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# MATHEMATICS (51)

Aims:
1. To acquire knowledge and understanding of the 4. To develop the necessary skills to work with
terms, symbols, concepts, principles, processes, modern technological devices such as calculators
proofs, etc. of mathematics. and computers in real life situations.
2. To develop an understanding of mathematical 5. To develop drawing skills, skills of reading tables,
concepts and their application to further studies in charts and graphs.
mathematics and science.
6. To develop an interest in mathematics.
3. To develop skills to apply mathematical knowledge
to solve real life problems.
CLASS IX
There will be one paper of two and a half hours Rate of growth and depreciation.
duration carrying 80 marks and Internal Assessment of
Note: Paying back in equal installments, being
20 marks.
given rate of interest and installment amount,
The paper will be divided into two sections, Section I not included.
(40 marks), Section II (40 marks).
3. Algebra
Section I: will consist of compulsory short answer
(i) Expansions
questions.
Recall of concepts learned in earlier classes.
Section II: Candidates will be required to answer four
out of seven questions. (a b)2
The solution of a question may require the knowledge (a b)3
of more than one branch of the syllabus. (x a)(x b)
1. Pure Arithmetic (a b c)2
Rational and Irrational Numbers (ii) Factorisation
Rational, irrational numbers as real numbers, a2 b2
their place in the number system. Surds and
rationalization of surds. Simplifying an expression a3 b3
by rationalizing the denominator. ax2 + bx + c, by splitting the middle term.
2. Commercial Mathematics (iii) Simultaneous Linear Equations in two
Compound Interest variables. (With numerical coefficients only)
(a) Compound interest as a repeated Simple Solving algebraically by:
Interest computation with a growing Principal. - Elimination
Use of this in computing Amount over a period
of 2 or 3 years. - Substitution and

## (b) Use of formula = (1 + )n. Finding CI - Cross Multiplication method

from the relation CI = A P. Solving simple problems by framing
appropriate equations.
Interest compounded half-yearly included.
(iv) Indices/ Exponents
Using the formula to find one quantity
given different combinations of A, P, r, n, Handling positive, fractional, negative and
CI and SI; difference between CI and SI zero indices.
type included. Simplification of expressions involving various
exponents
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a m a n a m n , a m a n a m n , (a m ) n a mn (ii) Rectilinear Figures

## etc. Use of laws of exponents. (a) Proof and use of theorems on

parallelogram.
(v) Logarithms
Both pairs of opposite sides equal
(a) Logarithmic form vis--vis exponential (without proof).
form: interchanging.
Both pairs of opposite angles equal.
(b) Laws of Logarithms and their uses.
One pair of opposite sides equal and
Expansion of expression with the help of parallel (without proof).
laws of logarithms
Diagonals bisect each other and bisect
a b
4 2 the parallelogram.
eg. y =
c3 Rhombus as a special parallelogram
whose diagonals meet at right angles.
log y = 4 log a + 2 log b 3 log c etc. .
In a rectangle, diagonals are equal, in
4. Geometry
a square they are equal and meet at
(i) Triangles right angles.
(a) Congruency: four cases: SSS, SAS, AAS, (b) Constructions of Polygons
and RHS. Illustration through cutouts. Construction of quadrilaterals (including
Simple applications. parallelograms and rhombus) and regular
(b) Problems based on: hexagon using ruler and compasses only.
Angles opposite equal sides are equal (c) Proof and use of Area theorems on
and converse. parallelograms:
If two sides of a triangle are unequal, Parallelograms on the same base and
then the greater angle is opposite the between the same parallels are equal
greater side and converse. in area.
Sum of any two sides of a triangle is The area of a triangle is half that of a
greater than the third side. parallelogram on the same base and
between the same parallels.
Of all straight lines that can be drawn
to a given line from a point outside it, Triangles between the same base and
the perpendicular is the shortest. between the same parallels are equal
in area (without proof).
Proofs not required.
Triangles with equal areas on the same
(c) Mid-Point Theorem and its converse,
bases have equal corresponding
equal intercept theorem
altitudes.
(i) Proof and simple applications of mid-
(iii) Circle:
point theorem and its converse.
(a) Chord properties
(ii) Equal intercept theorem: proof and
simple application. A straight line drawn from the center
of a circle to bisect a chord which is
(d) Pythagoras Theorem
not a diameter is at right angles to the
Area based proof and simple applications chord.
of Pythagoras Theorem and its converse.
The perpendicular to a chord from the
center bisects the chord (without
proof).

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Equal chords are equidistant from the Areas of sectors of circles other than quarter-
center. circle and semicircle are not included.
Chords equidistant from the center are (c) Surface area and volume of 3-D solids: cube
equal (without proof). and cuboid including problems of type
involving:
There is one and only one circle that
passes through three given points not Different internal and external
in a straight line. dimensions of the solid.
(b) Arc and chord properties: Cost.
If two arcs subtend equal angles at the Concept of volume being equal to area of
center, they are equal, and its cross-section x height.
converse.
Open/closed cubes/cuboids.
If two chords are equal, they cut off
7. Trigonometry
equal arcs, and its converse (without
proof). (a) Trigonometric Ratios: sine, cosine, tangent of
an angle and their reciprocals.
Note: Proofs of the theorems given above are
to be taught unless specified otherwise. (b) Trigonometric ratios of standard angles- 0, 30,
45, 60, 90 degrees. Evaluation of an expression
5. Statistics
involving these ratios.
Introduction, collection of data, presentation of
(c) Simple 2-D problems involving one right-
data, Graphical representation of data, Mean,
angled triangle.
Median of ungrouped data.
(d) Concept of trigonometric ratios of
(i) Understanding and recognition of raw,
complementary angles and their direct
arrayed and grouped data.
application:
(ii) Tabulation of raw data using tally-marks.
sin A = cos(90 - A), cos A = sin(90 A)
(iii)Understanding and recognition of discrete and
tan A = cot (90 A), cot A = tan (90- A)
continuous variables.
sec A = cosec (90 A), cosec A = sec(90 A)
(iv) Mean, median of ungrouped data
8. Co-ordinate Geometry
(v) Class intervals, class boundaries and limits,
frequency, frequency table, class size for Cartesian System, Plotting of points in the plane for
grouped data. given coordinates, solving simultaneous linear
equations in 2 variables graphically and finding the
(vi) Grouped frequency distributions: the need to
distance between two points using distance
and how to convert discontinuous intervals to
formula.
continuous intervals.
(a) Dependent and independent variables.
(vii)Drawing a frequency polygon.
(b) Ordered pairs, co-ordinates of points and
6. Mensuration
plotting them in the Cartesian plane.
Area and perimeter of a triangle and a quadrilateral.
(c) Solution of Simultaneous Linear Equations
Area and circumference of circle. Surface area and
graphically.
volume of Cube and Cuboids.
(d) Distance formula.
(a) Area and perimeter of triangle (including
Herons formula), rhombus, parallelogram
and trapezium.
(b) Circle: Area and Circumference. Direct
application problems including Inner and
Outer area.
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INTERNAL ASSESSMENT Cutting a circle into equal sections of a small
central angle to find the area of a circle by using the
A minimum of two assignments are to be done during
the year as prescribed by the teacher. formula A = r2.
To use flat cutouts to form cube, cuboids and
Suggested Assignments
pyramids to obtain formulae for volume and total
Conduct a survey of a group of students and surface area.
represent it graphically - height, weight, number of
family members, pocket money, etc. Draw a circle of radius r on a cm graph paper,
and then on a 2 mm graph paper. Estimate the area
Planning delivery routes for a postman/milkman. enclosed in each case by actually counting the
Running a tuck shop/canteen. squares. Now try out with circles of different radii.
Establish the pattern, if any, between the two
Study ways of raising a loan to buy a car or house, observed values and the theoretical value (area =
e.g. bank loan or purchase a refrigerator or a r2). Any modifications?
television set through hire purchase.

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CLASS X
There will be one paper of two and a half hours (ii) Quadratic Equations in one variable
duration carrying 80 marks and Internal Assessment of
(a) Nature of roots
20 marks.
Two distinct real roots if b2 4ac > 0
The paper will be divided into two sections, Section I
(40 marks), Section II (40 marks). Two equal real roots if b2 4ac = 0
Section I: Will consist of compulsory short answer No real roots if b2 4ac < 0
questions. (b) Solving Quadratic equations by:
Section II: Candidates will be required to answer four Factorisation
out of seven questions.
Using Formula.
1. Commercial Mathematics
Computation of tax including problems (iii) Ratio and Proportion
involving discounts, list-price, profit, loss,
basic/cost price including inverse cases. (a) Proportion, Continued proportion, mean
proportion
(ii) Banking
(b) Componendo, dividendo, alternendo,
Recurring Deposit Accounts: computation of invertendo properties and their
interest and maturity value using the formula: combinations.
nn 1 r
I=P (c) Direct simple applications on proportions
2 12 100 only.
MV = P x n + I (iv) Factorisation of polynomials:
(iii) Shares and Dividends (a) Factor Theorem.
(a) Face/Nominal Value, Market Value, (b) Remainder Theorem.
(c) Factorising a polynomial completely after
(b) Formulae obtaining one factor by factor theorem.
Income = number of shares rate of Note: f (x) not to exceed degree 3.
dividend FV. (v) Matrices
Return = (Income / Investment) 100. (a) Order of a matrix. Row and column
Note: Brokerage and fractional shares matrices.
not included
2. Algebra multiplication.
(i) Linear Inequations (c) Null and Identity matrices.
Linear Inequations in one unknown for x N, (d) Addition and subtraction of 22 matrices.
W, Z, R. Solving
(e) Multiplication of a 22 matrix by
Algebraically and writing the solution in
set notation form. a non-zero rational number
Representation of solution on the number a matrix.
line.

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(vi) Arithmetic and Geometric Progression (v) Areas of similar triangles are proportional
Finding their General term. to the squares of corresponding sides.

Finding Sum of their first n terms. (vi) Direct applications based on the above
including applications to maps and
Simple Applications. models.
(vii) Co-ordinate Geometry
(b) Loci
(a) Reflection
Loci: Definition, meaning, Theorems and
(i) Reflection of a point in a line: constructions based on Loci.
x=0, y =0, x= a, y=a, the origin.
(i) The locus of a point at a fixed distance from
(ii) Reflection of a point in the origin. a fixed point is a circle with the fixed point
(iii) Invariant points. as centre and fixed distance as radius.
(b) Co-ordinates expressed as (x,y), Section (ii) The locus of a point equidistant from two
formula, Midpoint formula, Concept of intersecting lines is the bisector of the
slope, equation of a line, Various forms of angles between the lines.
straight lines.
(iii) The locus of a point equidistant from two
(i) Section and Mid-point formula given points is the perpendicular bisector
(Internal section only, co-ordinates of of the line joining the points.
the centroid of a triangle included).
Proofs not required
(ii) Equation of a line:
(c) Circles
Slope intercept form y = mx c
Two- point form (y-y1) = m(x-x1) (i) Angle Properties
Geometric understanding of m The angle that an arc of a circle
as slope/ gradient/ tan where is subtends at the center is double that
the angle the line makes with the which it subtends at any point on the
positive direction of the x axis. remaining part of the circle.
Geometric understanding of c as Angles in the same segment of a circle
the y-intercept/the ordinate of the are equal (without proof).
point where the line intercepts the Angle in a semi-circle is a right angle.
y axis/ the point on the line where
x=0. (ii) Cyclic Properties:
Conditions for two lines to be Opposite angles of a cyclic
parallel or perpendicular. quadrilateral are supplementary.
Simple applications of all the above. The exterior angle of a cyclic
quadrilateral is equal to the opposite
3. Geometry
interior angle (without proof).
(a) Similarity (iii) Tangent and Secant Properties:
Similarity, conditions of similar triangles. The tangent at any point of a circle and
(i) As a size transformation. the radius through the point are
perpendicular to each other.
(ii) Comparison with congruency, keyword
If two circles touch, the point of
being proportionality.
contact lies on the straight line joining
(iii) Three conditions: SSS, SAS, AA. Simple their centers.
applications (proof not included). From any point outside a circle two
(iv) Applications of Basic Proportionality tangents can be drawn and they are
Theorem. equal in length.

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If two chords intersect internally or 5. Trigonometry
externally then the product of the
(a) Using Identities to solve/prove simple
lengths of the segments are equal.
algebraic trigonometric expressions
If a chord and a tangent intersect sin2 A + cos2 A = 1
externally, then the product of the
1 + tan2 A = sec2A
lengths of segments of the chord is
equal to the square of the length of the 1+cot2A = cosec2A; 0 A 90
tangent from the point of contact to the (b) Heights and distances: Solving 2-D problems
point of intersection. involving angles of elevation and depression
using trigonometric tables.
If a line touches a circle and from the
point of contact, a chord is drawn, the Note: Cases involving more than two right angled
angles between the tangent and the triangles excluded.
chord are respectively equal to the
6. Statistics
angles in the corresponding alternate
segments. Statistics basic concepts, Mean, Median, Mode.
Histograms and Ogive.
Note: Proofs of the theorems given above
are to be taught unless specified otherwise. (a) Computation of:
(iv) Constructions Measures of Central Tendency: Mean,
median, mode for raw and arrayed data.
(a) Construction of tangents to a circle Mean*, median class and modal class for
from an external point. grouped data. (both continuous and
(b) Circumscribing and inscribing a discontinuous).
circle on a triangle and a * Mean by all 3 methods included:
regular hexagon.
Direct : fx
4. Mensuration f
Area and volume of solids Cylinder, Cone and fd
Sphere. Short-cut : A where d x A
f

Step-deviation: A ft i where t x A
Three-dimensional solids - right circular cylinder,
right circular cone and sphere: Area (total surface f i
and curved surface) and Volume. Direct
application problems including cost, Inner and (b) Graphical Representation. Histograms and
Outer volume and melting and recasting method to Less than Ogive.
find the volume or surface area of a new solid. Finding the mode from the histogram, the
Combination of solids included. upper quartile, lower Quartile and median
etc. from the ogive.
Calculation of inter Quartile range.
Note: Problems on Frustum are not included.
7. Probability
Random experiments
Sample space
Events
Definition of probability
Simple problems on single events

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Note: SI units, signs, symbols and abbreviations INTERNAL ASSESSMENT
(1) Agreed conventions The minimum number of assignments: Two
assignments as prescribed by the teacher.
(a) Units may be written in full or using the agreed
symbols, but no other abbreviation may be Suggested Assignments
used.
Comparative newspaper coverage of different
(b) The letters is never added to symbols to items.
indicate the plural form.
Survey of various types of Bank accounts, rates of
(c) A full stop is not written after symbols for units interest offered.
unless it occurs at the end of a sentence.
Planning a home budget.
(d) When unit symbols are combined as a quotient,
Conduct a survey in your locality to study the mode
e.g. metre per second, it is recommended that
of conveyance / Price of various essential
they be written as m/s, or as m s-1.
commodities / favourite sports. Represent the data
(e) Three decimal signs are in common using a bar graph / histogram and estimate the
international use: the full point, the mid-point mode.
and the comma. Since the full point is
To use a newspaper to study and report on shares
sometimes used for multiplication and the
and dividends.
comma for spacing digits in large numbers, it
is recommended that the mid-point be used for Set up a dropper with ink in it vertical at a height
decimals. say 20 cm above a horizontally placed sheet of
plain paper. Release one ink drop; observe the
(2) Names and symbols
pattern, if any, on the paper. Vary the vertical
In general distance and repeat. Discover any pattern of
Implies that is logically equivalent to relationship between the vertical height and the ink
Identically equal to is approximately equal to drop observed.
In set language
Belongs to does not belong to
You are provided (or you construct a model as
is equivalent to is not equivalent to shown) - three vertical sticks (size of a pencil)
union intersection stuck to a horizontal board. You should also have
universal set is contained in discs of varying sizes with holes (like a doughnut).
natural (counting) the empty set Start with one disc; place it on (in) stick A.
numbers whole numbers W Transfer it to another stick (B or C); this is one
integers real numbers move (m). Now try with two discs placed in A such
R
In measures that the large disc is below and the smaller disc is
Kilometre km Metre m above (number of discs = n=2 now). Now transfer
Centimetre cm Millimetre mm them one at a time in B or C to obtain similar
Kilogram kg Gram g situation (larger disc below). How many moves?
Litre l Centilitre cl Try with more discs (n = 1, 2, 3, etc.) and
square kilometre km2 Square meter m2 generalise.
square centimetre cm2 Hectare ha
cubic metre m3 Cubic centimetre cm3
kilometres per hour km/h Metres per second m/s
A B C

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The board has some holes to hold marbles, red on EVALUATION
The assignments/project work are to be evaluated by
Interchange the positions by making one move at a
the subject teacher and by an External Examiner. (The
time. A marble can jump over another to fill the
External Examiner may be a teacher nominated by the
hole behind. The move (m) equal 3. Try with 2
Head of the school, who could be from the faculty, but
(n=2) and more. Find the relationship between n
not teaching the subject in the section/class. For
and m.
example, a teacher of Mathematics of Class VIII may
be deputed to be an External Examiner for Class X,
Mathematics projects.)
The Internal Examiner and the External Examiner will
Red Blue assess the assignments independently.

Take a square sheet of paper of side 10 cm. Four Award of marks (20 Marks)
small squares are to be cut from the corners of the Subject Teacher (Internal Examiner) : 10 marks
square sheet and then the paper folded at the cuts
External Examiner : 10 marks
to form an open box. What should be the size of
the squares cut so that the volume of the open box The total marks obtained out of 20 are to be sent to the
is maximum? Council by the Head of the school.
Take an open box, four sets of marbles (ensuring The Head of the school will be responsible for the entry
that marbles in each set are of the same size) and of marks on the mark sheets provided by the Council.
some water. By placing the marbles and water in
the box, attempt to answer the question: do larger
marbles or smaller marbles occupy more volume in
a given space?
An eccentric artist says that the best paintings have
the same area as their perimeter (numerically). Let
us not argue whether such sizes increases the
viewers appreciation, but only try and find what
sides (in integers only) a rectangle must have if its
area and perimeter are to be equal (note: there are
only two such rectangles).
Find by construction the centre of a circle, using
only a 60-30 setsquare and a pencil.
Various types of cryptarithm.

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INTERNAL ASSESSMENT IN MATHEMATICS- GUIDELINES FOR MARKING WITH GRADES
Criteria Preparation Concepts Computation Presentation Understanding Marks

Grade I Exhibits and Admirable use of Careful and Presents well stated Shows strong personal 4 marks for
selects a well- mathematical concepts accurate work with conclusions; uses contribution; each
defined problem. and methods and appropriate effective mathematical demonstrate knowledge criterion
exhibits competency in computation, language, symbols, and understanding of
Appropriate use
using extensive range of construction and conventions, tables, assignment and can
of techniques.
mathematical measurement with diagrams, graphs, etc. apply the same in
techniques. correct units. different situations.
Grade II Exhibits and Appropriate use of Commits negligible Some statements of Neat with average 3 marks for
selects routine mathematical concepts errors in conclusions; uses amount of help; each
approach. and methods and shows computation, appropriate math assignment shows criterion
adequate competency in construction and language, learning of mathematics
Fairly good
using limited range of measurement. with a limited ability to
techniques. symbols, conventions,
techniques. use it.
tables, diagrams,
graphs, etc.
Grade III Exhibits and Uses appropriate Commits a few Assignment is Lack of ability to 2 marks for
selects trivial mathematical concepts errors in presentable though it is conclude without help; each
problems. and shows competency computation, disorganized in some shows some learning of criterion
in using limited range construction and places. mathematics with a
Satisfactory
of techniques. measurement. limited ability to use it.
techniques.

Grade IV Exhibits and Uses inappropriate Commits many Presentation made is Lack of ability to 1 mark for
selects an mathematical concepts mistakes in somewhat disorganized conclude even with each
insignificant for the assignment. computation, and untidy. considerable help; criterion
problem. construction and assignment contributes
measurement. to mathematical learning
Uses some
to a certain extent.
unsuitable
techniques.
Grade V Exhibits and Not able to use Inaccurate Presentation made is Assignment does not 0 mark
selects a mathematical concepts. computation, completely contribute to
completely construction and disorganized, untidy mathematical learning
irrelevant measurement. and poor. and lacks practical
problem. applicability.
Uses unsuitable
techniques.

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