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Structure of Atom
Section A
Question No. Description Marks
1. (a) (i) Diffusion 1 ......1
(ii) Molecule 1 ......1
(iii) Less than 3 minutes 1 ......1

(iv) Food colouring consists of tiny and discrete particles. 1


These particles move between water molecules 1
From a region of high concentration to low concentration 1 ......3
(b) (i) Liquid 1 ......1

(ii)

......1
(iii) Move faster 1 .....1
(iv) 1

Curve -1 mark
Boiling point =65 0C

Total 10

Section B
Question No. Description Marks
1. (a) Name of scientist: James Chadwick 1
Show protons and neutrons in the nucleus 1+1
Show electrons in the shell 1

20
Y A
10
ZY
Nucleon Anumber = 20 1
ZY
Proton number = 10 1 ......6
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(b) The atom consists of 6 protons and 6 neutrons in the 1


nucleus.
The first shell contains 2 electrons and 1
the second shell contains 4 electrons. 1
Electrons move around the nucleus of an atom. 1 .....4
(c)

At time t1-t2 At t2 t3 At t3-t4 1

In liquid state
In liquid and solid In solid state 1+1
state +1
The The molecules The molecules
molecules are are closely are closely
closely packed packed
packed

The Some molecules The molecules 1+1


molecules are are in orderly are in orderly +1
not in orderly arrangement but arrangement.
arrangement some are not in
orderly
arrangement.

The kinetic The kinetic The kinetic 1+1


energy energy constant energy +1
decreases decreases

....10

Total 20

Chemical Formula Equations


Section A
Question No. Description Marks
1. (a)
Element C H O

Mass (g) 48.65 8.11 43.24

Number of 48.65 = 8.11 = 43.24 =


mole/ mol 12 1 16
4.05 8.11 2.70 1

Ratio of 4.05 = 3 8.11 =3 2.70 = 1


moles 2.70 2 2.70 2.70

Simplest ratio 1
of moles 3 6 2

1 ......3
Empirical formula = C3H6O2
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(b) Propanoic acid 1 ......1


(c) (i) C2H5COOH + NaOH C2H5COONa + H2O

1. Correct formula of reactants and products 1


2. Balanced equation 1 ......2
(ii) No. of mole C2H5COOH = 23= 0.31 mol 1
74
1 mol of C2H5COOH : 1 mol of C2H5COONa
0.31 mol of C2H5COOH : 0.31 mol of C2H5COONa 1

Mass of C2H5COONa = 0.31 x 96 = 29.76 g 1 ......3


(d) Latex coagulates 1 ......1
Total 10

Section B
Question No. Description Marks
2. (a) (i) 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 1
No. of mole H2O = 18 = 1.0 mol 1
18
6 mol of H2O : 6 molof O2
1 mol of H2O : 1 mol of O2 1
Volume of O2 = 1 x 22.4 = 22.4 dm3 1 ......4
(ii) Carbon dioxide and water are the reactants 1
Glucose and oxygen are the products 1
Carbon dioxide gas reacts with liquid water to form 1
glucose solution and oxygen gas
6 moles of carbon dioxide gas react with 6 moles of 1
water to produce 1 mole of glucose and 6 moles of
oxygengas ......4
(b) CH2O 1

CH2O C6H12O6

Type of Molecule molecule


particle 1

Number 1 atom of 6 atomsof


of atom carbon, 2 carbon, 12
1+1
atoms atoms of
ofhydrogen hydrogen and 6
and 1 atom of atoms of oxygen
oxygen

Relative 30 180 1+1


molecular ......6
mass
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(c) No. of mole CO2 = 0.12 =0.005 mol 1


24
Mass of CO2= 0.005 x 44 = 0.22 g 1

No. of mole H2 = 0.12 =0.005 mol 1


24
Mass of H2= 0.005 x 2 = 0.01 g 1
The balloon containing hydrogen gas has a very
much lighter mass although both balloons have the 1
same volume. 1 ......6

Total 20

Section C
Question No. Description Marks
3. (a)
Element C H O

Mass / g 40 7 53

Number of 40= 3.33 7 = 7.0 53 = 3.31


mole / mol 12 1 16
1

Ratio of 3.33= 1 7.0= 2 3.31=1


moles 3.31 3.31 3.31

Simplest 1 2 1
1
ratio of
moles

Empirical formula of organic acid X is CH2O 1


[CH2O] n = 60
[12 + 2 + 16] n = 60 1
n=2
Molecular formula is C2H4O2 1 ......5
(b) Example is ethene 1
Its molecular formula is C2H4 1
This shows that one molecule of ethene has 2 atoms 1
of carbon and 4 atoms of hydrogen
The simplest ratio of mole is 1 : 2 1
Therefore the empirical formula is CH2 1 ......5

(c) (i) 1. Clean [5 15] cm metal Z with sandpaper and coil it. 1
2. Weigh an empty crucible with its lid. 1
3. Place metal Z in the crucible and weigh again. 1
4. Record the reading.
1
5. Heat the crucible very strongly without its lid.
6. Open and close the lid very quickly.
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7. When burning is complete stop the heating 1


8. Let the crucible cool and then weigh it again
9. The heating, cooling and weighing process is 1
1
repeated until a constant mass is recorded.
Description Mass(g) 1
Crucible + lid
(ii)
Crucible + lid + metal Z 1+1

Crucible + lid + oxide of metal Z

....10
Total 20

Periodic Table
Section A
Question No. Description Marks
1. (a) (i) Group 18 / noble gases/inert gases 1

....1
(b) (i) drop/go down/fall
1 ....1

(b) (ii) Any two from:


Lower down in the group
Group 18 elements get denser as the atomic number 1
increases 1 ....2
Krypton denser/heavier for the same volume than the
gases in the other balloons/air

(c) (i) 1

.....1

(ii) Outer shell has maximum number of electrons 1


Helium does not combine/react with anything 1
.....2
(d) (i) Very light/less dense than air 1
Unreactive/non-flammable 1
.....2
(ii) Wont react with hot filament of light bulb 1

.....1
Total 10
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Section B
Question No. Description Marks
2. (a) Electron arrangement of atom X is 2.8.7 1
Group 17 period 3 1+1
Electron arrangement of element Y is 2.8 1
Group 18 , period 2 1+1 ......6
Accept other suitable answers.

(b) Atom X share one pair of electrons with another atom X 1


to achieve stable octet electron arrangement. 1
Atom Y has stable electron arrangement 1
Atom Y does not release, receive or share electrons with
another atom. 1 ......4

(c) Atomic radius decreases 1


Melting point and boiling point decrease 1
Physical state changes from gas to liquid to solid 1
The colour becomes darker 1
Density increases 1 ......5

(d) When going down the group:


The number of filled electron shell increases 1
Atomic size increases 1
The forces of attraction between nucleus and valence
electron become weaker. 1
More difficult to accept electron 1
Reactivity decreases 1 .....5

Total 20

Section C
Question No. Description Marks
3. (a) oxide of X -Aluminium oxide 1
oxide of Y Magnesium oxide 1
oxide of Z - Sulphur dioxide 1
Arrange Y,X and Z 1

Chemical Equation
2HCl + MgO -> MgCl2 + H2O 1+1 ......6

(b) 3CI2 + 2P -> 2PCl3 1


Number of moles of element P = 0.1 mol 1

From equation:
2 mol of P : 2 mol PCl3
0.1 mol P : 0.1 mol PCl3 1

Mass of PCl3 = 16.25 g 1 ......4

(c) Procedure for reaction of Group 1 element in water:


1. Fill a trough half full with water. 1
2. A small piece of lithium is cut with a knife 1
and dried on filter paper. 1
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3. A pair of forceps is used to drop the lithium into a


trough of water 1
4. All observations are recorded
Observations:
Lithium metal moves randomly on the water surface. 1
A hissing sound is heard. 1
Chemical test:
The water in the trough is tested with red litmus paper 1
when the reaction has stopped.
Red litmus paper turns blue. 1 ....10

Total 20

Chemical Bonds
Section A
Question No. Description Marks
1. (a) Atom 1 ......1

(b) Number of electron is more than number of proton // 1 ......1


number of electron is 10 while number of proton is only 8
(c) 2.8.8 1 ......1

(d) (i) X2Y 1 ......1

(ii)

ion X+ ion Y2- ion X+

Correct number of shells and number of electron in each 1


shell
Correct charge shown 1 ......2
(iii) Electrostatic forces 1 ......1

(e) (i)

Z W Z

Z
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Correct number of shells and number of electron in each 1


shell.
Correct number of atom W and Y. 1 .....2

(ii) Low melting and boiling point// soluble in organic 1 .....1


solvent// insoluble in water// cannot conduct electricity
Total 10

Section B
Question No. Description Marks
2. (a) P
Type of particle: molecule 1
Chemical bond: Covalent bond 1
Q and R
(i) Q consists of molecules attracted to each other by 1
weak intermolecular forces.
R consists of ions held together by strong ionic bonds. 1
Less heat energy is needed to overcome the weak
intermolecular forces// More heat energy is needed to
break the strong ionic bonds. 1
Therefore, melting point of Q is lower than melting point 1
of R.

(ii) Q consists of neutral molecules. 1


Therefore, Q cannot conduct electricity.
R consists of ions. In the solid state, the ions are held in
fixed positions. 1
In the molten state or aqueous solution, the ions move
freely. 1
Free-moving ions carry electrical charges.
Therefore, R can conduct electricity only in the molten 1 ....10
state or aqueous solution.
(b) (i) X and Z
Electron arrangement of X is 2.1 and Z is 2.8.7 1
Atom of X donates 1 electron to form a positive ion. 1
Atom of Z accepts 1 electron to form a negative ion. 1
The ions are attracted to each other by strong
electrostatic forces/ ionic bonds. 1
A ionic compound is formed with formula XZ. 1 .....5

(ii) Y and Z
Electron arrangement of Y is 2.4 and Z is 2.8.7 1
Atom of Y contributes 4 electron and
atom of Z contributes 1 electron 1
for sharing. 1
Atom of Y and atom of Z share 1 pair of electrons to form 1
a single covalent bond.
4 atoms of Z are bonded to 1 atom of Y to form a
molecule with the formula YZ4. 1 ......5

Total 20
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Electrochemistry
Question No. Description Marks
1. (a) (i) Chemical to electrical 1 ..1
(ii) Negative terminal : cell body/zinc 1
Positive terminal : Carbon 1 ..2
(b) (i) X and Y must be different metals 1+1 ..2
(ii) 2H+ + 2e H2
- 1 for writing equation correctly 1
- 1 for balanced correctly 1 ..2
(iii) - Hydrogen gas / H2 1
- Because lemon juice is an acidic solution 1 ..2
(iv) By using two metals which are further apart in ECS 1 ..1
Total 10
2. (a) (i) No. of mol = 11.7/58.5
= 0.2 1

0.2 = M(200)/1000
M = 1.0 moldm-3 1 ..2
( with correct unit)
(ii) Cathode:
- 2H+ + 2e H2 1
- Hydrogen gas 1
- H+ ion is selectively discharged because H+ ion is
lower than Na+ ion in electrochemical series 1

Anode :
- 2Cl- Cl2 + 2e 1
- Chlorine gas 1
- Cl- is selectively discharged because it is more
concentrated than OH- ion. 1 ..6
(b) Materials and apparatus :
- silver plate, silver bracelet, silver nitrate solution,
beaker, connected wire and power supply 1

Labelled diagram:

bracelet silver

Silver nitrat
solution

1+1
Procedures:
- pour silver nitrate solution into the beaker 1
- connect the silver bracelet to the negative
terminal of power supply 1
- connect the silver plate to the positive terminal of
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power supply 1
- Immerse both silver bracelet and silver plate into
the silver nitrate solution. 1
- Turn the power supply on 1

Half equation:
- Cathode : Ag+ + e Ag 1+1
- Anode : Ag Ag+ + e 1+1
10
Total 20

Acids and Bases


Section A
Question No. Description Marks
1. (a) By dipping a strip of blue litmus paper into the sample of
river water. 1
If the colour changes to red, this means that some acid
has gone into the river. 1 ......2

(b) (i) Corroding 1 ......1

(ii) Fe + 2H+ Fe2+ + H2 1+1 ......2

(c) Iron reacts with acid to evolve hydrogen gas. 1


Thus, the hydrogen gas bubbles are seen as fizz. 1 ......2

(d) Calcium carbonate (or any metal carbonate) 1


Calcium carbonate reacts with nitric acid to form
neutral calcium nitrate solution, water and carbon dioxide
gas. 1 ......2

Total 9

Section B
Question No. Description Marks
2. (a) (i) Reaction P: Decomposition by heating/ Thermal 1
decomposition
Q is water 1
R is carbon dioxide 1
Calcium hydroxide is used to reduce soil acidity. Calcium 1
hydroxide is alkaline, so it can neutralise acidic soil. 1 ....5

(ii) Add steel bars to concrete. 1


Reinforced concrete has higher tensile strength 1 .....2

(b) Because sulphur reacts with oxygen / air to produce 1


sulphur dioxide.
Sulphur dioxide causes acid rain 1
that reacts with limestone/calcium carbonate. 1 ....3
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(c) Chemical reaction between calcium carbonate and acid 1


gives off carbon dioxide which inflates the balloon. 1
CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl2 + H2O + CO2 1+1

No. of mols of HCl = 0.1 x 50/1000 = 0.005 1


2 molsHCl produces 1 mol CO2
0.005 molHCl -------- 0.0025 mol CO2 1

Volume of CO2 = 0.0025 x 24000 cm3 = 60 cm3 1

If replaced with vinegar, the balloon takes a longer time


to inflate. 1
Vinegar is a weak acid whereas hydrochloric acid is a
strong acid. 1
Rate of reaction is lower. 1
....10
Total 20

Salts
Question No. Description Marks
1. (a) Calcium carbonate 1 ..1
(b) (i) Gas bubbles released//effervescence occurred 1 ..1
(ii) CaCO3 + H2SO4 CaSO4 + CO2 + H2O
- 1 for the right formula of reactant 1
- 1 for the right formula of product 1 ..2
(iii) - Add HCl/HNO3/H2SO4 acid 1
- Gas released makes the lime water chalky 1 ..2
(c) (i) CuCO3 insoluble salt 1
CuSO4 soluble salt 1 ..2
(ii) X sodium carbonate/Na2CO3//potassium carbonate / 1
K2CO3

Y sulfuric acid//H2SO4 1 ...2


Total 10
2. (a) (i) Cation - Pb2+ / lead(II) ion 1
Anion - SO4-2 / sulphate ion 1
P nitrogen dioxide gas 1
Q Copper(II) oxide 1
B Copper(II) nitrate / Cu(NO3)2 1
Equation : 2 Cu(NO3)2 2CuO + 4NO2 + O2
- 1 for writing equation correctly 1
- 1 for balanced correctly 1 ..7
(ii) Method 1:
- Heat calcium carbonate strongly 1
- CaCO3 CaO + CO2 1+1

Method 2:
- Add any acid HCl/HNO3/H2SO4 1
- CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl2 + CO2 H2O 1+1 ..3
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(b) Material :
- Lead(II) nitrate solution 0.5 moldm-3, sodium
sulphate/potassium sulphate solution 0.5 moldm-3
and distilled water. 1

Apparatus:
- Beaker, measuring cylinder, glass rod, filter
funner, filter paper 1

Procedures:
- Measure out (20-50 cm3) of Lead(II) nitrate
solution 0.5 moldm-3 1
- Measure out (20-50 cm3) of sodium
sulphate/potassium sulphate solution 0.5 moldm-3 1
- Mix both solutions in the beaker 1
- Stir the mixture 1
- Filter the mixture 1
- Rinse the residue using distilled water 1

Equation:
- Pb(NO3)2 + Na2SO4 PbSO4 + 2NaNO3 1+1 .10
Total 20

Manufacture Substances in Industry


Section A
Question No. Description Marks
1. (a) Mixture of two or more element with fixed composition 1
where the major composition is metal
......1
(b) (i) Duralumin 1 ......1

(ii) Light and strong 1+1 ......2

(c) (i) Carbon 1


......1
(ii) Draw - 1 1
Label - 1 1

Carbon

Iron .....2

(iii) -The presence of carbon atomsdistrupt the orderly 1


arrangement of iron atoms.
-Reduce the layer of atoms from sliding 1
......2
(d) Mercury/silver/copper/tin/zinc 1+1
[any two]

1
Hard not easily broken when chewing foods//
1
Insoluble in water cannot dissolve in saliva// ......4
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Inert -does not react with food // acid produced by


bacteria

[any two]
Total 13

Question No. Description Marks


2. (a) (i) Sulphur and oxygen gas 1+1
......2
(ii) H2S2O7 1 ......1
(iii) Exothermic// a lot of heat is released 1
......1
(b) (i) Catalyst : Iron 1
Temperature : 450-550OC 1
Pressure : 200 atm
(any two) ......2
(ii) -Hydrogen is obtained by reacting natural gas with 1
steam, or from cracking oil fractions
-Nitrogen is obtained from the air. 1
.....2
(iii) In the presence of moisture, ammonia becomes highly
corrosive/
Ammonia gas above certain concentration attack the skin
and lung/ .
Ammonia can form explosive compound with other
chemical ( chlorine, bromine, iodine, mercury) 1+1
.....2
(iv) 14 (2) X 100 1
12+16 + 2(14 + 1)

= 46.67% 1
......2
Total 12

Question No. Description Marks


3. (a) (i) Steel 1
......1
(ii) Can withstand higher pressure / support heavier loads / 1
stronger / higher tensile strength ......1
(b) (i) Does not corrode (rust) / does not react with the 1
preserved food / glass is chemically inert/ glass is non-
reactive ......1
(ii) Borosilicate glass / fused glass 1
......1

(c) (i) Chloroethene // vinyl chloride 1


......1
(ii) H Cl
| |
C=C
| | .
H H 1
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.....1
(iii) 1. release toxic/poisonous gas 1

Method
2. burn in incinerator //change to biodegradable PVC // 1
reduse, reuse and recycle ......2
Total 8

Section B
Question No. Description Marks
4. (a) 2SO2 + O2 2SO3 1

Mol of oxygen gas = 48 / 32 =1.5 1

Based on the chemical equation;

1 mol O2 : 2 mol SO3


1
1.5 mol O2 : 3 mol SO3

Volume of SO3 = 3 24 dm3


= 72 dm3 1
......4

(b) Corrodes buildings 1


Corrodes metal structures
pH of the soil decreases 1
Lakes and rivers become acidic 1
Can cause respiratory and heart problems.

[Able to state any three items correctly]

switching fuel sources to natural gas, oil,


renewable energy sources
vehicle manufacturers are required to use
technologies called catalytic converter.
in their vehicles that reduces the amount of
nitrogen oxides and other pollutants released by it
using fluidized-bed combustion processes to burn
the coal
switching to low-sulfur coal and removing the
sulfur from the smoke stack after combustion
through the installation of pollution
controlequipment called catalytic converter.

[Able to state any three ways correctly] ......6


(c) Procedure:

1. Tape a ball bearing on a copper block. 1


2. Tie a 1-kg weight to the clamp of a retort stand at a 1
height of 30 cm above the copper block.
3. Release the weight. 1
4. Measure the diameter of dent made on the copper
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block. 1
5. Repeat Steps 1-4 using different surface of the
copper block. 1
6. Repeat Steps 1-5 by replacing the copper block 1
with a bronze block.

Results:
Type of Diameter of dents (cm) Average
blocks diameter of
I II III dents (cm)
1
Copper 1.4 1.6 1.5 1.5
1
Bronze 1.2 1.0 1.2 1.1
1
1-heading
1-data for copper
1-data for bronze

Conclusion :
Alloy is harder than its pure metal
1
....10

Total 20

Rate of Reaction
Section A

Question No. Description Marks


1. (a) CaCO3+ 2HCl CaCl2+ CO2 + H2O 1 ......1
(b) 1 Labelled axes with correct unit , uniform scale for X
axis and Y axis & size of the graph is at least half of the
graph paper
2. All points are transferred correctly
3. Curve is smooth ......3
(c) Set I :
1.Tangent shown in graph correctly
1
2.Rate of reaction = 0.19 cm3s-1 ( +- 0.05)
1

Set II :
1
1.Tangent shown in graph correctly
1
2.Rate of reaction = 0.23 cm3s-1 (+- 0.05)
......4
(d) (Catalyst) 1
1.Catalyst/copper(II) sulphate is used
2. Catalyst/(copper(II) sulphate) lowers activation energy
(and s an alternative path) 1
3. More colliding particles / ions are able to achieve that
lower activation energy.
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4.The frequency of effective collision between calcium


carbonate and hydrogen ion increases.

(Temperature)
1. Heat hydrochloric acid to 40-80OC
2. The temperature of reaction is higher
3. The kinetic energy of particles increases // The
particles move faster
4. Frequency of collision between calcium carbonate
and H+ ion is higher
5. Frequency of effective collision between the
particles is higher
(Any 4)
......4
Total 12

Section B
Question No. Description Marks
2. (a) (i) N2 + 3H22NH3 1+1
No. of mol H2 = 1000 X 1000 // 500000 mol 1
2
Based on the chemical equation;
1
3 mol H2 : 2molNH3

500000molH2 : 333.33 X 103molNH3


1 ......5
Volume of NH3 = 333.33 X 103 X 24 // 8000 X 103 dm3
(b) - hydrogen and nitrogen molecules 1
- collide 1
- with correct orientation 1
- total energy of particles of reactant is higher or equal to 1
activationenergy ......4

(c) (i)
Energy

Ea

Ea
N2 +3H2

2NH3

1. Arrow upward with energy label and two levels


and position of reactant and products are correct 1
2. Correct balance chemical equation 1
1
3. Activation energy with Ea is shown and labelled
1
4. Activation energy with Ea is shown and labelled
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1.Catalyst/(iron) lowers activation energy (and provides


an alternative path) 1

2. More colliding particles are able to achieve that lower


activation energy. 1

3. The frequency of effective collision between nitrogen


and hydrogen molecules increases.
1
(any 6 points)
......6
(ii) 1. Use higher temperature of reaction in Haber 1
Process //450-550OC
2. The particles of reactant absorb heat and gain 1
kinetic energy that causes them to move faster
3. Frequency of collision between 1
4. Nitrogen molecules and Hydrogen molecules is 1
higher
5. Frequency of effective collision between the 1
particles of reactant is higher ......5

Total 20

Section C
Question No. Description Marks
3. (a) Example of acid 1 ......1
Sample answer : Hydrochloric acid / HCl/Nitric acid /
HNO3/
Correct formula of reactant and product
Balance

Sample answer

2HCl + Mg ---- MgCl2 + H2


2HNO3 + Mg ---- Mg(NO3)2 + H2

1. Experiment I : 20 cm3 / 60 s // 0.33 cm3s-1


2. Experiment II : 20 cm3 / 50 s // 0.40 cm3s-1

(b) Experiment II use magnesium powder


Experiment I use magnesium granules/

Experiment II use catalyst


Experiment I do not use catalyst/

Experiment II acid was heated at a higher temperature/


Experiment II use acid at the room temperature/ without
heating/

Experiment II use higher concentration but same volume


of acid
Experiment I use lower concentration but same volume 1
of acid 1
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......2
(Size)

1.Rate of reaction in Experiment II is higher than I


2.The size of magnesium in Experiment II is smaller than
Experiment I
3.The total surface area per unit volume of magnesium in
Experiment II is larger/bigger/greater than Experiment I
4.Frequency of collision between magnesium atom and
H+ ion in Experiment II is higher than Experiment I
5.Frequency of effective collision between the particles
of reactant in Experiment II is higher than Experiment I

(Catalyst)

1.Catalyst/copper(II) sulphate is used in Experiment II

2.Catalyst/(copper(II) sulphate) lower activation energy

3. And provide an alternative path

4. More colliding particles are able to achieve lower


activation energy than Experiment II than Experiment I.

4. Frequency of effective collision between magnesium


atoms and hydrogen ion in Experiment II is higher than
Experiment I.

(Temperature)

1.Rate of reaction in Experiment II is higher than I


2.The temperature of reaction in Experiment II is higher
than Experiment I
3.The particle of reactant absorbs heat and gains kinetic
energy /that causes they moves faster
4.Frequency of collision between magnesium atom and
H+ ion in Experiment II is higher than Experiment I
5.Frequency of effective collision between the particles of
reactant in Experiment II is higher than Experiment I

(Concentration)

1.Rate of reaction in Experiment II is higher than I


2. The concentration of acid in Experiment II is higher
than Experiment I
3.The number of hydrogen ion per unit volume in
Experiment II is higher than Experiment I
4.Frequency of collision between magnesium atom and
H+ ion in Experiment II is higher than Experiment I
5.Frequency of effective collision between the particles of
reactant in Experiment II is higher than Experiment I

(c) (Temperature)

Materials:
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Sodium thiosulphate, sulphuric acid, water, a piece of


white paper marked X at the centre.

Apparatus:
150 cm3 conical flask, stopwatch, 50 cm3 measuring
cylinder, 10 cm3 measuring cylinder, thermometer,
Bunsen burner, wire gauze.

Procedure:

1. Measure and pour 50 cm3 of 0.2 mol dm-3 sodium


thiosulphate solution into a conical flask.

2.The conical flask is placed on top of a piece of white


paper marked X at the centre.

3.5 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid is measured using


another measuring cylinder.

4.The sulphuric acid is poured immediately and carefully


into the conical flask. At the same time, the stop watch is
started

5.The mixture in a conical flask is swirled.

6.The X mark is observed vertically from the top of the


conical flask through the solution.

7.The stopwatch is stopped once the X mark disappears


from view.

8.Step 1 7 are repeated using 50 cm3 of 0.2 mol dm-3


sodium thiosulphate solution at 40oC, 50oC, 60oC by
heating the solution before 5 cm3 of sulphuric acid is
added in.
(Max 7)

Conclusion
When the temperature of sodium thiosulphate solution is
higher , the rate of reaction is higher

(Concentration)

Materials:
Sodium thiosulphate, sulphuric acid, water, a piece of
white paper marked X at the centre.

Apparatus:
150 cm3 conical flask, stopwatch, 50 cm3 measuring
cylinder, 10 cm3 measuring cylinder, wire gauze.

Procedure:

1.Using a measuring cylinder, 50 cm3 of 0.2 mol dm-


106 | M a r k i n g s c h e m e

3
sodium thiosulphate solution is measured and poured
into a conical flask.

2.The conical flask is placed on top of a piece of white


paper marked X at the centre.

3.5 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid is measured using


another measuring cylinder.

4.The sulphuric acid is poured immediately and carefully


into the conical flask. At the same time, the stop watch is
started

5.The mixture in a conical flask is swirled.

6.The X mark is observed vertically from the top of the


conical flask through the solution.

7.The stopwatch is stopped once the X mark disappears


from view.

8.Step 1 7 are repeated by adding 5 cm3, 10 cm3, 15


cm3, 20 cm3 and 40 cm3 of distilled water .(at the same
time) maintaining the total volume of solution at 50 cm3
after dilution//table of dilution
(Max 7)
Conclusion
When the temperature of sodium thiosulphate solution is
higher , the rate of reaction is higher
Total 20

Carbon Compounds
Section A
Question No. Description Marks
1. (a) Ester 1 ......1

(b) (i) Alcohol: ethanol 1


Carboxylic acid: butanoic acid 1 ......2

(ii) C3H7COOH + C2H5OHC3H7COOC2H5+ H2O 1+1 ......2

(c)

H H H O H H
1 ......1
H C C C C O C C H
H H H H H

(d) (i) Process: Hydrogenation/ Addition reaction 1


Catalyst: Nickel 1 ......2

(ii) No, the hypothesis cannot be accepted. 1


107 | M a r k i n g s c h e m e

The addition of hydrogen to the unsaturated fat produces


saturated fat. 1
The saturated fats can form deposits or plaque at the
artery which increases the risk of heart attack. 1 ......3

Total 11

Section B
Question No. Description Marks
2. (a) Glucose (or mashed fruit) and yeast 1+1
C6H12OH 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 1+1
The gas is bubbled into lime water. 1
Lime water turns chalky. 1
The gas is carbon dioxide. 1 ......7

(b) Ethene and steam. 1+1


Catalysed by phosphoric acid, 1
3000C, 1
60atm. 1
Addition reaction 1 ......6
(c) C2H5OH + 3O2 2CO2 + 3H2O 1+1
Ethanol is a clean fuel/ reduces pollution, 1
Ethanol is a renewable energy source unlike petroleum
products. 1 ......4
(d) Potassium dichromate(VI) 1
Potassium dichromate oxidizes ethanol. 1
The dichromate(VI) ion which is orange is reduced to
chromium(III) ion which is green. 1 .....3

Total 20

Oxidation and Reduction


Section A
Question No. Description Marks
1 (a) Pale green to yellow/ brown 1 ......1

(b) To allow ions to pass through 1 ......1

(c) (i) Fe2+ Fe3+ + e- 1 ......1

(ii) Br2 + 2e- 2 Br- 1 ......1

(d) +2 to +3 1
Oxidation 1 ......2

(e) Add sodium hydroxide solution. 1


Brown precipitate forms. 1 ......2
(f) Chlorine water/ acidified potassium manganate(VII)
solution 1 ......1

(g) From R to S 1 .....1


108 | M a r k i n g s c h e m e

Total 10

Question No. Description Marks


2 (a) (i) To provide oxygen gas 1 ......1

(ii) To separate the metal powder and potassium


manganate(VII). 1 ......1
An explosion may occur if the 2 substances are mixed.

(b) Y, X, Z 1 ......1

(c) X is zinc 1
Y is copper 1 ......2

(d) Zn + O2 2ZnO 1+1 ......2

(e) No change is observed. 1


X is less reactive than Z. X cannot reduce oxide of metal
Z. 1 ......2

(f) Potassium chlorate(V) 1 ......1

Total 10

Question No. Description Marks


3 (a) Oxidation and reuction occurring simultaneously 1 ......1

(b) (i) Pale green to yellow/ brown 1 ......1

(ii) Oxidation 1 ......1

(iii) Fe2+ Fe3+ + e- 1 ......1

(iv) 0 to -1 1 ......1

(c) (i) Zinc 1 ......1

(ii) Zn + Fe2+ Zn2+ + Fe 1 ......1

(g) (iii) +2 to 0 1 .....1


109 | M a r k i n g s c h e m e

1
1
1 .....3

Labelled diagram
Ionisation of iron
Flow of electron

Total 11

Section B
Question No. Description Marks
1 (a) (i) I: Mg + CuSO4 MgSO4 + Cu 1
II: Pb(NO3) + 2KI PbI2 + 2KNO3 1 ....2

(ii) I: Redox 1
Oxidation number of Mg increases from 0 to +2//
Oxidation number of Cu decreases from +2 to 0 1
II: Non-redox 1
No change in oxidation number 1 .....4
(b) P: +2, 1
copper(II) oxide 1
Q: +1;, 1
copper(I) oxide 1 ....4

(c) (i) Carbon is cheap 1


And easily available 1 ....2

(ii) 2Fe2O3 + 3C 4Fe + 3CO2 1+1

Carbon is oxidised. 1
Iron(III) oxide is reduced. 1
Iron(III) oxide is the oxidising agent 1
Carbon is the reducing agent 1 ....6

(iii) No 1
Carbon is less reactive than aluminium. 1 ....2

Total 20
110 | M a r k i n g s c h e m e

Section C
Question No. Description Marks
1 (a) Metal P is zinc 1
Zinc undergoes oxidation because oxidation number of 1+1
zinc increases from 0 to +2
Lead(II)oxide undergoes reduction because oxidation 1+1 ....4
number of lead decreases from +2 to 0
(b) (i) Metal R is copper/silver 1
Metal S is magnesium/ zinc 1 .....2

(ii) In set 1:
Blue spots shows the presence of Fe2+ ion. 1
Iron atom release electrons and is oxidised to Fe2+. 1
In set 2 : .
Pink spot shows the presence of OH- ion. 1
Atom S release electron. Oxygen and water molecules
receives electron to form OH- ion. 1 ...4
(c) Diagram of set-up of apparatus:
1. Functional apparatus 1
2. Label 1
Procedure :
1. Fill the U-tube with dilute sulphuric acid and clamp it 1
vertically.
2. Using a dropper, fill one arm of U-tube with bromine 1
water.
3. Using another dropper, fill another arm of U-tube with
potassium iodide solution. 1
1
4. Dip in carbon electrodes into both solutions.
5. Connect to galvanometer using the connecting wires. 1
6. Observation is recorded after 30 minutes 1

Observation:
At negative terminal : Colourless solution turns brown
At positive terminal : brown colour of bromine water 1
turns colourless
1 ...10

Total 20

Thermochemistry
Section A
Question No. Description Marks
1 (a) Heat released when one mole of silver is displaced from
Silver nitrate solution by magnesium 1 ......1

(b) (i) 50 x 4.2 x 6 J // 1200J 1 ......1

(ii) 1.0 X 50 // 0.05 mol 1 ......1


1000
(iii) -1200 J mol-1 // -24000 J mol-1 // -24 k J mol-1 1
111 | M a r k i n g s c h e m e

0.05 .
[ 1 mark for value and 1 mark for sign (-) and unit ] 1 .....2
(c)
1. Energy axis correct and two energy level 1
2. Correct name/formula of reactants and
products 1 .
3. Label H with value and unit
1 .....3

Energy level diagram

Energy

Mg + 2AgNO3

H = -24 k J mol-1

Mg(NO3)2 + 2Ag

(d) (i) Heat of displacement of silver by zinc is less than -24 k J 1 .....1
mol-1

(ii) Zinc is less electropositive than magnesium 1 .....1


Total 10

Question No. Description Marks


2 (a) Heat change when one mole of precipitate is formed from
its ions in aqueous solution. 1 ......1

(b) less than 3.5 C 1 ......1


(c) Pb2+ + S042- PbSO4 1 ......1

(d) (i) 100 x 4.2 x 3.5 J // 1470J 1 ....1

(iii) Mole of Pb2+ = 0.5 X 50 // 0.025 mol 1


1000 .
.
Mole of SO42- = 0.5 X 50 // 0.025 mol
1000 1 ....2

(iv) 0.025 molPb2+ reacts with 0.025 mol SO42- to produce


0.025 mol PbSO4 1 .....1
(v) -1470 J mol-1 // -58800 J mol-1 // -58.8 k J mol-1 1
0.025 .
[ 1 mark for value and 1 mark for sign (-) and unit ] 1 .....2
(e) (i) Pb(NO3)2 +Na2SO4 PbSO4 +2NaNO3 H = -58.8kJ 1 .....1
mol-1
Total 10
112 | M a r k i n g s c h e m e

Question No. Description Marks


3 (a)
Thermometer .

Copper can

Water

Ethanol Spirit
lamp

wind shield Pelita


spirit
1. Functional set-up of apparatus
1
1 .....2
2. LabelPropan

(b) (i) 1. Moleolof ethanol = 0.23mol // 0.005 mol 1 .


46
2. Heat released = 0.005 X 1376 kJ // 6.88kJ// 6880J 1 .....2

(ii) 6880 // 3.2 C 1 ......1


500 X 4.2
(c) Heat is lost to the surrounding// Incomplete combustion .
of ethanol// heat from the flame during burning of ethanol
is absorbed by copper can. 1 ...1

(d) (i) Heat of combustion of RON 95 is lower than heat of 1 ....1


combustion of RON 97 .
.
(ii) The number of carbon atom per molecule in RON 97 is
higher than in RON 95. 1
The higher the number of carbon atom permolecule, the
more carbon dioxide and water molecule are formed. 1
More bonds in the product formed, more heat is released 1 ....3

Total 10

Section B
Question No. Description Marks
4 (a) 1. Acid X is HCl// HNO3 1
2. Acid Y is CH3COOH 1
3. Heat of neutralization between NaOH and Acid X is
higher than heat of neutralization between NaOH and
Acid Y. 1
4. Acid X is a strong acid which ionizes completely in
water. 1
5. Acid Y is a weak acid which ionizes partially in water. 1
6. Some of heat of neutralization between NaOH and
113 | M a r k i n g s c h e m e

Acid Y is absorbed to ionize the molecules of weak


acid. 1 ....6

(b) (i) 1. Mole of NaOH = 1.0 X 50 // 0.05 mol 1


1000
.
2. . Mole of acid X = 1.0 X 50 // 0.05 mol 1
1000

3. Heat released = 0.05 X 57.3 kJ // 2.865kJ// 2865J 1 ....3


(ii) 1. Heat released = 100 x 4.2 x 1

2. Temperature change = 2865 // 6.8 C 1


100 X 4.2 .....2

(iii) 1. The number of mole of water produced is doubled. 1


2. Amount of heat energy released is also doubled. 1
3. The amount of heat energy which is doubled is used to 1
increase temperature of total volume solution which is
also doubled.
4. Therefore the temperature change remain the same. 1 ....4

(c)
1. Energy axis correct and two energy level 1

2. Correct name/formula of reactants and products 1

1
3. Label H with value and unit

Energy level diagram

Energy

NaOH + HCl

1
H = -57.3 k J mol -1

NaCl + H2O 1

4. The reaction between NaOH + HCl is exothermic.

5. When one mole of NaOH reacts with one mole HCl 1


to produce one mole of NaCl and one mole of H2O
114 | M a r k i n g s c h e m e

the quantity of heat released is 57.3 k J .....6

6. The total energy of one mole of NaOH and one mole


ofHCl is more than thetotal energy of one mole of
NaCl and one mole of H2O.

Total 20

Section C
Question No. Description Marks
5 (a) 1. Metal M is Fe/ Cu 1
2. Mole of MSO4 = 0.1 X 50 // 0.005 mol 1
1000

3. Heat released = 0.005 x 152 kJ // 0. 76 kJ // 760 J 1

4. Temperature change = 760 // 3.6 C 1 ....4


50 X 4.2

(b) 1. Alcohol X is ethene 1

2. Alcohol Y is propene 1 .

3. Heat of combustion of alcohol Y is higher than heat of 1


combustion of alcohol X .
4. The higher the number of carbon atom permolecule,
the more carbon dioxide and water molecule are
formed. 1
5. More bonds in the product formed, 1
6. So, more heat is released 1 ...6

(d) 1. Material : ethanol 1


.
2. Diagram of set-up of apparatus
Thermometer

Copper can

Water

Ethanol Spirit
lamp

Pelita
spirit .
wind shield

Propan
ol
115 | M a r k i n g s c h e m e

Functional set-up of apparatus 1


Label 1

3. Procedure :

1. 200cm3 water is measured using measuring cylinder


and poured it into the copper can.
2. A thermometer is placed into the water and the initial
temperature, T1 is recorded.
3. The copper can is placed on a tripod stand
4. A lamp is filled with ethanol. The lamp is weighed and
the initial mass, m1 is recorded.
5. A wind shield is placed as shown in the diagram to
minimise heat loss to the moving air in the
surrounding.
6. The lamp is placed near the base of copper can to
maximise the heat transfer and the wick is lighted.
7. The water is stirred continuously with the thermometer
until its temperature increases by 30C, the flame is
put off and the highest temperature , T2 C reached by
the water is recorded.
8. The final mass of the lamp, m2 and its content is
weighed immediately and recorded. 5

Calculation :
1. Mole of ethanol = m1 m2 = n 1
46

2. Heat released, Q = 200 X 4.2 X ( T2 T1) J


1
= XJ

3. H = - X // -Y kJmol-1 1 ...10

n / 1000

20

Chemicals for Consumers


Section A
Question No. Description Marks
1 (a) Analgesic 1
To kill and retard the growth of microorganism (bacteria)
1
......2
(b) (i) Aspirin 1

(ii) may cause skin rashes/ blood disorders /acute 1


inflammation of the pancrease/ can cause brain and liver
116 | M a r k i n g s c h e m e

damage if given to children with flu or chicken pox. // It


causes internal bleeding and ulceration ......2

(c) (ii) Complete full course to kill all bacteria. 1


If not, the remaining bacteria will become resistant to this 1
medicine ......2

(d) (i) Traditional medicines are derived from plants or animals. 1

Modern medicines are made by scientists in laboratory


and based on substances found in nature. 1 ......2
(ii) Trad. Medicine Ilness Method
Bawangputih Lower blood Eat,use as an
pressure ingredient for
Treatment of cooking
cold or flu and
asthma
Antibiotic
properties
Serai Treat cough Drink, as an
Reduce fatigue ingredient for
and exhaustion cooking
Aloe Vera To treat skin Apply the sap
wound, reduce
inflammation
Tongkat Ali To increase man Blend, boils and
libido drink
Acts as
healthiness
drink 1+1 .....2
Total 10

Section B
Question No. Description Marks
2. (a)
Type of food Examples Function
additives
Preservatives Sugar, salt To slow down 1+1
the growth of
microorganisms
Antioxidants Ascorbic acid To prevent
oxidation of food 1+1

....4
(b) (i) Examples Function Method
Daunpandan add or restore Blend (to get the 1+1
the colour in juice) +1
food

Sugar To improve and Add to mixture


1+1
enhance the
+1
taste of food
....6
117 | M a r k i n g s c h e m e

(ii) - Can increase blood sugar 1


- Aspartme 1
- Artificial sweetener 1
1
-that does not contain sugar/glucose
.....4

(c) Advantages:
- Improves the shelf-life of food 1+ 1
- Improve taste
- Improve appearance

Disadvantage :
1+ 1
- Side effect to health
- Less nutritional value

Overcome:

- Reduce its quantity 1+ 1


- Use according to Food Act .....6
Total 20

Section C
Question No. Description Marks
3. (a) X- soluble in organic solvent 1
Y- soluble in water 1
2C14H29COO-+ Mg2+ ------ (C14H29COO)2Mg / 1+1
2C14H29COO-+ Ca2+ ------ (C14H29COO)2Ca ......4
(b) - The soap ionizes in water to produce free moving
soap anions and cations 1
- Soap anion reduce surface tension of water which
increasing wetting ability of water/water wets the
dirty clothes 1
- Hydrophobic part dissolves and penetrates into 1
the grease
- Hydrophilic part dissolves in water 1
- During scrubbing and rubbing, grease is lifted off
the surface 1
- The hydrophilic part of soap anion surround the
grease, the grease suspended in water/ 1
- The grease dispersed into smaller droplets
- The smaller droplet do not redeposit on the
surface of cloth due to the repulsion between
negatively charges on their surface/The droplet
are suspended in water forming emulsion 1
- During rinsing, water removes the grease droplet
and the surface of cloth is then cleaned
1
(Any 6 points) ......6
118 | M a r k i n g s c h e m e

(c) Procedure

1. (20-200 cm3 ) of rainwater is poured into two 1


separate beakers A and B.
2. A small piece of cloth with oily stains is dipped into 1
each beaker.
3. (5-50 cm3)of soap and detergent solutions are added 1
separately in beaker A and beaker B
4. Each cloth is scrubbed and rinse 1
5. The cleansing action of the soap and detergent is
observed and recorded 1
6. Repeat step 1-7 to replace rainwater with sea water
1
Results

Water Observation
Sample
Soap Detergent

Rainwater . The cloth becomes The cloth 1


clean. becomes clean.

Seawater The cloth is still dirty The cloth


becomes clean. 1

Conclusion
1
The cleansing action of soap is effective in rainwater but
not in seawater
1
The cleansing action of detergent is effective in both the
water samples/rainwater and seawater

Total 20