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under Extremely Bad Conditions

Anjia Mao

Abstract--During the operation of modern power system, the whether the existing measurement configurations can

unanticipated occurrence of large disturbances, communication satisfy the state estimation condition or to find out the

errors, exceptions in SCADA system and lacking of maintenances optimal placement of measurements that can meet the

etc will affect the normal operation of state estimation, which

requirements with certain measurement redundancy

plays a significant role in keeping the security of power system.

Therefore, to seek a state estimation algorithm that can keep [5-7]. Because the automation and communication

fairly good momentum and can obtain a relative accurate result technology at earlier time is relatively backward and

under these extreme conditions is meaningful both in theory and only the pivotal power plants and substations can be

in practice. On the basis of analyzing the extremely bad equipped with Remote Terminal Units (RTUs), which

conditions and the unfavorable impactions they brought during is responsible for measuring and transmitting the

the system operations, this paper proposes a state estimation

operation state of the equipments to the control center.

method which consists of heuristic double topology modeling

method and WLS state estimation on the combination system. In However, with the rapid development of automation

the method, the accuracy of the structure model and the and communication technologies in recent decades,

measurements, which are the determining factor of the state almost all substations are equipped with RTUs now.

estimation result, can be ensured by the heuristic double The research demand for observability analysis and

modeling method, therefore, the state estimation in this paper measurement placement fades away as well.

can still obtain a relative accurate result even in extremely bad

2. Bad data detection and identification. The main task of

conditions. The testing scenario proves the validity and

availability of the method in this paper. these researches is to find out and eliminate the bad

data produced by communication interference during

Index TermsBad Area Identification and Equivalent, transmission or other causations, and hence to

Extended Topology Analysis, Extremely Bad Conditions, Power improve the accuracy of the state estimation results.

System State Estimation, SCADA System The methods and algorithms, which provide an

important way to improve the quality of the state

I. INTRODUCTION estimation, include Residual Error Detection [8],

Management System), power system state estimation

undertakes the tasks for measurement correcting and lost data

Hypothesis Testing Identification

Measurement Compensation [11], and Recursive

[9,

10],

complementing, therefore, the performance of state estimation 3. Algorithm studies. The object of these researches

has the direct bearing on the reliability and stability of EMS, mainly aims at finding faster and more reliable and

as well as the security of power system [1, 2]. stable algorithms because the power system state

In view of the great importance in guaranteeing the security estimation in EMS is a real-time application, which

of power system, state estimation deserves great attentions and requires the algorithm has the fundamental features of

gains much research since 1970s [3, 4]. Through decades of good numerical stability and high performance.

theoretical research and practical application, state estimation Among the algorithms, two kinds of method is

becomes one of the most reliable modules in EMS, as well as prominent, one is based on the least square method,

an indispensably tool for the system operators. According to including orthogonal transformation state estimation

the research achievements, the main directions of state and fast decoupled state estimation [14-17], the other

estimation focus in the respects of observability analysis and one is successive state estimation based on Kalmans

measurement placement, bad data detection and identification, filter [18, 19]. The superiority and inferiority of each

algorithm studies and applications of new technology, which method are not distinct and both of them have been

specifies below separately.

applied in practice.

1. Observability analysis and measurement placement.

4. Applications of new technology. These researches

develop with the evolution of information and

This work was supported in part by the intramural doctoral fund of North automation technology, for instance, data mining and

China Electric Power University (No.200722003). intelligence fusion method [20-22], linear state

Anjia Mao is with the Department of Electric Engineering, North China estimation in WAMS (Wide Area Measurement

Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206, China (e-mail: angel_maoyang

@sohu.com). System) etc [23-26].

2

These methods are very important for improving the quality shows that a series of incidents occurred in the control areas of

of power system state estimation and hence provide guarantee FE (FirstEnergy) and AEP (American Electric Power), among

for the reliability of modern EMS. However, these researches them the event of line Stuart-Atlanta tripping leads to the

are all based on some common preconditions, including that abnormal operation of state estimation in MISO, which further

the system must be observable, and most of the measurements results in the failure of noticing that the system of FE has been

are veracious which means that the bad data occupies only a in danger. Because of the unavailability of state estimation,

small proportion. At normal circumstance, these preconditions EMS loses the function of power system monitoring and

can be easily satisfied, but at special case, for instance, a large controlling, even loses the function of warning when the

disturbance occurred or before the cascading failure taken operating state of the power system has been deteriorated,

place, these conditions can not be satisfied any more, and until the whole power system collapsed.

hence the state estimation may be unavailable too. Contrarily,

B. Topology Structure Error Because of Maintenance lacking

under such circumstance the operators require imminently

accurate state estimation result for decision making. Therefore, The bus-branch model, on which the state estimation

study state estimation under such extremes is very important depended, is obtained by topology analyzing through the

for preventing fatal accident or even blackouts. Against such connection and connectivity of the equipments. In SCADA

major background, this paper proposes a state estimation System the connections of the equipments are specified

under extremely bad conditions. manually in the wiring diagram of power plant or substation,

The rest of this article is organized as bellows: Part II while the connectivity of the equipments is specified through

introduces the probable extremely bad conditions in state the close or open state of the breakers and switches. Because

estimation, and part III proposes a state estimation algorithm the states of the breakers can be measured by RTUs, and

adapts to extremely bad conditions. Part IV introduces a hence the breaker states in SCADA can match the actual

testing scenario to verify the method of this paper and Part V system if there is no error happens during the data

is the conclusion. communication. However, the states of switches have to be

specified and maintained by the operators manually and their

II. EXTREMELY BAD CONDITIONS IN STATE ESTIMATION states might be different with the actual system owing to the

negligence of the operator or the irregular maintenance. Under

As described above, the basic condition of power system

such circumstances, the structural model got from topology

state estimation is that the system must be observable, which

analysis cant represent the real power system; of course large

requires that enough measurements should be configured in

errors are inevitably raised in the state estimation result.

the system and at least 2 independent equations can be formed

To avoid the influences of breaker or switch state errors,

on each bus or branch. Based on an overall consideration of

state estimation program in practice contains the function of

various factors of random disturbance on measurements, the

breaker-switch state identification, which can correct some

number of measurements is requested to be much greater than

apparent errors of breaker or switch through logical analysis.

double of the number of the system buses. In addition, it also

Though it can reduce the influences of switch state errors and

requires that the structural model of the system and most of

revise the result of topology analysis, when there are many

the measurements are precise.

switch state errors, this fine-tuning function of state estimation

The condition of observability can be easily satisfied in

is likely to fail.

modern power systems. However, in special circumstances,

such as errors in transmission channel and exceptions in C. Data Stop Updating Because of Communication Error

SCADA system, measurements can be contaminated with lots The data transmission mode in SCADA system includes

of errors, and hence the state estimation might operate fiber-optic communication, microwave communication and

abnormally or give incorrect results. These special carrier signaling etc, of which the dependability and ability to

circumstance which leads to the unavailability of state resist disturbance are different. Therefore in practice, it is

estimation is called extremely bad conditions. Practically the often found that the system operating information in some

extremely bad conditions contain the following aspects. areas cannot transmit to the control center correctly because of

A. Large Disturbance Occurred in the Power System the failure in transmission channel. The situation reflected in

SCADA system is that the measurements in this area stop

When a large disturbance occurred in power system, the

updating and become dead data, which cannot represent the

power flow redistribution in local area can consequently leads

real operation state of the system.

to great changes of power flow or even oscillations on some

Generally the SCADA system can announce warning when

branches. The emergence of these situations can cause

obvious fault occurs in transmission channel, so that the

mismatches between the algorithm model of state estimation

operators can remove the fault in time. However, when the

and the actual system, and hence the generic state estimation is

fault is concealed and difficult to reveal or it is found but

difficult to obtain an accurate result.

cannot eliminate in a short period of time, the measurements

The unavailability of state estimation caused by the

in the interrelated area will affect the precision of the whole

occurrence of large disturbances is often reported in practice,

power system state estimation.

and the most influential one is found in the 8.14 Blackouts of

North America. The final technical report of the blackouts

3

D. Exceptions Occurred in the SCADA System the topology analysis module in state estimation has the

The SCADA system is responsible for gathering the enhanced function of the breaker and switch states verifying,

operating information of power system, and hence the whose logic includes but not limits to the following.

exceptions of the SCADA system will lead to the mismatch 1. If a transmission line (or transformer) has nonzero

between the gathered data and the actual operating states. measurements on both sides, then the breakers and

Although the system can resume to normal through restarting switches on this line are closed.

the program and maintenance, it can still cause bad influence 2. If a transmission line (or transformer) has active

on state estimation in short term. power measurements on one end and its direction is

The causation of the exceptions in SCADA system consists from this end to the end that has no measurement,

in many ways, for instance, there are new equipments go into then the breakers and switches on this line are closed.

operation or old devices are out of commission but the 3. If the breaker on a line is open and the active power at

SCADA system does not update in time; the corresponding one end is close to 0, then the switches on this line are

relationship between the measurements and the devices are also opened.

wrong because of the negligence of the operators; some of the Though it can reduce the influences of breaker and switch

module in SCADA system is out of service etc. these states error at some extend, when lots of breakers and switches

exceptions are severe and have great influence on the state states are incorrect in a substation, the method may still be

estimation. disabled.

Since the breakers and switches are concentrated in

III. STATE ESTIMATION METHOD UNDER EXTREMELY BAD substations (or power plants), and the states error are

CONDITIONS centralized in substations too. Therefore, each substation can

be equivalent to an unobservable node; the transmission lines

The above extremely bad conditions often go along with

connected to the buses now connects to the equivalent node.

the deterioration of system operation. However at that moment

With topology analyzing and power balance calculation, An

the operators are more in urgent need of accurate operating

accurate equivalent model of the system can be obtained,

information and control policy of the power system from EMS,

namely:

but owing to the extremely bad conditions, the state estimation

can not run normally or cannot obtain the correct result. f1 (Y0 , Pb0 ,Q b0 , V0 ) = 0 (1)

Therefore it is very important to study the problem of state Where Y is the admittance matrix of the equivalent system,

0

estimation under extremely bad conditions.

By analyzing the above extremes, it can be known that the Pb 0 , Qb 0 are the vector of active and reactive power flow on

influences of the extremely bad conditions on state estimation

the branch. V0 is the vector of the node voltage and f1 is the

mainly results in the following aspects:

1. A large amount of errors in breaker or switch states function between the node voltage and the branch power flow.

lead to the mismatch between the structure model and After the equivalent model has been obtained, the heuristic

the actual system. searching method can be used in each substation to obtain a

2. Exceptions in transmission channel or in SCADA relative detailed model of the system. If the states of the

system itself lead to the mismatch between the breaker and switch are in good conditions the equivalent node

measurements and the real system states. can be set up a detailed model with more buses and branches,

3. For the common reason of 1 and 2, part of the system otherwise the node still keeps unchanged or part of it still

may not be observed. keeps unobservable. The relative detailed model obtained in

Therefore solving the problem of state estimation under this step can be expressed as:

extremely bad conditions must start with the above problems, f 2 (Y1 , Pb1 ,Q b1 , V1 ) = 0 (2)

against such background, this paper proposes a heuristic

Where Y1 is the admittance matrix of the detailed system, and

double topology modeling method with unobservable sub-area

identification and equivalent. the other symbols are the same with (1), but in accordance

with the detailed model.

A. Heuristic Double Topology Modeling Method Compared with the common method, heuristic double

The main function of topology analysis is to build up the topology modeling method obtains two models of the system,

bus-branch model of the power system through depth-first one is the equivalent model and the other is the detailed model,

searching or breadth-first searching. Another function of where the former one is crucial but the parameters are precise,

topology analysis is to color up the wiring diagram with while the latter one is elaborate but the parameters may greatly

different colors according to the operating state of power influenced by the conditions of the cyber system. The two

system, which is convenient for the operators to supervise the models are complemented in the state estimation algorithm

operation of the equipments. and can improve its performance.

The accustomed topology analysis does not verify the states

of breaker and switch, and hence the bus-branch model B. State Estimation with the Two Models

achieved by topology analyzing may be incorrect because of When the equivalent model and the detailed model of the

the faults in breaker or switch states. To avoid this situation, system has been obtained by heuristic double topology

4

estimation can be carried out on the combination of the two

models.

Since the voltage vector in the equivalent model and the

detailed model are different, we must unite the voltages to the

same vector before combining the two models. Its difficult to

analyze the problem theoretically, and hence the principle of

proximity is used in this paper to deal with the problem simply,

that is, the voltage in vector V0 is replaced by the voltage in

vector V1 with the principle of proximity. Therefore the

combining model of the two models can be expressed as:

f1 (Y0 , Pb0 ,Qb0 , V1 ) = 0

(3)

f 2 (Y1 , Pb1 ,Qb1 , V1 ) = 0

The revision equations of WLS state estimation are:

V f

[ H ] [ W ][ H ] Vx = f1

T

(4)

y 2

are the vector of the real part and image part of the

incremental voltage. H is the Jacobian matrix, whose value is

f1 f1 f 2 f 2

, , and respectively.

Vx Vy Vx Vy

Solving the revision equations and the rest job is just the

same with the normal state estimation.

The main steps of the state estimation algorithm under the Fig. 1. The main steps of the state estimation under extremely bad conditions

extremely bad conditions are shown in figure 1, from which

we can see that the algorithm can be easily realized through The main differences between the method in this paper and

reconstructing of the program of traditional state estimation. the common state estimation are as follows:

1. Two system models are set up in the algorithm in this

paper while only one system model set up in normal

state estimation.

2. the algorithm does not purse the integrality of the

system model, however two complemented system

models are used in the algorithm. Under the

extremely bad conditions, the method can gain higher

precision of the state estimation.

The 39-buses New England system is used to testify the

method in this paper. As shown in figure 2, the whole system

is divided into 3 areas; the system in area 1 is not equipped

with any measurements, and therefore it is an extremely bad

area; the measurements in area 2 and area 3 are simulated by

the result of power flow of the normal system.

5

VI. REFERENCES

[1] Felix F. Wu, Wen-Hsiung E. Liu, et al, Observability analysis and bad

data processing for state estimation with Equality constraints, IEEE

Trans. on Power Systems, Vol.3, No.2, pp.541-548, 1998.

[2] Yu Erkeng, The Energy Management System, Beijing, Science Press,

1998, p.134.

[3] A. Monticelli, Electric Power System State Estimation, Proceedings of

the IEEE, Vol.88, No.2, pp.262-282, 2000.

[4] B. G. Neisiusht, SCADA Oriented State Estimation, In Proceedings

1997 IFAC/CIGRE Symposium on Control of Power Systems and

Power Plants pp.440-445.

[5] Amit Jain, R. Balasubramanian, et al, Power System Topological

Observability Analysis Using Artificial Neural Networks, In 2005

IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, pp.497-502, Vol.1.

[6] Amit Jain, R. Balasubramanian, et al, Power Network Observability: A

Fast Solution Technique Using Graph Theory, In International

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Singapore, pp.1839-184.

[7] LI Bijun, XUE Yusheng, GU Jinwen, et al, status quo and Prospect of

Power System State Estimation, Automation of Electric Power Systems,

Vol.22, No.l1, pp.53-60, Nov. 1998.

[8] Rong, G.. Feng, Y.P., Wang, X.R, An approach to gross error detection

based on the residual of single node, in Proceedings of the 2004

Fig. 2. The new England System with an Unobservable Area Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing

Conference, pp.217222.

To adopt the method in this paper, firstly the boundary of [9] Li Zhaonian, Identification of Bad Data of Electric Power System State

area 1 is identified by using the measurements in area 2 and Estimation, Journal of Qinghai University, Vol.19, No.1, pp.49-51,

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area 3, and then the whole area 1 is equivalent to a single [10] koglin H.J, Neisius Th, BeiBler G, et al, Bad Data Detection and

node, and the former transmission lines of L39-1, L4-3, L17- Identification, Electrical Power & Energy Systems, Vol.12, No.2, 1990.

18 and L25-26 are now changed to connect to this equivalent [11] Vempati N, Shoulcs R R, Sequential Bad Data Analysis in State

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base power flow, which proofs that the method in this paper is State Estimation, IEEE Trans on PWRS, Vol.7, No. 3, 1992.

[14] Kliokys, E., Singh, N., Minimum correction method for enforcing

valid and feasible. Therefore the method in this paper provides limits and equality constraints in state estimation based on orthogonal

a practicable solution for the power system state estimation as transformations, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vo.15, No.4,

well as EMS when the cyber system is in extremely bad Pp.12811286, Nov. 2000.

[15] A. Monticelli, Felix F. Wu, Observability Analysis for Orthogonal

conditions. Transformation Based State Estimation, IEEE Transactions on Power

Systems, Vol.1, No.1, pp.201-206, Feb. 1986.

V. CONCLUSION [16] A. Garcia, A. Monticelli, P. Abreu, Fast Decoupled State Estimation

and Bad Data Processing, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and

It has been decades for power system state estimation study Systems, Volume PAS-98, Issue 5, pp.1645-1652, Sept. 1979.

both in theory and in practice. Because its application can [17] W.-M. Lin, J.-H. Teng, Distribution fast decoupled state estimation by

correct the errors and complement the lost data, therefore, measurement pairing, IEE Proceedings on Generation, Transmission

and Distribution, Vol.143, No.1, pp.43-48, Jan. 1996.

power system state estimation has great influence on [18] M. Harashima, L.A. Ferrari, P.V. Sankar , Spline approximation using

improving the quality of EMS, even the security of the whole Kalman filter state estimation, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and

power system. Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, Vol.44, No.5,

pp.421-424, May 1997.

However, when the circumstances of large disturbance, [19] A. Zia, T. Kirubarajan, J.P. Reilly, et al, An EM Algorithm for

transmission channel error, exceptions in SCADA system or Nonlinear State Estimation With Model Uncertainties, IEEE

negligent of maintenances occur, the traditional state Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol.56, No.3, pp.921-936, March

2008.

estimation will face great challenge. Therefore, it is the [20] Lin Zi-zhao, "Power Grid Parameter Estimation Based on Data Mining

research rub and challenge that how to guarantee the state Techniques, Electric Power Construction. Vol.28 No,1, pp. 67-70, Jan.

estimation giving a relatively precise result under the 2007.

[21] WEI Zhinong, ZHOU Yi, LI Yanglin, et al, Discussion on Dynamic

extremely bad conditions. The method proposed in this paper, State Estimation Based on Information Fusion Theory". Automation of

which consists of heuristic double topology modeling method Electric Power Systems, Vol.32, No. 4, pp.103-107, Apr. 2008.

and WLS state estimation on the combination system, can [22] ZHOU Su-quan, LIU Zhuo, Identification of Multiple Dynamic

Network Structure Changes by the Innovation Graph Approach,

solve the problems of power state estimation under such Proceedings of the CSEE, Vol.21, No.10, pp. 67-72. 2001.

circumstance at a great extent. The testing scenario shows the [23] LI Qiang, ZHOU Jing-yang, YU Er-keng, et al, "Power System Linear

availability of the method. State Estimation Based on Phasor Measuremens", Automation of

Electric Power Systems, Vol.29, No.18, pp.24-28, 2005.

[24] Ding Jun-ce, Cai Ze-xiang, WANG Ke-ying, An Overview of State

Estimation Based on Wide-Area Measurement System, Automation of

Electric Power Systems, Vol.30, No.7, pp.98-103, 2006.

6

[25] Ding Junce; Cai Zexiang, Mixed Measurements State Estimation Based

on Wide-Area Measurement System and Analysis, in 2005 IEEE/PES

Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exhibition: Asia and

Pacific, pp.1-5.

[26] Bai Hong, Zhou Su-Quan, "Innovation Graph State Estimation Based on

Phasor Measurement", Power System Technology, Vol.29, No.22,

pp.56-60, 2005.

VII. BIOGRAPHIES

Anjia Mao was born in Xishui, Hubei province,

China, on August 28, 1975. He graduated from

Harbin Institute of Technology and continued his

post-graduated education in HIT. He received

Ph.D. in Engineering in July, 2006, and now he is

an instructor of North China Electric Power

University, Beijing, China. His current main

research interests focus on power system stability

analysis and control, state estimation and

Electricity Market.

His employment experience included the

DongFang Electronic Information Industry Co.Ltd.,YanTai 264001,China.

His special fields of interest included Energy Manage System.

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