total population was 48.94 3.40. The highest mean value was found
among Lodhis (48.35 3.54). On the basis of Index value the population was
categorized into three chest types, narrow, medium and broad chest. 72.9% of the
total population was found to have narrow chest whereas 22.9% have medium chest
and 4.2 % have broad chest. The highest proportion of Lodhi (78%) was found to
have narrow chest followed by Ahirwars (74%), Brahmins (72.5%) and Muslims
(66.7%). One fourth population of Brahmin, Gond and Muslim was found to have
medium chest. The highest proportion of broad chest individuals were found among
Muslims (78%) followed by Ahirwars (6%), Lodhis (4%), Brahmins (2%) and Gonds
(1.8%).

Hip Circumference:

The Hip circumference among respondents was found to vary from 55.10 to
101.30 cm. The mean computed was 72.88 7.77 cm. The highest mean of Hip
circumference was found among Lodhi (74.87 7.86 cm) whereas the lowest mean
Hip circumference and related statistics is given in Table 4.11.

83
Cephalic Features:

Table 4.14: Caste and Cephalic feature wise distribution of respondents.


Total
Statistics Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim

Head Mean 18.48 18.59 18.55 18.84 18.49 18.59


length
SD 0.53 0.59 0.48 0.80 0.75 0.65

SE of
0.08 0.08 0.06 0.11 0.11 0.04
Mean

Median 18.40 18.60 18.50 18.80 18.40 18.50

Mode 19.00 19.00 19.00 18.70(a) 18.00 19.00

Minimum 16.80 17.20 17.10 16.80 16.70 16.70

Maximum 19.60 20.00 19.50 20.20 20.00 20.20

Head Mean 14.05 14.04 13.81 14.09 14.44 14.08


Breadth
SD 0.45 0.58 0.44 0.75 0.55 0.59

SE of
0.06 0.08 0.06 0.11 0.08 0.04
Mean

Median 14.00 14.00 13.80 14.20 14.40 14.00

Mode 13.60(a) 14.00 14.00 13.80(a) 14.00 14.00

Minimum 13.30 13.00 13.00 10.30 13.50 10.30

Maximum 15.00 15.80 14.70 15.10 16.70 16.70

84
Total
Statistics Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim

Minimum Mean 11.19 11.04 10.89 11.04 11.50 11.13


frontal
SD 0.68 0.46 0.54 0.54 0.52 0.59
breadth
SE of 0.10 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.07 0.04
Mean
Median 11.10 11.00 11.00 10.95 11.50 11.00

Mode 11.00 11.00 11.00 11.00 11.50 11.00

Minimum 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.20 10.00 10.00

Maximum 12.50 12.00 12.40 12.20 12.50 12.50

Head Mean 54.20 54.77 54.03 54.16 54.16 54.26


Circumfer
SD 1.39 2..01 1.07 1.98 2.60 1.88
ence
SE of
0.19 0.28 0.14 0.28 0.36 0.12
Mean

Median 54.20 54.50 54.00 54.00 54.50 54.20

Mode 55.00 55.00 54.00 55.00 53.00(a) 55.00

Minimum 51.00 51.00 51.00 50.00 44.10 44.10

Maximum 57.20 65.00 56.60 58.00 58.00 65.00

Cephalic Mean 76.08 75.63 74.46 74.89 78.22 75.83


Index
SD 2.95 4.02 2.46 4.41 4.41 3.91

SE of
0.41 0.57 0.33 0.62 0.62 0.24
Mean

85
Total
Statistics Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim

Median 75.69 75.07 74.13 74.94 77.84 75.41

Mode 74.70 73.70 72.6(a) 73.40 77.80 77.80

Minimum 71.70 65.50 70.50 58.50 70.00 58.50

Maximum 83.90 84.70 80.80 83.90 91.30 91.30

a: Multiple modes exist. The smallest value is shown

Head Length:

Population of different ethnic stock is significantly vary in their cephalic


feature like head length, head breadth, head circumference minimum frontal breadth
and so in cephalic index. In the present study all these cephalic feature were taken
into consideration. It was found that the mean head length of central Indian
population was 18.59 0.65 varying between 16.70 to 20.20cms. The highest mean
was estimated among the Lodhi (18.84 0.80). The caste wise detail is evident from
Table 4.14.

Head Breadth:

Like head length the head breadth is also an important cephalic trait. In the
present study the mean head breadth of the Central Indian Population was estimated
to be 14.08 0.59 which vary in the range of 10.30 to 16.67cms. The highest mean
head breadth was recorded for Muslims (14.44 0.53) where as lowest mean head
breadth was found among Gonds (13.81 0.44). The caste wise detail of head breadth
and relative statistics is depicted in Table 4.14.

86
Minimum Frontal Breadth:

It is evident from Table 4.14 that minimum frontal breadth for Central Indian
Population was 11.13 0.59 which vary in te range of 10 to 12.5 cm. The lowest mean
of minimum frontal breadth was computed to be 10.89 0.54cm among Gonds where
as the highest value was estimated among Muslims (11.50 0.52cm).

Head Circumference:

Caste and population wise details of head circumference and related statistics
were evident from Table 4.14. The lowest mean of head circumference was found
among Gonds (54.03 1.07cm) where as the highest mean circumference was
estimated among Ahirwars (54.77 2.01cm). Whereas the mean head circumference
for total population was estimated to be 54.26 1.88 cm and it varies in the range of
44.10 to 65.0 cm.

Table 4.15: Caste and Head shape wise distribution of respondents.


Caste Total
Head shape Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim
N % N % N % N % N % N %
Hyperdolico
cephalic 0 0 4 8.2 2 3.6 6 12.5 2 3.9 14 5.5
(00.0-70.0)
Dolicocephal
ic (71.0- 28 54.9 22 44.9 40 72.7 22 45.8 14 27.5 126 49.6
75.9)
Mesocephali
20 39.2 19 38.8 13 23.6 16 33.3 22 43.1 90 35.4
c(76.0-80.9)
Brachycepha
lic 3 5.9 4 8.2 0 0 4 8.3 11 21.6 22 8.7
(81.0-85.4)

87
Caste Total
Head shape Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim
N % N % N % N % N % N %
Hyperbrachy
cephalic 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 3.9 2 0.8
(85.0-100)
Total 51 100 49 100 55 100 48 100 51 100 254 100

80

70

60
Percentage

50

40

30

20

10

0
Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim
Population
Hyperdolicocephalic Dolicocephalic Mesocephalic
Brachycephalic Hyperbrachycephalic

Fig. 12: Comparative bar diagram of Head shape among different caste.

88
Head Shape and Cephalic index:

On the basis of cephalic index the population can be categorized into different
head shape as evident from Table 4.15. The Central Tendencies of cephalic index and
its dispersion and range was given in Table 4.14. It is clear from the Table 4.14 that
cephalic index vary in a range 58.50 to 91.30. The mean cephalic index for the total
population was 75.83 3.91. The highest mean of cephalic index was computed for
Muslims (78.22 4.41) where as lowest mean for cephalic index was recorded
among Gonds (74.46 2.46).

The Table 4.14 reveals that most of the populations (49.6%) of Central India
were dolicocephalic followed by mesocephalic (35.4%). The Gonds were more
dolicocephalic (72.2%) and majority of Muslims (43.1%) were mesocephalic.
Majority of Brahmin, Ahirwar and Lodhi were also dolicocephalic (45% to 55%).
The proportion of hyper dolicocephalic, brachycephalic and hyper brachycephalic
was meager in Central Indian Population (1% to 8%) approximately.

Facial feature:

Table 4.16: Caste and Facial feature wise distribution


Statistics Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim Total
Bizygomat Mean 12.40 12.34 12.25 12.12 12.39 12.30
ic Breadth
SD 0.68 0.80 0.66 0.81 0.64 0.72

SE of 0.09 0.11 0.09 0.11 0.09 0.04


Mean

Median 12.50 12.40 12.35 12.10 12.50 12.35

Mode 13.00 12.50(a) 12.00 12.00 13.00 12.00

Minimum 10.10 10.00 10.10 9.60 10.60 9.60

Maximum 13.80 14.50 13.80 14.00 14.00 14.50

89
Statistics Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim Total
Bigonial Mean 10.38 10.29 10.21 10.26 10.39 10.30
Breadth
SD 0.66 0.95 0.65 0.86 0.62 0.75

SE of 0.09 0.13 0.09 0.12 0.09 0.05


Mean

Median 10.50 10.50 10.15 10.20 10.50 10.45

Mode 10.00 10.50 10.00 10.00(a) 10.00 10.00

Minimum 9.00 5.80 8.70 7.30 9.30 5.80

Maximum 11.60 12.00 11.50 12.00 12.00 12.00

Morpholo Mean 10.68 10.59 10.83 10.76 10.53 10.68


gical-Total
SD 0.59 0.57 0.61 0.53 0.56 0.58
Facial
Height SE of 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.04
Mean
Median 10.70 10.50 10.90 10.70 10.50 10.65

Mode 11.00 10.00(a) 11.00 10.30(a) 10.50 11.00

Minimum 9.40 9.30 9.80 9.40 9.40 9.30

Maximum 11.80 12.00 12.30 11.80 11.80 12.30

Morpholo Mean 6.16 6.09 6.16 6.29 6.28 6.20


gical-
Upper SD 0.43 0.39 0.40 0.45 0.39 0.42
facial
Height SE of 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.06 0.05 0.03
Mean

Median 6.20 6.10 6.25 6.30 6.20 6.20

90
Statistics Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim Total
Mode 6.10 5.90(a) 6.40 6.40 6.10(a) 6.10

Minimum 4.90 4.90 4.90 5.40 5.50 4.90

Maximum 7.10 7.10 7.00 7.10 7.10 7.10

Morpholo Mean 86.31 86.07 88.61 89.20 85.18 87.10


gical facial
height SD 6.22 6.14 6.28 8.12 5.94 6.71
Index
SE of
0.87 0.87 0.84 1.15 0.83 0.42
Mean

Median 86.15 84.55 88.23 88.80 84.80 86.49

Mode 86.2(a) 82.0(a) 91.70 83.3(a) 87.50 84.0(a)

Minimum 75.20 73.60 75.40 73.60 73.60 73.60

Maximum 101.00 110.50 106.00 116.70 100.90 116.70

Morpholo Mean 49.77 49.57 50.38 52.14 50.82 50.53


gical
Upper SD 3.77 4.62 3.36 5.37 4.10 4.34
Facial
Index SE of 0.27
0.53 0.65 0.45 0.76 0.57
Mean

Median 50.00 49.60 50.59 52.02 50.79 50.20

Mode 50.00 45.4(a) 50.0(a) 46.8(a) 50.00 50.00

Minimum 43.30 40.70 41.50 40.70 40.70 40.70

91
Statistics Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim Total

Maximum 58.10 65.70 57.50 65.60 63.20 65.70

Jugo- Mean 83.76 83.43 83.39 84.89 83.99 83.88


mandi-
bular SD 4.54 6.55 5.07 8.03 5.05 5.94
index
SE of
0.64 0.93 0.68 1.14 0.71 0.37
Mean

Median 82.31 83.33 83.33 85.43 83.62 83.33

Mode 82.30 84.60 83.30 80.0(a) 80.0(a) 83.30

Minimum 74.20 58.00 72.50 66.70 73.60 58.00

Maximum 94.10 103.60 94.10 110.40 101.90 110.40

Jugo- Mean 90.41 89.73 89.05 91.43 92.98 90.69


frontal
index SD 5.92 5.87 4.71 7.05 5.35 5.93

SE of
0.83 0.83 0.63 1.00 0.75 0.37
Mean

Median 90.00 88.93 89.03 91.46 92.31 90.12

Mode 84.6(a) 88.00 91.70 85.70 95.80 84.60

Minimum 78.80 78.60 80.60 78.60 78.60 78.60

Maximum 103.30 110.00 103.30 116.70 113.20 116.70

a Multiple modes exist. The smallest value is shown

92
Table 4.17: Caste and face shape (Jugo frontal index) wise distribution of
respondents.
Caste Total
Jugo frontal
Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim
Index
N % N % N % N % N % N %
Medium(75-
1 2.0 1 2.0 0 0 2 4.0 1 2.0 5 1.9
79.9)

Broad(80-
8 15.7 7 14.3 13 23.2 5 10.0 2 3.9 35 13.6
84.9)

Very
42 82.4 41 83.7 43 76.8 43 86.0 48 94.1 217 84.4
broad(85>200)

Total 51 100 49 100 56 100 50 100 51 100 257 100

100
90
80
70
Percentage

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Brahmin Chamar Gond Lodhi Muslim
Population
Medium Broad Very broad
93
Fig. 13 : Comparative bar diagram of Face shape (Jugo frontal) among different caste.

Table 4.18 : Caste and Face shape (Jugo Mandibular index) wise distribution of
respondents
Jugo- Caste
Total
Mandib Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim
ular
N % N % N % N % N % N %
Index
Very
Narrow 0 0 1 2.0 0 0 2 4.0 0 0 3 1.2
(<69.9)

Narrow
1 2.0 2 4.0 3 5.4 3 6.0 2 3.9 11 4.3
(70-74.9)

Medium
6 11.8 9 18.0 7 12.5 8 16.0 6 11.8 36 14.0
(75-79.9)

Broad
26 51.0 21 42.0 28 50.0 11 22.0 23 45.1 109 42.2
(80-84.9)

Very
Broad 18 35.3 17 34.0 18 32.1 26 52.0 20 39.2 99 38.4
(85>200)

Total 51 100 50 100 56 100 50 100 51 100 258 100

94
60

50

40
Percentage

30

20

10

0
Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim
Population
Very Narrow Narrow Medium Broad Very Broad

Fig. 14 : Comparative bar diagram of Face shape (Jugomandibular) among different


caste.

Table 4.19 : Caste and face shape (Morphological Total Facial Index) wise
distribution of respondents.
Morphological Caste Total
Total Facial Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim
Index N % N % N % N % N % N %
Hypereuryprosopi
7 13.7 3 6.0 3 5.4 3 6.0 8 15.7 24 9.3
c(<78.9)

Euryprosopic
9 17.6 17 34.0 10 17.9 9 18.0 9 17.6 54 20.9
(79-83.9)

Mesoprosopic
14 27.5 13 26.0 14 25.0 11 22.0 17 33.3 69 26.7
(84-87.9)

95
Morphological Caste Total
Total Facial Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim
Index N % N % N % N % N % N %
Leptoprosopic
14 27.5 12 24.0 18 32.1 14 28.0 13 25.5 71 27.5
(88-92.9)

Hyperleptoprosop
7 13.7 5 10.0 11 19.6 13 26.0 4 7.8 40 15.5
ic (93>)

Total 51 100 50 100 56 100 50 100 51 100 258 100

40
35
30
Percentage

25
20
15
10
5
0
Brahmin Chamar Gond Lodhi Muslim
Population
Hypereuryprosopic Euryprosopic Mesoprosopic
Leptoprosopic Hyperleptoprosopic

Fig. 15 : Comparative bar diagram of Face shape (Morphological Total Facial Index)
among different caste.

96
Table 4.20 : Caste and face shape (Morphological Upper Facial Index) wise
distribution of the sample.
Morpholog- Caste Total
ical Upper Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim
Facial Index N % N % N % N % N % N %
Hypereuryene
0 0 5 10.0 1 1.8 2 4.0 1 2.0 9 3.5
(<42.9)

Euryene
13 25.5 11 22.0 12 21.4 10 20.0 8 15.7 54 20.9
(43-47.9)

Mesene
28 54.9 24 48.0 29 51.8 16 32.0 29 56.9 126 48.8
(48-52.9)

Leptene
8 15.7 8 16.0 13 23.2 12 24.0 10 19.6 51 19.8
(53-56.9)

Hyperleptene
2 3.9 2 4.0 1 1.8 10 20.0 3 5.9 18 7.0
(57>)

Total 51 100 50 100 56 100 50 100 51 100 258 100

97
60

50

40
Percentage

30

20

10

0
Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim
Population
Hypereuryene Euryene Mesene Leptene Hyperleptene

Fig. 16 : Comparative bar diagram of Face shape (Morphological Upper Facial Index)
among different caste.

In the present study the measurement of different facial features like


bizygomatic breadth, bigonial breadth, morphological total facial height,
morphological upper facial height were taken on each respondents. The detail
statistics of Central Tendencies, dispersion and range was given in Table 4.16.

Bizygomatic Breadth:

It is apparent from Table 4.16 that the mean bizygomatic breadth computed
was 12.30 to 0.72 for the total population. The highest mean for bizygomatic breadth
was found among Brahmins (12.40 0.68) followed by Muslims (12.39 0.64) and
the lowest mean was recorded among Lodhis (12.12 0.81). Population wise detail
of Bizogomatic breadth and related statistics was given in the Table 4.16.

98
The Jugo-Mandibular index computed for each individual was shown in Table
4.16. The mean for total population was 90.69 5.93. The highest mean value of
index was found among Muslims (92.98 5.35) where as lowest mean value for
index was found among Gonds (89.05 4.71). On the basis of index value, the
population was categorized into three face type, medium, broad, and very broad.
84.4% of the total population was found to have very broad face whereas 13.6 %
having broad, and only 1.9% were having medium face. The highest proportion of
Muslims (94.1%) was found to have very broad face which was followed by Lodhi
(86%), Ahirwar (83.7%), Brahmin (82.4%) and Gond (76.8%).

Bigonial Breadth:

It is clear from the Table 4.16 that mean Bigonial breadth vary from 10.21
0.65 cm among Gonds to 1.39 0.62 cm among Muslims. The Brahmin were at
second position with the mean value of 10.38 0.66 cm and Ahirwars were at third
position with mean bigonial breadth of 10.29 0.95 cm, while mean for total
population was (10.30 0.75). Population wise distribution of mean, standard
deviation, standard error of mean, median, mode and range was exhibited in the
Table 4.16.

The mean of Jugomandibular index of the total population is 83.88 5.94 and
it was varying from 83.47 6.55 among Ahirwar to 84.89 8.03 for Lodhi. The
Muslims were having second highest mean value for the index (83.99 5.05). On the
basis of index the population was divided into five categories which were shown in
Table no. 4.18. About 80% of the total population have broad and very broad face
type. 52% of the Lodhi have very broad face and 32% of the Gond also belongs to the
very broad face type. Whereas among Brahmins 51% belongs to broad face and 22%
of Lodhi found to have broad face. Population and face shape (Jugo mandibular
index) wise distribution was shown in Table 4.18.

99
Morphological total facial height:

As exhibited from the Table 4.16 that mean morphological total facial height
for total population was 10.68 0.58. The highest mean for morphological total
facial height was recorded 10.830.61 among Gond followed by Lodhi (10.760.53).
The Brahmins were on third position with 10.680.59. The median, mode, standard
error of mean and range of morphological facial height was shown in the Table 4.16.

The mean of morphological facial height index which is furnished in Table


4.16 was 87.10 6.71 for the total population. It was found highest among Lodhi
(89.20 8.12) and lowest in Muslim (85.18 6.14) the Ahirwar were on the third
position with the mean value of index as 86.07 6.14. On the basis of this index the
population was categorized into five facial type, Hyper euryprosopic, Euryprosopic,
Mesoprostopic, leptoprosopic and Hyper leptoprosopic face type which was shown in
the Table no 4.19. Among total population, aproximately 55% were mesoprosopic
and leptoprosopic where as 20.9% Euryprosopic, 15.5% Hyperleptoprosopic and
9.3% were Hyper euryprosopic. The highest population 34% of the Ahirwar belongs
to Euryprosopic face type. Approximately 59% of Lodhi and Ahirwar were of this
type where as Lodhi 57% and Brahmin were 55% of Mesoprosopic and
Leptoprosopic type respectively. Caste and face type wise distribution was shown is
the Table 4.19.

Morphological upper Facial height

The Table 4.20 reveals that mean upper facial height for the total population
was 6.20 0.42 whereas the highest mean recorded for the Lodhi was 6.29 0.45
which is followed by Muslim 6.28 0.39. The lowest mean morphological upper
facial height was found among Ahirwars (6.09 0.39). Other related statistical
analysis is evident from the Table 4.16.

Table 4.20 reveals that mean morphological upper facial index varies from
49.97 4.62 among Ahirwars to 52.14 5.37 among Gonds whereas mean value

100
of index for the total population was 50.53 4.34. On this basis, the population
was distributed into hypereuryane, euryene, mesene, leptene and hyperleptene face
types. Approximately 70% of the total population belongs to euryene and mesene
face type whereas 20.9% of the total population belongs to euryene type and 7%
belongs to hyperleptene face type and only 3.5% belongs to hypereuryene face
type. Among the Muslims maximum proportion (56.9%) were of mesene face type
while 32% Lodhi belongs to mesene face type. Other caste wise shape proportions
were shown in Table 4.20.

Table 4.21: Distribution of various nasal characters among the populations

Statistics Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim Total

Nasal Mean 4.39 4.55 4.26 4.46 4.73 4.47


Height/
Length SD 0.44 0.43 0.46 0.48 0.32 0.46

SE of 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.05 0.03


Mean

Median 4.40 4.50 4.25 4.40 4.70 4.50

Mode 4.70 4.50 4.10(a) 4.40(a) 4.70 4.70

Minimum 3.30 3.40 3.30 3.40 4.10 3.30

Maximum 5.30 5.80 5.50 5.80 5.50 5.80

Nasal Mean 3.84 3.80 3.84 3.73 3.69 3.78


Breadth
SD 0.25 0.28 0.26 0.32 0.29 0.29

101
Statistics Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim Total

SE of 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.02


Mean

Median 3.90 3.90 3.90 3.70 3.70 3.80

Mode 3.90 3.90 3.90 3.70(a) 3.50(a) 3.90

Minimum 3.30 3.10 2.80 3.10 3.10 2.80

Maximum 4.30 4.50 4.40 4.60 4.60 4.60

Nasal Mean 88.39 84.36 91.45 84.46 78.28 85.51


Index
SD 11.97 11.16 12.36 11.01 7.89 11.82

SE of 1.68 1.58 1.65 1.56 1.10 0.74


Mean

Median 85.11 83.21 92.40 84.35 78.85 84.27

Mode 100.00 77.8(a) 100.00 68.6(a) 70.0(a) 100.00

Minimum 70.00 66.00 59.60 66.00 58.50 58.50

Maximum 119.40 120.60 120.60 123.50 92.90 123.50

a Multiple modes exist. The smallest value is shown

102
Table 4.22 : Caste and Nasal Index wise distribution.
Caste Total
Nasal Index Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim
N % N % N % N % N % N %

Leptorhine
0 0 3 6.0 1 1.8 3 6.0 6 11.8 13 5.0
(55-69.9)

Mesorrhine
22 43.1 28 56.0 14 25.0 24 48.0 34 66.7 122 47.3
(70-84.9)

Platyrrhine
17 33.3 14 28.0 27 48.2 20 40.0 11 21.6 89 34.5
(85-99.9)

Hyper
platyrrhine 12 23.5 5 10.0 14 25.0 3 6.0 0 21.6 34 13.2
(100>)

Total 51 100 50 100 56 100 50 100 51 100 258 100

103
80
70
60
Percentage

50
40
30
20
10
0
Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim
Population
Leptorhine Mesorrhine Platyrrhine Hyper platyrrhine

Fig. 17 : Comparative bar diagram of Nasal Index among different caste.

Distributions of various Nasal characteristics among the studied population


have been presented in Table 4.21.

Nasal Height:

Table 4.21 reveal that mean nasal height of the total population was 4.47
0.46. It vary from 4.26 0.46 among Gonds to 4.73 0.32 among Muslims. The
mean Nasal height among Ahirwars were found to be 4.55 0.43, among Lodhis it
was 4.46 0.48 and among Brahmins it was 4.39 0.44. Population wise standard
error of mean, median, mode and range is depicted in the Table 4.21.

Nasal Breadth:

It is clear from the Table 4.21 that the mean nasal breadth for the studied
population was 3.78 0.29 whereas the heighest mean nasal breadth was found
among Brahmins (3.84 0.25) and Gonds (3.84 0.26). Muslims were found to

104
have lowest mean nasal breadth 3.69 029. The second highest mean value was
found among Ahirwars (3.80 0.28) which is followed by the Lodhi with mean
value of 3.73 0.32. Different statistical value for nasal breadth were shown in the
Table 4.21.

Nasal Index:

Table 4.21 reveals that the mean nasal index is varying between 91.45
12.36 among Gond to 78.28 7.89 for Muslims. The Brahmins were on second
position with mean nasal index of 88.39 11.97 followed by Lodhis (84.46
11.01) and Ahirwars (84.36 11.16) Population wise standard error of of mean,
median, mode and range is also evident from the Table 4.21 for the nasal index.
On the basis of the nasal index the population was categorized in to four nasal
types which is shown in the Table 4.22. These are Leptorrhine, Mesorrhine
platyrrhine and hyperplatyrrhine nose type. Among all the total studied population
47.3% of subjects belongs to Mesorrhine and 34.5%. to Platyrrhine type of nose
shape whereas 13.2% to Hyperplatyrrhine and only 5.0% to Leptorrhine nose
shape. The highest proportion (66.7%) of Mesorrhine was found among Muslims
and Platyrrhine shape was the dominant feature of Gonds (48.2%). Population
wise detail of other shape was evident from the Table 4.21.

Table 4.23 Caste and weight wise distribution of population

Statistics Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim Total

Weight Mean 53.79 53.85 49.80 54.40 51.59 52.62

SD 5.21 8.56 5.50 6.73 8.96 7.29

SE of Mean 0.73 1.21 0.73 0.95 1.26 0.45

105
Statistics Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim Total

Median 53.00 52.00 49.00 54.00 50.00 52.00

Mode 53.00 50.00 47.00 50.00 45.00 50.00

Minimum 44.00 41.00 41.00 43.00 39.00 39.00

Maximum 66.00 81.00 67.00 80.00 80.00 81.00

a Multiple modes exist. The smallest value is shown

Weight:

It is clear from the Table 4.23 that mean weight for the total population was
52.62 7.29. The highest mean weight was found among Lodhis (54.40 6.73)
followed by Ahirwars (53.89) and the lowest mean weight was recorded among
Gonds (49.80 5.50). Population wise details of weight and related statistics are
given in the Table 4.23.

106
NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT

The nutritional status of an individual is often the result of many


interrelated factors. It is influenced by the adequacy of food intake both is term of
quantity and quality and also by the physical health of the individual (WHO).The
nutritional status of a community is the sum of the nutritional status of the individuals
who form the community.

The main objective of a comprehensive nutritional survey is to obtain precise


information in the prevalence and geographic distribution of n nutritional problems of
a given community, and identification of individual or population groups at risk or
in greatest need of assistance. In the absence of this information problems cannot be
defined and policies formulated. The purpose of nutritional assessment is to develop
health care programs that meet the needs defined by the assessment including
evaluation of the effectiveness of such programs.

The Quetelet or body mass index (BMI) is widely accepted as one of the best
indicators of the nutritional status in the adults (James et al., 1988, Ferro-luzzi et
al., 1992, Shetty and James1994). It is also suggested, that BMI may be more
nutritionally than genetically related (Rolland-Cachera 1993), despite a wide
variation between human population in weight and height (Eveleth and Tanner
1990, Majumdar et al., 1990).

Thus the use of BMI as an anthropometric indicator of the nutritional status


may be more appropriate in a country with diverse ethnic groups like India.
Therefore In the present study, the body mass index (BMI) and cormic index is
calculated for 258 individuals for assessment of nutritional status and to elucidate
the chronic energy deficiency among studied population.

107
Table 4.24 Caste and Cormic Index and B.M.I. wise distribution.

Statistics Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim Total

B.M.I Mean 19.67 19.09 18.41 19.46 18.98 19.11

SE of 0.28 0.38 0.23 0.33 0.43 0.15


Mean

Median 19.60 18.32 18.23 19.11 17.98 18.79

Mode 18.56(a) 18.31(a) 15.28(a) 18.49(a) 16.37(a) 17.98(a)

SD 1.96 2.68 1.73 2.31 3.04 2.40

Minimum 16.14 15.24 15.28 14.91 14.71 14.71

Maximum 24.30 26.40 25.53 27.26 27.26 27.26

Cormic Mean 0.51 0.51 0.50 0.51 0.52 0.51


Index
SE of 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Mean

Median 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.52 0.51

Mode 0.49(a) 0.49(a) 0.51 0.51 0.51(a) 0.51

SD 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02

Minimum 0.47 0.47 0.47 0.47 0.48 0.47

Maximum 0.54 0.54 0.52 0.56 0.60 0.60

a Multiple modes exist. The smallest value is shown

108
Mean and SD value for Cormic index and Body Mass Index for the studied
population were shown in Table 4.24. The mean Cormic index found for the total
population was 0.51 0.02 and it is vary between 0.51 0.01 among Gonds to 0.52
0.02 among Muslims which is followed by the Brahmins (0.51 0.01), Ahirwars
(0.51 0.01) and Lodhis (0.51 0.01). Other central tendencies of each population
were shown in Table 4.24.

The variation in Mean BMI between populations was found to vary between
18.41 1.73 among Gonds to 19.67 1.96 among Bramins followed by Lodhis with
mean BMI value of 19.46 2.31 and Ahirwars (19.09 2.68). The mean BMI for the
total Sample was 19.11 2.40. Different statistical values for the studied population
were shown in Table 4.24.

Table 4. 25 : Percentage of population according to different level of chronic


energy deficiency (CED).
BMI- CED
Low
Caste CED CED CED Weight Obese Total
Normal
Grade- Grade- Grade- Normal Grade-
(20.00-24.99)
III II I (18.50- I
19.99)
N % N % N % N % N % N % N %
Brahmin 0 5 9.8 8 15.7 18 35.3 20 39.2 0 51 100

Ahirwar 3 6.0 6 12.0 17 34.0 10 20.0 12 24.0 2 4.0 50 100

Gond 2 3.6 10 17.9 19 33.9 17 30.4 7 12.5 1 1.8 56 100

Lodhi 1 2.0 6 12.0 8 16.0 20 40.0 13 26.0 2 4.0 50 100

Muslim 8 15.7 10 19.6 9 17.6 7 13.7 15 29.4 2 3.9 51 100

Total 14 5.4 37 14.3 61 23.6 72 27.9 67 26.0 7 2.7 258 100

109
80

60
Percentage

40

20

0
Brahmin

Muslim
Ahirwar

Gond

Lodhi
Population

Fig.18: Comparative Bar Diagram of Normal Grade of Chronic


Energy Deficiency among different caste.

The distribution of populations as per different grades of Chronic Energy


Deficiency was evident from Table 4.25. The Total of 43.3% population was suffering
from different grades of Chronic Energy Deficiency. Here BMI 18.5 kg/M2 is taken as
cut off point. According to this classification of BMI 53.9% of total population was
found to have normal level of nutrition and 2.7% were found to have over weight.

The Brahmins among the studied population were found well nourished as
majority of them (74.5%) were categorized as normal grade of chronic energy
deficiency. None of them were found to have severe grade of CED (grade III). In the
same way none of them were found Obese. After Brahmins agricultural community
Lodhis had significant proportion (66%) of population which was well nourished.
The Gonds were found to have highest proportion of poorly nourished population
(55.4%). Similarly higher proportion of Muslims was also found to be poorly
nourished, as 52.9% of them were categorized into severe, moderate and mild grade

110
of chronic energy deficiency. For comparative analysis and visual presentation, a bar
diagram Fig.18 was drawn from this to elucidate the facts.

30

28
41
32
21
26 57
63
97
155
72
10
24

22
BMI

BMI
20

18

16
258

14

12
N= 51 50 56 50 51

Brahmin Chamar Gond Lodhi Muslim


Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim
Caste
Caste

Box plot no.1: Population wise median quartile and extreme values of BMI

The nutritional level of population was also studied with respect to socio-
economic and demographic backgrounds of individuals as apparent from Fig.18. The
box plot no.1 shows population wise median quartile and extreme values of BMI
among Brahmins, Ahirwars, Gonds, Lodhis and Muslims. The error Bar diagram
(Dig.1) shows that there was significant difference in the BMI of Brahmin and Gond.
Whereas among other studied population group no significant difference was evident.

On the basis of marital status nutritional level may vary and it was found in the
present study that the married have comparatively better level of nutrition than the
unmarried individuals as evident from Diagram 2.

111
Dig 1: Comparative Error Bar Diagram among the Population
20.5

20.0

19.5
95% CI BMI

19.0

18.5

18.0

17.5
N= 51 50 56 50 51

Brahmin
Brahmin Chamar
Ahirwar Gond
Gond Lodhi
Lodhi Muslim
Muslim
Caste
Caste

Dig 2: Comparative Error Bar Diagram of marital status


20.0

19.5
95% CI BMI

19.0

18.5

18.0
N= 136 122

Married Unmarried

Marital Status

112
The education and occupation have great impact on the level of nutrition of
individuals and it was found that the level of nutrition was better among the well
educated individuals. The same is also evident from Box Plot No.2.

30

28
202 69
70
26 198
211
81
87
199
24 115

22

20

18

16

14
12
N= 7 56 67 60 45 23

Middle
Illetrate

Primary

Graduate+
Higher secondary
Litterate

Box plot No.2: Education wiseEducation


median quartile and extreme values of BMI

30

28
199
57
26 197
111
60
162
24

22
BMI

20

18

16

14
12
N= 118 69 38 17 5 7 4
private job
labour

agriculture

student

others
bussiness

govt.servent

occupation
Box plot No.3: Occupation wise median quartile and extreme value

113
The occupation wise BMI is evident from Box plot No.3. It is clear that better
job profile have great impact on the betterment of nutritional status.

It can be concluded that nutritional status of a population or community is


amalgamation of nutritional status of individuals. It is determined by many factors
viz genetically as well as environmental. Beside the quality and quantity of food
taken by individuals, the nutritional status is widely determined by socio-economic
condition and cultural practices prevalent in the community. As it is apparent from
present investigation that Brahmin has better nutritional status because of better
socio-economic condition whereas Gond has worst nutritional status because of their
poor socio-economic condition.

114
CHAPTER V

DISCUSSION

115
115
In this chapter the findings are being discussed in the context of review of literature.
The present study is confined on three aspects - Background characteristics,
Anthropometric characteristics and Nutritional Assessment of five different populations
which are Endogamous and reside in same geographical area. Although they also vary in
their settlement pattern and samples are drawn from urban and rural areas.

The uniqueness of physical anthropology is study of man in bio-social context.


Here in the present study this focal aspect of physical anthropology is taken into
consideration to elucidate the findings of anthropometric characteristic and level of
nutrition among the studied population.

Anthropometric Characteristics:

The anthropometric characteristics of these populations reveal that the mean


stature of the Central Indian population is 165.95 cm, which vary from 164.47 cm
among Gond to 167.86 cm among Ahirwar. Goutam et al., (2006) shown that the
mean stature of the population of same geographical area i.e. Sagar district was
164.02 cm. On the basis of their study it can be concluded that the mean stature of
present studied population is increased around 2 cm during last few decades and this
phenomena is taken place all over the world possibly due to the advancement in
Science and Technology, Green Revolution, Sufficient availability of Food, Peace
and over all development in different aspect of social life.

Table 5.1: Caste wise Mean Measurement Values (Present Study)


Measurement Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim

Stature 165.49 167.86 164.48 167.26 164.88

Sitting Height 83.96 85.55 82.63 84.52 85.50

Weight 53.79 53.85 49.80 54.40 51.59

116
Measurement Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim

Cronic Index 6.51 0.51 0.50 0.51 0.52

19.67 19.09 19.09 19.46 18.98


BMI

Table 5.2: Caste wise Mean Measurement Values of Central Indian Population
(Adak et al., 2006)
Measurement Brahmin Gond Lodhi Muslim

Stature 166.45 162.34 164.41 164.96

Sitting Height 84.60 80.21 81.41 83.2

Weight 53.97 49.00 50.87 51.58

Chronic Index 0.51 0.49 0.49 0.50

BMI 19.45 18.57 18.79 18.93

Adak et al., (2006) studied the Central Indian Population of 38 districts in


respect of their caste and ethnic identity and shown that the mean stature of Brahmin,
Ahirwar, Gond, Lodhi and Muslim were 166.45 cm, 163.69 cm, 162.34 cm, 164.41
cm and 164.96 cm respectively.

Alike mean stature the mean sitting height and weight also increased. The
sitting height increased around 2 cm where as the weight increased 1.09 kg.

Different indices were computed to elucidate the Cephalofacial characteristic


of the studied population. As per Cephalic indices majority of the Central Indian
SRSXODWLRQDUH Doliicocephalic (50% approximately), followed by Mesocephalic
(35%). In the same way the nasal index shows that approximately half (47.3%) of

117
total population are Mesorrhine followed by Platyrrhine (35%) although intercaste
variation is also observed as higher proportion of Muslims are Mesorrhine as
compared to rest of four population group. Whereas, almost half of the (48.2%)
GondV were found to have Platyrrine nose. In one of the study Adak, (2001)
highlighted that one of the Indian population named Thingbu-Pa of Arunachal
Pradesh are predominantly Mesorrhine (70%). Therefore it can be concluded that
there is wide variation in Cephalofacial characteristic of the Indian population and
this is because of Endogamy and isolation in the present context and racial
admixture in historical context.

The facial IHDWXUHV RI WKH SUHVHQW VWXG\ SRSXODWLRQ ZHUH recorded
through different facial measurement. The computation of various facial index
elucidate that the face shape of the Central Indian SRSXODWLRQDUH predominantly
medium to broad. The total facial index indicates that the present study
SRSXODWLRQVDUH predominantly Europrosopic, Mesoprosopic and Leptoprosopic.
The percentage of Hypereuroprosopic and Hyperleptoprosopic are less.

The Morphological upper facial index shows that these populations are
predominantly Euryene, Mesene and Leptene. The proportions are hypereuryene and
hyperleptene are less.

Nutritional Assessment:

There are many measures to assesses the nutritional status of a population body
mass index (BMI) is one of them. Anthropometric is considered to be an important
tool for assessing nutritional status of individual or the community. Hence,
measurements like stature, sitting height, weight and indices based on these
measurements developed by different scholars have been extensively used to define
the extent of malnutrition. Body mass index (BMI) expressed as ratio of weight to
height squared can be good parameter to grade chronic energy deficiency (CED) in
adult (Naidu et al., 1991). There are many studies based on this aspect for example
Ferro-Luzzi et al., 1991; Khongsdier, 2001; Goutam et al., 2006; Adak et al., 2006.

118
Knowledge of the nutritional status of a community is necessary to have a
comprehensive idea about its development process, as under-nutrition is one of the
major health problems in developing countries. It is reported that the basic causes of
under nutrition and infections in developing countries are poverty, poor hygienic
conditions and little access to preventive health care (Mitra, 1985; WHO, 1990).
Hence, assessment of the nutritional status of a population has attracted the attention
of not only the Nutritionalists and other Biological Scientists, but also Economists
and other Social Scientists with a view to understanding the health and Socio-
economic status of the population (Osmani, 1992). Literature on BMI of adult Indian
is limited to certain geographical area or population. Noteworthy among them are
study of the BMI among the north Indian (Khongsdier, 2001) South Indian (Ferro-
Luzzi et al., 1991), Central Indian Population (Goutam et al., 2006; Adak et al., 2006
and Gautam, 2007).

Table 5.3: Caste wise Nutritional Assessment (Present Study)

CED Brahmin Ahirwar Gond Lodhi Muslim

Grade III - 6.0 3.6 2.0 15.7

Grade II 9.8 12.0 17.9 12.0 19.6

Grade I 15.7 34.0 33.9 16.0 17.6

Low weight 35.3 20.0 30.4 40.0 13.7


Normal

Normal 39.2 24.0 12.5 26.0 29.4

Obese Grade I - 4.0 1.8 4.0 3.9

119
Table 5.4: Caste wise Nutritional Assessment among Central Indian Population
(Adak et al., 2006)
Brahmin Gond Lodhi Muslim

CED Grade III 5.21 6.31 6.00 8.52

CED Grade II 9.69 9.73 12.00 10.90

CED Grade I 28.05 34.96 28.33 28.05

Low weight Normal 26.24 29.98 27.33 26.24

Normal 23.62 18.92 25.67 23.62

Obese Grade I 2.39 0.11 0.67 2.39

Obese Grade II 0.28 0.00 0.00 0.28

The Quetelet or Body mass index (BMI) is widely accepted as one of the best
indicator of the nutritional status in adult (James et al., 1988; Ferro-Luzzi et.al.,
1992; Shetty and James, 1994). It also suggested that the BMI may be more
nutritionally than genetically related (Rolland Cachera, 1993), despite a wide
variation between human population in weight and height (Eveleth and Tanner, 1990;
Mazumdar et al., 1990). Thus the use of BMI as an anthropometric indicator of
nutritional status may be more appropriate in country with diverse ethnic group like
India.

The present study which is confined to five population of Central Indian is an


empirical study based on primary data collected on various anthropometric traits and
it will help in understanding the level of nutrition of Central Indian population in
respect of development process taking place during post independent era. The
available study of Gautam et al., 2006; Adak et al., 2006 is based on secondary data
collected by Anthropological Survey of India during seventies.

120
Table 5.5: Comparative Study of anthropometric measurement and
Nutritional assessment of population of Sagar

Measurement Present Study Goutam et al., 2006

Stature 165.95 164.02

Sitting Height 84.39 82.02

Weight 52.62 51.53

Cronic Index 0.51 0.50

BMI 19.11 19.13

CED Grade III 5.40 5.7

CED Grade II 14.3 9.4

CED Grade I 23.6 29.7

Low weight Normal 27.9 27.1

Normal 26.0 23.7

Obese Grade I 2.7 4.0

Alike other studies in the present study too considering BMI 18.5 Kg m-2 as the
cut off point for screening individuals into normal and chronic energy deficient
groups. It is found that a total of 43.3% population is suffering from different grades
of CED. This proportion is slightly less than as mentioned and observed by Gautam
et al., (2006). According to them this proportion is 44.8% for the same geographical
areas where as for Central India this proportion is further higher 50.5% according to
some study. It can be concluded that due to availability of good amount of food
stuffs, better health care facilities and over all development taken place during last

121
few decades has a positive impact in changing the level of nutrition of the studied
population.

The inter population difference in respect of level of nutrition is evident from


the present study which indicate that the population having better socio-economic
condition their level of nutrition is also better. In the present study Brahmin reflects
better level of nutrition whereas the poor socioeconomic status of Gond can be
corroborated with their comparatively worst condition of nutritional status. All the
five population included in the present study having different socio-economic
background and different physical built and both of this reflecting in their nutritional
status.

When the whole studied population is compared on the basis of other socio-
economic characteristics of the population like marital status, education, occupation,
dietary habit, family size, family type etc. hardly there is any significance difference
is found which leads to conclude that still in Central India the caste system plays a
greater role in deciding the socio-economic condition and level of nutrition of the
population.

122
CHAPTER VI

CONCLUSIONS

123
123
In the present study a total of 258 individuals of five different
caste/ethnic group viz. Brahmin (51), Ahirwar (50), Gond (56), Lodhi (56) and
Muslim (51) were studied for Anthropometric and nutritional characteristic. The
sample was drawn from rural as well as urban settlements. Beside taking 15
Anthropometric measurements (Weight, Stature, Sitting Height, Head Length, Head
Breadth, Frontal Breadth, Bizygomatic Breadth, Bigonial Breadth, Nasal Height,
Nasal Breadth, Total Facial height, Upper Facial Height, Head Circumference, Chest
Girth, Hip Girth) the respondents were also interviewed for their socio-economic and
demographic background and morbidity conditions. The findings of the present study
were concluded as follows:

1. The mean stature of Central Indian Population was found to be 165.95 cm,
average sitting height was recorded as 84.39 cm. The inter population
difference was observed in both the anthropometric trait inversely to as quoted
in previous literature. The Ahirwar were found tallest with 167.86cm mean
stature. Most of the population was falling in the category of lower medium to
upper medium category of stature.

Stature

M B

164.88 165.49 B Brahmin


A - Ahirwar
G - Gond
L - Lodhi
L 167.26 167.86 A M - Muslim

164.48

2. The mean weight for the total Central Indian Population was computed to be
52.62 kg which shows an increment of 1.09 kg of weight from previously
estimated mean weight for the population of Sagar district (Gautam et al., 2006).

124
The inter population difference was also observed as the Lodhi were found to be
heaviest with 54.4 kg and the Gond were lightest with 49.8 kg mean weight.

Weight

M B B Brahmin
A - Ahirwar
51.59 53.79 G - Gond
L - Lodhi
M - Muslim
L 54.4 53.85

A
49.8

3. The mean chest circumference for total Central Indian Population was computed
as 81.13 cm and Hip circumference was found to be 72.88 cm. In both the
Anthopometric trait the inter population difference was observed. Lodhi had
largest hip circumference (74.87 cm) and the Gond had lowest (71.67 cm).

Hip Circumference Chest Circumference

M B M B

72.43 71.95 80.9 80.95

74.87 73.66 80.75 81.94


L A L A
71.67 81.12

G G

4. The relative chest girth index was computed as 48.94, although minute inter
population difference was observed. On the basis of chest circumference a total
of 72.9% population were categorized as narrow chest followed by medium
chest (22.9%) and only 4.2% were with broad chest.

125
4.2%

22.9 %

1
72.9 %
2
3

5. The mean head length was estimated to be 18.59 and mean head breadth was
found to be 14.08 cm for the total population. The cephalic index was
computed which shows inter population variation in mean value. Almost 50%
of the total population were dolicocephalic and slightly more than one third
(35.4%) were categorized as mesocephalic.

0.8%

8.7% 5.5%

Hyperdolicocephalic
Dolicocephalic
35.4% 49.6%
Mesocephalic
Brachycephalic
Hyperbrachycephalic

6. Jugofrontal index and Jugo mandibular index shows that most of the Central
Indian Populations were broad to very broad faced. Although inter population
difference was observed.

1.9%

13.6%

Medium
84.4% Broad
Very broad

126
7. Morphological Total Facial Index was computed. The mean value for the index
for the Central Indian Population was found to be 87.10 cm. On the basis of
this index most of the population was categorized into Euryprosopic,
Mesoprosopic and Leptoprosopic face type.

9.3%
15.5% Hypereuryprosopic
20.9% Euryprosopic
27.5% Mesoprosopic
26.7% Leptoprosopic
Hyperleptoprosopic

8. Morphological upper facial index for Central Indian Population was found to
be 50.53 cm. On the basis of this index most of Central Indian Population falls
in Euryene, Mesene and Leptene face type but almost half of the population
(48.8%) were categorized into Mesene face type.

3.50%

7%

20.90%
19.80%

Hypereuryene
Euryene
48.80%
Mesene
Leptene
Hyperleptene

9. The mean nasal breadth vary from 3.6 cm among Muslim to 3.84 cm among
Gond and Brahmin, though cm for the total Central Indian Population it was
estimated to be 3.78. In the same way nasal height vary from 4.26 cm among
Gond to 4.73 cm among Muslim where as the mean nasal height for total
Central Indian Population was found to be 4.47 cm.

127
Nasal Height Nasal Breadth

M B
B B Brahmin
M B
A - Ahirwar
4.39 3.84 G - Gond
4.73 3.69
L - Lodhi
M - Muslim

4.46 4.55 3.73 3.8


A L
L A
4.26 3.84

G G

10. The nasal index was computed for each individual and mean value of nasal
index was computed as 85.51 cm for the total population.The mean value of
nasal index widely vary from 78.28 cm among Muslim to 91.45 among Gond.
On the basis of nasal index most of the population was categorized into
mesorrhine and Platyrrhine nose type.

5%
13.20%

Leptorhine
47.30%
34.50% Mesorrhine
Platyrrhine
Hyper platyrrhine

11. Nutritional assessment of the present studied population was done using Body
mass index (BMI). The mean BMI of Central Indian Population was 19.11
which vary from 18.41 among Gond to 19.67 among Brahmins. These values
were found to be lower than that of well to do individuals in India (Bharti,
1989; Khongsdier, 1997; Reddy, 1998).

128
M B

18.98
19.67 B Brahmin
Brahmin
A - Ahirwar
Chamar
Ahirwar
G - Gond
Gond
L L - Lodhi
19.46 19.09 Lodhi
M - Muslim
Muslim
A
18.41

12. On the basis of BMI the population was categorized into different grade of
CED. This study indicates that 43.3% population was suffering from different
grades of CED.

The present study was confined to very limited geographical area i.e. only one
district viz. Sagar. Furthermore only three villages and two urban settlement of the
district were covered. Therefore the findings of the present study can be generalized.

When the whole studied population was compared on the basis of other socio-
economic characteristics of the population like marital status, education, occupation,
dietary habit, family size, family type etc. hardly there is any significant difference
found.It leads to the conclusion that still in Central India the caste system plays a greater
role in deciding the socio-economic condition and level of nutrition of the population.

This kind of study in larger geographical area with larger sample size can help
to reach in better conclusion. Although the present study clearly indicates that the
population studied largely fall under chronic energy deficiency grade. Their level of
nutrition was poor and needs immediate interventions. It can be suggested that the
overall socio-economic development of the region can change the scenario.
Simultaneously particular caste and community can also be targeted as tribal,
scheduled caste and Muslim are still lagging behind in comparison to others.

129
CHAPTER VII

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