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INTRODUCTION

TO
FIRE RESISTANT
CABLES
Presentation by

Dominic Robinson
Eland Cables
Limited Technical
Manager

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solutions

Our
Services
About us project technical
solutions support
Eland Cables is a global supplier of power, data and control
cables to the world's most demanding industries and some
of the world's most prestigious mining, construction,
petrochemical and infrastructure projects. Established in
1975, our reputation has been built on an unswerving focus
on quality, technical expertise and customer service. We
are a key contributor to projects in 136 countries around stockholding logistic
the world. Our record for exemplary delivery is second to s
none and, above all, our customers needs are paramount
and drive everything we do.

Eland Cables is focused on meeting and exceeding customer


expectations. Its at the core of what we do and who we are. We
pride ourselves on paying attention to detail, ensuring our
customers receive a first class experience each and every time.
PhilipBrown, CEO
UKAS accredited cable testing
facility

The first-class technical support and


project management offered by Eland
Cables is a key differentiator. They really
do go the extra mile!"

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solutions

Industry
Sectors
Rail Building & Offshore Communication
Construction & Telecommunication
Eland Cables has expert knowledge of cable applications in
a range of industries, meeting both day-to-day
requirements as well as more complex, project-based
needs.
Tailor-made services include phased delivery to a schedule
of works, delivery on demand, cable cutting and help with
batch traceability. Our approach ensures installations are Oil, Gas & Renewable Mining, Drilling & Automation &
Petrochemical Energy Tunnelling Process Control
completed efficiently, cost-effectively and on time.

Airports Transmission, Subsea Water


Distribution & Treatment
Power Networks

Defence Switchgear

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Assessed to internationally-
agreed standards
The Cable Lab is UKAS accredited Compliance testing and inspection
services
Our specialist cable testing facilities are UKAS-accredited to ISO
17025, making the Cable Lab a centre of excellence, and
verifies our competence, impartiality and performance Batch-testing
capability. We have also been awarded the BSI RoHS Trusted against quality
Kitemark, a distinction only available to organisations that can standards
demonstrate their ability to comply with the RoHS Directive.
Assured integrity and
impartiality
Results that can be reliedon

Bespoke product
design and
development

Minimising risk
Highest-level testing protocols
applied to all products

Research & Development


Cutting-edge
resources
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About Me, Dominic


Robinson

Over 25 years' experience in product development


and electrical cable manufacture.

One of a team of experts running Eland Cables' in-house


testing facility, The Cable Lab, which holds UKAS ISO
17025 accreditation.

Responsibilities include overseeing industry-leading QA


protocols, delivering CPD-certified cable training,
providing technical support, and developing customised
cable solutions for client applications.

A member of ETCI's Technical Committee for electric


cable standards, TC14

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What is a fire performance


cable?

A cable which maintains circuit integrity for a


period of time in the event of a fire.

A cable which does not further contribute to a fire.

A cable which does not generate excessive smoke


and toxic acid gas when involved in a fire. Low
Smoke Zero Halogen (LSZH / LSOH)

Cables are generally used to support safety -critical


systems such as fire alarms, emergency lighting and
fire fighting equipment.

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Maintaining circuit
integrity

Fire performance cables are designed to maintain


circuit integrity during a fire situation for long
enough for the building's occupants to safely
evacuate and, in some cases, to provide
emergency power for a further period of time to
aid fire fighting.

Tests have been designed for cables to simulate


fire conditions and determine the length of time
the cable needs to survive in these conditions.

There are several different standards and levels


of performance required for the various cable
applications.

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solutions

Fire performance cable test


standards

IS EN 60702-1: Mineral Insulated cables and their terminations with a


rated voltage not exceeding 750V. Part 1: Cables.

BS 7629-1: Electrical cables. Specification for 300/500V fire resistant


screened cables having low emissions of smoke and corrosive gases
when affected by fire. Part 1: multi-core and multi-pair cables.

BS 7846: Electric cables. Thermosetting insulated, armoured, fire-


resistant cables of rated voltage 600/1000V having low emissions of
smoke and corrosive gases when affected by fire. Specification.

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Fire performance cable test standards: BS


6387

BS 6387: Test method for resistance to fire of cables required to maintain


circuit integrity under fire conditions.

Based on three different test set-ups:


Fire alone - Class A, B, C or S (different survival times, intervals to
constant 3 hours)
Fire with water - Class W (15 mins fire followed by 15 mins water)
Fire and mechanical shock - Class X, Y, Z (different temperatures)

This standard was considered to be too easy to pass, especially when


compared to traditional MI cables. Test were on three different samples (15
mins).

Toughest category is CWZ type (3hrs fire alone at 950oC, 15 mins fire
and 15 mins water, plus 30 mins mechanical shock).
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Fire performance cable test standards: BS 6387 - Type


C,W,Z

Type C Type W Type Z


Test Test Test
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Fire performance cable test standards: IS EN


50200

IS EN 50200 method of testing for the resistance to fire of


unprotected small cables for emergency circuits.

European standard designed to be a tougher test based


on testing one single cable sample
Testing against fire and mechanical shock
Annex E includes water application, direct jets onto the
cable rather than the water sprinkler of BS 6387 'W' test.
Annex E only applies to UK and Ireland who voted for
inclusion. Without Annex E the standard is significantly
easier than BS 6387 CWZ.
With Annex E the cable is somewhat tougher.

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Fire performance cable test standards: IS EN 50200


(cont'd)

Listed survival times at 830oC to 870oC

PH (Functional requirement) classification refers


to a constant temperature attack of a notional
842oC.

PH15 842C 15mins

PH30 842C 30mins

PH60 842C 60mins

PH90 842C 90mins

PH120 842C 120mins

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Fire performance cable standards: BS


8434-2

BS 8434-2 methods of testing for assessment of the fire integrity of


electrical cables. Test for unprotected small cables for use in emergency
circuits. BS EN 50200 with 930oC flame and water spray.

BS 8434-2 PH 120 - 120 minutes fire + mechanical shock + water

This standard determines the test requirement for cables referred to as


'Enhanced Grade' fire resistance.

60 minutes fire + mechanical shock ; 60 minutes fire + mechanical shock +


water (same sample)

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Fire performance cable test standards: BS


8491

Covers certain other active fire safety systems

The standard categorises cables to 3 different survival times: PH30, PH60 and
PH120.

Method for assessment of fire integrity of large diameter power cables for
use as components for smoke and heat control systems

PH30 PH60 PH120

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Fire performance cable test standards: BS


8491

The mechanical shock elements of this test are


directly applied to the cables being tested.

Water jet is applied directly to the cable at intervals


and also at the point of minimum bend.

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Pliable versus Mineral


Insulated

Mineral Insulated cable (also known as MI cable) is


essentially a copper tube containing copper conductors,
insulated from one another by magnesium oxide.
This is a very tough and inflexible cable. It is difficult to install
and the insulation material is hygroscopic, so perfect welded
jointing is important.
Pliable cable comes in several different variations, none of
which are as durable and survive as well as MI cables.
Cables only need to survive long enough to operate a safe
evacuation or to support critical fire fighting and support
systems. Cables are one component in a larger systems - cable
which outlasts the other components are not necessary.

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Codes of practice: Standards for


installation

IS 3217 - Emergency lighting


IS 3218 - Fire detection and alarm

systems BS 5266 - Emergency lighting

BS 5839 - Smoke, Heat and Exhaust ventilation

systems BS 7346 - Fire Alarm Systems

BS 8519 - Power and Control

systems BS 9999 Power supplies

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Codes of practice: standards for


installations

These codes of practice have been designed to determine the appropriate


level of performance based on both the building design and the
application.

Example: BS 5839 determines that there should be two levels of


performance.

'Standard' for general use. PH30 to EN 50200 with Annex E

'Enhanced' for cables required for extended use in fire situations (eg: high -
rise buildings, buildings without sprinkler systems or those with phased
evacuation). PH120 to EN 50200 and 120 mins in accordance with BS
8434-2.

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Codes of practice: standards for


installation

Example: BS 8519 states for life safety

Category 1: means of escape (30 mins survival time)


PH30 classification to EN 50200 - large cables over
20mm diameter to BS8491

Category 2: means of escape (60 mins survival time)


PH60 and 120 mins to BS 8434-2 (Enhanced) - larger
cables to 60 mins to BS 8491

Category 3: Fire-fighting (120 mins survival time) BS EN


50200 and 120 mins to BS 8519

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Codes of practice: standards for


installation

Example: IS 3217 - Specification for emergency


lighting
The standard calls for the use of 2-hour and 1-hour rated
cables.

Flexible cable complying with IS EN 50525-3-11

Cables used in the connection of emergency lighting


luminaires to their power supply and for the interconnection
of emergency lighting luminaires supply, if 20mm diameter
or greater, shall meet the required survival time of 120 mins
when tested to BS 8491. Power cables of overall diameter
less than 20mm may be used if they meet the requirements
of BS 8519:2010 Annex B Category 3, 120 min.

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Summar
y

Fire performance cables are designed to maintain circuit integrity for a determined
period of time in a fire situatio

These cables are Low Smoke Zero Halogen (LSZH / LSOH) types

Cable standards determine the construction of the cables

Cable test standards simulate fire situations and measure survivability of the

cables Codes of practice determine what cable performance is required for each

application

Pliable cables have replaced traditional MI types in all but the very toughest of
environments www.elandcables.com
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solutions

Further CPD-certified training


Should you wish to learn more, we offer CPD-certified training on a range of cable-
related areas. We can also design training programmes tailored to your precise
requirements.

CP Introduction to Cable Manufacturing


Introduction to the cable manufacturing process; understanding cable construction and
D related manufacturing processes; appreciation of the processes involved for conductors,
insulation, laying up, bedding, taping, braiding and armouring; sheathing
Introduction to Cable Testing
CP Introduction to cable testing; understanding of routine, sample and type tests; understanding of
D cable test requirements; appreciation of various required tests including construction, electrical
and mechanical tests.
CP Introduction to Fire Resistant Cables
D Difference between fire resistant and fire retardant; fire resistant cable technology; dangers
of PVC; understanding Low Smoke Zero Halogen (LSZH) materials; market trends and
material developments; LSZH and Low Smoke and Fume (LSF).
CP
Introduction to Fire Resistant Cable Standards
D
Understanding fire resistant cable standards; appreciation of various fire resistant cable tests; relating the
tests to fire conditions; difference between manufacturing standards and codes of practice; cable selection
based on test criteria; understanding third-partyapprovals.
CP The Interchangeability of IEC and SABS
D Introduction to IEC and SABS; understanding of alignment of IEC and SANS; understanding
similarities of conductors, materials and test methods; understanding core identification; the
advantages of specifying IEC standards; supplyingthe tools to start specifying in IEC.

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Questions ?
Should you have any questions,
please feel free to contact me.
DRobinson@elandcables.co
m
+44 (0)7976 641 424

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