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A method to generate biocementation in sand using the microbially induced carbonate precipitation
(MICP) process and calcium source produced from eggshell is presented in this paper. Instead of using
calcium chloride or other calcium salts, soluble calcium was produced by mixing eggshell with vinegar
and used for the MICP process. The compressive strength and permeability of sand treated using this
method were measured using unconfined compression and permeability tests. A comparative study
between sand samples treated using calcium produced from eggshell and those using calcium chloride
with the same concentration of calcium was carried out. The study shows that the effect of the MICP
process using calcium produced from eggshell is just as good as that using calcium chloride. The
optimum ratio of eggshell and vinegar for the MICP process was established.

Abstract A large number of human activities and natural process creates disturbance in concrete
structures that ultimately reduces the service life of a structure. The cement industry produces about 5%
of the global anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Calcium carbonate is one of the most
common minerals widespread on earth. Microbial induced carbonate precipitation is a process by which
living organisms produces inorganic solids. Bacteria are incredibly diverse and abundant and many
bacterial species contribute to the precipitation of mineral carbonates in various natural environments.
Production occurs in an alkaline environment and which leads to calcite precipitation. The hydrolysis of
urea by the enzyme urease is unique in that it is one of the few biologically occurring reactions that can
generate carbonates. The ubiquity and importance of microbes in inducing calcite precipitation make
Bio cement a most important metabolic product of Biomineralization which can remediate and restore
such structure. Feasibility studies on the use of sludge to produce cement as a means of ultimate sludge
disposal have been initiated.

The concept of using biological process in soil improvement which is known as bio-mediated soil
improvement technique has shown greater potential in geotechnical engineering applications in terms of
performance and environmental sustainability. This paper presents a review on the soil microorganisms
responsible for this process, and factors that affect their metabolic activities and geometric compatibility
with the soil particle sizes. Two mechanisms of biomineralization, i.e. biologically controlled and biologically
induced mineralization, were also discussed. Environmental and other factors that may be
encountered in situ during microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP) and their influences on the
process were identified and presented. Improvements in the engineering properties of soil such as
strength/stiffness and permeability as evaluated in some studies were explored. Potential applications of
the process in geotechnical engineering and the challenges of field application of the process were