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4/11/2017 ImplicitandExplicitfiniteelementmethod|iMechanica

ImplicitandExplicitfiniteelementmethod
Mon,2009050414:24vijay310105
education
iamnotclearaboutimplicitandexplicitFEM
kindlyletmeknowthedifferenceoftwoandwheretousewhichone

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Comments
differencebetweenexplicitandimplicitFEM
PermalinkSubmittedbyyawlouonMon,2009050415:34.

Hello,

ThefollowingishowIunderstandit.Ihavedonesomeofbothingraduateschool.Thefollowingisa
briefanswer,sincethiswouldtakealottoanswerthoroughly.

1.PreliminarycommentsregardingtheincrementalnatureofExplicitandImplicitAnalysis

Ageometricand/ormaterialnonlinearanalysisrequiresincrementalload(ordisplacement)steps.Attheendof
eachincrementthestructuregeometrychangesandpossiblythematerialisnonlinearorthematerialhas
yielded.Eachofthesethings,geometrychangeormaterialchange,maythenneedtobeconsideredasyou
updateyourstiffnessmatrixforthenextincrementintheanalysis.

2.Explicit

AnExplicitFEManalysisdoestheincrementalprocedureandattheendofeachincrementupdatesthestiffness
matrixbasedongeometrychanges(ifapplicable)andmaterialchanges(ifapplicable).Thenanewstiffness
matrixisconstructedandthenextincrementofload(ordisplacement)isappliedtothesystem.Inthistypeof
analysisthehopeisthatiftheincrementsaresmallenoughtheresultswillbeaccurate.Oneproblemwiththis
methodisthatyoudoneedmanysmallincrementsforgoodaccuracyanditistimeconsuming.Ifthenumberof
incrementsarenotsufficientthesolutiontendstodriftfromthecorrectsolution.Futhermorethistypeof
analysiscannotsolvesomeproblems.Unlessitisquitesophisticateditwillnotsuccessfullydocyclicloadingand
willnothandleproblemsofsnapthroughorsnapback.Perhapsmostimportantly,thismethoddoesnotenforce
equilibriumoftheinternalstructureforceswiththeexternallyappliedloads.

3.Implicit

AnImplicitFEManalysisisthesameasExplicitwiththeadditionthataftereachincrementtheanalysisdoes
NewtonRaphsoniterationstoenforceequilibriumoftheinternalstructureforceswiththeexternallyapplied
loads.Theequilibiriumisusuallyenforcedtosomeuserspecifiedtolerance.Sothisistheprimarydifference
betweenthetwotypesofanlysis,ImplicitusesNewtonRaphsoniterationstoenforceequilibrium.Thistypeof
analysistendstobemoreaccurateandcantakesomewhatbiggerincrementsteps.Also,thistypeofanalysis
canhandleproblemsbettersuchascyclicloading,snapthrough,andsnapbacksolongassophisticatedcontrol
methodssuchasarclengthcontrolorgeneralizeddisplacementcontrolareused.Onedrawbackofthemethod
isthatduringtheNewtonRaphsoniterationsonemustupdateandreconstructthestiffnessmatrixforeach
iteration.Thiscanbecomputationallycostly.(Asaresultthereareothertechniquesthattrytoavoidthiscost
byusingModifiedNewtonRaphsonmethods.)IfdonecorrectlytheNewtonRaphsoniterationswillhavea
quadraticrateofconvergencewhichisverydesireable.

Asuggestion.Ifyou'dliketolearnfurtheraboutthesetwotechniquesitwouldbeinstructiveforyoutouse
bothtechniquesandcompareonthesameproblem.ExplicitcanbedonebysimplyturningoffNewtonRaphson
iterationsinanImplicitroutine,orbysettingtheequilibriumtolerancetoalargenumberinanimplicitroutine.

Astothequestionofwhichmethodtouse,theansweristhatitdepends.Thetypeofanalysisthatissufficient
foryourneedswilldependonthetypeofproblemthatyouaretryingtosolve.Oftentimessincedynamic
analysesarecomputationallyintensivetheyaredonewiththeexplicitmethod.However,forstaticproblemsnow
daysitisbecomingmorecommontodothefullImplicittypeofanalysis.

Nonlinearanalysistakeslotsofexperienceandacarefulunderstandingofwhatyouwanttoaccomplishandalso
acarefulunderstandingoftheanlaysiscapabilitiesofthesoftwareyouaretryingtouse.AsImentionedIhave
workedwiththeabovemethodsofanalysisingraduateschoolandknowalittleaboutit,however,Iwouldbe
happyforothershereatiMechanicawhohavemoreexperiencethanmetogivetheirthoughtsonthisaswell.

http://imechanica.org/node/5396 1/12
4/11/2017 ImplicitandExplicitfiniteelementmethod|iMechanica

Itisindeedaverybigtopicthatisdifficulttocoverinjustabriefblog.YoushouldconsiderlookingatCrisfield's
bookvolume1foradditionalinformation.Also,lookatthefollowinglocationfornonlinearfem
informationhttp://www.colorado.edu/engineering/CAS/courses.d/NFEM.d/Home.html

Ihopethishelps,

Louie

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good
PermalinkSubmittedbysafaeionMon,2009110908:04.

thanks

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thanksalotforthe
PermalinkSubmittedbysriramkonFri,2012022423:54.

thanksalotfortheinformationthatuhaveposted.

usingabaqus/explicitisthatpossibletodomachiningsimulation?

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MachiningsimulationisindeedpossiblewithABAQUS/Explicit.
PermalinkSubmittedbynasonWed,2012091208:24.

Hi,Itisofcoursepossibletosimulatemachiningprocess.Ihaveperformedsimulationofdrillingin
ABAQUS/Explicit

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Yawlou,
PermalinkSubmittedbysdf007xuleionWed,2016021715:01.

Yawlou,

Thanksalot!

Ihavetosaythisisthebest(notoneof)answerformesofartotellabouttheImplicitandExplicit
inAbaqus,CausemanytimeImixedthiswiththeExplicitandImplicitintegrationscheme,that'stotallya
differentstory.

LeiXu

PhDcandidate

TexasA&MUniversity

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Thanksalotforyour
PermalinkSubmittedbynikohjonMon,2009050421:58.

Thanksalotforyourexplanation.

Itisalsoquiteusefulforme.

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ImplicitevsExplicitsolution
PermalinkSubmittedbyPeymanKhosravionFri,2009050819:56.

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4/11/2017 ImplicitandExplicitfiniteelementmethod|iMechanica

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HiVijay


Generallytherearetwomethodstosolveadynamic
equilibriumequationateverytimestep.Onemethodistopredictthesolutionat
timet+dtbyusingthesolutionattimet.Thisiscalledexplicit.Inthis
method,onedoesnotneedtoinversethestiffnessmatrix(seethebookFiniteElementProcedures,1996,
Bathe,page770forexplanation).Thismayseematfirstagoodmethod,however
oneshouldnotethatitisnotstable(i.e.itdivergesfromthecorrect
answer)unlessthetimestepisverysmall.Thisiswhyitiscalled
conditionallystable.Soitisusedonlywhenthetimedurationoftheproblem
isshort(likecrashproblems).


Ontheotherhand,onecansolvetheequationattimet+dt
basedonitself,andalsousingthesolutionwhichhasbeenfoundfortimet.Thisiscalled
implicit,andthemostfamousoneisNewmarkmethod.Inthiscaseyouneedtoinversethestiffnessmatrix(because
of
thenatureoftheequations),howeversinceitcanbeunconditionallystableyou
maybeabletochoosealargertimestep.Thisisagreatadvantage,which
enablesustofinishtheproblemfaster.


Formoreinformationrefertotheabovebook.


Cheers


Peyman
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thewordsexplicitandimplicitusedindynamicsandstatics
PermalinkSubmittedbyyawlouonThu,2009050721:29.

ThanksPeyman

I'mgladthatPeymanhasaddedhiscomments.Myexperienceusingthewordsexplicitandimplicit
hasbeeninthecontextofstaticproblems.However,Peymanhaswiselyaddedcommentsforthe
casewhenthewordsexplicitandimplicitareusedinadynamiccontext.Thisaddedinformationprovidedby
Peymanmakesthediscussionmorecomplete.

regards,

Louie

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4/11/2017 ImplicitandExplicitfiniteelementmethod|iMechanica

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QuestionforLouie
PermalinkSubmittedbykajalschopraonFri,2009050817:57.

DearSir,

Whileyouweretalkingabout"Explicit"analysisabove,yousaid:

"Perhapsmostimportantly,thismethoddoesnotenforceequilibriumoftheinternalstructureforceswiththe
externallyappliedloads."

Ihaveasimplequestion(pleaeexcusemeiffundamentallywrong)

Whileweupgradethestiffnessmatrix,followinggeometryor/andmaterialchange(ifapplicable),wesolveF=
ku,whichindeedistheequilibriumequation,then,howicanwesayequilibriumisnotenforced?

Thanks,

kajal

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answerforkajal
PermalinkSubmittedbyyawlouonFri,2009050820:04.

HiKajal,

InanincrementalanalysistheequationF=kUisreallyF=(kcurrent)u,soyouapplyanincremental
forceandgetanincrementalcorrespondingdisplacementusingthecurrentstiffnessmatrix.The
currentstiffnessmatrixisbasedonthecurrentmaterialpropertiesandpossiblythecurrentgeometryif
significantgeometrychangeshavetakenplace.

Ifyousumupalltheincrementalexternallyappliedforcesandcomparethemtothecurrentinternalforcesthey
willnotbeinequilibrium.

Youareaskingaverygoodquestionthatisoneoftheveryfundamentalissuesofanonlinearstaticanalysis.
Thefactthattheforcesarenotinequilibrium,betweeninternalandexternalforces,istheveryreasonthatwe
mustuseNewtonRaphsoniterationstocorrecteachuuntilexternalandinternalforcesareinequilibriumfor
theloadstepwearecurrentlyworkingon.

AsafirststeptounderstandingthisitwouldbehelpfulforyoutogoovertheNewtonRaphsonmethodfora
singlenonlinearequationf(x).Youmayfindthisinstandardnumericalanalysistextbooks.Thenusuallythe
booksalsodiscusshowtoextendthemethodtoasetofsimultaneousnonlinearequations.Essentially,weare
solvingF=F(u),whereifwelinearizethisequationthestiffnessmatrixk(u)isanonlinearfunctionofu.Wekeep
updatingitanditdoesnotstayconstant.Hence,thesumofourincrementalinternalforcesarenotequaltothe
sumoftheincrementallyappliedexternalforces.

Thisisindeedadifficultthingtoexplaininwords.Youwillneedtoconsultsomenonlinearfiniteelement
textbooksandponderthisforawhile.Perhapsdoasinglebarintensionwithageometricallynonlinearstiffness
equaltok(u)=1+u^2,(thereforesincedf/du=k(u),byintegrationitfollowsthatf(u)=u+u^3/3).Applythree
equalloadincrementsof1uniteach.Theresultsareasfollowsbyrepeatedlyusingtherelationf=k(u)u:

Step1,uo=0,k(uo)=1,f=1,u1=f/k(uo)=1

Step2,u1=uo+u1=1,k(u1)=2,f=1,u2=f/k(u1)=1/2

Step3,u2=u1+u2=1.5,k(u2)=3.25,f=1,u3=f/k(u2)=1/3.25

u3=u2+u31.81

Thesumofexternalappliedforcesis1+1+1=3=Fext

Thecurrentinternalforcesaref(u3)=Fint=(u3+(u3)^3/3)3.79

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4/11/2017 ImplicitandExplicitfiniteelementmethod|iMechanica

HenceitisclearthatFextFint,notinequilibrium.

Tobeclear,myexampleisanillustrationofanexplicitanalysiswithjust3loadsteps.Ifinsteadweapplied6
loadstepsof0.5unitsofforceFintandFextwouldbeclosertoeachotherinvalue.ForanImplicitanalysis,
usingNewtonRaphsoniterations,FintwouldbeequaltoFexttotheprecisionthatwespecify/oratbesttothe
precisionofthecomputer.

IhopethishelpsandhopefullyIdidn'tmakeanycomputationalmistakesabove.

regards,

Louie

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Acorrectiontomypreviouscomment
PermalinkSubmittedbyPeymanKhosravionFri,2009050820:11.

ThanksLouie
Iwouldliketocorrectmypreviouscomment(Ieditedthat):Regardingtheimplicitandexplicit
dynamicanalysismethods,noNewtonRaphsoniterationisrequiredunlesswedealwitha
problemwhichisnonlinearinitsnaturee.g.geometricallynonlinearproblems.Sothemain
differenceasIsaidisinthestabilityofthemethodandrequiredtimestepandinversingstiffenessmatrix.
Overall,explicitemethodsarenotusuallyrecommended.

Anothergoodreferenceischapter20ofthebookwrittenby"EdwardL.Wilson"whichisavailableonhiswebsite
forfree,howeverinsteadoftandt+dtheusestdtandt.Ifyouwanttousethisreference,rememberthatthere
usedtobesometyposinthecoefficientsoftable20.1.Socheckitbeforeusingit.

Thanks

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questionsonlouie'sexample
PermalinkSubmittedbykajalschopraonSat,2009050914:02.

DearSir,

Thankyouverymuchforthereply.

Yousaid:

"Perhapsdoasinglebarintensionwithageometricallynonlinearstiffnessequaltok(u)=1+u^2,(therefore
sincedf/du=k(u),byintegrationitfollowsthatf(u)=u+u^3/3)."

Sorry,ifwhatiamaskingistoostupid:

Iunderstandthatbyintegratingwegetf(u)=u+u^3/3heref(u)istheinternalforce.

1)Canyoushowmetheinternalforceinthebarateverystepofincrementaldisplacementwithoutusingthe
integratedformula.InotherwordsIdonotwantthatf(u1),f(u2),f(u3)tocomefromusingtheintegrated
formulaIwanttophysicallyusesummationtogetfinalinternalforce.Pleaseexcusemeforaskingaentrylevel
question.

2)Basically,withincreaseindisplacement,thestiffnessofthebarshouldreducewhereinyourexampleisthis
degradationofstiffnessreflected?CanyoushowmethereductioninstiffnessatStep1,step2,step3?

Respects,

kajal

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justanexamplefunctiontoillustrateexplicitanalysis
PermalinkSubmittedbyyawlouonSun,2009051015:27.

HiKajal,

http://imechanica.org/node/5396 5/12
4/11/2017 ImplicitandExplicitfiniteelementmethod|iMechanica

Answerstoyourquestions:

1)Fortheexampleasgiven,onecannotcalculatetheinternalforcewithoutusingtheequation.The
problemwouldneedtobemoreelaborateandhavestrainscalculatedandstressstrainrelations
prescribedasisdoneinanormalsolidmechanicsfiniteelementproblem.Thentheinternalstresses
couldbecalculatedfromthoserelations.Fromtheinternalstressestheinternalforcesmaybe
obtained.Thisisoftendonebyusingthecommonexpression"integralofBtransposetimessigma".

2)Thereisnolaworrequirementthatsaysthestiffnessmustdegrade.Infact,fortheexampleIhavegiven,the
stiffnessforthisproblemincreaseswithdisplacement.Stiffeningwithincreasingdisplacementisactuallypossible
inrealproblems,sotheproblemisnottoofarfetched.

AdditionalComments/observations

1.Theexamplegivenwasconstructedtodemonstrateanincrementalexplicitanalysisforasimplestatic
problem.The3stepsprovidedillustratetheincrementalapproachandthefinalcomparisonbetweenthe
externalappliedloadsandthefinalinternalforceshowingthattheexplicitanalysisdoesnotstayinequilibrium.
Moreloadstepswouldberequiredtoachievebetterequilibriumoranimplicitanalysiswouldbeneededto
enforceequilibriumbyusingNewtonRaphsoniterations.

2.Isaythattheexampleisforageometricallynonlinearanalysis,however,thereisreallynothingherethat
establishesitasgeometricallynonlinear.Wecouldjustaseasilyhavesaiditwasmateriallynonlinear,forthis
problem.WhatismostimportantforthepurposesofthisexampleisthatFisaNONLINEARfunctionof
displacement.Anexplicitanalysisisawaytoapproximatelyanalyzethenonlinearproblemasillustrated.It
wouldbehelpfulforyoutoplotloadversusdisplacementcomparingtheexactsolutiontotheexplicitdatapoints
thatarecalculated.Asimplematlabproblemcanbeconstructedtodothisanditwillillustratehowincreasing
thenumberofincrementscanimprovetheresults.

3.TheproblemisjustacontrivedexamplewhereforceisGIVENasanonlinearfunctionofdisplacement.In
generalinanonlinearfiniteelementanalysiswedonothaveanexactclosedformexpressionfortheloadversus
displacement.Insteadwewouldhavetokeeptrackofthestrainsinthestructureweareanalyzingandfrom
thoseinternalstrainswemaycalculatetheinternalstressesandfromthestresseswemaycalculatetheinternal
forces.ThesesstepsarenotshowninthesimpleproblemIhaveposedabove.Theproblemaboveonly
illustratesmanyoftherelevantconceptsassociatedwithforce,stiffness,explicit,implicit,theincrementalnature
ofthesolutionprocedure,externalforces,internalforces,lackofequilibrium,andifsomeonedoesmorestepsit
illustratestheimprovementofresultsbetweenFextandFint.

Ihopethishelps,

Louie

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explicitandimplicitatgloballevelinstaticcontext
PermalinkSubmittedbyyawlouonFri,2009052921:52.

Severalcomments.

1.TobecompleteitmaybehelpfultorecognizethattheexplicitandimplicitmethodsIhave
describedinpreviouspostsaboveareforstaticproblemsatthegloballevel.(Peymanhasmentioned
explicitandimplicitinadynamiccontext)Attheconstitutivelevel(atamaterialpointinthestructure)itisalso
possibletohaveeitherexplicitorimplicitcomputerroutinesthatsolvefortheamountofplasticflowthatthe
materialpointhasundergone(inthecaseofplasticity).Thisprocessattheconstitutivelevelisatalocalmaterial
pointandIhavenotdiscussedthatinmypreviousblogs.Therefore,itishelpfultorealizethatexplicitand
implicitmaybeusedinavarietyofcontexts.

2.ForthesimpleproblemIhavementionedaboveIhavecreatedasmalltutorialthatdescribestheexplicit
methodandtheimplicitmethod.Therearealsomatlabfiles(whichgowiththetutorial)Ihaveconstructed
whichdemonstratetheexplicitandimplicitmethodsforthesimpleproblem.Thetutorialisfairlybasicand
perhapsIwillfindtimetoimproveitovertime,butfornowitisshortandtothepoint.Thefilesmaybefoundat
thefollowinglocation.

http://people.wallawalla.edu/~louie.yaw/nonlinear/

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ThisisforiMechanicaandallindividualswhohaveasinceredesiretolearn.

regards,

Louie

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Solvinglargeplasticdeformationquasistaticproblems
PermalinkSubmittedbySidhuonTue,2010082408:29.

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Whyareimplicit
solvers(implicitFEMsoftware)suchasMSC.Marc,Deform,Forge,arepreferred
(dominates)toexplicitFEM(LSDyna)insolvinglargedeformationquasistatic
problemssuchase.g.incaseofmetalformingwithanexpectationsheetmetal
forming/IHU?

Areexplicit
solvers(LSDyna)arefasterinsolvinglargeplasticdeformationquasistatic
problems?Howabouttheaccuracyoftheresultswhencomparedwithimplicit
solvers?

Areexplicitsolversorcontactalgorithmsusedin
explicitFEM(LSDyna)fasterinElastoPlasticslidecontactwithfriction?

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ThankyouProfLouie
PermalinkSubmittedbykarthic_newbeeonTue,2010082422:21.

DearProfLouie

http://imechanica.org/node/5396 7/12
4/11/2017 ImplicitandExplicitfiniteelementmethod|iMechanica

Yourhandoutsareatreattoread.Verynicelywrittenandclearexplanationsaregiven.

Thankyouverymuchforenhancingourknowledge

Karthic

NTU,singapore

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Fewrelatedqueries
PermalinkSubmittedbysagarfeaonTue,2011052401:02.

Helloeveryone,

Cansomeonepleaseguidemeonthesequeries,sothatitwillbeusefulltoall:

1.WhenweshouldgoforExplicitAnalysis(fewthumbrules).
2.WhatisthedierencebetweenImplicitDynamicsandExplicitDynamics.(isExplicitanalysisis
preferedforalldynamicproblems??)

Wai ngfortheanswer.......!

Sagar

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stiffnessmatrixinexplicitmethod
PermalinkSubmittedbyjulianxqwangonFri,2011080503:23.

HiEveryone,

IhavebeentryingtouseDYNA3Dfordynamicanalysisofveryflexiblestructures.Thediscussionhereisvery
instructive.Ihaveonequestion:intheexplicitmethod,isthetangentorthenonlinearstiffnessmatrixexplicitly
generatedsothatitcanbeoutputornot?Ifnot,isthereanytypeofstiffnessmatrixusedinthesolutionprocess
andcanbeoutput?

Hopesomeoneherecouldgivemearesponse.Thanks!

Julian

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Stiffnessmatrixinexplicitmethod
PermalinkSubmittedbyNachiketGokhaleonFri,2011080511:06.

No,typicallytangentmatricesarenotexplicitlygenerated.I'dbesurprisedifDyna3Ddoesthis.Nachiket

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LimitationofABAQUSforexplicitandimplicitMethod
PermalinkSubmittedbymanojsinghkiranonFri,2012021707:32.

Hieveryone

http://imechanica.org/node/5396 8/12
4/11/2017 ImplicitandExplicitfiniteelementmethod|iMechanica

IamdoingresaechinDamaheMechanics.
IwanttoKnow,HowtheresultveryinExplicitandimplicitFEMinABAQUS.

WhatislimitationtouseABAQUSathighvelocityImpact.

WithRegards
ManojKumar

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Staitcriksandarclength
PermalinkSubmittedbyshijo_iitronWed,2012030702:04.

cansomeonehelpmewithstaticriksmethodandtheassociatedoptionofarclength???

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explicitandimplicitmethods
PermalinkSubmittedbymohamadzareonThu,2013010300:55.

asweknowfiniteelementmethodisamethodforsolvinggifferential
equationsthatgovernedtophysicalproblem.beyondmanyofengineering
problems,isacertaindifferentialequationgovernsthat.forexample
considerheattransferinalongrodthatgoverningequationis"Q/t=k*2
Q/x2"(0)thatQistempratureandtistimeandxiscoordinatealongthe
rod.byusingtayloraproximationwecanwrite:
2Q/x2=(Q(x+x)2*Q(x)+Q(xx))/x2(1)
proof:Q(x+x)=Q(x)+Q'(x)*x+(Q''(x)/2)*x2
Q(xx)=Q(x)Q'(x)*x+(Q''(x)/2)*(x)2=Q(x)Q'(x)*x+(Q''(x)/2)*x2
puttingthisdatatoequation(1),wecanwrite:2Q/x2=Q''(x)
andQ/t=(Q(x,t+t)Q(x,t))/t(2)
maindifferencebetweenexplicitandimplicitmethodstartinherethatinthe
explicitmethodwecalculateequation(0)intime=t.byusingexplicitformulationwe
canwrite:
2Q/x2=(Q(x+x)t2*Q(x)t+Q(xx)t)/x2=(1/k)(Q(x,t+t)Q(x,t))/t
letswenameQ(x,t)=QmtandQ(x+x,t)=Qm+1tQ(x,t+t)=Qmt+1
thatsuperscripttrefertimeandsubscriptmrefertosegmentthatweconsiderfor
solvetheequation(m=acertainelementintherodthatiscreatedbymeshingin
thefiniteelementmethod).
thenwecanwrite:
k*(Qm+1t2*Qmt+Qm1t)/x2=(Qmt+1Qmt)/t(k*t/x2)*(Qm+1t
2*Qmt+Qm1t)+Qmt=Qmt+1(3)
thatasseetempratureattimet+1isexplicitlycalculate,causeweknowall
quantitiesatleftsideofequation(3)attimet(forexampleweknowthetemprature
attheendandstartoftherodattimet=0fromboundarycondition).asshowin
herethisisaprogressiveprocedurethatdontsatisfytheequilibiriumoftemperature
inalloftherod,butsatisfythisincertainlevel.
whatabouttheimplicitmethod?
intheimplicitmethodtheequation(0)issolvedattimet+t.letthinkingabout
this.
wecanwriteequation(1)attimet+t(orforsimplicityt+1):

k*(Qm+1t+12*Qmt+1+Qm1t+1)/x2=(Qmt+1Qmt)/t(k*t/x2)* 9/12
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4/11/2017 ImplicitandExplicitfiniteelementmethod|iMechanica

k*(Qm+1t+12*Qmt+1+Qm1t+1)/x2=(Qmt+1Qmt)/t(k*t/x2)*
(Qm+1t+12*Qmt+1+Qm1t+1)+Qmt=Qmt+1(4)
asseeinaboveequatin(4)forsolvingthisequationandobtaintemperatureattime
t+1atcertainlocation,weneedtoknowallquantitiesattheleftsideofequation(4)
intimet+1.causewedontknowatfirstthisquantitiesattimet+1(ouroubject
reallyisobtainthisvaluesattimet+1),weshouldsolveasetofequationtoobtain
solution.byenforcingboundaryconditionattheendandstartoftherod,wecan
solveheattransferequation.asyouseeusingtheimplicitmethodsatisfytheheat
equilibiriumatalllocationoftherod.sincewemustsolveasetofequationinthis
method,thecalculationtimeismorethanexplicitmethod,particularywhenour
problem'sdomainisrelativelylarge.reallyinheatconductionproblem,ifwedevide
therodtonelement,weshouldsolvensimultaneousequationtoobtaingsolutionin
eachtimesteps.ifourproblembe2or3dimensionalproblem,andineachnodesof
thedomainaftermeshing,wehavecertaindegreesoffreedom,theadvantagesof
usingexplicitemetodapear.causeforimplicitmethodweshouldsolve(n=number
ofnodes)*(dof)simultaneousequationforobtainsolutionateachstep.
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ExplicitvsImplicitformaterialpropertiesvaryingwithtime
PermalinkSubmittedbyBMEstudentonTue,2012070320:09.

Hiall,

Ifollowedcommentsonthistopic.Iknowaboutmathematical
backgroundofbothmethodsandlittlebitandstabilityandconditional
stabilityofthesemethods.Ihaveageneralquestionaboutmaterial
nonlinearityandchoosingbetweenoneofthesemethods.

I'mmodelingaviscoelasticmaterialinAbaqus.Asyouknowthis
typeofmaterialishistorydependentmaterialandbasedonthisfactmy
supervisorsayssinceinexplicitmethod,weupdatematerialpropertiesineach
stepdirectlyfrompreviousstep,weshoulduseexplicitprocedureandnot
implicitone.MathematicallyIthink,providingpropertimestepsforboth
methods,theresultsshouldnotdifferbutIcannotanswerphilosophicallymy
supervisor!Whatdoyouguysthink?

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Crisfield'sbook
PermalinkSubmittedbymahmoodserajionWed,2012091222:32.

Dearyawlou

Wouldyoupleasegivesomemoreinformationabouttheintroducedbookof(Crisfield'sbookvolume1)?

Thanks

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Crisfield'sbooks
PermalinkSubmittedbyyawlouonWed,2012092618:23.

TheCrisfieldbooksImentionedareasfollows:

M.A.Crisfield,Essentials,Volume1,NonLinearFiniteElementAnalysis
ofSolidsandStructures,Wiley,1996

M.A.Crisfield,AdvancedTopics,Volume2,NonLinearFiniteElementAnalysisof 10/12
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4/11/2017 ImplicitandExplicitfiniteelementmethod|iMechanica

M.A.Crisfield,AdvancedTopics,Volume2,NonLinearFiniteElementAnalysisof
SolidsandStructures,Wiley,1997

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Thanksalotdearyawlou.
PermalinkSubmittedbymahmoodserajionTue,2012101600:28.

Thanksalotdearyawlou.

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Arclengthmethod
PermalinkSubmittedbyirushdieonWed,2012092601:11.

CananyonepleasetellmethealogotithmforERamm'sarclengthmethod.Iamusingthefollowingtypeof
algorithmbutamnotgettingthecorrectresult

u{0},lamda=0

Fext

nnoofsteps

Kg(stiffnesswithu{0})

u1=(Kg)^1*Fext'

[LD]=ldl(Kg)

m=det(D)

arc_length=norm(u1)

lamda=0.1*arc_length/sqrt(u1'*u1+1)

ifm<0

lamda=lamda

end

u=lamda*u1

iterations:

Kg(u{0}+u)

Fint(u{0}+u)

Fres=Fintlamda*Fext

ur=inv(Kg)*Fres'

u1=inv(Kg)*Fext

del_lamda=(u'*ur)/(u'*u1)

del_ur=ur+del_lamda*u1

u==u+del_ur

lamda=lamda+del_lamda

ifnorm(Fres)<10^5)

end

u{0}=u{0}+u

http://imechanica.org/node/5396 11/12
4/11/2017 ImplicitandExplicitfiniteelementmethod|iMechanica

iflamda>=2

end

Sopleasehelpme..Waitingforthesolutioneagerly.

Thanks

MdRushdieIbneIslam

http://imechanica.org/node/5396 12/12