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INDEX

a) ABSTRACT i
b) LIST OF FIGURES ii
c) LIST OF TABLES iii

1) INTRODUCTION 1-2
1.1 Significance 1
1.2 Background 1
1.3 Scope 1

2) LITERATURE REVIEW 3-4


2.1 History 3
2.2 Comparison with existing implementations 3

2.3 Problem Definition 4


3) SYSTEM REQUIREMENT AND ANALYSIS 5-14

3.1 Hardware Requirements 5


3.2 Microcontroller AT89S51 6
3.3 LCD Display 7

3.4 Power Supply 10


3.5 Enter and Exit Circuits 12
3.6 Proximity Sensors 14
4) METHODOLOGY 15-18

4.1 Block Diagram 15


4.2 Circuit Diagram 16
4.3 Working 16
5) IMPLEMENTATION OF HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE 19-31

6) DISCUSSION AND RESULTS 32-37

7) CONCLUSION 38

REFERENCES 39
APPENDIX 40-42
LIST OF Figure No. Name of Figure Page No.
FIGURES Sr.
No.
1 3.1 AT89S51 Pin 6
Diagram
2 3.2 LCD Display 8
3 3.3 Block Diagram of a 10
regulated power
supply system
4 3.4 Input and Output of 10
a Transformer
5 3.5 Transformer 11
Rectifier
characteristics
6 3.6 Transformer 11
Rectifier Smoothing
Characteristics
7 3.7 Transformer 11
Rectifier Smoothing
Regulator
characteristics
8 3.8 Using the Transistor 13
Switch with
Sensors1
9 3.9 Using the Transistor 13
Switch with
Sensors2
10 3.10 Basic proximity 14
sensor
11 4.1 Block Diagram 15
12 4.2 Circuit Diagram 16
13 5.1 Ki-CAD interface 20
14 5.2 PCB layout 24
15 5.3 BASCOM Software 30
16 5.4 Hardware 31
Simulation
17 6.1 Complete TX-RX 36
Circuit
18 6.2 Optocoupler Not 37
Working When
Object Is Not
Present
19 6.3 Optocoupler 37
Working When
Object is Present