15 views

Uploaded by Max

Description of charging and discharging of a capacitor

- 8470a5bd92aeb83b20d6c39bef47ab6d55fc.pdf
- CAD Lab NUST
- Frequency to Voltage Converter Circuit Diagram
- trapezoidal sweep voltage waveform
- FNB41560
- WPH06
- 2959913-Mm07047-BASIC-ELECTRICITY-PART-II.pdf
- Elektronika -osnove
- C&S 1 - Ohm's Law
- Introduction to NI ELVIS
- Parallel Plate Capacitor Capacitance Calculator
- Ladder Networks With Simscape3e
- Trs
- DC_RC.pdf
- On-Die Decoupling Cap
- Bell Oscillator Chapter 10
- FLOYD_Q&A
- Ds as w 00192941
- elec lab 1
- Chapter 81

You are on page 1of 20

Capacitors Charging,

Discharging, Simple

Waveshaping Circuits

Source:

C-C Tsai Circuit Analysis: Theory and Practice Delmar Cengage Learning

Introduction

When switch is closed at , capacitor charging

When switch is closed at , capacitor discharging

Transient voltages and currents result when

circuit is switched

C-C Tsai 2

1

Capacitor Charging

When switch is closed at , beginning state

Capacitor voltage cannot change instantaneously

When switching, the capacitor looks like a short circuit

Capacitor voltage begins at zero

Capacitor current instantaneously jumps to E /R

C-C Tsai 3

Capacitor Charging

When switch is closed at , transient state

Capacitor voltage begins at zero and exponentially

increases to E volts

Capacitor current instantaneously jumps to E /R and

exponentially decays to zero

C-C Tsai 4

2

Capacitor Charging Process

10

10V

t=1s, vc = 6.3V, ic = (E - vc)/10 = (10 6.3)/10 = 0.37A

t=3s, vc = 9.5V, ic = (E - vc)/10 = (10 9.5)/10 = 0.05A

t=5s, vc = 10V, ic = (E - vc)/10 = (10 10)/10 = 0A

t=6s, vc = 10V, ic = (E - vc)/10 = (10 10)/10 = 0A

C-C Tsai 5

When switch is closed at , steady state

Capacitor voltage and current reach their final

Capacitor has voltage across it, but no current

an open circuit.

C-C Tsai 6

3

Capacitor Discharging

When switch is closed at , beginning state

Capacitor voltage has E volts across it when it

begins to discharge

Capacitor current will instantly jump to E /R

zero

C-C Tsai 7

10

10V

E

10V

t=1s, vc = 3.7V, ic = -(vc)/10 = -(3.3)/10 = -0.37A

t=3s, vc = 0.5V, ic = -(vc)/10 = -(0.5)/10 = -0.05A

t=5s, vc = 0V, ic = -(vc)/10 = (0)/10 = 0A

t=6s, vc = 0V, ic = -(vc)/10 = (0)/10 = 0A

C-C Tsai 8

4

Example: Capacitor Charging/Discharge

C-C Tsai 9

Voltages and currents in a charging circuit do not

change instantaneously

These changes over time are exponential

changes

The voltage across the capacitor as a function

of time is t / RC

v C E (1 e )

The current through the capacitor as a function

of time is

E t / RC

iC e

R 10

C-C Tsai

5

Capacitor Charging Equations

C-C Tsai 11

Rate at which a capacitor charges depends on

product of R and C

Product known as time constant, = RC

(Greek letter tau) has units of seconds

Length of time that a transient lasts depends on

exponential function e -t/.

As t increases, the function decreases. When the

t reaches infinity, the function decays to zero

For all practical purposes, transients can be

considered to last for only five time constants

C-C Tsai 12

6

Exponential Functions

C-C Tsai 13

The functions e -t/ and 1-e -t/

v C E (1 e t / R C )

t =0RC=0 , e -0 = 1 , E (1-e -0)= 0

t =1RC=1 , e -1 = 0.368 , E (1-e -1)= 0.632E

t =2RC=2 , e -2 = 0.135 , E (1-e -2)= 0.865E

t =3RC=3 , e -3 = 0.050 , E (1-e -3)= 0.950E

t =4RC=4 , e -4 = 0.018 , E (1-e -4)= 0.982E

t 5RC=5 , e -5 = 0.007 , E (1-e -5)= 0.993E

C-C Tsai 14

7

v C E (1 e t / R C )

E t / RC

iC e

R

C-C Tsai 15

C-C Tsai 16

8

Example1: Capacitor Charging

A RC circuit with E=100V, R=10K, and C=10F

C-C Tsai 17

C-C Tsai 18

9

Capacitor with an Initial Voltage

Voltage denoted as V0

Capacitor has a voltage on it

Voltage and current in a circuit will be affected by

initial voltage

vC E V0 E e t /

E V0 t /

V0

iC e

R

C-C Tsai 19

V0=25V

C-C Tsai 20

10

Capacitor Discharging Equations

If a capacitor is charged to voltage V0 and then

discharged.

Current is negative because it flows opposite to

reference direction

Discharge transients last five time constants

All voltages and currents are at zero when

capacitor has fully discharged t /

vC V0 e

vR V0 e t /

V0 t /

iC e

C-C Tsai R 21

C-C Tsai 22

11

Example: Capacitor Discharge

A RC circuit with R=5K and C=25F, assume that C has

charged to 100V. Determine the discharge voltage and current.

C-C Tsai 23

Remove capacitor as the load and determine

Thvenin equivalent circuit

Use RTh to determine , = RThC

Use ETh as the equivalent source voltage

C-C Tsai 24

12

Example: More Complex Circuits

C-C Tsai 25

for 5ms then

closed at for 10ms.

C-C Tsai 26

13

Example: More Complex Circuits

The capacitor takes 1.75ms to discharge as

shown the waveform. Determine E, R1, and C.

C-C Tsai 27

An RC Timing Applications

RC circuits are used to create delays for alarm, motor

control, and timing applications

Alarm unit shown contains a threshold detector

When input to this detector exceeds a preset value, the alarm is

turned on

C-C Tsai 28

14

Pulse Response of RC Circuits

Pulse: Voltage or current that

changes from one level to another

and back again

Periodic waveform: Pulse train

is a repetitive stream of pulses

Square wave: Waveforms time

high equals its time low

Frequency: Number of pulses

per second

Duty cycle: Width of pulse

compared to its period

C-C Tsai 29

Pulses have a rise and fall time

Because they do not rise and fall instantaneously

Rise and fall times are measured between the

10% and 90% points

C-C Tsai 30

15

The Effect of Pulse Width

If pulse width tp >> 5

Capacitor charges and discharges fully

If pulse width tp = 5

Capacitor fully charges and discharges during each pulse

Capacitor cannot fully charge and discharge

C-C Tsai 31

T >> 5 T << 5

C-C Tsai 32

16

Simple Waveshaping Circuits

T << 5

C-C Tsai 33

Capacitive Loading

In high-speed circuits, the capacitance can cause

problems

C-C Tsai 34

17

Transient Analysis Using Computers

C-C Tsai 35

C-C Tsai 36

18

Problem: Draw the Vc waveform

C-C Tsai 37

Problem:

Draw the Vc waveform after closing the switch for

15ms and opening the switch.

C-C Tsai 38

19

Problem:

Draw the Vout waveform if (a) R=2K and C=0.1F

and (b) R=20K and C=1F.

C-C Tsai 39

Problem:

If Vc= 4.75V the alarm will be on, how long is

required when the switch is closed to 5V.

C-C Tsai 40

20

- CAD Lab NUSTUploaded byHassnain Arshad
- Frequency to Voltage Converter Circuit DiagramUploaded byNabendu Ghosh
- trapezoidal sweep voltage waveformUploaded byMoon Sun
- 2959913-Mm07047-BASIC-ELECTRICITY-PART-II.pdfUploaded bygbetromero
- 8470a5bd92aeb83b20d6c39bef47ab6d55fc.pdfUploaded byaytihda
- FNB41560Uploaded byHadeedAhmedSher
- Elektronika -osnoveUploaded bypredrag152
- C&S 1 - Ohm's LawUploaded byArik Juniar
- WPH06Uploaded byrtb101
- Introduction to NI ELVISUploaded bychrsolveg
- Parallel Plate Capacitor Capacitance CalculatorUploaded bymareazzurroo
- Ladder Networks With Simscape3eUploaded byBOUZ2010
- TrsUploaded byShwetaGautam
- DC_RC.pdfUploaded byglenne gonzales
- On-Die Decoupling CapUploaded byBhupesh Dasila
- Bell Oscillator Chapter 10Uploaded byanon_904873177
- FLOYD_Q&AUploaded byPaulo Castillo
- Ds as w 00192941Uploaded byShibu Kumar S
- elec lab 1Uploaded byShada Alrubaei
- Chapter 81Uploaded byAdnan Karim
- Fast and Easily Implementable Detection CircuitsUploaded byPablo Henrique Seibert Jahno
- Heating in a Furnace WorksheetUploaded byHong Truong
- 4047 cmosUploaded byasmedmiranda
- 22222222222222222Uploaded byAwais Awan
- 05257581Uploaded byRishikesh Yadav
- 1455345Uploaded byprudhvi748
- 31.CapacitorUploaded byAbhik Sarkar
- CapacitanceUploaded byThurumella Lokanad
- phy. lab 5Uploaded byqwer
- Varplus Can Blrch200a240b40Uploaded byClaudiu Vlasceanu

- delta_3-2Uploaded byMax
- US NAVY Antennas and Wave Propagation.pdfUploaded byMax
- CoordinateSystemReview.pdfUploaded byMax
- PSpice Part ListUploaded bymac
- PSpice SchematicsUploaded byMax
- Electronics For You - February 2016.pdfUploaded byMax
- MITHFH Lec ImpedancesUploaded byMax
- Matching_Networks.pdfUploaded byMax

- Panel Builder_1st July 2017Uploaded byreeaws
- GPSDiff for ArcPad GS Guide Multi-language Rev BUploaded byCristianSosa
- Nicholas Langella HR FileUploaded byMariah Medina
- Pendulum Dowsing InstructionsUploaded byaveellavo
- intertuf_262-kh_series-kha062.pdfUploaded byERIC RICKS
- INTRODUCTIONUploaded byamna qamar
- Esteves_Group_Bunching_Dies_2018_04_EU_EN.pdfUploaded byYayan Rns
- Person Re-IdentificationUploaded byHemprasad Badgujar
- real numbersUploaded byapi-296824694
- Steve and JohnUploaded byThameemul Buhari
- Government Soft Landings Section 1 IntroductionUploaded byDan Stroescu
- A Pcr Da BuildingUploaded byAnonymous 4g5grv33DZ
- Deviance and Group CohesionUploaded byMarcadeagua Bijuteria Artesanal
- IRJET-Experimental Study on Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate using Coconut Shell Powder in Concrete: A Literature ReviewUploaded byIRJET Journal
- CloudUploaded bybritonindia
- Capacitor Bank Switching TransientsUploaded byMuhammad Majid Altaf
- Homework #1Uploaded byAri Garcia Oscos
- What is Mechatronic EngineeringUploaded byshavindra789
- Global Telework Survey.pdfUploaded byJean Pierre
- sbac practice test answersUploaded byapi-234535650
- CV Reni Mita DiwantiUploaded byreni mita
- Arts1240 - NatureUploaded byJoanne
- Rebuilding Nippon Denso Alternator 00-01 a - JeepForumUploaded byejen_gl
- lesson plan- 4th gradeUploaded byapi-315493516
- Leonhardt Cable StayUploaded byTarun Kant Goyal
- CA-Scheduler® Online GuideUploaded byHimanshu Kakar
- Health as a multifactorial phenomenon.docxUploaded byCelestialMiranda
- Nsk Cat e728g 7Uploaded byAnuj Jha
- City Multi Branch JointUploaded byDaniel Lucas Djasibani
- Doc Zhong Memory Training in InterpretingUploaded byLSara Martín G