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Analog Transmission

Outline
 Aspects of Digital-to-Analog Conversion
 Amplitude Shift Keying
 Frequency Shift Keying
 Phase Shift Keying
 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

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Digital-to-Analog Conversion
 Required to send digital data over a band-
pass channel
 Also known as modulation

(band-pass channel)

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Carrier Signals
 Carrier signal is a high-frequency signal
acting as a base for information signal
 Also known as "Carrier Frequency"

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Sine Waves Revisited
signal strength

period
T = 1/f
peak
amplitude

time

 General form: x(t) = Asin(2ft + )


phase / phase shift

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Conversion Techniques

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Bit Rate vs. Baud Rate
 Bit rate the number of bits per second
 Baud rate the number of signal elements per
second.

 In the analog transmission of digital data, the


baud rate is less than or equal to the bit rate

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Example 5.2
An analog signal has a bit rate of 8000 bps and a baud
rate of 1000 baud. How many data elements are
carried by each signal element? How many different
signal elements do we need?
Solution
In this example, S = 1000, N = 8000, and r and L are
unknown. We find first the value of r and then the value
of L.

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Binary Amplitude Shift Keying
 Or Binary ASK
 Simplest form On-Off Keying (OOK)

fc Carrier frequency
0 <d<1

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Implementation of Binary ASK

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Example 5.3
We have an available bandwidth of 100 kHz which
spans from 200 to 300 kHz. What are the carrier
frequency and the bit rate if we modulated our data by
using ASK with d = 1?
Solution
The middle of the bandwidth is located at 250 kHz. This
means that our carrier frequency can be at fc = 250 kHz.
We can use the formula for bandwidth to find the bit rate
(with d = 1 and r = 1).

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Full-Duplex ASK
 Bandwidth can be divided into two to
support full-duplex communication
 Two carrier frequencies are used

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Binary Frequency Shift Keying
 Or Binary FSK

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Implementation of Binary FSK

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Multilevel FSK
 Use one frequency to send more than one
bit at a time
 E.g., the whole bandwidth divided into 8
frequency ranges

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Binary Phase Shift Keying
 Or Binary PSK

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Implementation of Binary PSK

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Quadrature PSK
 Each signal element carries 2 bits

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Implementation of QPSK

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Example 5.7
Find the bandwidth for a signal transmitting at 12
Mbps for QPSK. The value of d = 0.

Solution
For QPSK, 2 bits is carried by one signal element. This
means that r = 2. So the signal rate (baud rate) is S = N
(1/r) = 6 Mbaud. With a value of d = 0, we have B = S = 6
MHz.

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Constellation Diagrams
 A constellation diagram helps define the
amplitude and phase of a signal element

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Example 5.8
 Show the constellation diagrams for OOK,
BPSK, and QPSK modulations

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Constellation Diagram for 8-PSK

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Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
 Or QAM
 A combination of ASK and PSK

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Telephone Line Bandwidth

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V.32 and V.32bis Modem Standards

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Analog-to-Analog Conversion
 Process of transmitting analog information
by an analog signal
 Although the signal is already analog,
modulation is needed if a band-pass
channel is available to us.

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Types of Analog-to-Analog Modulations

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Amplitude Modulation (AM)

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AM Band Allocation

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Frequency Modulation (FM)

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FM Band Allocation

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Phase Modulation (PM)
 Considered a variation of FM

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The End !
Thank You!

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Try It!....
An analog signal has a bit rate of 16,000 bps and a
baud rate of 1000 baud.
How many data elements are carried by each signal
element and how many different signal elements do we
need?

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