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# APPOLO STUDY CENTRE

STATISTICS FORMULAS
ruhrhpapd; tiffs;; ,ilepiyia fPo;f;fz;lKiwfspypUe;J
fz;lwpayhk;
\$l;Lr; ruhrhp my;yJ ruhrhp 1. fhy;khdq;fs;
nfhLf;fg;gl;l xU tptuj;ij ehd;F
x1 + x2 + x 3 + ... + xn rkghfq;fshfg; gphpf;Fk; %d;W msitfs;
x=
n fhykhdq;fs; vdg;gLk;
1 n n+1
= xi
n i =1
Kjy; fhy;khdk; Q1 =
4
MtJ cWg;G

n+1
RUf;F Kiw %d;whk; fhy;khdk; Q3 = 3 MtJ cWg;G
4
x = A+
d 2. gjpd;khdq;fs;
n nkhj;j kjpg;Gfspd; vz;zpf;ifia 10
,jpy; A = cj;Njr ruhrhp my;yJ X y; rkghfq;fshfg; gphpf;Fk; msitfs; gjpd;
khdq;fs; vdg;gLk;
VNjDk; xU kjpg;G
D = cj;Njr \$l;Lr; ruhrhpapypUe;J xt;nthU 3. E}w;Wkhdq;fs;
kjpg;gpd; tpyf;fk; E}w;Wkhd kjpg;GfshdJ gutiy 100 rk
ghfq;fshfg; gphpf;Fk;
epiwapl;l \$l;Lr; ruhrhp
w x i i 4. Xift; tistiufs;
w i
tsh; tistiuapy; xd; kjpg;G mjpfkhdhy; yd;
kjpg;G FiwAk;
,irr; ruhrhp Fiw tistiuapy; xd; kjpg;G mjpfkhdhy; yd;
n kjpg;G mjpfhpf;Fk;
n
1

i =1 Xi
KfL

Xh; gutypy; ve;j kjpg;G mjpf Kiw tUfpwNjh,
ngUf;Fr; ruhrhp mk;kjpg;Ng Kfl;ilf; Fwpf;Fk;
log X guty; nrt;tfg;glk; %ykhf KfL kjpg;ig
Anti log
n fz;lwpayhk;
njhlh;r;rpahd guty;
,ize;j \$l;Lr; ruhrhp f1 f0
n x + n2 x 2 l+ c
X= 1 1 2 f1 f0 f2

n1 + n2
mDgtj; njhlh;G
,ilepiy rkr;rPuhd gutypy; ruhrhp = ,ilepiy = KfL
nfhLf;fg;gl;l tptuq;fis ,U rk ghfq;fshfg; vd ,Uf;
,Uf;Fk;.
gphpf;Fk; kjpg;G ,ilepiy msT vdg;gLk;.
n+1 rkr;rPuw;w gutYf;fhd ruhrhpfSf;F ,ilNa
,ilepiy = MtJ cWg;G cs;s njhlh;ig Nguhrphpah; fhh;y; gpah;rd;
2 vd;gth;.
KfL = 3 ,ilepiymsT 2 ruhrhp
njhlh;r;rpahd thpirf;F ,ilepiy msT
fhzy;
N
m
l+ 2 c
f

## 1 | Page PH: 24339436, 42867555, 9840226187

Nfhl;lk; jpl;ltpyf;fk;
Nfhl;lk; vd;why; rkr;rPhpd;ik vd;W
nghUs;gLk;.
= d 2

d=x- x
i. fhh;y; - gpah;rdpd; Nfhl;lnfO n
\$l; Lr; ruhrhp - KfL KhWghL = 2
jpl; ltpyf; fk;
ii. ngsypapd; Nfhl;lnfO khWghl;Lf; nfO(C.V)
Q3 + Q1 - 2 , ilepiy
100
Q3 - Q1 X

## iii. tpyf;fg; ngUf;Fj; njhifiar; rhh;e;j

Nfhl;lmsit ,ize;j jpl;ltpyf;fk;
2
3 N X + N 2 X2
1 = 3 X 12 = 1 1
2 N1 + N2
tPr;R kw;Wk; tPr;R nfO N 1 12 + N 2 22 + N 1 d12 + N 2 d22
tPr;R = L S 12 =
L S N1 + N2
tPr;R nfO =
L+S d1 = X 12 X 1
fhy;khd tpyf;fk; kw;Wk; fhy;khd ,q;F
d2 = X 12 X 2
tpyf;ff; nfO
Q3 Q1 jl;ilasT :
fhy;khdtpyf;fk; = xU tis Nfhl;bd; cr;rpiag; gw;wp mwpe;Jnfhs;s
Q3 Q1 rkr;rPuhd, kzptbt ,ay; epiy tistiuahdJ
fhy;khdtpyf;ff; nfO =
Q3 + Q1 ,ay;epiy vd ngahplg;gLfpwJ.
ruhrhp tpyf;fk; kw;Wk; nfO 4
2 =
ruhrhp tpyf;fk; =
D 22
n
nfO: yhud;]; tistiu
ruhrhp tpyf; fk; khWghl;lsitfis tiugl %yk; mwpa itg;gJ
yhud;]; tistiu MFk;.
\$l; Lr; ruhrhp(my; yJ) ,ilepiy(my; yJ)KfL ,t;tistiu (0,0) tpy; Muk;gpj;J (100, 100)y;
KbtilfpwJ.
Kjy;epiy Gs;sptptuk;
Xd;iwnahd;W tpyf;Fk; epfo;r;rpfSf;fhd
Ma;thsh; jhNk Neubahf Nrfhpf;Fk; tptuk; \$l;ly; Njw;wk;
1. Nehpilahf tptuk; Nrfhpj;jy;
2. kiwKf tha;nkhop Kiw
3. nra;jpahsh;fs; %yk; tptuk; P( A B) = P( A) + P( B)
Nrfhpj;jy; Xd;iwnahd;
wnahd;W tpyf;fhj epfo;r;rpfSf;fhd
4. jghy; thapyhf tpdhg;gl;bay; \$l;ly; Njw;wk;
mDg;gp tptuk; Nrfhpf;Fk; Kiw P( A B) = P( A) + P( B) P( A B)
5. fzpg;ghsh;fs; %yk; gl;baiy
mDg;gp tptuk; Nrfhpj;jy;
,uz;lhk;epiy Gs;sptptuk;
Kd;Ng Nrfhpf;fg;gl;L ntspaplg;gl;l APPOLO STUDY CENTRE
gs;sptptuq;fspypUe;J jw;Nghija PH: 24339436, 42867555, 9840226187
tprhuizf;fhf vLj;Jf;nfhs;sg;gl;l Gs;sp
tptuq;fs; ,uz;lhk;epiy Gs;sptptuk; www.appolosupport.com
vdg;gLk;.
1. ntspaplg;gl;l Gs;sptptuq;fs;
2. ntspaplg;glhj Gs;sptptuq;fs;

## 2 | Page PH: 24339436, 42867555, 9840226187

APPOLO STUDY CENTRE
STATISTICS FORMULAS
Mean Median can be found using following
methods
Arithmetic mean or mean 1. Quartiles
x1 + x2 + x 3 + ... + xn The quartiles divides the distribution in four
x= equal parts.
n
First Quartile Q1 =
1 n n+1
= xi
n i =1 4
th item

n+1
Third Quartile Q3 = 3 th item
Short cut method 4

x = A+
d 2. Deciles
n The quartiles divides the distribution in ten equal
where A = the assumed mean or any value in x parts. These are 9 deciles D1, D2, D9
D = the deviation of each value from the
assumed mean 3. Percentiles
The quartiles divides the distribution in hundred
Weighted Arithmetic mean equal parts, each containing 1 percent of the
w x i i cases.
w i
4. Ogives
In More than ogive x increases then y decreases
Harmonic mean
n In Less than ogive x increases then y increases
n
1

i =1 Xi
Mode
The mode refers to that value in a distribution,
which occur most frequently.
Geometric Mean e.g., 2, 7, 10, 15, 10, 17, 8, 10, 2
log X Mode = 10
Anti log
n
Continuous Distribution
f1 f0
Combined Mean l+ c
2 f1 f0 f2
n x + n2 x 2
X= 1 1
n1 + n2 Empirical Relationship Between
Averages
Median In a symmetrical distribution the three simple
median is the middle value averages mean = median = mode. For a
Median =
n+1 moderately asymmetrical distribution, the
th item relationship between them are brought by
2
Prof.Karl Pearson as
Continuous Series (Median) Mode = 3 Median 2 Mean
N
m www.appolosupport.com
l+ 2 c
f

## 3 | Page PH: 24339436, 42867555, 9840226187

Skewness Secondary data
Skewness means lack of symmetry.
Measures of Skewness Data which have been already collected and
i. Karl-Pearsons Coefficient of analysed by some earlier agency for its own use
skewness later the same data are used by a different agency.
Mean Mode
S.D 1. Published source
ii. Bowleys Coefficient of Skewness 2. Unpublished.
Q 3 + Q1 2 Median
Q3 Q1 Standard deviation

= d 2

d=x- x
iii. Measures of skewness based on n
Moments Variance = 2
2
1 = 33
2 Coefficient of Variation (C.V)

100
Range and Coefficient of Range X
Range = L S
L S Combine standard deviation
Coefficient of Range =
L+S N 1 X1 + N 2 X 2
Quartiles deviation (Q.D.)and X 12 =
N1 + N2
Coefficient of Quartile deviation
N 1 12 + N 2 22 + N 1 d12 + N 2 d22
Q3 Q1 12 =
Quartiles deviation = N1 + N2
2
Coefficient of Quartile deviation d1 = X 12 X 1
where
Q3 Q1 d2 = X 12 X 2
Q3 + Q1
Kurtosis
Mean deviation and Coefficient of It is used to describe the peakedness of a curve
Mean deviation 4
Measure of Kurtosis 2 =
Mean deviation =
D 22
n Normal curve which is a symmetrical, bell shaped.
Coefficient = Lorenz Curve
Mean deviation It is used to study variability in the distribution of
Mean or Median or Mode profits, wages, revenue etc.,

Primary Data The curve start from are the origin (0,0) and ends
Which is collected by investigator at (100, 100)
himself for the purpose of a specific inquiry.
(such data is original) Mutually exclusive events:
1. Direct personal Interview P( A B) = P( A) + P( B)
2. Indirect oral interview
3. Information from respondents Not Mutually exclusive events:
4. Mailed questionnaire method P( A B) = P( A) + P( B) P( A B)
5. Schedule sent through enumerators

## 4 | Page PH: 24339436, 42867555, 9840226187

STATISTICS
Data Direct Actual Assumed mean Step deviation
Method mean method method
method
Ungrouped x 2 x
2
d 2 d 2 d
2
d 2 d
2

c
n n n n n n n
d =xx d=x-A xA
d=
c
Grouped fd 2 fd 2 fd
2
fd 2 fd
2

c
f f f f f

Note:
For a collection of n items (numbers), we always have
( x x ) = 0, x = nx and x = nx

Example:1
Prove that the standard deviation of the first n natural numbers is
n 2 1
=
12
Solution:
The first n natural numbers are 1, 2, 3, ., n.
x 1 + 2 + 3 + .... + n
x= =
n n
Their mean,
n ( n + 1) n + 1
= =
2n 2
Sum of the squares of the first n natural numbers is
n ( n + 1)( 2n + 1)
x 2 =
6
2
x 2 x
Thus, the Standard deviation =
n n
2
n ( n + 1)( 2n + 1) n + 1
=
6n 2

=
( n + 1)( 2n + 1) n + 1 2

6 2
n + 1 ( 2n + 1) ( n + 1)
=
2 3 2

## 5 | Page PH: 24339436, 42867555, 9840226187

n + 1 2 ( 2n + 1) 3 ( n + 1)
=
2 6
n + 1 4n + 2 3n 3
=
2 6
n + 1 n 1
=
2 6
n 2 1
=
12
n 2 1
Hence, the S.D. of the first n natural numbers is =
12

Remarks:
It is quite interesting to note the following:
The S.D. of any n successive terms of an A.P. with common
n 2 1
difference d is, = d Thus,
12
n 2 1
S.D. i, i+1, i+2, .., i+n is = , i
12
S.D. of any n consecutive even integers, is given by
2
n 1
=2 , n
12
n 2 1
S.D. of any n consecutive odd integers, is given by = 2 , n
12
The mean for grouped data
fd
The direct method: x =
f
fd
The assumed mean method : x = A+
f
fd
The step deviation method: x = A + C
f
The cumulative frequency of a class is the frequency obtained by
adding the frequencies of all up to the classes preceding the given
class. The median for grouped date can be found by using the
formula
N
m
Median = l + 2 C
f

## 6 | Page PH: 24339436, 42867555, 9840226187

The mode for the grouped data can be found by using the
formula
f f1
Mode = l + C
2 f f1 f 2

PROBABILITY
Results
If A, B and C are any 3 events associated with a sample space S,
then
P(A B C)=P(A) + P(B) + P(C) P(A B) + P(B C)+ P(A
C)+ P(A B C)
If A1 , A 2 and A 3 are three mutually exclusive events, then
P( A1 A2 A3 ) = P ( A1 ) + P ( A2 ) + P ( A3 )
If A1 , A2 , A3 ,......., An are mutually exclusive events, then
P( A1 A2 A3 ........ An ) = P ( A1 ) + P ( A2 ) + P ( A3 ) + ....... + P ( An )
P ( A B ) = P ( A) + P ( A B )
P( A B)= P (B)+ P( A B)
Where A B mean only A and not B;
Similarly A B means only B and not A.

## The empirical probability of happening of an event E, denoted

by P(E), is given by
Number of trials which the even happened
P( E ) =
Total number of trials
Number of favourable observations m
(or ) P( E ) = (or) P( E ) =
Total number of observations n
0 P( E ) 1
P( E ' ) =1 P( E ) , where E ' is the complementary event of E.

## 7 | Page PH: 24339436, 42867555, 9840226187

Gs;spay;
\$l;Lr; ruhrhp
Cfr; ruhrhp Kiw gbtpyf;f Kiw
Gs;sp tptuk; Neub Kiw Kiw
Assumed mean Step deviation
Data Direct Method Actual mean
method method
method
njhFf;fg;
glhjit x 2 x
2
d 2 d 2 d
2
d 2 d
2

,q;F ,q;F> c
Ungrouped n n n n n n n
d =xx d=x-A xA
,q;F> d =
c
njhFf;fg;
gl;lit fd 2 fd 2 fd
2
fd 2 fd
2

c
Grouped f f f f f

Fwpg;G:
n cWg;Gf;fisf; (vz;fs;) nfhz;l njhF;g;gpw;F gpd;tUtd nka;ahFk;
( x x ) = 0, x = nx kw;Wk; x = nx .

vLj;Jf;fhl;L 1:
n 2 1
Kjy; n ,ay; vz;fspd; jpl;l tpyf;fk; = vd ep&gpf;f.
12
jPh;T:
Kjy; n ,ay; vz;fs; 1> 2> 3> ..> n.
x 1 + 2 + 3 + .... + n
x= =
n n
,tw;wpd; \$l;Lr; ruhrhp>
n ( n + 1) n + 1
= =
2n 2
Kjy; n ,ay; vz;fspd; th;f;fq;fspd; \$Ljy;>
n ( n + 1)( 2n + 1)
x 2 = .
6
2
x 2 x
jpl;l tpyf;fk;> =
n n
2
n ( n + 1)( 2n + 1) n + 1
=
6n 2

=
( n + 1)( 2n + 1) n + 1 2

6 2
n + 1 ( 2n + 1) ( n + 1)
=
2 3 2

## 8 | Page PH: 24339436, 42867555, 9840226187

n + 1 2 ( 2n + 1) 3 ( n + 1)
=
2 6
n + 1 4n + 2 3n 3
=
2 6
n + 1 n 1
=
2 6
n 2 1
=
12
n 2 1
Kjy; n ,ay; vz;fspd; jpl;l tpyf;fk;> =
12

Fwpg;G:
nghJ tpj;jpahrk;
pahrk; d nfhz;l xU \$l;Lj; njhlh; thpirapy;
ve;j xU njhlh;r;rpahd n cWg;Gfspd; jpl;l tpyf;fk; vdNt>
n 2 1
=d , vdNt>
12
n 2 1
i, i+1, i+2, ., i+n -d;
d; jpl;l tpyf;fk; = , i
12
njhlh;r;rpahd n ,ul;ilg;gil KOf;
KOf;fspd; jpl;ltpyf;fk;
2
n 1
=2 , n
12
njhlh;r;rpahd n xw;iwg;gil KOf;fspd; jpl;l tpyf;fk;
n 2 1
=2 , n
12

## tifg;gLj;jg;gl;l tptuj;jpd; ruhrhpf;fhd #j;jpuk;:

fd
Neh;topKiw x =
f
fd
cj;Njr ruhrhp topKiw x = A +
f
fd
gbtpyfy; topKiw x = A + C
f
xU gphptpd; FtpT epfo;ntz;> me;j gphptpd; epfo;ntz;NzhL>
mjw;F Ke;ija gphpTfspd; epfo;ntz;fisf; \$l;Ltjhy;
fpilf;fg; ngWtJ.

## 9 | Page PH: 24339436, 42867555, 9840226187

tifg;gLj;jg;gl;l Gs;sp tptuj;jpd; ,ilepiy msT fhZk;
N
m
#j;jpuk; ,ilepiy msT = l + 2 C
f
tifg;gLj;jg;gl;l Gs;sp tptuj;jpd; KfL fhZk; #j;jpuk; KfL
f f1
=l + C
2 f f1 f 2

epfo;j;jfT

## A> B kw;Wk; C vd;gd \$Wntsp S-Ir; rhh;e;j VNjDk; %d;W

epfo;r;rpfs; vdpy;> P(A B C)=P(A) + P(B) + P(C) P(A B) +
P(B C)+ P(A C)+ P(A B C)
A1 , A 2 kw; Wk; A 3 Mfpad xd;iwnahd;W tpyf;Fk; epfo;r;rpfs;
vdpy;> P( A1 A2 A3 ) = P ( A1 ) + P ( A2 ) + P ( A3 ) .
A1 , A2 , A3 ,......., An vd;gd xd;iwnahd;W tpyf;Fk; epfo;r;rpfs; vdpy;>
P( A1 A2 A3 ........ An ) = P ( A1 ) + P ( A2 ) + P ( A3 ) + ....... + P ( An )
P ( A B ) = P ( A) + P ( A B )
P( A B)= P (B)+ P( A B)
,q;F> A B vd;gJ A-Tk; B-,y;yhkYk; vdg; nghUs;gLk;> ,Nj
Nghy;> A B vd;gJ B-Ak; A ,y;yhkYk; vdg; nghUs;gLk;.

## E-d; gl;lwpT epfo;jfT P(E)-I gpd;tUkhW fpilf;fg;ngwyhk;.

epfo; T Vw; gl; l Kaw; rpfspd; vz; zpf; if
P(E) =
Kaw; rpfspd; nkhj; j vz; zpf; if

(my;yJ)

## fz; lwpe; j rhjfkhd epfo; r; rpfspd; vz; zpf; if

P(E) =
fz; lwpe; j nkhj; j epfo; r; rpfspd; vz; zpf; if

(my;yJ)

m
P( E ) =
n
0 P( E ) 1
P( E ' ) =1 P( E ) ,q;F E ' vd;gJ E-d; epug;gp epfo;r;rp MFk;.

## 10 | Page PH: 24339436, 42867555, 9840226187

APPOLO STUDY CENTRE
No.25, Nandhi Loop Street,
West C.I.T. Nagar, Chennai 600 035
Near T.Nagar Bus Stand,
Landmark: Nandhi Statue
Ph: 24339436, 42867555, 9840226187
E-mail: appolotnpsc@gmail.com
Website: www.appolosupport.com
www.appolotraining.com