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5 types of probability sampling (1) Simple Random Sampling (2) Stratied Random NO. OF TERMS

Sampling (3) Systematic Sampling (4) 26

DIsproportional Sampling (5) cluster sampling UPLOAD DATE

February 23rd, 2014
Simple Random Sampling SRS - every member of a population has an equal
chance of being selected. ex. computer generated

Stratied Random Sampling is another type of sampling technique that rst

divides the whole population into homogeneous
subgroups and then a random sample is taken from
each of the subgroups. For example, if I wanted to
determine the e*ects of a treatment on di*erent
categories of patients from the general population.
First, the population would be divided into these
categories and then from each of these categories a
sample would be selected.

Systematic Sampling is still another approach in which the researcher

decides where they want to begin sampling and then
sample at periodic intervals thereafter. This is the
type of sampling that is used when there are lists in
either alphabetical order or in numerical order. Here For Teachers:
you can state that you are going to begin the Help your students learn more
sampling at the rst name beginning with C or at e*ectively.
some number and then select every tenth name Find out how

Disproportional Sampling is used when there is advance knowledge that the Study these ashcards on your
groups to be compared are of unequal size in the mobile device.
population. For example, if you want to examine and View our list of apps
compare individuals that are 30 to 50 years old with
individuals that are 80 to 100 years old, obviously,
there are more individuals in the 30 to 50 year range
than are in the 80 to 100 year range. If you select an
equal number of subjects from both groups, there is
a proportional di*erence between the numbers you
select and the actual number in that group. This
di*erence presents problems with data analysis and
generalizations, because one group will be
overrepresented and the other underrepresented.
This problem, however, can be remedied by weighing

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the data of one group di*erently from data from the

other group.

Cluster Sampling can be used when looking at a very large population

where it may be very di=cult or even impractical to
list the entire population. In cluster sampling, there is
a random selection of a series of populations. For
example, the study population of interest is
composed of individuals with chronic back pain that
are admitted to the hospital more than one time per
year for back pain. With cluster sampling the rst
thing that would be done is to randomly sample a
certain number of states, lets say 15. Next, we select
by random sampling 200 hospitals from those 15
states. From these 200 hospitals, we select 20
hospitals by way of random sampling and use the
inpatient admission records from these 20 hospitals
for data collection.

6 types of non-probability sampling 1. Convenience sampling

2. Purposive sampling

3. Expert sampling

4. Quota sampling

5. Heterogeneity sampling

6. Snowball sampling

Convenience Sampling is used when subjects are readily available. When a

researcher uses students within a class or when
there is a sign-up sheet for research volunteers,
these samples thus collected are samples of
convenience. These samples are often used for
research in the academic setting, especially for
graduate student research projects as part of
professional OT and PT programs. Anytime
volunteers are the primary way that the researcher
gets the sample, it is called a convenience sample.
Remember that anyone that volunteers MUST meet
the inclusion and exclusion criteria for the study. If
the volunteer does not meet the criteria, s/he cannot
be part of the study

Purposive Sampling is when the researcher (or sometimes the student

researchers advisor!) actually hand picks subjects
because they meet a specic criteria. For example,
studies that pick subjects based on a specic
disease or a specic age or income or educational
level use purposive samples.

Expert Sampling is when the sample is conned to individuals who

are experts in some area. For example, if you are
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developing a survey on ethics when treating the

elderly, you might use experts in ethics to review the
questions within the sample. Expert sampling is also
used in the design stages of survey instruments for
establishing content validity. An example that has
recently been used to establish consensus on clinical
entities such as spinal instability is the Delphi
analysiswhere three rounds of consecutive surveys
among expert clinicians establish a consensus on
signs and symptoms considered relevant.

Quota Sampling is a non-random selection where there is a xed

quota set and when the quota is reached sampling
stops. Quota sampling can be proportional in which
a specic percentage of the subjects show one
characteristic and another percentage show another
characteristic. For example, you might set a quota so
that your sample contains 40% athletes and 60%
non-athletes because your study population contains
these percentages of athletes and non-athletes
engaged in a specic activity. Quota sampling can
also be non-proportional, in which a number of
samples is set and selection stopped when that
number has been reached.

Snowball sampling is used when subjects are very hard to nd or locate.

This sample relies on a referral chain in which a few
subjects identify others to increase your overall
study sample.

List the 4 Di*erent scales from lowest to highest Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, Ration

3 Characteristics of distinguishing measurement (1) Order Higher numbers represent greater

scales amounts of a characteristic being measured (2)
Distance The magnitude of di*erence between
successive numbers is equal
(3) Origin The number 0 represents absence of
measured characteristic

Nominal level Possesses none of the 3 characteristics, no value on

categories, no math/statistics except number of
subjects and proportion. Examples: gender, blood
type, marital status

Ordinal level has order; ranking scale. No distance. Indicates

more or less of a certain characteristic. Ex. pain
scales, analog scales for functional measures

Interval level Has order and distance but no zero value. We can
add or subtract values but can use on a scale to
determine actual quantity. Can't do multiplication or
division. Ex. age (in calendar years) and temperature

Ratio level has all the characteristics. Numbers are actual

amounts of the variable it is measuring. Ex. strength
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test with dynamometers, goniometers, Blood


Sensitivity SnOUT : with highly Sensitive tests, a negative result

will rule a disorder OUT

Specicity SpIN : with highly Specic tests, a positive result will

rule a disorder IN

Face Validity It is exactly what it seems from the name, i.e., does
the, test on face value, seem to test what it purports
to measure?

Content Validity is the adequacy with which a theoretical domain or

universe of content is sampled or represented by a
specic test or measure.

Criterion Validity refers to the fact that we are comparing a test or

measure to a test that is commonly considered the
best test available.

4 types of criterion validity (1) Conversion - degree of similarity between similar

tests (2) Divergent - degree of dissimilarity of tests
that should be di*erent (3) predictive - the extent a
test can forecast a future event or criterion (4)
concurrent - degree in which one test give similar
outcomes taken multiple times

Reliability can be dened as the extent to which a

measurement obtained by doing a test or measure is
consistent and free of error.

Types of reliability (1) Parallel/alternate forms - di*erent tests should

give same results by one person (2) internal
consistency - multiple questions for the same
subject should be answered similarly (3)test-retest -
repeatability of measurements at di*erent times (4)

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