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W5 - Analog

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- Introduction to Modulation and Demodulation

You are on page 1of 35

Outline

Aspects of Digital-to-Analog Conversion

Amplitude Shift Keying

Frequency Shift Keying

Phase Shift Keying

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

2

Digital-to-Analog Conversion

Required to send digital data over a band-

pass channel

Also known as modulation

(band-pass channel)

3

Carrier Signals

Carrier signal is a high-frequency signal

acting as a base for information signal

Also known as "Carrier Frequency"

4

Sine Waves Revisited

signal strength

period

T = 1/f

peak

amplitude

time

phase / phase shift

5

Conversion Techniques

6

Bit Rate vs. Baud Rate

Bit rate the number of bits per second

Baud rate the number of signal elements per

second.

baud rate is less than or equal to the bit rate

7

Example 5.2

An analog signal has a bit rate of 8000 bps and a baud

rate of 1000 baud. How many data elements are

carried by each signal element? How many different

signal elements do we need?

Solution

In this example, S = 1000, N = 8000, and r and L are

unknown. We find first the value of r and then the value

of L.

8

Binary Amplitude Shift Keying

Or Binary ASK

Simplest form On-Off Keying (OOK)

fc Carrier frequency

0 <d<1

9

Implementation of Binary ASK

10

Example 5.3

We have an available bandwidth of 100 kHz which

spans from 200 to 300 kHz. What are the carrier

frequency and the bit rate if we modulated our data by

using ASK with d = 1?

Solution

The middle of the bandwidth is located at 250 kHz. This

means that our carrier frequency can be at fc = 250 kHz.

We can use the formula for bandwidth to find the bit rate

(with d = 1 and r = 1).

11

Full-Duplex ASK

Bandwidth can be divided into two to

support full-duplex communication

Two carrier frequencies are used

12

Binary Frequency Shift Keying

Or Binary FSK

13

Implementation of Binary FSK

14

Multilevel FSK

Use one frequency to send more than one

bit at a time

E.g., the whole bandwidth divided into 8

frequency ranges

15

Binary Phase Shift Keying

Or Binary PSK

16

Implementation of Binary PSK

17

Quadrature PSK

Each signal element carries 2 bits

18

Implementation of QPSK

19

Example 5.7

Find the bandwidth for a signal transmitting at 12

Mbps for QPSK. The value of d = 0.

Solution

For QPSK, 2 bits is carried by one signal element. This

means that r = 2. So the signal rate (baud rate) is S = N

(1/r) = 6 Mbaud. With a value of d = 0, we have B = S = 6

MHz.

20

Constellation Diagrams

A constellation diagram helps define the

amplitude and phase of a signal element

21

Example 5.8

Show the constellation diagrams for OOK,

BPSK, and QPSK modulations

22

Constellation Diagram for 8-PSK

23

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

Or QAM

A combination of ASK and PSK

24

Telephone Line Bandwidth

25

V.32 and V.32bis Modem Standards

26

Analog-to-Analog Conversion

Process of transmitting analog information

by an analog signal

Although the signal is already analog,

modulation is needed if a band-pass

channel is available to us.

27

Types of Analog-to-Analog Modulations

28

Amplitude Modulation (AM)

29

AM Band Allocation

30

Frequency Modulation (FM)

31

FM Band Allocation

32

Phase Modulation (PM)

Considered a variation of FM

33

The End !

Thank You!

34

Try It!....

An analog signal has a bit rate of 16,000 bps and a

baud rate of 1000 baud.

How many data elements are carried by each signal

element and how many different signal elements do we

need?

35

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