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GENERAL CHEMISTRY

CHM02 / G203

Experiment 2:
Effect of Nature of Solute and Solvent on Solubility

Score:

PDS:

Front page:

Discussion:

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Conclusion:
Group No. 3
Discussion

Solubility is the maximum amount of a substance that will dissolve in a given amount of
solvent. There are two factors that affect solubility: temperature and pressure. While temperature
affects the solubility of both solids and gases, only pressure affects the solubility of gases. The
relation between the solute and solvent is very important in determining solubility. Strong solute-
solvent attractions equate to greater solubility while weak solute-solvent attractions equate to
lesser solubility. A general rule to remember is, "Like dissolves like."

Dealing with a solid solute and a liquid solvent, the solute dissolves when the molecules
of both are similar enough in polarity according to the same like dissolves like adage. The
same idea applies to the interactions between two liquids. If two liquids with similar polarities
are combined, the liquids are miscible with each other, forming a homogeneous mixture.

In the experiment, the researchers were able to know the effect of nature of solute and
solvent in solubility. Testing the solubility of solids in liquids in part A, the researchers used
0.15g of sodium chloride and naphthalene placed in separate micro test tube, and stirred in water
and kerosene as the solvent. The result of this part of the experimentation is shown on table 1.1.
The part B of the experimentation goes with testing the solubility of liquids in another liquid.
The researchers used ethyl alcohol and coconut oil, each in separate micro test tube, and stirred
in water and kerosene as the solvent. In this part of the experiment, the task was to find out if the
liquids are miscible in the given solvent. The results are shown on table 1.2. In part C, the
observation of the solubility of gas in liquid by opening a soft drink in can was conducted.

Solute Water Kerosene

Sodium Chloride soluble Insoluble

Naphthalene insoluble Soluble


Table 1.1 Solubility of Solid in Liquid
Solute Water Kerosene

Ethyl alcohol miscible Immiscible

Coconut oil immiscible Miscible


Table 1.2 Solubility of Liquid in another Liquid

Conclusion

In the experiment, the researchers were able to identify the effect of nature of solute and
solvent in solubility. After looking through the data collected from the experiment, the
researchers were able to conclude that if the polarity between the solute and the solvent are
similar enough, the solute dissolves in liquid and forms a homogeneous mixture, while the
difference between the polarity of the solute and solvent will result to immiscibility.