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and Torsion

Paper by BRUCE G. JOHNSTON (2nd Quarter, 1982)

Bruce Johnston has provided an excellent extension of the

subject of W-shapes subjected to torsion. With his detailed

charts of the torsional functions

GJ lECu

M \ GJ

GJ

and

9

GJ far

M V ECW

the computation of flexural stresses due to torsion (so-called

warping torsion) is certainly simplified

Mention is made in the paper of the modified flexure

analogy method having a correction factor /?, first presented

by this writer in class in 1964 and published in 1971.1

Because the thinking required for the flexure analogy is a

more basic tool of the structural analyst, it may be of interest

to present a few additional comments.

The flexure analogy treats the applied torsional moment

M as a couple acting in the planes of the two flanges; thus,

the flange force acting in the plane of each flange is M/h,

where h is the distance center-to-center of flanges. One

flange is then treated as loaded in its plane by the force

M/h. For instance, in Johnston's Fig. 5 the lateral force

M/h acts as a concentrated load at a distance a from the left

end, making the simple beam bending moment on the

flange plate

h \L

as shown in Johnston's Fig. 6. The simple flexure analogy

is always conservative (see dashed line of Fig. 6), i.e., it

overestimates the bending normal stress (which occurs at

one side of the flange plate).

The flexure analogy, however, has the advantage that

engineers tend to think in terms of ordinary bending mo-

ment rather than in terms of the torsional functions; thus,

the calculation of Mj is simple. The overestimate of bending

moment depends on the torsional properties of the section

of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin.

215

FOURTH QUARTER / 1982

,! 3. Modified flexure analogy using /3 factor (Johnston

Refs. 1 and 4).

^_.,..,4I 4. Flexure analogy without any /? correction (always

(1)

conservative).

The structural analyst probably has the best tool in

area 1 Johnston's method, which includes the greatest variety of

Shear due Jv cases available, but a thorough study of the differential

equation and the flexure analogy concept should also be

included.

REFERENCE

shesrr US>K# ... 1. Salmon, Charles G. and John E. Johnson Steel Structures:

Design and Analysis International Textbook Co., Scranton,

&>/** rift**** Pa., 1971,pp. 380-397.

gqua-hon

Figure 1

the torsional functions resulting from the differential

equations.

In order to reduce the lateral load bending moment Mj

from its conservative simple flexure analogy value to its

correct value (accounting for the torsional differential

equation solution), this writer introduced the symbol /? as

a reduction factor to be applied. Thus, Mj as would be

obtained from the differential equation becomes

Mj = j3 (Mj from simple flexure analogy)

The j8 adjustment values for several cases were presented

in Salmon & Johnson. 1 P. H. Lin (Johnston Ref. 4) pre-

sented the /? modified flexure analogy (without mention

of the original source), and provided additional loading

cases with greatly expanded /? tables.

When the flexure analogy without /3 is applied as in

Johnston's Fig. 5, the lateral loading of one flange is a

concentrated load at a from the left as in Fig. 1(a). The

shear due to that load would be constant [equal to ( M /

h)(b/L) over segment a], as in Fig. 1(b). Ordinary flexure

theory gives the maximum bending moment as the area

(area 1) of the shear diagram from the left end to the con-

centrated load; thus,

M

A* lb\

For the real torsional problem, the shear area to give the

true lateral flexural moment Mj is not the entire shear area

due to torsion, but only the warping torsional shear, indi-

cated by area 2 on Fig. 1 (c). The ratio between area 2 and

area 1 is the factor /3.

In summary, four approaches seem open to the ana-

lyst:

1. Johnston torsional function graphs (paper being

discussed).

2. Hotchkiss approach (Johnston Ref. 3).

216

ENGINEERING JOURNAL / AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

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