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Princeton Field Guides

Rooted in lichl C\P,:llcncc .mt! 'c1cnl1tic 'tudy. Princeton~ guide<> to Jmmal' dntl plant'
arc the au1h11rit) 1111 p11k'll,11111JI M:tcnll~L\ and nmateur naturali~b ahJ..c Princeton Htld
G uidts pr....,.cnt 1111~ 1ntonn.11111n in a compact forma1 carefuJly designed for c '') tN: in the
field 111.: ~1111ks 11111 tr.lie C\<.'f'Y pcc1e:. m color and pro'ide de1.a1lctJ 1nl11m1Jl10n lln
idcnulic;,1111111, tJ1 1nhu11on. and biology.

Bm/1 fl/ At111<1 and V11rth1rn Tan::ama Field Guide Edition. by Dale A /1mn11:m1.1n.

Birds of Chile
Dtmald \ Turner, nnd David J Pearson
Bmll of India. l't1l11111u11. Ntpt1l, Bunglad!!sh. Bhutan. Sri Lanka. and tit!! M11/d11n .
by Richard Cirunmctt, Carol ln~kipp, and Tun lnskipp
Bird~ of A1mmlia. by Ken Simpson and Nicolas Day
Bird.I' oj H11n.1p<'. by Killian Mullurncy, Lurs Svcnsson, Dan Zctterstrom, and
Pclcr J. Grunt
/3ird.I' of N<1J1tl, by Richnrd (.irimrrn:lt, Carol lnskipp, and Tim lnskipp
/Jirds ofthe Sl)clwlltJN, hy A.drinn Skcrrctl and Ian Bullock
Stars m11/ Plo11cts, hy lun Ridputh and Wil Tirion
B111t<1jlif!~ of E11mpl', by Torn Tolman and Richard Lewington Alvaro Jaramillo
Mumma/\ 11/f.11mpt'. by David W. Macdonald and Priscilla Barrett
81rd.f "/Sm1tlll'rn 4/rirn. by Ian Sinclair. Ph.ii Hockey, and Warwick Tarbo1on
Illustrated by
Binlf o(Th111/uml. by t nug Rob!>On
Momma/\ of "lnr1/1 lm1rirn . by Roland Kays and Don E. Wilson Peter Burke and David Beadle
\ fannc .\famma/\ t>f the ,\ort/1 ft/antic. by Carl Christian Kinzc
Rt>pllll'S and lmph11>1an\ of 11mpe. by E Nicholas Arnold and Denys W. Ch endcn
Bmis ofC/11/1:. by Al\iaro Jaramillo
Bmls ofthe IJbt Indtr' by 1lerbcn Raffaele. James 'Vtley, Orlando Gamdo.
Allan Keith. Jnd Jani\ Raffaele
Bmh of/\ortllcrn lm/111, by Richard Grimmen and Tcm lnskipp



Pt ('f,1cc 6

Acknowledgements 7
1/\mv 10 "-31J3 for all the joy you have brought to my life
Introduction 10
1'1 I r h J."'nm.:. /(IC, and Evan with whom I look forward lO visibog thtl> wonderful country

f),111 Kalle and Jamei. for C\ erlasting Jove and patience How to use this book 11

Habitats and eco-geography of Chile 15

Migration and vagrancy 18

Notes o n seabirds 18

Fie ld identification 19

Conservation 25

Glossary 26

Topography 27
l'Rl>!1\hcd Ill !Ix llniltJ \utn,. ('....W,, , Md dw Phal1ppu1C l>lmds by~ LID\'USlty Pres... -41 \l:tfl- "rttl.
l'tlnct "' "'"' krw os~o
Colour plates and species accounts 28
1111 I t Ital l.:tnpka and I~ l -. ,>.lltd by C'bnstopbor Rdm. ""impnnl of A&. C Biid Plihli>Jom lid.
I Soho :>qu.u~.1.-s.., Wto Q?
Appendix: Taxonmic notes 222

"'' "r;l ' '"""<J """pan of thot l"'Ma.:a- nu> be rerroctucm or oSICd m my f0<m or by an) m-att> r'""'Jlarh1t, References 232
I '!1 ltu, 1111\.ln1c.J, tncludtnt l'h"IOCClp)'lnC, ra:ord1nc, tapmg. or 111fODIWIOD stooge nil rctnc\ll )'tctnf
"'1tutt11 I tttUJ&lton ctl lhr puhh.t\th

I 1111 ult''"~" t 1inlnI Numl>cr 20011()(1168

Scientific index 234
I llN ti h1ll litll 1111 I (1 ln1h)
I ll "l 111o11 I I /~ II I lth1ie1hnc~) Spanish index 237
I Iii '""'' 1111~ h1"1' ll li111111o;c1l In l'l111c New Roman and ChBrlouc Sans Medium
English index 239

l tllll I 1t1 !.111 J ~100

111 jl J 11 \ I 1 l 1
\\c 111.1111 1.1.111 C. l:irl for hcrconlnbu11on 10 our projC{ 1111 mcmol') ol De" I.'} <1.11" I 1111n JiL
' ' ' ' 1111 11cncrow. m their kind con1nbu11on 10 1he pro1ec1
Author, acknowledgements
I ulrl h.1\c been unable to obtain much of the field e\pcncnce necc-.sary 10 contc.'lnrla
h111 hr 1h..: tours and their pauen1 p3n1c1pan1o; tha1 ha\.c p.cnmtted me 10 '<isi1 Chile c. Ir) " 11
ul th, I 1eld Guides 'fumil) for their ttood humour. hclpfolne,., and all their other qu 11111
ollu.:c :ind in the field. I ,~\Ould p;inicularly hl.c 1<1 thank Pegg) Wat:.on for her multrlJriUll ,
l'1"'fwn lor his inpuL ad\1ce and grca1 le.1dc~h1p. and 'cote C3rulon for helping 'll"'''
cad1 \Cat Similarly the foll..s al ~n Franc1c;co Ra, 01rd Ob'-CJ'\atOI) have encouragcJ I I''' I 1 , I
..11,1\'\lt:n-31 suppon. particularly fanc1 I lanwn Thccdllol"\ at lhn,tophcr Hehn A&C Blad , .11, 1 t 1
I "'"'"'') Press have been \.Cl) pauent and \Upporlr\c Nigel Redman, Robert IGrk and S.1111 I I \11tlh
I 011 "" l1111gtr 1 l11IJ .md many th1ny~ have changed tn my life. Ho\\-e'<er, the dream 10 \Hile 1lm book \ J>WJC:Ct such as this is impossible w11hout the :i'"'t.1nce or variou museum collectron' an.I 1th1 111
Ii 111 II I ttt(l l"'1'c1 1111: truvcl hug cmue early, and I have been fortunate lO ' rsit Chrlc and Soulh America ~h tnccrcst thanks to Carla Cicero (Mu~eum of Vencbm1c loolog). Berkeley); Paul S\\cd, Sh "" l
11111111111111111 "" """" 1mt111lly o~ n backpacking teenager and latterly as a birdmg guide for I 1cld ( ruidcs K.-nrh:y and Peter Capainolo (American Mu~eutn uf Natural ll 1~1ory. New York); Rene Corc11J\1 (\\, 1 111
ltn \lli t 111,111~ l11 p' I hnvc been able lo sec nearly all of the species covered here, giving me 1hc conlldcnce I 1111111t.11ion of Venebrate Zoology. Cnnrnrillo. ('olifornia): Tom Schulenberg and David Willa1cl !1idd
111 \\tll~ 111 1~ hook ll111 ii was a friendship with Peter Burke. made as teenagers, 1ha1 reo lly gave me the f\.111w11m of Natural History, Chicago); Juan Curios 'lorrcl!Mur:i (Museo NaciooaJ de His1orrn N.11111 111
1or1litl<1111. 111 ~c ttlc dow n 10 work. The lirsl lime I was in the field with him, n1 Long Poi111, Onw rio, he l-:1111l1:il11ll, Doug Long (California Acodcmy of Science, Sun Francisco); Tomas Cekalovik (M 11~l't1 ti
11111111~~1,d lll l' w11h his ponoil skelches. /\ superb Buff-breasted Sandpiper wa~ a lifer which I remember /011h1gia, Uttiversidad de Conccpci6n, Concc1w i<ln); C11 n11011 Quiroga Oropeza (Colecci6n Bnlivu111 11 di
1 1 ~ ull y, p111ilully duu lo lhc reco lleulio11 of'lhal grcal sketch. Little by little we became in volved lit a slcud il y 111111111, Museo Nacional de Historin Nnturnl, l,n Pn1.) und Eugenio <.:oco nicr (Library, Asociaci6n Ornit11li'11-111,1
111111,1Mi11n 1H1111her or projcols, l~om nrticlcs in regional birding magazi nes lo cvenl u11 lly worki ng on 11tc iltI l'l111a, Buenos Aires. Experts have di~cusscd vorious :t~pce1 s oflnxonomy, distribution and idc1111tk11111111
l11 11 th \Im World JllaC'M1iltls, euch step 11 grcal learning experience. Al some poin1 we knew we wctc rcully d t lt1lcan birds. They are Jonalhnn Alderfer, Pedro 131cndinger. Ned Brinkley, Michael de L. Brooke, I k t 111111
1" 111111..l 1 111 ~ h~1oi.. lrnppcn. The pmJeCt hal> evolved qutle considerably from the original ideu. llnd curly on 11 C t'il1r\:il;, Terry Chesser, William Clark. l~nnquc Couve, Cl11 1s Corbcn, Guillenno Egli, Craig Farq11h111, Ji111
'" 1 11111 dc11r 1hat. jtl\Cll the number ofplotes this book would entail. more than one ani<.1 would he needed 1 tthba. Michael Force, Rosendo 1-mga. Gontalo Cio1v:\le1. llasilio Guiflez, Steve N. G. Ho\\cll. 1),1\ltl
I 111t1111.t1cly,11nc nf Canada's top bird illu~trators was an old friend from the Long Pom1 day:.. and '>O Dave l,1111e!>, Jaime Jahncke, Barbaro Knnp1on, Nicb Krabbe, Dan Lane, Manuel Marin, Daniel Martine1, R~ .11 41,,
11 11th. "' I no\\ from Toromo, JOmcd our projecL !\1111us. Sjoerd Mayer. Juan Ma7llr Bamen, Gary Nunn. Mark Peannan. John Quattro, Pamela Ra.,nmi; u1
I 111\ 1>.1ok 1ook longer thao Cll.pectcd, as j, almost al\\ays lbe case. However, 11 has been a fn.111ful tune \.111 Remsen. Michel Sallabery, Brinn K Schm1d1 'lom chulenberg. Dave Stejskal Juan Tai.sara. II 111\
11)11 "" hot\e lc,1mt a 101 In fact, 11 ;, clear 10 me now !hat. the reason you \\rile a book is not bec:aus.: you are I 1vlor, Juan Carlos Torres-Mura, Claudio Vid.11, G.1ry Voelker. Richard Wcb:.ter, Richard White. Bret \\ 111111 >
111 \f'll 11 , hut b..-cau..;c you w1,h to learn more about the subject. I felt I kne\\ something about Ch1l1:Jn \n~u<; Wilson and KnstofZy~Jm\\ ,i..1 \1any 1hanh 10 Ciuy J.... rrwan for copy-editing the manu:..:r1p1
huJ "hen \\C 'tancd but I wa' \\f'Ong. I"' very hUle_The process of pulling th1~ book together ha\ I am c:.'Cttemely chanl..ful for the commenh ol the lollo"'l08 1ndJ'<1duals on lbe pJates and dh1111>1111011,1l
t_1u~l11 l'~tcr, nave and my'-Cll more lhan \\C could ha"e imagined about Chilean bmb It 11.'.b aho wught me 111 r~ Jonathan Alderfer, Chns Bene h. ~cc.I nnnl.IC). ferry Che ser. \\illiam Clark. Paul CO<lpnl.lns. ( IOl)l
rlt t1 I till\\ very l111le: there arc many dt~O\.enes to be made regarding the binh or Chile. 111 ~ thr I uh4uhar. Michael Force. Gon7alo Gonule.r. ~ar C1nnJ.alc1. Greg Lasley. Klaus MaOing 01-..:n \I "'' I
1f 1h...c:n\cl')' 1tui1 1~ C"tcllinl/.. and we hope that the book will open up the d1scoH:ry of Chile '~ bird \ Daniel Martinez. Ricardo \1atu-. \tlark Peannan. Oa1;1d R1calde. Tom ScbuJe:nberg. 03,1: s1q !. I
111 ""' '" I rs'" II did tor us_ tiu) Tudor. Richard Webster. Rrc1 Wh1tnc} and \ngu~ WrJ<.on, as \\ell as the entire Field C11111lts 11
\\ hrh: I accept full responsibility for any erron. or Cltnl''iOn\ m the d1slributiooal data. l" 1sh ht ~111 I ''"'
Iv 11 l.111111111111 ll 1t.irdo Marus. Gonzalo Go11L:ilc1. Daniel \.1anlnC1 :inc.I \.1 onucl \1arin for their effom. rn hdp111g 111~ It
' ' ""'''' '' t 11/1/11fllw, IJ<nm/l(r 1001 l'"tk<t the maps. Photographic ma1cnal wai. mvon:ibly helpful I appre<:tatc the efforts oflhc hllm~ 11111111
lllli ny me such material: Delano / .. Anin. Jov1110 llaroldo Avaria, Jim Bangma, Chuck 111.11111, P.i1t 1
I h~cman, MikeDanzenbakcr, Don DcsJnrd111~. Wrn1h rop ll nmngton, Jon Hornbuckle, ( 'a111111>11 ._,pt. 1
11.u ha rn Knapton , Harald Kocksch, Greg l.n~lcy, Mort 1n Reid, Don Roberson, 1\11d1c' S put, .it
l\1'1Hv, Juu11 Tossurn (www.ovcschilc11as.1Tipo<l,com)ll111f l{oh \\ 111111 11
I hl' lh llowingwereofinvaluablc n ss 1~111 ncc in commcnling on or sending me obscrva1in11~ ol'lt111I 111 t 1111
My N1nccrcs1 thanks to John Coopcr, l\rtnaN J lill, Sr1111i11go lmhcrli. Sieve Gantlet!, llfuht1H1 l\1111p11111 t 111 11
I " "k y, Sieve Lister, Gail Mackicrnnll, Ian MoLoren, Terry Oa1lcy, Cora Phillips, l'cll:-1 1'11~1 ~t.110 1 1 I r 111
I l11\I< S1t:1skaJ, Jay VandcrGaus1, Ri chard While and Ada m Winer. I am n l~u nmsl p1 .11el\1I l1111ll 11l 11 11 1 1 wl 11 1
1111111 hcir reports from trips to 1he counlry. Scvcrol others have gone l1tl 11f'1lw11 w11\ ht I""',,,, I 11.t 111
1111.t litiwlurc for me: Ken Burden, Ian Pm1lscn, Jcff P11kh:n. Ro'~ S1lc1t~k R1l'h,11.t \\Ir! tr t 11.l 11t
11111 tl11n1lll'U Robert Cushman Murphy\ book~ m me
I 11111 111 1hr field can be frustm11ng .md c\h1l.11.11111 IJ11111 '"''' 111 1111\ ,IJ , \ 11
11t 11 J. rt1111\ 1hlr by 1he many wlw h,1\lc hd~d me t.1111nil.11 1h.111~li l'' ''' Ih 1111\ 11 11 ""
,1111c v. 11ndcrful recording!> lhr our u>~: to my uncle, Jew mo IJarold(l /\varia. ror his piloting skills and island Leading birding trips for Bagle-Eye T1>urs Inc. w11-. .111 1nv11h1otllh 111~ Ht ti 1 111 111 I II llt
v\~11$, to Rodrigo Laurie Glci::.twr one day we will get to the glacier! Klltjl1 Rimmi has been wonderful, become familiar wlU1 1(~ birds, and for this opponunny I thank Vic S1111th ~hilt. ul 11. 1 ~111 1111111 11111
hclpi11$ me in my fieldwol'I. nrnrll thnn she can imaginc - you arc the best! rt1u11ks nlso to: Juan and Monica whom I travelled. some of whom are mentioned above, provided me w11li 111~P11t11 11 1111111 111.I 111111 llt l1
Aguirre. Ned ' Pcrki11s' Brinldty, Ji111 Danzenbaker, Megan Edward~. Gon:rnlo Gonzalez, Basilio Guitic;,, waited as I sketched and made notes. During those I.rips. my eyes wen: upcm:tl tu 11 \\11111t. 11111 111 111111111
Arma1ido Iglesias, Nory J:irnnitllh Nos$, Tito Jaramillo Nass, Daniel Martinet. Ru,:urdo Matus, Jan J>icrson, country that I have filllen in love with. Not only is it the natural beauty M Chile I 111 d1 11111 h t 111 .I , 111
Patricia Tagle, Jorge lulcdl. Juan Carlos Torres-Mura, and Roxana and Alcja11llru. A 'lp<.-cial mention must culture and people that I have been forruna1e to meet. Special mention must be made tI 1I 111 111
be made of the variou-. " und deckhands that have helped us to get out 011 the ncean. Thanks to Jose Connie Laurie endured many visits and late evening mornings. 1aught me about the re 1t t hll II! 11
Luis Escobar (Valparmsol, l dunrdo Verdejo Barria (Valparaiso), Gustavo 7eballos Alvarez (lquique) and treat me like an old friend when I visit Santiago. Bcm1ett ~ennessey made our mr 111 u1<1th 111 1 IHI
his deckhand Washington, .md to Frederico (Perico) in fahal. nothing short of a 'blast'. Enrique Couve, Manuel Marin and Claudio Vidal went out nl th111 ' 1\ lh 1111~
A special thanks tu Rodrigo Laurie and Connie Divinetz for their hospitnlity 111 Santiago and for the cold me feel welcome and were fabulous field companions. Barbara Knapton was alway,.; 11 111 11 1 111 11!
beer. Thanks to the resr of my family for their various ways in which they have helped. They still think I am infonnation and a friendly face in Putre. Felipe Pino Armijo welcomt:c.I me into his home 111111 ii1111'11111 I
crazy. but they are us,c.l to me. assisted me around Arica. To Alvaro's many relatives with whom we swyed or visited. l wirnt 111 1111111~ 1111
Much gratirudc also to other people who have helped me, either on visits to Chile or in museum~. for making me feel comfortable and patienily interpreting my Spanish.
including thcAhulles (Yam ii Jr. Claudia. Yamil Sr. and Sonia) for their hospitality in Viiiaand Chicago, rhc The countless hours pn.'Jlaring the plates were powered by my wonderful wife Dawn's abihtv h l "I"
Huber family in Arica, Barbara Knapton in Putrc, Tom and Diana Kilip in Ne" York. and Ricardo Matus withe very young family. supply endless encouragement and helpful comments. She has always h.:hn ..1111
and Olivia Blankh io Punta Arenas. In California, the Primos Jaramillos (Pmri, Poncho. Sebasrian, Roberto my abilil.)' and r can'1 thank her sufficiently for all she has given to me. Both of our families hilH .11 ,,
and Rebecca) are always tl1ere to share an asado, drink some wine and infuse some Chile into California. eonrribmed by providing extra childcare and supplying me with confidence when I needed a boos1 M1u11
Mona and Horacio Mena are central elements of the gang. and now bird more than I do! Muchos abrazos a Dad, Chris. Lori, Arine, Gerry. Paddi and Zenon have all helped me by just being there.
todos. My greatest reward from this project has been continuing my lengrhy companionship with Alvn10 und
Finally, my parents have been wonderfully supponive over the years. My ltrlher bored me with his Dave, The years of preparation of this guide will always stimulate a nood of great memories. rrom field
lishing but entertained me with his love for the outdoors and good humour; my love of nature would not lrips to the aortbem puna to loitering around ports looking for a way out to sea. Having a rellow illustrotor
have happened were it not for his fishing, and stories of the land in the shadow ofVolcan Villarica. My nearby to share ideas, techniques or thoughts on the latcsr field guide is sornethmg I'm gratefuJ to Dave for
mother gave me a love of books and (Cading: nothing has helped me so much as this simple gift. Abrazos a He is aJways ready to help and provide tnsight or 1ips tha1 make the difference. As Alvaro describes in the
Otlando, Finita. Alex, Joanna, and, of course. Pablo (DJ Spinz) and Angeline - I love you all. preface, this book was an idea that he shared with me when we were teenagers. I can easily recall the
AJ excitement and overwhelming feeling of that initial thought of embarking upon such a large project in the
basement of Al and Kat's Bain Street apartment. I wouldn't have been able to accomplish my task ff it
Artists' acknowledgements
hadn' t been forhis friendship.
{ialhering the resources to paint the plates for this book was a continuous process. Ofcourse, working with PB
an ovifauna half a globe away posed some problems that I could never have overcome without the help of
nthcri.. n1ere are many people who gave their tlme and resources, and they dcscr.c many thanks. David Many of the people who helped pro,,ide material on Pc1cr's list also contributed to my efforts. Special
W1llnrd. John Ba1es and Mary Hennen of the Field Museum of Natural lfa1ory in ChicagQ were extremely mention must be made of Glen Murphy and Mark Pe~k at the Royal Ontario Museum, Philip Angle at the
V'lllrous and helpful lhroug_hou1. In London, Sandy Johnston and Sarah I cc of the University of Wes1ern Smithsonian lastitulion. as well as David Agro, Paul rrior. Martin Reid and Michael Force. Thanks also to
1111t111111 ,1ccommodated my needs for a never-ending now of loans. Ju:,t u~ 1mponnmly, Glen Murphy and Robert Kirk at Princeton University Press and Nigel Redman at A & C Black for their belief and suppon 111
f\l,11 I. l'1d of the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. oflhcd their hi:lp w11h spcc1111~n~ whenever it was the project.
th 11h ii 1111111 Carlos Torres-Mura ofU1e Museo Nacioni1I de Historin N11111rul, S1111linpu.11nd B~si l io Guiiiez
Ill 11 1111wu krndly granted me access to their collectk111s. which wl1h 1111pl!rntivc l'or certain spccies and
ph1111.1111 t\l11ry LcCroy. Shtrnnon Kenney and Paul Swcut 11fth1: Aincncan Musl111m of Natural f-(jstory and
11111 I 1111 111 I 11ois1nna State University all provic.l.:d infonna11M and help w11h specimens. Photographic
111111ol11 11111 fll'hl 11Hll:!. were very kindJy provided by J11an Aguirre. Jim Bangma. Ned Brinkley. William
l f lf I I 11111111, I 111\1 Mike Oanzenbaker. Don Des.lard ins. Dale Dyer, Gunnar Engblom. Gonzalo Gonzatez.
Y. 1111 11111 ttt~ t.. 11 11~1111~11 llenncsse.y, Jon Hornbuckle, Marc Johnson, Barbara Knapton, Greg Lasley.
l 111 t 11 ho 11 f\l1111111 l 1 11p~.1'ony P;tlliser, Brian P11t1\!Son, Martin Reid, Michael Richardson, Don Roberson,
1,,1,.. 1 111 111 111 l11l111 l<11wlt1JI, fohn Schmitt. Mall Sharp (VIREO), Craig Smith, Reagan Szabo, Christopher
I I I 1 111111 I 1 1111 1111\ I 111101, ( 'hiudio Vidal, Christopher Vowles, George Wallace, Angu.~ Wllson and
I1 I
' 1 tlo l1dpl11I ~1 1mme11t~ Ctrthe following on the dratl plt11cs: Juan Agu1rn:, J(lnathan
I 11111tu 1 um, 1\111 I rut~. (.mig Farquhar. Gonzalo Gmu{tll'l I!ugh & Ro~lta Harvey,
lo11t11 111111 111 i M 111 hlm 1111, C01111 Jones, Karl Kon1c B111kl K11ri1l. llt1rham Knapton.
I It t " 'mo I ~ 1 .11111 1111111.J l\l1111h1c1. l)nug McR.m:, h1h11 II N~fll I 11c:i Nol. Martin
I fll 11 I 11111111 I 1.. 111 ;. l 1111 1'11111 Inn r~ 1chants, H11h1 tt It 11h1lry. "utja Rin1mi. Carl
t tI II 1 t 11111 1t11i111111111 t 111111111 l1t11k. h1ri.t1: 'lol(th1 1111111t1 1110~ ' l 11rn~s. UuyTudor,
II 1 \ t 1 1 111 1 \\1111111 n11llt11~v Wh1t111111
1111lh 1111111 m 41111 ,p.:c10:-- found in the Republic of Chile. incluthnM the off,horc SPECIES ACCOUNTS
111111.I \\h1d1 .ire 11111 I lh 1 1111, 111 ti:mhiry. namcl) Easter Island 1Rara "'utl Sala ~ Gome1 the f ltc hulk ftbe book comprio;e lhc plat.:' and facmg-pagc -.p.:dc-. 3t.:t.:ounh anJ 111a1
ll 1s n mbru 10 1111 .1n I ch\) and the Juan Feman~.z arch1p.:'3go I \leJandro Sell.1rl;. l>.'ll!\.'S re
latd om in a standardised form:u, horcfull> 10 mal..c them mfonna111c and 11111
!{i\h111,iln ( rn'>l>c ind S;ini 1 ( 1111111 I >tI,hore \\liters are included to a distance ul 200 nau11cal mile' from p;in th..'\ are ;;elf-explanatol'). bu1 here 11c mnltnc thctr 'tructurc and cxpl:un an) ahl
Ure ..1.1 1 ,>I l h1lc nd II 1 I 11111 In n.JJ111on. '\\c include the Antan:tic Pemlbula and ad1accn1 "l;imh. a, ommonl) used.
well lh the I :.all..111 I 11 I Suulh I 1.:c11:ia. l_(t\ mg an addnional 13 species. Chile j, the ,tan mg roint tor
111 L.111 11 !ll'Cm logical to include these areas in the boo!. Top of page generalities
h\ \~been fi.r thi' boo!. to be a field guide, the '\\ork 10 '\\htch you tum 10 put 3 I ;11:h page commences '\\Ith ..;omc gcncml point' regarding 1he srec1~ col'ered rhet'\"111
nJlll\' 1" llll hlnl ytu 1r ch C:I\ mg. lfo,..efull). 11 u1/I perm11 you 10 put a name to it, and ma)!x' C\cn ~cncral description of the famil) or 'iubgmup 10 11 hich the) hclong. For others. then~ ,
111 1 ot 1h~ h1rd 1f .1t all po~'ibk. or course. lhe more detail >ou put into a b<x1I.;, the tnfo~tion on how age. or se:1.e;, di Iler within lhe group, 1f thc'e appl) to all or most spe.:1c ,
1.111;1c1 1l l-<:w1n \\lt1 Ii 11r11111p.11n,1 the 01hcr aim, 10 produce a book small enough 10 be carried cJ'91y in plalc This permitted us to mention omc potnl' IOr 11 luch we c1.>uld no1 afford the luxurv lI t 1 II 11
1hc h Iii 111111 ''Ill 11 1111111,, ""'' fri endly la)'OUI Principally, we w-anted lbc plate to be oppo,1te 1hc te\t ;ind c'cry species on Uiat page. Do n:mcmb<r 10 con,uh thc'c o,eeuons '"hen crying Lo ideoul v a I ~111 ul 1
111.11 1 "11111 111 .i th 111tnrm.1t1on fur 11 ~pccic) b m one place. To our minds the vuluc M 1h1' cln""' lield ,pcci.:s: lhey may provide addiuonal bchu' 1011ral or tn~onom1c poinh to increase the conli1k111 111 t 111
1111111 11,1111 11111" 1111t. the ncga11vc..., fo1 example using small type to fit everything onto one pugc. ancl 11kntilication. Note, we chose not to provide .1 dciarlcd 'ummary of Chi le's bird families in the inltmh11111 11
11111h111L' t '" 111 1111111 ~ dcl:ut... conccming nnlurul hil>tory and behaviour. These arc 1ntcre)ting 1op1cs, hut h11 'c1eral Teasons. We have found that such fomily-lcvcl tlc~cn p1i ons are seldom used by licl1l 11h ,, , 1
th.' h 111.1 111 ".,,1111ly hclu11g. in a lfold guide. 1 his book is a basic tool. a starting point fm rnore indcplh d '"'unfamiliar bird is located, a hirdur 1 ~ mo;.t likllly to nip th rough the book to fmd an ilhc.l1011011 111111
1 11111111111111111~1111 1 ~11 1 the h1rcls of' Chi le. Mvsl oft he information in Lhis book is contoinod in the lllOt c~ nnd Imi ks correct. Given our perception thnt fomi ly dcsc1lptionNlmvc lilt le didac1ic value, and th:1l tltuy 111111 l'I
"'"Ilk 1111.I lh1 ll'\I I ~ II fllllclc which he l p~ lo highlight the important points upon which onu must l'ocu~ ror 11 hook's weight and size, we opted Ill rnnil them,
i.h 1111 Ill 111.111 "' 1111dl1~11111d l ng where u spccics occurs.
t >111 'ii 111 ~ 11111.,1 thllicult dcc1~io11~ lo mui..c is which species to include, and which Ill 011111 Uniikc muny
English name
, 111111 111 111 N111th /\mcncu and I uropc, Chile does not have a rare bird records commillec to udjudiculc the I Ill' l!nglish name is given in bold Ot thi.: i.lan ofcuch ,pcc1cs r1ccoun1. I f there is another commonly nn<'l* I
' 1h1lil\ ul "'" 1111 1i.:currc111:c' hao,ed on uv111lahle data. We not only wanted to include ~JlCCIC'> wh1~h arc I uglish name we have included it witlun p:u'C111hc~~ nfler the name we com.ider the~tandanf English nanll' 'it
1c tllrnt 111J 11l 1.:gul,1roccurrcncc or wcllC!oLabh hed introductions. bulalso accepted vagran10, :ind mr111c,, th fnxonomy section for more tnfom1u11on un nume~ 11nd p.tmcularly which names wecoos1dcr olfo 1.11
It ~ ck.11 111.11 m.1ny 'P.:C>C' h1Monc.1lly con'1dercd 10 be wilh onl)' a fe1\ record' in the coun1ry. Chilean name
, 11t11 '-""" n 11 be n:gular in {.lute. bampJe., mclude Westland Petrel Least andp1rcr. ( hll S\1 ~llO\\ I he Chilean name appears after the f.'ngh'h narne Sr.1m~h names arc not standardised. and th.:1c I) m
nJCtl I uhl n hilled '::iahJttU to n.1mc JU'>t a re\\. Surely othtt accidenmr species 11111 become rc~ul;sr um;c "c 1>anicular mx">C! 10 do so between nilltOn. bccau-c the '-C11:n1tfic n.tmes are used as standard. Each Sp umh
I 111" hc.-rc. 1hc11 Jnd ho\\ to 'catch for them Then: 1s 3.lso lhe problem of man) hiqoncal rccorJ, publth~-d :31ung country has a series of \\Ondcrful. olkn 1.:ulturally n:lc,-ani. names 11onh~ of prescnallon l11Vl:ll
111 th '''"''1' trca11:-e~. '0111e m1ol1 mg o,pcxrmcn.. 1ha1 ha1e long since disappeared. We ha1c included th~'l.C 11, h regional variations. 1he name., ;m: ncll ncce.."4nly u,eful for communicating outside Clnle ll1u
1~10 hl.'ft' 1 here h:l\C al'o been more n:cent ..1ghtmgs of spttiesne11 to Chile. and 11c ha1.: b<cn forcl-d
tlic) are referred 10 as Chilean n.imc.. \fany .ire m 111d.:,prcad u c and clearly established.. UUilll) 101 th
li rnalc ;111c11 hat dc .. 1""' on" hat ttl include and what to le:we oUL Some 'J>CC'C'. '' h1ch the """' common and highly visible sptt1c.. Rural { h1lcan~ tend 10 t..oo'\\ man) of lhe local !-JX'CI~ 'll1id )'UO
n 1J occ "' occurn:n~c m the count!') 1., "'cal., 'uch a., Plain-coloured S~ter. \\ere mdutk-d b..'Ca11;;c \\ e '' 111 tind that Chilean names are ~urpno,m!!l)o u-eful 11 hen tr) mg 10 C:{plam to locals exact I} y,h;)t "" r
I II 11t;i1 111 "crs "uuld then !'IC cquirpc:d 10 dctcnnine the identification of!>uch ~'etc,, 'hould th.:y 1)Cc11r
J,,.,J.:mg for. Forlhe most part. \\I.! ha1e folll>'\\Cd name-. tn \r.iya'~ 11985) L1s1a patr6n de l~ a\\.-s dulCtJ
II t\11111;; I 01 111~,.:, \\c h.t1c noted th:u occurrence needs 1erificarion. SeYeral rcccntl> n:roncd ~pcctc..,
/~1"1 o,c. fns1. Oceanologia {,n11 Va/p1mmo No. l, .ind more recent papers dealing with aJd1t1<11h lu 1h
" 11 11111 "" 11111 ti tor \armu' rca"'"' Some 11,cre only published recent!) and could nut !>..included tor 1 l11lean a,ifauna. However, for many or t hc~e recent add111ons. new Chilean names have bttn l 1t1nt .1
11 ''"" ul 11111111~ Other, ha\c b<cn published hut lac!. a com;ncing analy1ill. or1h.:1r 11knt11ic.111un, lcJ1 mg
1 111t,r than adopting a name in a nc1ghhour1ng nation 11here the species in quesi:ion ~more 1:11111111111
t111 c 1111 ,1..11111 ,,, 111 their ,1u1hcntic11y A le1cl of arbitranness exists in the dcc1smn tv include or C\cludc
111 .ncral instances we chose to use ;i name from an ad1uccnt country rather than invent a nc" ,,111: 111 tit
I' 1{ ~ 1111111 tlu !11111!.. 11 h1ch we urc uncomfonnhlc \I ith. Lacking a recent comm11tcc-bhetl chccl..h~l ltl 1hc
111h'1c'L~ of maintaining stabili ty among aln:ndy c~t.1blishcd Spam~h names. Some altemativc C'lult.11111.1111<:
111111111~ \\! It"' lwcn ltm:cd to pick nnd choo'>c whnt to include.
II ~iven in parentheses.
N \I th I 1 1l11 1ss11c ul'thc order 111 which species are presented. Recently, thcrc has been yrem uphcnvul
1111111 11.;l 1111111 lilpN w11h11111ml hotwccn l'nmilics ofb1rds brought about by new genetic dnltlMllS. fhi~ work \, l~ 11tific name
1 li11 111111111\11, 1111!11111 \11111c l:(rnup~ (11ine-primaricd oscines) it has just begun. /\.,, the tlim oflhis lmoJ.. i ~ 1111' Nl'11:11tific name is given in ilallcs nflur till: Chilen111111111u. ror more information on scic11J jl11 11111111 1~1
11111111 Iii 111 1111I l i~t11111111111i~c {Ill the sys1cma1ics a11d taxonomy of Chile's birds, we h ~1vc 1:1rnupcd :.pccics ih~ 111\'onomy section on page 15 .
.. 1111 h 11 111111.11 111111111111 1h1s1ly rclulcd, 01110 the same plate. Some plate groupi n g~ 111uk1 more sc11su
( rH fl'\
111.1111111t. 1 1 \ 1 11 111h'd th1 1111tJU11ty ufplcitcs to deal with species at the same ~culc. I hc1cfnr.:. ollhou1.1h
Ill ii 1111111 h 11< 11t.11 111u11nuu' arc more closely related to rhea~ thnn 1111> 111l11:t grouri 1rcntcd I"' 111111 ~rec.ies, several codes nre prcscnH:d follow1ng 1he nnmc' ~cclion. fhcs<: 1>11vhl1 11lif1111011 ti
iii 11t 11111pl1 1111111 th~ ,an11. pl111e b<cause of size restrictions. The g.:ncrnl 11r1kr dt\l'-cll ,., mon: lut... 1111111111 on the range or taxonomy. nn<l arc lh lnllow~:
11 .11111 111l 11t 11111111.i 111 t111c111h.111h, 11.1d111unal order is much more famthar h hmkr' .md cvcn ltl mo~I I \ I lt,lt'I'> to a taxonomic note. which fom10, <1n uppt.:ndi\ at the end nl 1hc ho111L 1.,1, h 1~ 11111111 11
'"' \'.!"<: lfloailion
I I< ul.11 cumfl(lnenl of the '\nwrtlti.: ,1\11.11111.1, 111cl111hng 1h
I I 11141 \I <1 refon; to f'l'l.1 1~ hml in lh~ Stt11lh< nl U,c.111

I t lltl!lt'tf II till' 1111' ''ode

I ll 11
It k 111111!.11111111p1111rnl 11I tlll I ,11~1.uul~ (lslu~ Mt1lv111as) av1founn 1nd11d111godjacc111 sea:. Vagrant~
111 1111 t ,111.1111111 111. 1111t 11lc1111f1c<l u,111g this code. ~

\:. tit
M, IC. 11111111 111111p11111:nt 111 thc South Georgian avifouna including n<lJacenl seu~ Vugmnl\ to South
c.e..1l:1.1 .ire not 1dcn1tlied us111g tlus code. XI resident
VI .~
l nttth
I Ii, kni;th (L) of the ~rcc1c,,, lrom b1ll np 10 1a1l 11p 1s given in cm and {in pan:mhe..c') inchc-. for l;irgcr,
~lt Austral summer

r.1r11rnlarly acnal. pec1e 'uch a, 'iCJbmb anJ raptors a wmgspan of wingtip to win~tip (\\ l "uh.o 1l"cn
\'Ill { Austral winter

Species generalities ' LX migr.ition

The fust sec11on of each 'r't" account pro\ ide:. general infonnation on habiw, somettmc<. a ~cry @cn.:ral Jm ..'-11 ~
note on abundance and u~ually cle,auonal r.ingc The abundanc.e ofman7 ofCbrlc':> binh i~ im~cetly x
1-nov.-n and vanes 3':cordm to lalltudc 11 premature 10 present anything other than a v.:ry gcneml ...... '
note on abundance Other points of mtcreM such as endemism. vagrancy. presence on Chile'' ofT,,hore B
islands, water tempera tun:~ preferred by '>cab1nh. general breeding periods of seabirds. and glob31 threat
sta1Us (based on BrrdL1fc lntemntmnol's Threatened 811Yis ofthe World) are given here 1lk I.\\ l'>C 10 create a neat alignment. Thus, 1hc north arrow faces slightly to the right in the righthand 111111'1
Identification I"' ,out hem third of Chile stretches for to the cao,t of the rc\I or the country, enforcing this slight r1,1t.il11111111
1h '>11t11bcm third.
The primary dcscription of the bml nnd how tn identify it is treated in this section. 1 he most 1mpurton1
I )J1 l,.cr lines delineate the 12 gco1>0li1 rea l re"1ons nl'C'hi le. Note that these are numbered from I. 111 th
criteria to note ore i111/lci,11tl. It' plu11111gcs diffor due to age and sex, the different plumages arc treated in
11111lh. 10 XII , in the south, and arc written ns Romu11 1111mcrals. 'l'he Metropoli1an Region ofSantingn 1~ 11
sequence. I f onl y one plu111agc is th:scribcd then Ihis is assumed to be standard adu lt pluma1,to. t1ncl there is
( lll11cgion, which is not numbered. T he no1thcrn 1)11111:1mnr s lhc uren between the Peruvian border ~ou1h Ill
liulc difference bctwcl111 the :;oxes or younger plumages are similar, rarely observed or unknown. The
t lvullc, south of Coquimbo Bay, und includes Regions I lo part of IV. The central panel begins north 111
rtll! ntilication section co111111c11ccs with 11 fow notes on the species' structure, which Llrt u~uu ll y t:1i lnrcd In
t 111111imbo and La Serena, and extends ROhth lo centra l Chilo(: Island: regions IV to part ofX are i11cludc1I
rrov(de 0 broad implO~SiOll Of lhe bird, (IS Well aS lO present details usefu l in itS Separatkll1 frolll ~im i lnr
1111 Metropolitan Region lies cast of Region V. and Santiugo is shown as a red do1. The sou lhemmo~t panl.'I
~pecies. Sometimes a Chilean -.pec1es is compared to a North American or even European bpcc1c,, as a
111111" the area from northern Chiloc south 10 (';ape I lorn; pun of region X and all ofXl and XU are includc1I
short-cut to its 1dcn1ificatio11 To ob~crvcrs lnckmg experience with the comparison ~pecic,, these notes nrc
I It p.:nding on the distribution of the specie~ concerned sometimes only two and occasionally just one p:1111:I
11;,._ than uo;cful, but 10 tho~e who nrc they may be ofinestimable value. We consider that the 'unnoyancc' uf 1 11'.:d. 1n order lo conserve space. Finally, two other. l.1rgcr scale. map:. depict the ranges ofLhose specie~
,uch rnmp:msuns 10 ,nmc reader.. " outweighed by 1heir use lO a great many others There " no 'cpara11:
1 tmtcd to the extreme north or extreme south The nonhem map highlights the region from the Perm 1.111
11111lur -.pcc1cs' sc,uon. but nOIC\ detailing ho"' to differentiate close relatives or confusion ,pt.-crcs Jrc
h11<kr to just north of the latitude of AnlofaJ:?ll ta. 111 Region II lhc southern map highlights soulhcmm'"'
111cluJcd Due 10 ~pace constr.unts and the difference in difficulty ofidentifica1Jon.1hc l~el ordcu11l 1n the
"''"1llanes. in XII Region. and include" the area from lorrc del Paine south to Cape Horn.
, nun" Jrfl\:r; bct\\-een plate" In 11 pcrfoct ''orld "'c \\iOuld have included a few more plate~ and pa anted
h:\h't ix-.:1.:' on ea.:h, but l!\:onom1c-. precluded lhr!>. The plates contain all of the rele\iant 1den111ica11on THE PLATES
1111&11111.111..11: the tc\t mere!) dra"'' the ob-.ervcr' ancntion 10 the key points to note. I h l.1}ou1 of the plateS C\O(\.ed O\er the life ofthi., proJc.-ct rile aim was to present as much i.nforrnall('n '
Vo"" fli !;1hlc in the illustration:., and 10 fac1hwtc !>"ifl ond c:i:.y companson betll.eeo similar species. HO\\C\.:1,
Ih "" ~ 1lcscrrbcd lil"ll. tollO\\-cd by the mam callo;. Sometimes assocrateJ di~play" ore al'4t lk:~nbed .
th.- projec1. evolved so did the realisation that 'm11lar bird., mu t be posed similarly lO a_~"1 ""'It
Ih 1io11 ul 1l1u sc,uon 1 nol to outhnc the full \ocal repertoire ofeadi sp...~1es. but tu prc'>Cnt .in o\Crvrc~
1nr.nisons, even ifthis detracted from tbc ae..the11c of 1he plate. In general, the earliest plates did 1111t u~
tI lh 1Ut1 I ~111111111111 \l>eali..aliC>n l Or 'l'l11C 'JlCCI~. \Ueh as seabird-.., \\her.: H>C,1hs.ill111l\ lltC '>eldom 1.111dard layout. while more recent one.. ;ire much nmre ,1andanhscd to pcnnit easy comparisons. All 111.1111
11i:_111,, on a plate are illustrated a1 the same ~ale, unlc,., noted. I lowcver, flight images. distant 'IC\\' .11111
11l 1111h, ln:hl .1111l .1n: m11 u:.cful for field 1Jcn11fic:ll1on away from the col,ln)'. fin, :.ce11un 1~ onllllcd l hr
\ 11 1 11.-ttc~ depicting charactenstrc behaviour. arc ill11w.i1cJ at mnllcr i.calcs: these changes in scak h11uhl
l"''I'" , "' 111 , "", "' 111111 1~ ru provide another characteri!.1ic that may ass1~1 field 1den11fica11on, .rod w1"
I II evident and hopefully will not cause confusion
Ii 1111111 l "11 hi t.1111111.1\ hi whether 10 include thrb sccuon or noL For many vagranti. which arc unhkely to
1111 141111 1111 l11t. 1111)\ .1 ,1111dc~cript1on1s given and ~omelimc:s nothing al all. Do bear 1n mind that the \111'11 credits are as follows:
111 1111111 111 111.111\ I l111i ..111 huth. ore imperfectly known or wholly unknown. Mnny 11mcs we dc~cdbo /'111r Rurke AU introductory figures, oil su111d1tlMc unugcs in lext. Plates I 6, 8-9, 12 15, IX 111,
I 1.1 1 11111111\ 11hnndf'ul of licld experiences and a small number orrecor<ling~. making sumc ' I 22,24-26,29-34.36 39,44,46,49 52,55 59,6 1 76. 78,8 1 83, 89-90,94- 96.
1111111111111pkt1 1111111101wholly rcprcscmative of the variation in a given spucies' voc111isut io11s. / 11111 /Jead/e Plates 7, I0- 11 , 16 17, 20, 23, 27 2/l, 35, 40 43, 45, 47--48, 53-54, M, 77, 71l Kil
KI XX, 91- 93.
IW\ 1IClllll11< IN MAI'\
111. 111h1111 11 ti 111llcm11e1hc different seasonal distribution' wu llll\C c111ploycd. r>uc IA)(ONOMY
1 111111 1ilt tu 1lq 11J1 lttl\\ 111 c1eatc a map that was mor..: or II.'' 1\'\'W11~111lar II fi1 within 1'11!1.111 1111 lssu..: in ornithology and birding is more co111cn1 1ous than taxonomy. parllc11l11rh 1111 11111 ~ 111111111
\\ 1~ 1 l<11< .t 111111\111 th~ c11untry into three part,., 11111l 1hc11 ltm up ca1:h 'tlurd' II\ 1111' olllh II Ill tn.xa are treated. Some of the disagreement' (lr :lt least dillcrcncc!i Ill hfllllll'll ~ .. Ill ' " ' " '
11111111 un11l1 1111111"1 ..-.1111111111 thc lefi and sou1hcrn11111,t '~'\ 111111 .1t th.: right I h" pl11l11 11ph\ h."1<:ally which specici. concept ,.uit'> the re,c.m:her Vannu' conecpt' :1nil 11,..,, 11111 11 11111111 ...
11h 11l 1h .. , 1hll\:1cn1 'cctions. m:i) 1111111111\i '111""11 curnher...omc. but til 1 Ii 1111111 111111,., a :.p.:c1es C'(l'>I. 111 add111on tu rclincmi:nt<; 11fnldcr c11111:ept' \\h1d1 111 1111111'11 111
hu111.1 ""' 11u1 11ic ...11uthcmmu..1 -.c\'111m h.111 tu be mtnted shghll) 1 111 11, 11 h111h 11111111!'' The 111.1111fl(llnt111cu111cn1111111t11 11111'1 re t.H\.hl.'1" "'' hcth(1' 111111 111 t
11 "1 I""""' 1h, lld1111111111111 1ltfll'11'' '' lu~h becomes paJ1icularly problematic when the race:. in question HABITATS AND ECO-GEOGRAPHY or Hilt
, ..1 , ,,,11.1r.1k 1 Ill" 11111 11111 1111,1h1'l'Jmg and gene-exchange (key feature:. m the dctenmna11on of
l1111li1r11.1t ~r.:11c1tl 1 11111111 Ii " 1, 111 II "in such cases that most decisions as whether to ~pl11 (elevate o
"1L1 11e11:s h 1ic I 1 1~111 I 11 l11111p 11kmme a species to a subspecies) anse. Ch1h: is no d11Tercnt from
most nthc1 fC"&' 11 ht "' '~ 11111 tl11 rl' ure many well-differentiated subspeci~ \\<h1ch may be be~t treated desert
1-.dcs I '"'' "'" 1 1111h111 "1 h,1\ 1 our opinions on how these should be classified and how many such
'"""~ sh1111hl he Jll1t 111 IU11IJ1Ct'I I l11wc\ er. "e do consider lhat these pn>p<bal arc ~t m;ide else" here, m high And~n sleppr (Altifliilt f'uo
11<'( "'._.' ;...,, o:d 1111111111 "Ii l 1111 3lld full rationale can be presented for the readers anal} SI~ i\ field
m<1lorr.i I nd sderopllyUou' Iut
urcl ".1 11101 h1 '' 1 I 11 1\ t'ti; 1kt1rmine which pecies they are w.uching, not an aren:i to introduce ne"
1;a,uno111\ JtUJ ' p11hl1 h 11 " pcc11."" arrangements. At the same nme, \\e are "'ell aware that many readers dry deciduous forest
.11c 111tc11 1111 '" l.11111\ 1h 11p111111n~ of authon. on these subjects, howe\'er incomplete their data may be
I h11<f,111' \\l hav \111t1p1lnl ,111 append!'\ that co"ers some of the ta:xooom1c problems :b'OC:mtetl w11h 1hc
~an-Patagon;.n forest
c lnl<'.1111\\ 1loa111111 1111 lll ..,11nmns on :.omc of the~. We are currently 10 obtain the data needed to broadleaf evergreen forest
ic " " ' 1111 11 111 \1 11~1111111111c headache~ and publish them for peer review. What is cle:ir is that m the
l111111c 111111111 r ,,r ",II 1hllcren11a1cd fonn., treatcd as subspecies here"'ill be elc,;11cd to sp.:c1cs. Cl earl). evergreen forest
1111 1 11111111111111111th1111.il11plano und bouthcm Andean taxa is imponanl, and several ofthcse gco!!raph1c Patagonian steppe
11111~ ' 1111llH 1 I" h,1\\ ,1-. :o.rcc1cs mther than races.
I 11~ 1111111111, 1.1\11111,my of so muny species is tn flux, it 1s difficult to cs1ablish n standurd 'baseline' as
th'" rn 1111 """ 11111h1cl..J11>t to the birds or South America as exists for North and Central Americn t111d the
u111111 ,111 t lh1 \1111"m:an Omithologi:.ts Umon list). For species covered in 1hc Inlier lisl and us supplcmenls DESERT
I\ 111111 1111111,1llv followed this lead. Rece11tly lhc AOU established a new com111it1cc, the Snulh American tlnsicall y, an area where evaporn1 ion exceeds rrccipitar in11 is culled a desert. The Atacama is consi1lcnal lh1
c 111" ~ lit I 111111111lll'C, charged with the task of creating a baseline taxonomy for those species that occur in 11111::.I ' hot' desert (i.e. excludi ng polar de~cns) 111 thc world. among ureas with less than 50 mm pn:e1p11.1111 u1
"'""'" \1111111 .1 I hl' firM published "ersion of this lbt is not available, but preliminary li st ~ and no1es were 1m year. In 1he heart of the Atacnmn (inland of Anr ofagn~ln) there are areas that do nol receive mc11~u1 i1hl1
111.1111 ,11111l.1hlc lli u~ ns an unofficial. general guideline for the taxonomy employed here. There will be no 1a111fall in decades, or even hundred~ uf yen~ nt ~ome i;ites! Menn annual rainfall is less rhan I mm I If,

1.1 11111111111 ur11nw,, we expccl, rn our Lrcatmcnt of the Chilean avifuuna. \t,1cama has been temled 'absolute' a.' no vegcLatton grows m this dry environment. II ''a w.11.11
ck-.crt, with parallels in 1he deserts of llnJn \nlrfomiu and the Nnmib. Cold water otrshore cools till' 111
1 1usmg water vapour to condense nod fall off:\hore. dryrng the air by the time 11 reache shore. !'hi.' 'c' 111
.11hdi"1sions of the desen zone pre entcd bclO\~ ha\c an 1mponant effect on bird distributions 10 Clul.
Absolute desert
1111-:> co1 ers most of the area Ill:fined a\ on the map. There 1s no \'egetanon, and the rel:!111n 1i.11 lic
termed a moonscape'_ Essent1all), no brrJ, arc found in this hab1tn1.. the mnJor C'<ception being the flm:1h11"
~1lom~ of Gre) Gull Birds that ma} !IC ....ccn occas1l'nally arc u:.ually rno\'mg bemeen more h<hp111hlc
1r..:as Greyish \1mer is one spe..:1e'i that tnhab1h the t""Cotone bc1wecn absolute desert and moi\ll:r hal111.11 ~
O.lSis valleys, riparian habitats
I hL""C .ire the most imponam habitats for bird' "1thm the de,ert environment. and inclutle 1h.: ''clll.1111" 11
"''"'alleys of the Lluta and A1apa. a~ well 3\ ..cverul major valleys to the south, most import.1111 he111
111, l haC3. Camarones and the more 1'-0lated l OJ The latter~ the only one of these wa1crc11111-,c,. 1li.11 u
fl< 1111a11cn1rather1han temporary. All 31'\: fod by wo1er from the moister Andean region. Mosr nl the 1111.1ri 111
"' ..., m Chile arc heavily impacted by agncuhurc or uroomsauon; \Cl') fey, sites retain ;1 trul\ 1t.1hH l'l 1111
C111nanchaca vegetation
\l~.1 !.nnwo as Lomas vegetation, in reru. This b n narrnw /.One of desert vcgetnt1on that 1:1rnw" 111 ~1111\ 1 1111
1111'11111 ~ l...lpcs and cliffs 011 the cousl. ll is watered l>y the morinc invcrqio11 layer, known 11' t .11111111 11.1, 1 111
1 11111 'iuch vegetation reaches north a' far a~ Qucbrnd11 Paposo. south uf Antofagtbl:l, h11l 1 1111111 1111 ,
11ul d11N' 111 ~trueture fanher south, where it grod11ally grades into S!'ler11pl111/1111\ ft111'kl

I 1111, 11 ugo forests

''' "' pmnarily composed of />rr>11Jf'/.\ fl111111rn~11 .111cl arc founcl 1111.11111 1111111 J.111111111
cl r 11 Y.111" 11111und water rs ava1l:1blc, uml JI lc.l\t \llllll' 1111 ({ .1111.111. h I 11111ttthl 1
111 11.1 '"' I w.1 ut h1,toncull> hut l.1~c 11.1,1 h.l\c h .-n l\'h'nll) r pl.111111 1111 1 Ill
111 111111 I 1111.111111 l"onl'h1ll
11 "' h.1h11111 .111 JI l111!h l'lc\alwn Many s1lCcies arc res1ric1cd 10 1hc puno 1onc, with charnc1eris1ic I ht lnr~"1 tone largely marl." 1hc 1mnsi11011 from ma1orral 111 mo1.,1cr liirc~I II It, 111 1 mi11I 1111 1 111
1 111.J 1 111 1 1111 I 1111 the gruundtyranh. ~1crra-linchc) and ycllo~finchc~ ,1mong other. d1111.111, 1one m1cnncdJa1c m mo1srure bcl\\Ccn the \1edtterrJncJn d1mah: and the '""111'1 I
Mulh In the north. 111s marked hy a vanety oftn:c spect~. bu1 hao, onl> a very "nail \1 1/111/,
Alt111l1111 '"tl.1011, , bofedales I .1rthcr ,ou1h. ,.,.(Jthnfag11.\ increase:. and becomes :i mn1or component of such forest 1'.111 111 1, 1
\ 111111111~ 1rn111t, , .1l111>lano 1s a high plom. lhc al11plano itself is a geographic fc:uurc r.uhcr than a hab1ta1 \\ i1h111 'uch ~oodlands arc deciduous, hu1 the maJonty i.hcd 1hc1r leaves Chestnut 11.,,, I I I ht
I p 1111 l1l'!i l,trl''I) m Boltvrn bu1 c-cten<l~ to Chile. southern Peru and northwc~ \rgcnuna 11 i on 1h1 ~ pcrhaJ" the species whose rongc is mo 1closely allied 10 1hi:. rorc~t l)'J>C. although 11 1tnh
111111 111 H1ll\ ia and Peru.'' here In.I..~ l11icaca and Poopo are found These are remnanh of a large ml:md 11111rc northern areas.
1 "ht h 'hMlcJ 1hc uluplano. A1rdlifc is nchl:!>t ''hen: wetlands such as lake,.s or cushion bogs. Imo" n lb
""" 1li1h- 11t'l'ur. In Chile, mos1 of these arc fed from snowmell. bul there is n marked wet season in the ANDEAN-PATAGONIAN FOREST
111 1111 .111111111:r Many highland lakes and ponds experience high level~ of evapor.11ion and have oo outlet, In the north ofi1 range. this fore"t occur. on Andean !>lopes u.swilly abo\c 1000 m to the 1r1c1111
11\l h1i,:hh ,,,line and \ery altr.lcll\C 10 species such as flamingos. lh far outh it can be found IO . c.1 level. The key feature 1s thal \ ndean-Pa1agoTii:10 fore:.l l'\ 1>(11~ 11 11 "

1'1111.1 i;1 .n\lilnds 111 '' 101cr. The dom111an1 tree 1s Leng:i Nl)f/iofagus p11milio. w11h N1rrc V cm1arc1ico al~u .111 111111111 1111
c11n,11tuen1. fn the coastal mountains of ahuelbutn :.1nd 1he Andc<. mland ofTcmuco are fanu,u, \r Ill 111
"' 'J''1 1 n111ponen1of1he high-1\ndean u:ppc-. are puna grasslands. compri'<.-d of small to large patch~.,, of
1r MunkC} Puzzle' .lra11cur1011ra11cuna fOl'CSlS. Whrlc nol rcs1nc1ed m thoc. Slender-billed Pamle.:I 'l'I" 11
llll h 1 1 li \\ htch '' r'-"'"tanl to :i har..h clunate .ind dry periods. In Chile puna gra.sslands are invariably df).
ht h.l\c evolved its peculiar heal tn order 10 efficiently e-ctrnct lra11cario piiions. Austral Paralo.c.-1 ts
'1lh 1 ""'I \Cl ..c,1son, usually 1n summer. I hey are :i common component of the ah1plano.
l.11')!.ely restricted to Andea11-Pa111goninn l-ores1, as 1s Magellanic Woodpecker.
l' r" 11111111 ~hr ub zone
1111 liil1 1111., 1q11on i'> ~mall. citiendmg south from Peru. Between c.2500 and 3700 m :i more diverse. dcn~cr
""' 111 .1111111-, and c11c11 occur~. south appmx11nu1el} to Lhe latitude oflsluga. I he pre!>cncc of1,crcnnial and In .1rcas of high rainfall some coasts possess 1ruc 1c1111x:ra tc ra mforests. wt1h rainfall 1n place' sm h ,,,
, 11 1111111d 11t1wc11ng shrubs such as So/01111111, cremes habirnt for species such :1s 13l ~ck-1hroa1cd Plowerpicrcor, V11l1livia and Puerto Monti avoragingj11s1 less than 2 111 per yollf'l This is a lush, tall and wondo1f11 I l<itl'NI
111111 .11111 ~ ll ow'l'nuugcr and a husl of olhcrs which are found only in 1his small region of Chi le. Putrc is lhc 1ypc the only lcmperalc nunforcst in South America. In addition 10 scvcrnl species of Norhoj11g11.1, 11t1
11111 1 "11h I\ \ ''11cd ~ 1tc within 1l11s habiUJI. d1:1rnc1cris1ic vcge1a1ivc components are several broodlcaf irccs of various families. Alcrcc ltt '"' ''
11111rvssoides, a relative of the Rcdw0<1d and Sequorn!., fom1s tall ancien t forests on the -wct1cs1 ... tor, c,1 .1
l'lylflpl' forests .ind \.\.CSI of Puerto Monti. Alcrcc forests are a d1s1111c1ive and endangered subset of 1h1::1 habi1a1. but ""
1111 11 11 It 1hc1r 'ou1hcmmos1 limtt in the northcm Andes of Chile and. in compari'>on 10 :.uch fore:.t~ t l11leun birds arc rcs1nc1ed 10 this fore~ type.
I ulll 1 tll'lth ire much less di\cM m their il\'tfauna and vegetation. Small pa1chc of Po~~kpt\ sun1vc m
1111 1lu ''"'""' < luh: \\-llh the largc--1of1hci.e probably around Belen, south of Putrc Gu1n1Conebill1\ an EVERGREEN FOREST
thlt '" ol l'ol1 lrp1' forests. and 1:.qu11e rare in Chile, but a hOSI or other species also occur tn .. uch \\oodland~. I h1-."' the typical forest IYJ>C of many 1slnnds and ijordlands of1hc Chilean soulh. II occurs in area ... 111 ht1!h
"'' l1111t11v 11 Orh1g11y\ Chat-Tyram. rm:1p11ation wllh a climn1c moderated by the ocean. there is no sno,~fnll here. The} are do111m.11i;ll hy
,,;\era.I species of ~othofagm. mosl tmportllnlly \.fagallanes Cotgue N beh1lo1des. \\rule Guaih!Cih ( ) fll\'!iS
Altlr tl" """ ' l'tlJ.:t'roderon 11wfenim i~ al'>O :m 1mportan1 component.
1 1 '''""I' Iii ~ 11111.: kni,t1h of the country, 1h1'> 1one 1s characterized by a short growing scas<1n, IO\\ average
11111p 1 11111< .11111n ' cry short frost-free period. In much of Chile lhe alpine 1onc 1s snow-covered for more PATAGONIAN STEPPE
11 11 h 111 "' th w.11 1\ s one pro..:ecds 0ulh, the elevatton a1 which 1one occur~ dcchnc:.. In anttago, ti \nd grassland in the rainshJOO\\ of the Andes, ~1th dry 'ltmmcr \\-tnds further accemuaung 11.. di) n.11111c
111111 111 111 , tMIO m, while around Tom:s del Paine 11 is below 1000 m \!lost alpt~ 111ne specie\ m M.iny lakes in 1he steppe arc bract.1sh or even extremely o;altnc due 10 the high degree or O:\JI"'' ''"'"
th h.1111111only10 ::.ummcr Ground 1yran1s arc a charactensttc componc11111I alpine nrc;h 1hmughout \\ o:mge temperatures are cold and 1h1s habi tal has greater sea~onal temperature difference' 1h;111 e' ''H' 11
lh I 11111111) t11ro:-.1 Most Pat:igonian 1cppe has been greatly altered by :.hcep fanning. and few grll$S) are.1 h.1\\ 11111
h..oen ...ubject Lo overgrazing. Some silt:.\\ 1thtn lhe steppe ha\e large 'hrub componenlS. wuh ('al.1IJ1c //, ''" 11
l111nmfolia being a well-known const11uen1 species of uch areas. Many bird species arc rc,lrlll' l1 ll11
1111 1 1111 I I'' I' I' 1.1111m or 1hc Med1tc1Tancan chm.lie region 01 ( h1lc. Such cltma1es nr.: characten~cd l111h11nt z:one in Chile. including: Ruddy-headed Goose. Mngclkmic Plover, Chocolulc\c1111J I 1 1111
I h 11111111111 '''Cl w1111ers. It is a rather rcslncted climalc typt:. with all areas experiencing ~uch 1'11t.11wnian Yellow-finch and Ulack-1hronled Finch. In ~hrubby site'\. one may find Pacag(ln1ar11\11>1I111 h111I
1 111 111 11 111 I l.111111111' 111 either hcmi~pherc. These reg.ions are well known for their frui1 and wmcs. .11111the rcsrricted-mnge Ound-1a1led t:anhcrceper.
h 1 1 hll 1f11 h lo1111 l1 t1 lllll" .....m1c oflh c country's best-known endemic birth, such as Mou~m:hcd Turca,
\\ 1111 th11 "' I t.111111 11!.1 Il11~ky n.raculo and Chilean Mockingbird. Due 10 iis climotc and gcogmphic locution MAGELLANIC TUNDRA OR MOORLAND
11111 I 111 tl11 Ii 1li1111 h111 li1(11 lw11vily lmpuctcd by agriculture or u.rbattisntion. Lilllc unlouchi.'d n1utorml L:Xists. 1 lit 1~incl:hvep1 areas exposed 10 the full wrnth of oceanic wi nds, a wet gm~sy ltubi1u1 i~ \'1111111111 u ol \\ 1111 11
111 h1: 1tm1cd Magellanic 1undm. II occurs on Cape I lorn, and mnny of1he C\JlOSCd islm11I I 111111 1 11 1111 11111
"' I 1>11c 10 tis extreme inacccssib11i1y very few observers have v1.,ttcd 'Itch urea' \1t1111I1 111H1 !ltll 11111
It is an clnl11111c.1l counlcrpan of the
11111~ ~It C'1nclode~ arc res1nc1cd 10 this hobi1:11 in Chile. while Fucvmn S111pc \:..111 h, '''""""" 111 '"Ii 11 1

... I I II I I "' """~~ Ill thn ti II h "" .:onltnUllU~. albeit open 1;;111111'~
1111.t 111111111t111111, 1111~ ul the 11111,1 la.;c1naii11g topics in omilhology. In Nonh Amenca anJ l:111op1: 1t 1~ takc11 Stru cture
lu .,1,1111cd 1hat 1111g111t11ry rnowmcnl~ and taming arc well understood for most species. Year~ ol obscrvat1lln \ c,urate field idenrification is a mix of experience, luck, cooperation by the subJc't
1lilt)(1."11t llltc-tak1ng. btrd-bnndmg, record-keeping and so forth have yielded a rather clear understand mg ul m.ttenal. We hope rhat this book al least contributes to the last. 1lowcver, some genc1,1I 1111111 l11111ht h
\\h111 ,;nJ where nugran~ can be c~pected to appear over much of the northern hemisphere. This 1s not th1 me1111oned here to assist with the experience part of the equation. Experienced birr.ll1 t 1111 111 tt, f 11t11l
l .l<;c m South America. Careful re'iCllrch on southern (austral) migrants is a new field. For mo~t C'h1lc.111 ,1h....:rvers. both looking at a variety of features and remembering them well. in add1111>n 1.. t "' tlit. '''
'IX"CICS migratory routes and 11mmg are very imperrectly known. Where does White-crested Elacnia, one ol '"cs:. these features quickly. It may seem like an impossible task. but like any skill u tS gil.111 I \\ 111111
themost common forest birds in C'h1le. cross the Andes en route to its nopical wimering grounds? Where Jo I ortunately. birding is fun and practice should not be a chore. On the other hand, on. I I 1.. t.1111 1111
Giant Hummmgbmls go nnd what routei. do they take? Countless similar questions exist even for some ol ,h.1rpcning these skills while birding to really g;un practice wuh them. For cum.pie. expcncnu1l {fl < { 11
Chile's commonest birds. TI1crc 1s a great need for detailed observations and notes on where and when ire quick to first look at the shape and structure of a bird. oflen before noucing the plumag~ I~ 11111 c .t 1111
certain species occur m Chile to help understand thetr movements. \ 'JlCCtacular bird such as a Magellanic Woodpecker may seem like a flying field mark \\1th 11 h11lh 11tl
What is clear is that a large proponion of Chile's birds are either entirely migratory or panially m1gratol) 1.:rJ head, black body and white wingstnpc, so conccntratmg on Its structure may seem pointle, l111t
as might be expected in a temperate country. Some may rerreat from the southernmost ponion of their range h,11e done so, however unconsciously. To correctly identify 11 as a Magellanic Woodpecker, you II 11 ht
only be present 1n tl1c nonhcmmost pan in the austral winter, while others disappear' completely. Other~ ~ nmv its size, that it has broad, rounded wrngs, a long stifTto1l that 1s used to brace the bird on a 1r.;1 t11111I
may move ahitudinally. as well as north and south along the flanks of the Andes. It appears that many, if not .1lung chisel-shaped bill etc. These fearures arc structural, and provide the basis for a suceessfuJ iden111il;i11.111
most, of Chile's ~pccics posses~ some migratory tendency. l t is the details of these migrations that rcqum: 1ven of the most brilliantly colourful or unmistakable species. Where practice is needed is to t.11.. 1111
elaboration. Keep this though t in mind ir you encounter a species away from its mapped range, as there 1~ , uhconscious look at structure and bring it to the conscious level. An experienced birder is able to ~ep111.111
siill much to learn and your obscrvotion may prove valuable in this process. A general poi nt to rei nforce i~ 11 ( Irey Gull from a Band-tai led Gull based solely on sil houette, by paying attention to aspects such as hill
the expected general patlcm of mi grations in Chile. Being a southern h emisphere lempern tc country, summer ~i 1c. bill thickness, size o f head, length of legs, lcnglh o f wings, bulk of body, etc. Tbere are several s11nll111
is in December-February. Ltite spring/surrtmer is the primary breeding season for Chilean birds. particularl y !\pccies pairs of Chi lean birds, where structure is porhups the best llJea ns of separaliug them in the field, c ~
iltoRe in the centre and south ol' lhc country. Thus, spring arri vals tend to occur between September and t 'onlmon vs. Short-billed Miners, Grey-fl anked v~. Dark-bellied Cinclodes, Lake vs. Andean Duck~ i:ll:.
December (earl ier in the north, later in the south) whi le autumn migrarion occurs between late Fcbrnury nnd l 'rilical observation of stru cture may be more importMI in ident ifying many of these than plumage fe11tu 1 l'~.
April. These an: general guidelines and do not app ly to all species, but should help the visi tor in understa nding One sel of structural features which arc seldom looked at arc lhe primary ex tension and primary spatin~
when bird movements can be cxpcclcd. uf htrds. These can be wonderful field marks which arc no harder to see on some species than the strength 111
l~crusing thjs book, you will notice that many species are vagrants that have occurred only a handfu l of ~1rca ki ng on the breast or supercilium on the face These wingtip structural traits are extremely uscl11 I
t11m:s. A:s many species 1n the :..outhern cone are migrants. they are also prone to become di\onented. be it fea tures. which are no doubt an under-used and under-appreciated means of separating many of the really
ht1 <'limu11c or phy~iolog1cal reasons. Some extremely rare vagrants will probably prove to be regular v1sttor, \1mi lar species throughout South America Prnnary proJeCtion refers to the length of the primaries projcc111w
,,, \\c learn more conccming Clulcan bird distribution. It is also clear that with increasing observer a1:11v1ty li.:yond the folded tertials. The tenials arc the innem10!>1 of the secondary feathers. and always lie d1rt>ctl)
111 l h1I.: many more vagrants will be discovered. It is too early to accurately assess the statu;, of the. e. 1111 top of the folded primaries; the secondaries the1melvel. arc mainly concealed by the longer tertials. In tlw
11 111, h .1n: regular visitors and" h1ch :ue once-in-a-lifetime evenrs. As such, we have included a great many illustration below, the longer primary projecllon of the Short-billed Miner clearly differs from th1. shorh:r
11l 1h1 1.1grants reponcd from Chile m the hope that a bener understanding of their occurrence will prove primary projection of Common Miner. If you compare the pnmary projections to bill sizes the diffcrcm:c
I'"' 1hk become even more noticeable. with the primary projecuon of Common Miner being roughly the same kngth
'" the bill. but is more than twice the bill length Ill Shon-billed Miner. This straightforward feature is
NOTES ON SEABIRDS , Jdinitive in separating these two dull brown sp.:c1cs, much more so than slight differences in strcal.111p 1111
th.: breast or face. 1 ole that migratory species tend to have longer primaries than non-migratory '11':'' '~'' t"
\\ h1J "' h.l\t" nntcd how l111le 1~ knO\\ll of different aspects of the Chilean nv1fauna. 1t "prnbably trnc to th11sc migrating over shoner distances.
I 11 1)1 11 1111 il1l11hutmns of pelagic seabird~ arc among the least well kno\\ n ol an~ group nl hird' globally.
!I I 11) 11111 ti 11 ..1111 ove1 half the world's oceans. returning to smafl rock.y 1sleti- to brct.:d .11 ccrt111n seasons.
I Ii ' 1111~ l1o1\1 ll!'lll 1c fomgmg ranges while breeding, proscribed migratory routes Hi the nonbrcccling
1 '11111111 I" ' 1111 1 1~ 111 oltl 111011lting areas. and large and variable non-breedi ng grounds depcmkn t on ocean
1 '"1 1 11111. 111111111 1 1 1111lttwn~ ur1d global oceanographic events. Many differ in their distnhut1 ons as
t l11ll 11 111 1111 lt11t1lt1111 1111111oturcs. As such, the ranges of seabi.rds in Chile arc impcrli:etl y known.
I11 1 1 1111 1111111111 1 11 111hM"1 \ll'lll ore venturi ng from pon s such as Valparaiso and Arica, as well us nn cru ises
111 111.11 111 1 1111d 1111 ~11h11 11111rcl1c islnnds, providing more information than ever bd\irc. llul given the Short-billed Miner Co mmon Mi ner
1 111 1 111.i lh1 , .. 11111wl\' lcw nrc:is where seabirds are being regularly observed. it 1<> ch!11r lilat lhcrc is
till 111111 la 111 I 1111 111 11hl1111111, 1hi: l'nh.:t of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (J::NSO) on Chi le's mari ne 1111111111y spacing is a measure()(' how the stack of folded pri mary tips arc spnecd. I hi.' ~p.irt ll' 1 loll "'
1 11111111 I' tttl 11! 11 I tli ' 11 ..1t 1111 w1 1h 11 t l~ visiti ng from other pa,rts of the globe 1s nut well known. Although 1111 1"111Hlld11css or pointedness of lhc wi ng. Species with longer primary spaci n~ tt1wu11I. llw \I 1111.i11t 111111
11111 II 111111111 1111111t\\ 11 II t , 11.11 th111 ni.111y ore under extreme threat from fncll>" t~ iii verse as longlinc 111 l1.1t1 11111rc pointed wings. Generally. longer distance migrant~ or birds that ~11cnd 11110 h 111111 111 llitht
11 ltlfl 111 111 11111 111111d11lt.1I \1,,111111111 We encourage you to be conservative in your identifications Ii.I\ I 111111 l'Olllt.:d wings than those that ny shorter d1i.tancc~. As lt111gc1 1h~l.llll'l' llllj!l 1111 11 ,, hu I hul[ l 1
I 1 111 11 11111111 1.1ill'll 1111k . 11ncl help develop a clear knowlcc.lge 111 \'rh1ch species occur m '' 111~ 111.111)' 111 these have both a long pnmary pm1cct11111 ond l:'rl;11c1 rin11H11 v "P" 1111 11t.111 h1t 1 th 1""
11111 1111. ll11h1 11lusir.11ion overleaf. nmc that the l11Ml' t111y1;1t11r'r wh'I"" 11 '111 \\lull ,. Ii I I I 1111 111
I I ''
1 h I 11 1 Ii 1 1f11111H 1 111111i.u \ f'"'Jc~ 1 11111 .md wider primary spncing than lhc rcsidcn1 n111dcsta rocc of
'"" 111 11111111 11 l11h l11111hflll1111111d11lcrcnccs111 colour and pattern be1wcen these two forn1s, wing SlntclUrc
\I uh c(1mrlt.:1c rehabtltty to subspecies.

\11ennon 10 wing ...truc:.ture :ud' in <;eparatmg some \cry similar spectc:. or race:., nnd there arc \urcly some
1,1'Ca for which this ''on und iscovered and reliable field mark.
Lighting and appearance in the field
Needle ...,, to 'kl), we have attempted 10 1llus1rn1e average individuals of each species. underavcmge cond111ons
111 fighting. In the field, 11 1s more complex; seldom is anything 'average'. In particular, lighting condi 11 on~
1 hung;; hy the mi nute, and can have u subsrnntial cll'ect on a bird's appearance. It i~ nn obviou' foci, but still Pink-footed Shearwater and Masa lierrn Petrel
It 1ak~s conc;.;ntmttun and exp;.;ncncc 10 evaluate bow lie.Id conditions affect the 'isual 1mprcss1on you
h!\'etve ul an ind1v1dual bird. Below, the illusimtion orthc Rufous-bandcd Miner nnd Bar-winged Cinclodes the petrel is darker and it is more difficult 10 'ce the up1>erwi11g patlcm. In hari.her light. 01hcr efTc'" 111.t\
occur. For example, back lit nnd agai nst the sky, the petrel can uppcnr ro show a crisp blackish houtl, .11tel
1t~11 1 c1 s the effect of hnt ~ h light vctsus diffuse light. The upper images show crisper plumugc foulurcs; 11 is
would go down as a Stejnegcr's Petrel in lhc notebook. of a less-experienced birdeL Effects of lil!ltt111v
\'1tslc1 tu sec lhc face pnttcrns, ond the actual colours of the back, of the foce, ofthe underpnrt~ even. rhis is
hackground. distance. posture and many other f:tcwr~ mu~t be considered when identifying birds 111 th
,, tw11:11I d1ffu..,c light "tuotion. on overcast but bright day. It is perhaps the bc~1 lighting 111 which to CrtJOY
111d 1dcn1tly birds rt1c lower image~ sho.,., more washed-out colours, harsher shadow:. on 1he underpart:.. licld. and do remember that the plates prc:.cnt n Mandardt~cd idc:il. not real birds.
''"'fl'" ill't111ct face patterns. Tht'> 1s the common situation in harsh overhead light, which 1s typical 111 the Ha bitat and b ehaviour in identification
l11Hh \mk~ nnd dc,;.;rt Morning and evening light is warm and can make bird~ appear more reddish or Bmb differ in habnat and bcha\ tour, c\ en bc1wccn clo..ely related 'pccies. The:.e are elements that c.m he
rntuu th.111 they n:all) arc. Mtdda) hght is the opposite - ii is harsh and bleache<> coloun.. Note also that the 11-.:d in bird ideotificarion cM be qut1c rehablc. llo,,e,er. m mam CtlSC!> the use ofbabuat or pamcul.11
1l11t~1~11,ci; tn po"turc~. excited nnd alert in the lower images, and rela."<ed in 1hc upper images. make the hehaviours are variable and are not rcltahlc field mark\' but only useful pointers to an iden11fica111111 I 111
h111I 111111 r1111rely d11Tcrcnt The 1111\ ofvanallon in posture and lighung coodittons can gn:a1ly nfTect what namplc, most ground-tyrants perch on thc ground, but Spot-billed and Rufous-naped Ground-Tyrnnh ultcn
1111 C, 111111 mu't Ile! talcn mto account tn making field identifications. Beware lha1 in ha~h desert and
p..tth on sticks or small bushel> This doc.. no1 meJn that 1f a ground-tyrant b perched on a bu~h 11 must ht
nJ an 1111, maybe that dull face pattern )OU are one of these two pec1es, but 11 I!> mon: hl..d) On the other hand, a 'hciodcd' sierra-finch ob~r\('(I 111
1I "111,e "" that mmer you hope 1~ a Creamy- \111hofag11s forest ts almost certainly t1 Pa1.1go111an 1crr:1-I mch. a-. the lookalike Grey-hooded Sierra-I m. h
' u111'-1l 1~ 111crdy u trtcl of the light, and 11 1~ really l..1.-e~ to open habiuus. The hnbt1at d11Tercnc~ bct.,.,cen the;,.: f\\O hold up mcely. although the t~1 urc
t I 1tf1111 i.1111111:11 Mmcr. ume to lool.. at pnmary lnm\n 10 hybridise in some 'edge' an:a.' of the e'\tn:me ..outh Some canastel"O:> are usuall.> found 111 1he
I II th, 0\.1.'T of a bush. ~bile olhen> arc more terres1rial and run on the ground or perch prommcntl} on rod.
llcl11w. Cordillemn Canastero ;, ::t terrc'1r1al 'pcc1cs, wl11lc Sharp-billed is invariably in a bush. I he c 111
1111t foolproofdiffcrencei.. as Sharp-billed doe,, forogc at the ba\e of bushes, but the difference,., ,u111, 1crttl>
1.:1111..1\tCnl that beha\iour alone w.ually ,umcc' 10 ...:para1e the t\\O pecies

\1.11 1c 111pwpnate, we haH~ JXlinled 11111 wch lhflcr;;n~es m h1:haH11111 "' hal1111 I
11, 111111 1tcl1l 11kn1tlication Do rcmemll<:r tlt.11 d1c) Hll' 11111 rnh:. hut !-;Cllc111l ll 11I 11( 1 '
Rufous-banded Miner .ind Bar-winged Cinclodes ttt tl1 It hi
In tlo1 1llt1,1rJ1cJ1:\11111plc (t1ppos11c), a June I lcganl ll-111~1111\\~11 hl:11:l..1,h wo:df" 111 lh~ 1111111 "11111 !1111 h 11111
ho ~h,1 111111t pmnun'' cvn1rn.,1mg w11h lhc old. black outc1 prunaric~ Nute th:11111.1< l1\~ \; 111 1111111111 1. 1..1.. 11
tl1 ""'' f'Jllcm can be .,cco when frc,h. ncwl) moulted 1mmane, co111rai.1\\llh1!.111; 1111 1 1
tnntpl,tl' moult (fcbruary' the 'illrnc tern 1:11.:h 1hc dart. \\Cdgc and \hO\\" a mun: e\cnly r 1111111
h 111 1 11 '"I h ( nd rl.'sult 1s l'h11n;1gc fading ac1s m the opposite manner, making fon1her- paler The cf!l.'ct \)f 11h11111
H111 1111111~ 1 1 c,1111hll I ading or """' oil\ 1ous on fcmhers that arc not well proh:o;1ed nnd arc exposed to the SWl :. radtJllll r
1 ,;:111>ed h\ the 1111, pmnJnl) the \Un 's lh rr1111at) feathers and tail
I 11111(111 \\hth ICllCI, \\llh he h:.uhcr LO slo\\I) \ the mner pnmanes arc more often protected due 10 the \\U) the "ing fold,,, th, r
I 1 11, ''""n II\ 'lnlll111. I he end re,uh j., a p:ilc 1,.... ,1.;111g than the outer pnmane' Jlie ma111 cfTt'Cl of l11d111g 1 that black or blacL.1sh kalh 1 ' 111\1 111
11111 ",. ,i.; t.:.11hcr 1>.1tJ.. pigm.:nl\ 111 the fca1her. lk ""to dark brown or bro\\ru"1l-blacJ.. ro [!t'lic an C'Camplc.dunnr acU\e moult. when;, l re~l111t1n r
111 l1111111r., p11lle,1 tcJthcr-. from both effects. he R"cn nc\l lO an old primary the d11Tere01:e m blacknc" I'> ob' 1ou..
I l1crelltfc, hlaclmh teacher.. \\car and fade less 'i11mlarly. if two srccies di ITcr m moult llmmg or I\\ o ag~ of a <,pc..-c1es differ m moul1 11111u1a 1 l 111
11111, l.,I\ paler li:lllhcr.. and p.1le no1chcs on a '" 'hnes~ and darknel\S ofprimnnes and 1a1I can be useful 1111den11t'icn11on and. particularly. ayc111g I111111111
.111~ k.11hcr \\c,ir a\\ay hcfore 1he main body 01'1he yo111 \:)C' to observe these differences demand, -.omc C\pcnencc. bu1 can be srudicd even on 1:<1111111011 ''
1111~ h:.1tlu;r (...:e nghl) Old and worn fca1her. urc 1 , h!s ..uch as Rock Do"c and I lou~ Srarmw1 So, i;omi; bacl. to our e"tamplc of the Moummg S1 11
"11 "~11 1hrough a procc's called moult. \\ h1ch l111d1. 111 \Hirn plumage the blacl.. wing,, and IOll '' 111 lool.. more bro,~n1sh than when fresh.
'.1111 111,>.tcnl and liming depending on 1he bpcc1es Some species appear lo employ feather wear to change to o di1Tcren1 plumage without underlo11111
111 11111111111 birds (sec 11cx1 sec1ion). 11111111! 1hi:.1s observed in severol ~ongbird group'>, porttculorly the lctcndae (blackbirds). In fresh plum.111~ .
l'l11nmgc: car causes tli\llnct chongcs in Lhc way IMi:c bniwnish tips to the plumage conceal 1he underlying plumage pattern. As Lhcse lips wear off in'' 11111:1
11 h11il Jf1pc:ir~. A:. 1101cd above, 1n1lcr notches or lltty n:vc:il lhe more con t rastin~ 'breeding' plumage by the lime spring arrives. To illustrate this situul11111
, .Ip,~ <111 d11rk fca1hcrs wenr away hcfore dark ~ee 11N 111~ l'h1.: :Yellow-winged Blackbi rd, the frc~h male pl1111111gc is l11rgcly black wi th yellow shoulders. but 'o
l11 11IN 11r foa l111:1 Logically, pallcrns on lhe edgc of a hr11.11lly tipped with brown thm the bold plum:111e pullcm i~ panially hidden by a more cryptic browuhh
It' Uhl'' \\car away before 1hose rn thc ccn1re ofu feather. So, as a generality, worn b1rds arc dnrker (fewer plumage. By spring. oil th.:se brown tips have worn. revealing a bold blucl.-and-yellow plumage tha1 1~ 11-.c1I
11.11o' "''"> 1l1.1n frc,h bird'; 1h1~ 1<; particularly 1hc case if pale feather lips arc prc,cn1 m fresh plumage. 111 .1dvcr1isc to potential mates during the hrccd111g season.
t h1'"'' 11.ilc 11p~ wear off first, rcvl!aling the underlying dark section and expand the O\'Cr<lll umoun1 of dark 1-inally. species that lack clnrl. blnck fca1hcnng ore more prone 10 exhibit 1he clTects of ''car and fi11h1111
pl11111.w~ M the bird I his 1' 1lluslfi11ed by the Moum- lh.m those which posi.css strong mclomn' (darl. pigments) in lhc1r plumage. Species such as miner. anI
Hlj' S1lrr 1 I inch Iright) '~hen rre,h (late summer ,1rthcn:cpers fit into this scenario. The ml1rc \Wm and fodcd they urc. the paler and less disti.nc1 an} pa111:111
11111111111 11 has pale llp\ to many ol 1he brca!>I and the~ ha,c appears. Always be a\\3rc of the general s1at1: of wear in a ~pec1es lhat you are trying to idc11t1l >o
1", l\'.tlhcr,., reMncung 1he blacl. 10 a modcrulely 1.1111cularlyone that presents problem.,. Tho1 o b1rd ,., worn and faded may explain ''hy lhat Common \1111 r
11t-.l lh1t.1t .ind bre-J:.t pall:h As 1hc p:ile feather ups '''"'"'"1 lool lik:e a Common hncr1We 113, c aucmptcd 10 \hO\\ 3\ crage plumage t)'J)CS in the illu,tr.11io11'
"~ u ..,. I) hprrng, 'ummcr) the undcrly1ns cLlrk 111ll one must be mmdful that e\trcmel} frc~h. e\trcmcl) worn or rnd1' iduals in hea'~ moult ma~ l1v 1J..
h K' In lh hrea~t fca1heri nrc C"JlO'Cd and the ... me'' hat drfferenl from those dcp1c1cd here.
ltl 1 ~1 h h1c.1'I patch l'ro\\\. ~1m1larly, 1he upper
I' 111s .. 1 ~lnurmng 'S1c1111-hnch b.!comc
Moult and plumage terminology
lhfl'U~ft \\('.II \\c 113,.e discussed how realbel'!> \\Car out O\cr lime. A' fl.'athers dQ not grow conunuousl} like na1h cr hair
I It, 1ltlh 1.n~c m op~1rnnccJust through wear 11 111.:ans they must be enurely n.:ne'' ed pcnod1cnlly. Thi.. process of dropping an old feather anJ gm,1111g
1 111111 ~111l..1ng rems arc n special ~11u,111on Their hl'h one 1s called moult (molt 111 1he USJ\l Moult not only funcuons to rcne\\ feather.. but mn\ 11 "
111111111) h 11hcr' m~ mated w11h a greyish bloom 'lt.111gc a bird's appearance. fTom 3 duller non-breeding Ill It brti!hlcr breeding plumnge. for C'l.ampf.: I H
"''' :11 h h ".1 lrc'h tern pnrnat) looks cn~p and
1111r..c. moult is like any other charoc1en~11c of bird' 11 ''di\ erse 1n 1h many different form, 'II,.,
''"I 11 \ lhi '<' prunancs wear, they lose much of the grey bloom (actually a rm1lr11.11111 become more 1111111dcrsta.nding of some geneml111cs of moult and how 11 nlTccts the appearance of birds is \cry Jl\l'l11l 111
It l}ul ''' 111111 1111, l>lll' to eomph:x moults. many terns. in which only the in1w1 1-uu11p nl 1mmnries nrc 111111g, 'exing and identifying birds.
1111111111 ii ,, 1.1111 '' 111111111d hl.1cker. outer primaries which create noticeable pallcm l\.h1uh is an energetically expensive procc'" Smee tncrgy budgets arc lirn11cd. moult doc' 111 k nlt 1..
11\ctl.111 wnh other high-energy nc1iv1t1es such as brccdmg and m1gm11on. The general pattern "1h.11 1111.i
I <11111111ll1Cl! 1heirmos1extensive 111oult i111111etli11tcly aner breeding and before rrngrauon. Moi1 h lllillllf/ di l'l' tlil

1111 1 111~ rati 11n and migratory distance. Lon,1,1-di,toncc migronts, mai nly th ose from lhc n11rllt1.'t 11 h1111hfll" i.
111.1y 1khw moult until after reaching Chile. T'yplcnlly. ttt lcn,1 in i.ongbirch and ~01.111.:r nou I'' '11111 h 1
1 11111 111nult that renews the enurc set of fc:uhc:r~. mcludmy the\\ 1ng' nnd tail. wlmh '' 1 tlh d 1111111111 1
111111111 "'1111111 of the night fca1 her~ begins wilh the i1111crrnos1 pr1mary (Pl I 1111tl p111..cc1I' 111n11 .111I II
tlu 1111111.11 ll'' Jre fully renewed, the inncm10,t ..econdar)' (SI) 1' 111uull11I ,111,1 .1 w 1\>1 .. 1 1111 1111 11
111 1111 11 ..111 thcrc. The three inner 'ccondnrie' 111 pa,-.cru1c' (lln111:1l 1(111.1I 11~ o1111 rrnr11l1111 I f, 1
1111tu ~r 111111.1111, .ire comrleted. IJ1l leathc" arc 11111111!,11111 ,1ks'1q~11l.11I1 111011 1.111111 11 I 11 I
llt 1>11111111 ~ h.I\<" lxcn cnhrcly 1cnl'\\Cd, In 11111'1 p.1"'''llll'S the ..1111 ti 11,111 1111 .. 111 111 1 11111111 111 1111
11 1111 11 11111111 111 1111111111 the C\\Cfllwn being bhtckbirds and cowhirds which \how rapton. retain their ju\cmle plumage through lhc '"'' \\111k1 111111 h1, 111 111 1111111 111 11
111 1 I 11111111111\ 1111 t, 11111pel,1I muuh). Some moults may renew only some or ult of the spring, wh:ile adults may not commence rcncwnl 11111111:111. 1<11111111~1 S1111il.11I ~,. 1111 1 1111
I' 1 Ii~ , p.1111.11 tlloults occur in ihe late winter or spring und ofien bnng the moult substantially earlier than ad uh-., which have 10 con1e11d w11h lhe c11cr)l11. 11 111111tl 111
t I ti hi I I l 1111 j1ltlt1li1 t 1hey can smn feather replacement Young seabird' moult at cnllrel} d1llcrc111 11111 11 t1 I ti
r 111111 111 tit .w i!< ticr.11 rules. Fin.1 oralJ, as you ma} imagine. the longer or l:ui;cr o data 1~ not well known for many )Cilb1rd . bul careful nolel; on \\h<!n bird' arc 11101111111
tit 11 111 1111 11111 ,; 1c11~~.:11c or physiological) are rcquued. Bccau..e of 1h1Jt la~e birds determine if these arc adulti. or young bird~ m Chilean waler..
1h 11 1 1011 \\ 1111 p;1 r1111, 111.1y moult in two months. birds such as pelicani., boob1ei., albatro,,,es.
I 1 111 111111 11 r1 \\ 1, 1111111 ""''\'than one year to complete a full moult of their bod) plumage \new
1 I 1111 1 1p11111i11\ ,11111.11 1)r 11111> ~ro~., at ihe rate of 5-lO mm per day. thU) a 30 cm (12"1 ti!atbcr CONSERVATION
IU Ml d.i tu vu11 \, th.:-e birds ttU need to fly during moult. they can onl> replace a 'mall
, 11 f11 111 1.~1lic1 111111h.111\'0u,ly. making moult a lengthy process. Outer pnmane,, ~~r more qu1d,ly. l'\owhere in the world are natural habitat'> and birch en11rely .,.,fe Thcdange,..., vary, and l 1111 I 1"Lhl!
,, 1h11111 """' 111 1he '"orl.; on the wing, thus some larger birds ha1e evolved complex Mmh.:g1c:. A reasonable proportion oft be count!) 's tOllll landrnnl>.' 1 pro1ec1cd "ithm ational ParJ...,. 11111
111111 r 1111111 111\'' arc replaced more trequently than mner ones. and the entire replacement of pnrnJne,, or 'latural Monuments. all of"h1ch are rn.inogcd by CO:\ \r (W\\\\ The at11111I \\ l r , I
11 1111 ''" 111t1) 1>\:..:upy ":'eraI year.. The oppo 11e extreme is thnt some waterbird:. do not need to Protected Wildlan<.b (SNASPC) wo.., eructed in 1984 10 pre-t.-nc Chile''> nauvc nora and 1.1ur1a fl. 1111111 f
1 11111 111 11h1li1 '" lly in order to feed and 'uccessfully e<.cape predators Some. such ai. certain duck!> and 29 o of Chites fol'C!it rs protected under S ASP L. but much of 11 1 in lhe far south awn} lru111 "''I 11111 I
1 \\, II 1 1111111v pclre", moult quickly, dropping a large number of night fcnthers s1mul1uncllt1~ly. area~. WhileS ASP!! proiect~ i,ome wonderful h;ib11111. many ecotypes are not represented wi1h1111h1 " , 11
1 111 11111!. 1 111\'lll t11ghtlcss or nearly :.o for a period, but they can undergo moult foster by such means. system, and some rnre and local habm11s receive h11te or no rrotcc1ion. More elTon is required hy gO\ \"I 11111 111
1 lilt'\ 1lu 1\111mc 11c:h foraging i;rounds to fuel such a quick moult. Of course, there are many other and private groups to incorporate 11 broader d1ver-.11y of hab1t111 1ypcs into reserves, and care h n.:0.:11, ,, 111
1 111 111111111 It tll'Jrn:\. 1111d many nmrc pages could be lilted with descriptions of ~pcc1es thut rnonh in ensure that these hold viable popula11on~ of narc ,rnd endangered plants or animals.
1 I.I\\ 1 N 111 11111111r1.1111 hl'le to 11ndcnao111t the common patterns of moult, and this knowledge wilt hopefully r he following non-govemmcnlul organisntlons serve ns s1or11ni; r>oin1s for lhose interested 111 lcu11111111
1; It 1111 '" 1tl111t11f > 11~c 11d fy, mo11lti11g lmd or pcrmil you to successfully age n ceru11n species. about. contributing 10 or assisting Ilic co11serva1ion of Chi le's birds and naturu l areas.
1111 h1ll11111111 111 1 Mll lll' 1,1cnura l pallcrn~ which arc helpful. to know. After the <fown. birds grow thei r
UNORCll- Union de Ornit6togos de C hile thl~ organisation is 1he Birdlifc ln1emational partner in C'h1l~
111 1 11111 , "11 ,,1 1111 leather., l hi'> " 1111: juvenile plumage and the hir<I i::. tem1ed u 1uvc111le. All of the
and ha:. both active working group~ and educn11on.1I programmes working on Chile's birds. W\\'\\.unon:h d
I 1lh t "'' 110111 .11 the 'a111c 11me, 11i.1k1nll them evenly frc~h and cni;p During 1h1.., 'ame peritld, 110cr the
111111I1\ 11' 1lt.1,d .11lt1fl, .111 1yp1cally 1111hc11 nms1 worn and faded, neee:.sitahni; u complete moult Upon CODEFF-Cornite Nacional Pro defen se de 1:11un11 y Florio Tiu~ organisation works to educalc and l11hh}
1i11 1.t 111111111111. 1111 1~1ng' nnd 1,111 appcu lrc<hc1 on adults than young. as mo:.1 'flCc1e~ eilhcr rc1111n 1hcir for lhc conservation of Chile's lloro and faunu
I iii (II\ '"" 11h1111.1)-!e J1111111_! the J'lhl ha1d11ng
C:onsenalion Land Trust (Fundaci6n Pumatin) A pnv;ue. non-prolic organisation that purchase' .111J
I 11 I 11 It ,.11n 1111\ '"" bvdy feather.., Jlld rclam
..:1,n..enes land in Chile and Argcn11na. Parquc Pumahn fC)Crve pro\tdcs a '"onderfuJ exampleofho~ pm .lie
t 1 'till i!!lll 1111 Rurcly. '"ml 'onthird' money can be used in the con.\erva11on of w11l1 area ... The Ctm..crva11on Land Trust, 1062 Fort Cront...l11t\'
ti I I I it1l "'"' i.11,1tlt1\\":1c:.) 'Sausal110, CaJifomia 94965 USA. lei I 4 I 5-22C)-9339. Fa\' 415-229-9340 fhe Conservation Land 1 ru't
111 1111 Ill 11i 11"1 111111 h1l'e1hntJ, ,e,1-.1111 Jui c111te
1Ch1lel. Buin 356 Puerto Monu. '( Reg16n Chile Tel 56 65-250079 Fax: .. 56 65-2551 l 'i
11 1 1 " 1h1 .11111 11111rc ~u....:cpuhk Ill \\L'ar. 1\"
I 11 11h 1 ''I' the .1iirc1\ncc~ b.:11\1.:en \\om tail
111 \111111 h111l, und frc,h k-uthcr.. of I he Patagonia Land Trus t Another orgaml'<!llOn that ~using pm ate money to purchase and e l.11111
.1.n.uurc reserves. Their work 1~ centred in the PntJgoman rci:1on WW\\.pamgonialandtrust.orgtinde\ .htn1t

adul t juvemle
I 1111111 11\111~
1111 11 1 , 111.t 111 1h'Ml'i 1'\ 1cm other non-passerines, juveniles have longer lad amt l11[.1ht feathers lhan
I II 1111 1 11 1 11 1 1tlv lunger. ,11111111cr winged loot.. in a juvenile tlymg nc'I ht .111 iidull During the
I 111 I 11t 1111111 h 111111 lt\'llllj,lC') the d11Tercnce between newer and 'hnrt..:1 1111111 l)'flC h:.llhl'f\ next
I II I I 111, ' 111 111h k.11her' 1' eh:ar. Many raptors retain irnrnnturc pl11111111~ 1h1e111gh th\l1r liN
111 li1111 1111111 f11111111'' llll't leathers in their second a1111111rn scpnmt1N 1h1111 u~ lllll'yenr olds
hi ti h.111 11 1,~ i. l 11 11h1.11~ 11ll of 1he same length. As Btuck-chc~11d ll1111111'd Andct1n
Condor and other 1 ul11111., 1t1h 111t11c 1han a ycnr In
replace d1cir rnnmm.:' 11 1~ 11u1 '"""ual hl 'cc a
youngster" ith a 1111 \ 11 11111~11 11111,honer ti:athcf\
ns well as acll\c 11101111 p1111l11r1ni; o conlusiny
appearance (sec lcll 1
Finally. 11m111~ 111 lh 1:11111111\'lc mouh (111cl11d111g
"1nl!., and w1h i.:an 1hl1cr heh\n~n age grouJl'
\lln11111 h A'''" \ 't 1 1ph1< .111\'I 111 lhJI n:lc1' 10 two 1ax:i or populatio~ 1hu1 arc found in different geograplm;
11111111 1 \""' lite l\11 .ire n111found1ogc1her.
ltuh 1l11t. I ltglt \1ul1.":1n l>og' of,hon grJ'-.c~ and cushion plants. The tenn 1s rei.1nctctl 10 bogs found m lhc
h11l 111t
I 11111 h;ir \ or hgh1c:r p:itch on the uppcrwmg that extends from the bend of the wmg 1oward, the
I 1 . 111 th.: \\ m 1 he bend or 1he w mg 1s actually the wrist of the bird, where 1he carpal bones arc found
I 111111111 'ure 1 he hnc along which the mandibles of the bill come 1oge1her.
( ul111cn rhe upper edge of the upper m.md1ble al> l>Cen in profile.
( unlng cd~c (ofb1ll) Properly referred to as 1he 1om111m (plural tomia). The sharp edge<. of the mandible~
\\l11d1 mcc:l along the comm1s'\urc
Dihedral I he 01ght profile m \\htch the wmgs are held ia a slight angle abo"e the body: an upward
1111:hna11on of thew tng'> m rclatton to the plane of the body.
Hloplu111e 'lender, ha1r-hkc fcathc~ thal arc d1fficul t 10 see other than on b1rJ~ m 1he hand. They may ~/
undertail-coverts primary\'e a 'cnsory func11on ah hough 111 some bird,, mamly cormorants, they are used 10 create pallcms. extension
Fingc~ l his refers m::unly to vulture and hawk wmg-tips. l f longer primaries arc notched and cmarginaled
on the spread w111g these feathers extend out of 1hc wing-tip like fingers, breaking up the contour of 1hc
Frontal Nhlcld /\11 extension ol'lh1i bill 0 1110 the forehead, most common in coots one.I gnllin11 lcs. Thc$c arc scapulars ] tcr l'ials
oflen brightl y coloured.
G ular pouch A d1stcnsible pouch al the base of the bill, mosr strongly deve loped in the Pclccaniformcs
(pchcans, .:ormorants, boobies etc.) secondaries
Cnnys The undc:r;1de of the lower mandible bc}ond the pan where 1hc l\\O 'ltk' fr.11111) or the bill meet. On greater (secondary) coverts
gulls there ''a d1l>llnet angle at the l>Hln of the !,!Onr\\ n as the gonydeal angle. marginal median (secondary) coverts
Corj!Ct 1 he f"llCh of tndcscent feather\ u'ually found on the throab of male hummtngb1r~. lesser (secondary) coverts
IJallu" The hmd toe
llandkerchicr A hght or coloured p:uch at tbc oo-.c of the prim:mes thal forms a ~uamh or rcctangulnr alula
shape on the folded wmg The term su~eMs J l>1m1lam} to the white handkerchief poling out from a man,
1ux1..'Clo primaries tail spint'\
Patagi um fhc fold of skm that extend\ from the bend of the wing inwards towards the ba..e of the wmg. h
.11-..1 rcfi:r.. to a patch of different coloured fe.1thcf\ found ia this region; Rufou,ta1led 11.t\~t..s have dark --".:-":..--gr.iduahd t;11I
~~" (ooter r~~thr" ...... 1
r.11.1t1,1I pa1chc!> on the undcrMng inner ~ lon11)
l'tctoral line ome pccics ha\.e s1real..1ng or spot1tng on the breast that stop abruptly on the lower brea.\I wingstripe
'""'""' ,1 hnc, 1h1'> pattern 1' de:.cnbcd as a pectoral line. greater primary coverts
Hn trh Cplural r\.'Ctnccs) A tall feather
' 111l1111l111u1lnn\ Pnnial webs between the t~ Full webs between 1he toe:. arc l..011\1 n " p.1lma11ons
' 1111'" \ l.ttl1.1l m1.1vc on 1he upper mandible near the culling edge (tom1um). It'" ltlli-11 wtth u coloured
1111 111h111t1' 1111lw 1wn 'pcc1c~ of soo1y alba1rosscs. lores median crown stripe
1'11p1ulua111 I hi 111 ~11 immediately above the lores: refers to Lhe part of the s1111c1~ 1 I 1111111111111 inr to the eyes. lateral crown stripe
' 1111 11111111111 I Ill' 111111 11111111:<1mtely above th e mnlar area, sometimes know11us llH' wl11Nk.:1' or moustache. cul me n
~ I 111111111 h '\ l11111"1111111pl11.:nl tcr1111hat refers 10 two taxa or populations tha1a1.: 1111111111111lw ~11 111.: geogr.iphic
eyering upper mandible
11o 1 111"'"'1 11111 1 lh~ rno mny be found together. lower mandible
I 11~11h 1h{ lull ttl it. 1h.11 1111111hc Cn\I uf 1hc lnll, in other words the houl.., "'"' 111 1h11:t..cn111g at the end of chin
lit '1111 h 1 1II .1. "l1pnl 111 l'rinlluruforrm:~ The unguis on the ur~1 111.111J1hlc " known as the throat
111 '""" 1111111" \1h1I th 11 II tit lo\\U 11i.111thhll.' llt the mandibular w1~1 111 partial breclsl band
li1tr1i1l throat stripe
Chilean Tinamou

sympatricandcxuand) ~Aniklin Tui:am"" RcbllCI king

bill with noliccably dccuncd trp. IJ'C)1$h.,.. hc>nt ,. ,th bl~lr<h
culmen and Up. nc"r any orange <W liri1h1 )'C 11.,,. at h.uc l>.111.
111 fl " "J'Cnlng> rn m.:ll<>mil 'Cf~Hoa hloctislt-Crottn '""'n. 11tCf..J,~f.,,..lw'oJ, 111b1~h 11 lm.>SI
!IJ '""''"'a.lh. farmland an nonb la IM al"''llYs raised. gi.-wng 11 an alarmed arrca,.....c. 11,.,,. ru))) f.l.:c
ll!'>Ulh, rnmanl) ~ f.lrmJ.anJ, <>llCll ai !hr cd81' with cak dzrkcrcyclinc and~,,,.,..,,,. hla<L1ltJp<>ll111f1
<>I f<l<C>! or ~-mer. Sa k\d io 2000 m. comilmc$0111n t.v .. ,, Jtl.. ('octnhhns f;'fJ10ll ii gt') f>rt>ot
but mo.ii\/ 111 k .. unJ, uJ foollull \1orc and ~..,.ides_ becoming b<.O) nn bell\ nd cnl Any
lrl'qUrnlf) hQrJ 11\.an >n. 11> II Lcqie> 10 I.hid pattcmmg pre:$Clll on lo\On l>rcalltsi.SC. ia1,-. fonn ol 11111.lll
,l ~mer I ull) uhiencd hnc n~cr 1n duir bars.. not spolS. Dad. bamng on 11.tnl ;., bu1 oncn h1Jd.:n
.I 11,,.L, lnirC'Clu.:cJ 111 1..,,,., I IOE,llF'l- by fol<kd wing; the """"''"'" Ju1111a/1 f..Jny,J nrJc4n
1 \ 1111' S11,. ~y anJ nnrl~ 1ulfln, "lh <""n. 1h1ck p:ilc TUl3lDou has an un~pocred g~) ncd and "'h11c.. pc1tcd arc\/
"""'It J~, hf'r.3f 1tn~mt1u h~nnJ l'Chlu~ofwalLrng brcasl. Abo1ea very complc>. p.incm of Unh ~nJ , "'"h
'' "'' "''"' 111111,hr ""h lr,,rl 1,11/ u111l 1utl-<111.rl\ drutJping adcfinitegn,'1<tt1htoup/H'rbad "htch ~Jlfl<.11'\0\Clllll forn d
t'hi' /, ' I he only llndnltlu rn 1h ran11c. hu1 cum11a.rc rmlru ilran streaJ.:ed as on W111~"U'Cl'\4! bJnc:r.l Ind Andean Tinamou
01111'" t 111t1'11rnru Qu111I 11111 horn-.olourcd and rnned. uswilly visible on folded wing 111 0thl. rn1 b.:lhcd and
111111~ lh l.lll('r ~ $hull hl11~L hill. Appc'"' .rmpetl 011 brownish-winged, wnh Mrongcr barring on tdil than A11dcan,
"I'/ '/""'" ul1h11u11h pnllan uclutrlly q1111 c coniplc\. Fucc bulTy VOI CE: A loud, s1ridc n1, furred wll 1~1h SWl:'f. 11 wl'''
111 ih l o1>pl n1:1 unrL uyc l 111~ und #lic111 11111lt1r "ripe, nnu Compared to Andean Tinamou II ~ounds 1woyl lrrhlcd, ~ luwcr
11111ir1is1rni; durk c111w11. Neck hrnwn whh ~011111 dnrk spollfng pitched and longer.
" 11 lower ll<'Uk, Ur\lnNi u1cy. w11h ~nmc uo111 plcxri11ucr11cd
11 ... 1~ 11111111 8idc~ . So111h of'V ll Rc11lo11, ('hilc.u1 I i1111111ou hns California Quail Codorniz
.1 hrown1~h milter lhnu grey hrcn~1. wlih 1110rc 11olous h11111 ng Callipepla californica
1111 1hc urpcrp;tns muJ rump (race 1111hm111) fhe 111n1Js urc
L 25 cm (10"), Tcrrc~lna l ln1rod11ccd 10 ('
liJdy covc1~d n1 re~r. bur in lli11h1 lhc l.ui;cly rut'"" 1n1wr
Chile 111 1870. now :1b11ndun1 A11nc11hurul
"'"V' urc obv11)U, 1 he lart;c rounded 11 ln1. w1u11\l h<ld) ~nd
..11ca'. gm"l,11111 cdltc' nc.11 th1tkcl\ 111111c
..f11111 lu1I """ drflcrenll~IC II il\1111 ( '1hfu11111 ()11<111111 0111h1.
\ 0 1( t. \ hlr11Jcnt, lnu\l l~1-carl)111 """lie rhI ,oun\l,
mahirrul '<>t'lllwn. " IHll ~ url>,m and
1l>1H!>Jn >111-., rrm 1\l..,f ulliu"m rn1cr I
rf'1UbfC\)ffahfcd. IMtH' M('('('t" \\hen 0uhCd t!IH'> I de,.
JlCKnl M< lli111<Lrn1 hr ( luk tlwn "'lhtn
~.. oJmg ~"1 :d,,nn '4ht'll<"'~"tttt ......, .. ,,.,..,y ccc.~ _
al...,1 ,,.h1m11p ,..,.e nc>1~ R\ll\ ~otlfr ll!Cfl ln ldllg\' ( )ff.-11 lft 0.X:J.t
' ' " ' I 1111l1lt I hrk n lr11.1mou IO' II
Andean Tinamou Pe rdiz cordillera na de Arica I I( \I IO' Sh hrl) 111),'l: o1hru h. but
modi Slt'lcl."-"' "'''h I L\ la..'#J 1111 \ ') atw.1 btll \""'11.r
Nothoprocta pentland11
"""J/1-.u tli.M ( """"" 11,.,,,,..,,. ....1, l'ft''l'<lflocutcl~ ~
l 'S cm (I I I ftn-ich rvc 1n(h1k, faxrly bo"n from ttul .\d. Cahfonua Vua1l alu lu pull' l1nn tm th.- Ju/Jn/
'i.1,;on>m.a ti ltcJ1<rnl. n.11r~ordcJ r-ccnrlv Tnt'CAnal 0.."'Clln lenia/s Iha! nn..n..lln llC'er tU~l\11 lhc:u: lnr1.1J lrnc.. lllC 101
Jn. pa. l) - rJ !CfTa.;l:J ~uhural '-1 2..<1)0. 1500 m. contraslingonqui:nlch1d r.l nut a 11\ 1<>gn,,cJb) rluh-
IOf '1 IJ IC" \ TIO' \ rudy, dumr> 11N1n1- not1~-abl) sltapmp/1Dlk't>11f,,,.,Ju-ad bl'1illhr 1111h1h UfJt-.cll1u..,unJ
1lk.-r ..nJ ,frlTIMCf )mp&llK OmA1c I u'"rnou. Contra.SI 11c:chtril"!as well"' ,,,I !lcll r I hhll "'f'"I bro""
m "''""Lr:Jlc:;;rr not u,..afly ra1-cd 11> m Om;i~ T1nam..>u Grey. jlmilt:s:. Female duller llun male, wnlr lnlk h '"' lkr lieaJ plume,
lac.,,f ..... h hld.1>h ur. J:l'Yl '"'"'" .11/ 1tnJ r.luk C)clme; and lacks ..-bite on fJ.c 11nJ hi 1 ~ 1t11ua1 11.... c,cr, larady
''"' ,,.,.~ 11rn an\l s:n,.. """'" 'l"lfJ 11/111r ~""'" npfH'Dl't &"'>'am:/ IOl!Xlllt:rnt:J ul~11. until ltrnl\1t1 h unJ lrrpcd
,,,,.. d nc>t b:llTCd, llh<rn11h p.rncm c1~m11fc.\. 8111 colour Chilean Tmamou U:ht1t 1111.-.I 11 I .1hl11m1~ Qud1f
r1.1hlc, bur ll>UJlly hu "'"""" '" 11r11n,. 1rflo11 l>01e. In af"a)'S safely separate 11 lrln r lnl 111 I 1111111011 I 'en <tUrlc
llwh1. ""'i'' hrn"'n"h w11h rl.trLcr rnrnnrc W1ng-co1cn' small young arc c3pahk i 11111111 ""' '"" '11111111ly barred
1 u111J1ll'\ly h.irrcd bul u'uully hidden b} ~I riped ,cupulars on 1all, largely brown plumu11~ .111.t "1111. I", ~ lr'll hh'llSI ( l11c~s
. 10 ...d wrn11 IJ11dcnn1I nn111orlcc.1hly barred, VO i ~: A&lr1dcnl always accompanied by 11111111 111rl 1111111111111 ,. 1111 ~onl\1~fon
wl11l lc, 1c1y ~1m1lr.r 111 1onc IO l hllcan 'l 11111mou bu1 riing VOICE Male song n rc1w111111 11111 11,11' """ 111 1'11/cA 0 1'1,
lc1ply 111111 111glcyllnblcd, '"'"'"'''" Whou llu~hcd, niters nasal in qua lity and has frc111t'll\\ 1111111111111111111111111 ~pccch, so
"'"''tftJ '''"cl''"
St 1l~flj 01 11111 1111 whisllt.:S1 W/H't'O easi ly imitated. Give~ clucks 111111 11 Mf1IJl l1111 /llt'l/I pwlp /iWlp
lhal acceferates d~pcnd111it 1111 t'M'li11111111 lcv~l n l' lmlt vldunl.
Ornate Tina mo u Perdiz cordlllerana Whirring wing noise"' 11 e'P'"'"'111111 ll1uh1, 11 <1111lly uccom
Noll1oprocto ornaltJ panied by clucking note'
I 1\ '"' i I J H") Tcrrc.rrinl lnh.1b11s dry punu
\ ~r;i,,f,1nd\ ulC'ircrnc north, ijl 3000 -4000 m,
l"'''mn1111rc.1- oi 1ullcr bunch grass. Not
1 w,.,111c-.l11o11h.ii:rirnhunrlrc.1\. IOl "TI FI-
( \ 110' I h.- I 11 '< I \111lw('mc111 m Crute
1th '""'l'ltHfy )IUd1cr body 1b1n
t'I Al I 'I I 11 t;c l111,1111um

1tl11111I I 1" 111.11 1hi< kc11 Ill. h1 rd~. I hey " " nearly tail-lc..'<S. "'ith a dis11nc11ve 'droo111n~ rear end and
"'' I
I~ llru 1.ui, ' "'' ~ ""'' d1st1ncti\C !l'3d;s in mud t.tgcrspcc1e> are nflert -nm three;, '"'"
""''' I
11 1 of "'" 11 h nnt , le 11h u1kk~tood Otey att rnconsp1cuous, mOll! ofkn heard than 11ecn Thc.c >II<' 1t\ II" c luud
ull Ht n lndu< "' ccn 1n" Males 1ncub.i1c the eggs and care fortbc )Oung Tinamou cw a11: bauulul and \hill) ,
,,, 1h" .c 1hrcc ~'"'arc nhc-grecn.
Puna Tlnamou
f'un.a Jin.imou K1ulc> (Perdiz de la Puna) Elegant-crested Tinamou
I 111.1mo to ~n tland1i Perdiz copetona (Martineta)
I ~ cm 111>.~"I
Tcm:T uul, 1nbabllm1 n><:l:.y. Eudromias elegans
hrubb) puna Mo~t on.,n Ill dncr "'\g
(If' Srll'')'
L 39 cm (I S"l In Chile 1b1) !'<'CIC$ ha, ~n
"""' bu1 wmcttmC'- for.ire 1n lll<)1.>1tr bofcdal cxtmnely res1r1.reJ 1'3Jlge, arOUfld Chile ( h1co
~rcas Rc-triucJ tn ah1plno. JSOO _.~00 111 .
tnA)~(Xll Rcl'O'll lnmbihlftl'l1mJ. plly
slopusg bills..,, mixed'"' '""'"' ~nJ sru..tanJ
ID~ 'T IFI( \ 110 ' I\ l&IJc ohccrttn tuwnou 1110 d1~playing
... uh a l>ti/J/1 lrrpcd Anid fa,c tnpms cnmplc,. Al<0 1n ancultural field form llrvcr
""hall Mnpc' con11num1110 b.asc ofncd <:rown flocks.up toS-0. on winter 200 IOOm IOf'l 11
.Lirt. "'11h l'Jlct central >lr1pc ~ httc )Upcr~1hum
F'lCATI0:-1 A lurr gm oA .f>n,.. n fltlOlfll)U .. " "
11nJ neckstnrc:. Jark loru, e)chnc and nc.btnpc.
.. 1111~ >upr~m.ilar stnpc. nd d:uk malar lrtpc aho conunu1ng
I - 0 IOllg. tlnn Uf"llrllf'J CITJI r ....,, ... h1tc tnrc
~ on bead and ncd, one utcndinto: bchmd eye hl
\\-CJU} tu 11ccl ba;c. Uppcrp;irh ol o\<c woth hmc-grctn wlllih, lower occk and rhc other on 1hc >Uprnmalor 10 lower 11eck.
the fcJthcr- rnm)llcxly twrcd nnd >frl11c1I, hut ocrnll nppcnring Upperparts complexly pattcmcd with buff >llOI>. dark ban. uncl
nttin: co:ir.cly lnpcd on b3Ck. cloM~t 10 nccl.. Underparts dnrk <;treaks. The paucm is lin.:, 'uch that dclaol' nre lo~t ul ~
lludy b,1rrcd blacl.. and while. w11h some >1rcalong towanb di<tance, when the b3ck appc.111 wcyi>hbmwn Undcrp.1ru
uJlPCr bn:a,c, but pancm hm and appclll'll l1rcy1sh at a ditoncc. also complexly pa11emed; strcnl<cd ond bam:1I blJclo ~h on n
C'/ lt'.1111111 "'"' tflnr,;110.H1(', Symr ntnc only wuh Ommc Tcnnmou. bull' ground colour. Borring s1ro11gc~1 on f1unk~ 11nd h~l ly, while
ll1e /111~1 s/:('lllld bold l 111w~ on hcod n11d 11cck scpnriitc Puna strcukiug strongcsc on neck nnd upr>er brc11~1 . T hus. neck
linnmou lh1111 Omntc. Al'o nocc lock ol' u Jar!.. cup und bushy BJlpcars streaked and res1ofunJcfTlans barred. Sc1>.1n11cd fmon
nest 1lf Om.11c In Ocghc. l'un.i 1~ Ja'llc 11nd broad-wonid with Patagonia n Tinamou
potcnrially sympamc Pacagoo1M Tmamnu by r le,.int..,rcl~'d '
n oouccahly por-bclhcd 11ruccurc. In Oti:ht from Omate by prominent crest. Elegant-<~ccJ I nl.o more finely Pttcmcd,
larger <11c, deep belly nnd more concolourou arpcamncc of appearing unicolourcd at n dcsrancc, and lhc focc Mnpc' ooc
the upperrun rutd wona VOI C"t' A churu\ of at lcaI three le. bold than Pawgonian . Ill jlig/11, Elrgu111 t lt'lll!d O/l/ll"llf
l!mls. rendered Aruu 1<c.-A:11nu Auu ""<
"'""duu wttAl<'Oa , gm uA-brown and u11it:olour1'J t:<'n tin "'"1'' wh1th IJIT
\\htch may IHI for mmu1c, If lll<>rc bm4 arc tn\Ol\ed the glY,l'ISlt. \ 'OJC Three mclan.:holy ,.bt<tlc.. u.:b \hghtl)
choru> I mun:' comrlc\, ho..ccr the mufficJ ,nunding lo'11cr ca pitch thafl the prtted1n1 and ><>mc.,. lllll famter in
,.h,~tl.,_ ire a charac1.-n,11c $\und which lllract ancntton in
volume, p1nn:tt plruuu "'"" The "'hist le\ Ml<lnd mufficJ and
lhc aluplano.
tbe entire sequence laSts c. I . Ah.o choru<e> "-lfh tndl\ odu.ih.
rivmg. ~of double whi<t~
Patagonian Tinamou Pe rdiz austral
namot1s mgoufi
L 36 cm (14") Li.trcmcly rue 1n <.b ile.
there arc "'' reccnl ""''J' bul ti ,...,. buto-
n,..11) rcpun.:d 10 Av~n and \ l.tpllancs.
TlM: 1c;;11rJ from \lagallanc oimc from
.,.......1-.Jn (Jl'C);.'UnO. u o.. C\'CI', tbc Cho'""
~"" 111 th" P~1aaonian ''~'" 1w1 ... cll
'""O:)~I ..111J th~ 'flC~"" rn.iy rrmc '''be
t\!Ulor "' 1hc: 11.. uth ol tit<' "'uni!') PcrhJr onl) J'fc:M"nt cn Elegant-crested Tlnamou
Chit lt1llv 111v l'"I"''"'' n l>.N>rn m "''~<nit"" l'~t3V101.1
1nh.tbH''''"'" -.kf'I"" t"~ "'d i ,,, -.m:.11ii w11h C,,l1tfuh: CJl.1/11 ,."
>fl) s hruh 1111.N 111 I( \ 1 lllN I\ llltJ.1' W<'l'11111/ 11/111 llm1
"""'"'''"II (t,,t.1/1 ,,, ,,~ .11,.....,.,111111 A 1'1111<111.ort r1~y "1l h
blJck fl"" ~ltl 111lc hull Httl Iii j/111111 1/fui.:1111111, tllh
u11murl.:J /itWtl1111, rttm.u, tu+~ 11t 011;/ '' t1mlar1; t l,1tfH
tinily SYlllllolffll Wilh I 11111111 ' 1c~h1I I 111111111111 l111h11111lll1111 I
sc11ara1~d 1'10111 1!1~111111 1 111h1I hy u-. li11~ 11/ 111 ' "''1111111111111
boldly stnpcd llc.od 111111 11... 1 "'""'"Ill
111 I """ ' '"'' ,..!)
patterned bo1h llbtl\c """' hdol< tit 111 111~ 1111 1'' '"'' ~1111 111
lliglu ha. d1Mondl\'t chi 111111 1111111 \ OIC I '' 1111 l.1111 11111)'
deseendinawh1>tlc.1'111111111111111111. l,1.111w11111h I """'
chorus, u~ua lly of three bir1h, 10111111 '"'"II mcl11nd111h ... 1,,.1le
thmt arc vanmbly tnO.:clcd.11h,r11 "''", 1" rh1 "'"

fll All
1u 111 tilhl \\ 1lh 11<11111~,1.11 I 11,1 ~lly comprc~>Cd bills. Unlike mo,1 01her w.uerb1rJ,, 1hc1r ""'' 11rc lobed m1hc1 1h~11
I 1 bu 1111 ""' "''' l11~h 11111hc 14Jtcr. however. they ha' e the ability to >in!.. ~1<1141) .tt will 11111111.l) w.mc11mca White-tufted Gre be
11 I '11.l '"'"" "~fer 111,!x,"> .re nearly 1411-lcss and their dorsal <'nJ ort<11 app<'Jt'\ Oull)l Ill J<1,.ny \ 1<'1 grcl>c
1 1 I (lfl 011A1rn,11111~1 ul c~<~tmn, the chrd:5 are bold!) striped on the face anJ ufkn n<k 1-.n lhc l>~cl.. 111
1 li<:o 1ddom tly J mll8 lie ti.a). m1phon and mosl OJ gins bang al n1gb1 In 01i;h1. rhe I..: 1. 01 ~ 1.111 a.:<rotuIQ
11 ,, th r I ir" 1001.1"11 f~ fttl. affording gJcbes a dunnct'C appor.tlk:C
White-tufted Grebe Pimpollo Hooded Grebe Pimpollo tobiano
Hul/,1nd1.J rolliJnd FLK
.. Pomceps galhrdoi

l ' '""' 001 A frnb14atcr spe- l 31 cm Ul.51 ~bt'J m 191-' Imm A~rna, r'fi:-rnt
cies. wwlly (on;1ni cmtt. sight records rn Chile, here ("frh~ps mote' rc1utu than
Require> emcr~cnt egc1at1oa. pn:smdy boo-A,._ Dunnr. breed mg~ O.."\.'\&n <n nall Lile
$1XhUI lie f'd(.\,'1'7'UJSf!p.Jfur and poods. pan;cularly \\here the: A>alftl pUl'll II 1 .,.. //
i.ttt.lm 0. 11<>1 ,.....,11) OocL ,,farbtorJes occun 0-{>()() m ' " ' fhtntCllcd ID t \ fl.
0--l~IOm IO~ '\'TIFICATIO:" A
Silvery Grebe
FICATIOX A boldl) pa11cmcd >m.ill 1rchc 141lh a l111f1 h1J

.m.111, d.lrl. sr.:bc tlw1 shoo.> mod- ll 1iireR*a11dj1J11/.:s conrru.11 """ th<"Mxl.1,Ji "'"A ,m,f No,
era1c chonal plumgc change. head. R~ 14ondcrfull} adorned \\llh a .,.h11ofof1h.-.JJ unit 11n
Brcedini ud h~, /1141,4 """J
""'A .. 1111 lir>f.11,/111.. wt ,.1t1111r1 1/1111 form u p.uch The dark
and wa:tahle clre$tnUI c,.,.,, uhu o:..," At 111\IJn..:c ant.I in 'tmni;
light oceipitalts S1hery Greb<: may pp.:.11 1rn1l~r lhl\\C\cr
11.ic\. cunirJ,l'i w11h "'""" J11111A1 NC1nbrccd111g ad. bas the laneralways has a dark forehead .md lack chc.1nu1nl>uc
\'Onlru\1111g p11/c ear /1<11(/1, ulh<l1t duller. but 1h runt. nee!.. and
eye. Jn fligh1, 1hc lurgelr "'"''" ll'ln1:1 nrc dl11.imm1c \'OIC~
llnnk' .uc bully-bmwn con1n1.11nr,: wnh 1he darker back. Juv. Trilled whistles, 1ee-wlree.:rrrrr11 or A.,~urt' cull.
l1k llllllbrcc<lmg ud 11111 hn~ hold Mn1ic, on f~cc nnd hill. In
11111111. Whilt-1unec1 CJrcbc uriwnr~ durk wnh 11 noliccnbk wl11cc Pied-billed Grebe Picurio
CC\>11tlill') ' 11atch. llro111lly ~yn(lntric wilh holh Slivery u11d Pied breeding occlplt.11/s
l11llcd ( i1 ~hcs. <:cunhln11l l1111 o f da1k neck 1111d 11alc fncc patch Podilymbus podiceps
cp111 ,11cs 11 from ho1h species V()J(' J: Mcun ly sllcn1 , gives L 32 cm ( 12.5"). V1 c~lm ntcr lokc~
11ro-.lo11i; Ollnd'> m ulunn
.. nml 111111d with t1lh 10111inl mnNhy
edge~ Ooc~ 1101 nock. 0 /IOU n1
lfooded Grebe c rest raised
IDl'.N f IH C'A"l l(}N A 'mall hut
\ln..:J..y. brattn11h 111""' 11/th 11
Ji'11nfl tlw t <hlrA,11/1t.- hill
I ~7 .rn 111") T"o cleat!} dJf.
fcrcnll.tte.J form,, m1an11"'} acct
In breeding ....-own bi II "'"'"K"''
11/t 11 Jo,,IJ hfa, t 1Tt1e11I liar
!'I/Jiii tn 1hcsoo1htO IOOOm)and
'\ed. nd henJ lff>"lun.:d. anJ
1'1:'\1Jcn11unu1C'nh of the alupl:ino
11 II Rea"'"' 3500 -ISOO ml
1bratn black. Dunng non-litte'd1na """'lfl
!>ill hnm or t.l~IJ
~owi5h. lad:ing the dart..~, In Add1uon, 1ht....1 ,.hnc and
u~ ... fresh ... a1ttmloosccol- nccl: and breast suffuiN c1111umoP \\ id.:h ., mrn ,. 11h
<lftln. ~inter- rn l'locls OD largn- Pied-billed Grebe
dad::-pllumged \\llitt-tUfl~ <.lttbc,.h,.;h al1u11 ha a not<
"'CC<boJ~ ~them t'Of'llalu able t.ite paicls l'tl the ~'"C nd ha. a much th11111Cr htll In
altcnlllk'& IDlS TWICATI Q;\ 01~Picd-billcdGr...bC' 1s tvo..n ,.Ub ap.\lct bell), the "''llS'
1111unp.ilepd>ctlw lo.l.s 1nl111'IY "h"< 1nu~ f>dd. Grn- 1aet hire. \"OJCF <om1oonl) a ocnn ,,r a.:iul JNPI ~
t-o.h'nl "llh ""*""Md.
al'IJ ,,,.J~rp.irl tll'lJ llufl> ,.hue~ g...agi.01. Song 1 .ni;KflCjnrr,rt"I f"'l1ng1neo .. noic, ,
nd lh1n uptumcJ bill .inJ 1te1m1n11 rcJ ~'' Soutbcm
''"'"'" IS m11rah>ry nJ hu. ' ' " hf'OJ ' '"" UICJ tlrmat,
... '"
0011J 11ag 'M11h ~ l>t;i,;lt n.are ht cc.>nunuc. ~a dul. -inre Great Grebe Hu,11.t
11.:m moot l111cot honJnc.:l lnbrccd1n1rluma1.,11hiu .. lloh<>..,.
f f h "' i:11t1f11t '""""" Nonbrccd<r ha, grcy"h ur-
1IVfll "11h 11 111.111 .ind re\lrtteJ num~r of 11nld plume- I 11 71$ 1111 t:' 11 I An clcl!~nt
"'"'''' " ' '"""'' " ' " 1, nm1-11111nhlry, II plum~11c dt'<' n11t
I 1111 11o111, 1hl) '" 'h \C,1~011 1 hi~ fom1hn<11 wluw c/1111 u11d
.. r t '11 l.1111r1 l.1J..c, m1dmar,hc~
111, 11 1111 1,., h 111 hr,1c1.1h water
l/J11tlf I "" 111 111111111, 111wn 11roy1,h hlncl.., 11nly sligh1ly pUJ(r '111 t 111rnu11ut " w1 111"r~ on thi:
111111 111,,. ~ 1 h 111111 llhn~ ~1tt11c 011 hi nu neck very nurrow. II "'I .111, 111 1 11111~~ Ill Mllflll n()C~S.
1111 111 ~1 ly 11/11/1 1/111Av 1111/t vp11r.vt hlurk w11l 111/1itl.1h gn .>1 IJ 11111111 1111,:N 1 lfl (":ArlON A
11/1111111 1\ loll h 111111111 11~ lhi11 1111d Ir l'\:lllllur wi~py ~ripes on /11114111111/ 1/1111 )111/JI, Wtth U,Yll'l lll
1111 ii 11111 11 1111 p 1h j,lfll)' ho1ly 11nd whl10 nock un~mbi g- llAI' /1111~ m rA Illtlncllvc wi1h hs
111111 h qrn 11 ii 1111111 Wl111" 111tlcd Clrcbc (crl~o ~ce Hooded ,, .I.Ii.Ii ,,,.,A 1'0111111\llll)l ll'/111 II
I 11 I ) 111 tl1 hi 11 I 1.11 <1llllrl)i while bolnw, grcy obovc bloC'k ish-Jf1'i'.I' h,utl, " l1i1h Ji1 1 " " ''" " " " ere in brccdina
111 I II 11 hll ' ' "11l <11o \ 0 1( t. ~1 11\lly wcnk whm lcs; plumage.Bodyd~1 ~ hl.1<k1,h IP v 1111h ,11111n11n10n1nil' l1110"
I 1w , tin I ull 111111111 1(1 Nonbem bird~ hiivr ~lt)~t I 11t, """''"'"'~ w11h 1hc darker
cro"'n. Non-brceJ11111 pl11m.1f' h11t race pale 11rc). C.r Nl Grebe
contrasting with darl.r.,..
J r(l ul m.. k n:du~cJ, l1cn l\Jvma
wmc wl111e on brea<1 In lhght , l~r~'tl) "hue -.c~ondane, and
primaricse--.dent. \ OICf I oJ w1ho11 IH H-<>0000<"""1
11f\ II
"' "&.: 1hor1I, rtnJmg m"' ul 1hc1rlM:.s on the ocean. moHog bcl\ccn fo<1d 'IOutcc, Recent ;.atclhtc-
1t..11 plh;11t11no nu) Ira\ cl O\CT much the Southern Ocnn. wmcumc\ mo\tnl hundred, or km per
t >!I I I 1 l~nd. u.ully c-cr) 1wu )C3f'. "-' in many SJl"cics the ~1011 of'"" 1nglc )OUnJ 14kc~ lll<)tc 12
l hil tt11 RI I l< DWtv ~an"' 111111un:, and lrA'cl throughout the SoUlhcm Ottan hcfon: n:1um1ng 101hcu natal "land
I.ti<' wr;i1utl'J IMn 1hc .mallcr mall~m'"b by 1bcirbrgttsizc. pinl1sb b1lh. nd ,.h11c ba.:k. ond ,,,.1, 1n !heir

W.1111l~r1 ng Al bi>lross Albalros errante Royal Albatro ss Albatros real

fl1o111wcl~.i exulansTX#2, ANT, FLK. SG Diomedea epomophora TX#3, ANT, FLK, SG
L IOS 11~ cm 141 SJ")\\ ;?S-1 - L 107 122 cm (-12 -11<"1 W 3-0S
lS I .:m (I 00 I)ll"l The largcsr )SI cm (120 131<"1 S1m1l1r 10
alblro-~. 11 ha.~ the l<ni;c.I \\andcrin11 Allutro< bu1 more
pan on canh Pcb111c, ,,_,qtc:d clVM:I) ucd "' con11ncntal hclf
w11h cold-l'atcr 1cmpcra1urc.; and may boi n:latf\d)' more com-
1mm> mk h farther north than ad>. mon hrnhcr nonh Two sc~
l'.<11 ll' cltliCI) tied IO con11ncn1al phi< 1,1rm d1lkr 1n plUtNsc und
'hclf ,.ale"' "' Royal >\lhalro ugc pru11rc"1on both occur 1n
\ 'ulncniblc IOL' I lfl{"'\TIO' Chile. lhc '"'' form. Southern
{ 11111<' plu11111~ m~1ura11un, often cl""licd 1n1<1 'even end ' orthcm. an: 1rca1cd cp1ra1ely b,,lo" 10. :-. 111'1-
.J,11, 1rn1 ''"II"' In general, )Oung an: browner nd ad~ whttcr. CATIO~ Both fomis of Ro)itl Alba1ro,, /1111t o 1/orll c11111ng
..1, 111.11 1,rn.1k' may ncvcr reach the -.h11c 1cmun~I ~ai:cs. edge lo 1he bill. and 1 shghtly longer dnd >0111c11111c~ more
otul 111.11 ~""ll'lll?htc v.1rmltnn ""'" 111 the wlutenc\~ uf 11lder orange-toned bill than Wandcnng. No,tnl tube~ pornt forward
1,1Jt', c\~11 umong n1nlc.. Voun11c'1 hlrd~ (Swi;c I) nrc the or even slightlydownward, unlik~ Wondcrin11. Sou thern ltu)lll
11111111ht1111 llV\,, huv11111 t111irdy hrml'lt p/1111111gt1w/11t11 w/rll< Alb~rross D. e. ep()111nplt<w11 (Vulncrnblc) I.cs' complex agc-
' ' " 1 .11111 whil e underwinllN Srni;c II hn~ whitc-l'lcekcd rc latcd plumage mu1ura1i11n thon Wnndorln11. five MIUQcS 1111tl the central Inner wm11 Inn s to hccomc paler. identified. Juv. (Stage I) ha, lot'llcly dorli. uppcrwrngs. tlnrk
"''''1 1111 11;1lc1. hut rctnin'a mulllcd brca,l-b<tnd Singe IV ts mottling on crown. and d:irk on 1011ond dark t11<lllltn11 on back
1 1h 1 .1111 ""h 1hc heed onJ body l.1r11clY .,..h11c SIOltC' V ~ S1age ll bas a 0011ceable wh1tl! rat~h on centre of111ncrw111g, o
""I h hl!lil' ""the "'"ll wllh the" hllc ....1n11 palehc rc.1ch1np wbote leading edge, and no 1forli. on tall urcm,.n <i1ai:c Ill and
lit tlol)' ''fC \I b.:<unc' ,.h11cr on lhc "'"II'" the teadin11 IV are e\en paler. ""h 1n.:rt'a\ln11 wh11c on ludtnl .:J11c
J bin 11ll 1N111~< JarA tatl <uln Stai;c \'JI .,.h1tcr and ha cngulfmg white patch on .:cntral inner '"'"II 'i1a1c V iw,
11;U1l1l11L11I Cini nulc.of'oOUthcm c.liw1W/'>l.lac greatest amoontof ,.hn..,oo "'lnfl 'm1lar to \\3ndcnng. nupt
\II lrnuln ra.:h sugc IV VI . The .\n11roJ<- anJ C1n1rbcll heat! and tmtkrports ol""'' c/,.i,, .. 1r11e. Ill) bro-. n ..-..,h or
I tn11n (lltllp<,Nl.m/1 (\ulncn.bkl. which 11.u bcc.'n ck.-:llcd -crmicularions on ncd. arc d1a1rn...111: of \\andcnng. 4(1<'
I 1 !' raru., b ,\n11po<)nn All>atll"' hh o.:currcd 1n Sloge I. 1Jrz b:lil is oll\'tll"S ""''"on R111<Jl ,fl""'"''" on
1'h k llm l'fm necr micha ..ugc \'I or \ II . ccn rn utdcr the tail ofSta!!C I u:oW. to be n:>tnctcJ 10 the up. !IOI c"cnd1n11
ll J, n.l ICIUJI..,. rcm:un at much lllW..'f rluma~c ''a#C "!Im much to the base at the "de' I> on \\andcnnr Any arcat
m.11urc II '''"" tcnJ to ho-. a dull bm.,.ni'h llJI 1u 1hc lo.,.cr aloottoss ,.;th an 1sola1cd .,.hllc l"'l~h on the rnncr uppc,..1n1
rn 111111!>1< hut ltdd 1dl'n111icat1on crnerra 1rc 'UbJeCI to and all -white wl is a Royal.''" any 'bowing a cbri. oral mo
doh11rn11I Ilk!\ 11.., 1ckn11f~<111on ch.tlkngc., vcp.&r.111on from darl. uppe"' iog and an all--.h11c head and undcrparb
lh T') 11!1111.u Rut I o\lb.itro-' Structurally 1hc 1... 0 al'l' \Ct) "onhtt11 Ro~al \ lb11ron D ~ 1onfr>n/1 llfkbngcn:J) The
tnnl hut Oil \\,1 J..nn111hc bill " lt~hll) '""""' nJ the commooeT fonn off C Clulc. lo1m1IM tu S.>Uthcm. hu1 ha only
h I fM ml 11111<'; I''""'
obliquely upward \\an.Jenn& hn a l'lo plumage sugtt \ct d1flc" lrom oJ Southern Ro~al rn "'
pml 1 bill lhil11 Royal, and luct< u dur>. <""'"Jl rJf(c 'luuni;er rn1udxdarkup~,....,,,g, c\~CJ'I tur a am.ill .. hit tn;&11glc on
''"""" \\itlll.lun..: \l"11r'"'an:d1<1tn<llc. Ro~al \lbatro., the innermost lcaJ1ng olgc Ju\ HT\ 11m1l"r 10 JU <;.,ulhcm
' lw I"""" on the lk'<k "' unJ<qun' Sia;c I\ \II arc Royal., but has<br.. <JIC"kltnt <>rt"""" and 111<>rc: du._ on * l:
I 1mll 11 10 Rn al ""' ~ 10 gcncnnc confu>ion . pani.:ularly. mon' llOllC-"lt>lt r1nccn. Jue II> more: UICll~I\ Cl)
I Ir""""' I/ult u.,.11 r1ni: tlhu1n.1Httain1 JurA rail oJ~s. d3rl< scapular up. fcn SlalJC I Sc1u1hcm Royal ha' a !"lcr
11""1h1 1.ik I 11 ,\nv d31i<-1a1lcd arat albatron Mth patch on the mncr w rn11.1ha1 1" a~111n Non hem Royal
1 111!1 '"' 1111111 "" 1ht; "l'l"'"''"I> "a Wandcnna Wh11c-uuled l11Jen..ingpa11emJJag11Mtlc, both >h<lll< a narro.,.. blBck ltnc
1 \II \\-11.i 1111r 11111v hr 'cparntcd fmm Rllyol by the lacl. along 1be leadmg edge of 1hc fit1111Qrie>, whll'lr hrmultn.\
Ol l~tl 111111111 tl111 "" lh hill Al~o. nio>t Wundcrong nro//11d1 110/iceobly 11ear the wing hc!lltl (Ill N11r1hrm Rn)'lli, ~cpnr11li111:1
11111111 ''''"' I 1" 111r11/,. /11,.11<t 11111/ 1lt'l'k, which may be visible it from Southern Royul untl Wnnd~rin1;. In Olldlllon, thc e11tl1,ly
111 ,, 11111111 111111 '.111111 11ldcr mu les pos80SN a 1'i11klsh or dark upperwing, combined with whit<: hc11d 111111 hotly, und wh11c
''"' '" n 1/1. "" 11111111, which 1-111cvc1 present on lloyul tail separates it from Wundcrin~.
\II 11111 "' 11 ' 1111 1"1111111111wluch1lu1 wrn11s whiten . as
11t1 111J 111 111111.-11111 I It, 11h11" 1111 1he u11pcrwong of
~ 11 I 11 o fit 1 t I' 11 11 1 "" .11 11111111 i111crior 10 the "'"I:
I 1 I I 1 II 111111{ ,1 '"'" "'"fl"".,.."'!: c-J~" 1nly when
I h ti I 1J11111.:dg1 ul thc\\111~ lhcw.hllc
I ht llnll fouo~J n11 lhC' ltahnJ cJ~c nJ
Waved Albatross
tl1ll 1 1111111 th h 11 11111111.. ' 0 .1111111t1ll)nu11.h by thc.-irlargcl} d.1tl. lx>du:\ and cnu~I)' d4rl. undcrwmg1
n1 l111lht:i ,1,11m 111t~cI b) lh~tr n3rro,.winged profile and Iona po1n1cd ldtl f1l<: un~l.ilcd &nl
< I lnull r pll '"" ..., >llI 1n }.>ungcr ..u~s att moSd} dart.. tn.11.m111bc:m I'\' ''blc confll\tOn pe tc
Sp;!non [If 1ti.: '"'" "'""~ alba~ and lhe ""'O gian1-pctn:I\ un be d1ffi..:ul1, obtcr.m "hc>uld

.1.11 1 "rh .1 11\J. mvrc ranicularl}. on !he rdiabk ..nd C<m.\l>lall d1tr~ on boll roucm Albatron Alb.Jlros de Galapagos Southern (Antarctic) Giant-Petrel

l'l1ocb.istri,. lfrOr.Jtd 1 X#4 Pe trel gigante antirtico
~ H '"' 0 l ~ l" l \\. '10 2-10 cm t'lll 'M1 Recencly Macronectes giganteus FLK, SC, ANT
'" ........... Ill '-I ( h1k I \n,~. Anlofag.hlJ), nu~ .. Ann,. 31CT I 86 ~ tm 1.14 311' >\\' 185 205 Light-mantled
11..,.111~ '' unhkcl) Jo bc: .~I 111 Chile athcr rhan an 1:1 cm172 Iii") Tl>Ccc>mm1>n1111n1 Albatross
N111" '"""""'atcrl )""" Sl'C'Cd> ooly on I 'f"trlOU 1 111 lhc petrel 1n C-h1k, and the ba.11 of
<1.11 1"'8"' ..,,d hla de l.t l'lat.rnlfthc C4&>t 1111 cu.i.k>r, 1n \br C<'mpa11<0n lM 1dcn11fy1n1 rhc
JJ11 '>rend~ non-brccJ1ni period in ,.arcn. 11ff Peru and
rarc1" 'unhcm (itntPctrcl Ad.
I CWk~ir \'ulnenhlc 10~ '1 ln C \TIO' Ad .C1nctMly .....g <)Ut fanhcr "''uth dun JU'- anJ
n..-..LcJ ~nd lonJ:l11llcd alhJtr~ 0oJ) ftnd~ -cnn1C\JIJlcd,
mm but all 11c- """ c 11<>11h in
hut Dl'f"'lll'S liar!. TCY ~t d1'1Jn<C, c.>n1rao;11ng "'"h 1hc "htU..h "''nlcr \'ulncrablc IO~' Tlf.1 -
hc~J. "ht< h h.- o <'<'Dlfll u:llm '"''h 111 tlr ""P" anJ (" \I 10' <1u1n1.pc:trc1' arc lll'J!C
h111Jn.v1 lhc '"'K" 1>11/ I\ br1s:h11el/11", ind \l>thlc a1 l11ng bulky seabird:, related t<' fulmar. I heir large ;,11c cAn cau"'
dt 1.rn..:. l'Jlc p;11ch al rhc b.1-.e of the tatl . confusion with albat~-c,, but g1an1 petrel Arc Mnck1cr, ha\C
relauvely shonu les~ pointed wing~. and dct"p-b.1-cd bulky hill Sooty Albatross
light- mant led Albatross wi1h a promi11e111 nasal tubt 11/rmg 1/11' r11/111t11 Juv. 111un1-pc1rl'ls
Alb,ltros oscuro de manto claro may also be confused w11h />rQ1'1//11rl11 pdrcl~. b111 lhc tuner
Phoebctria palpebrata FLK, SC arc much smaller w11h proporrinnotcly slln1111cr wings nml
smaller bills. Gianlpclrcl.~ noahtrc over scvorol ycnrs, ~1111 Iinti
] ' 7!1 89~ 111 (l l JS"J W l~J 2 1Kcm (72
with the evenly blac ki>hbrown Juv. 11nd becoming grey with 11
H6''). An nllJ:llrO$S of col<I wu1ers, ll(:ldorn
paler bead when nd A1 ull 011c~. SrJ11tlwm Gl11111-Pu1rt'I ""''hr:
) r. " 10 be c'<pcc1cd 11011h of1hc (iolfo d e tcn'"
identified by its ye/101..,,lt bill t>lth 11 1111/c gi,.111 ltp. In ~Onie
cxccp1 111 winter or ccitd.wu1cr ycur~ llrecds
lights, the pale tip can appcr co11lm11n11ly \l;11kcr th.n the bill
.\ ~ Oii HMOU) '11ban1un:11c t\IJnd>, 1hc ncarc\t
base. but it oc' er appear rcdd1,h a on '""h<m When .id ,
10 Ch1lc b.:1n11 Sou1h Gcor111i 1'c:irThrc:i1-
Southern Giant-Pe.1rcl hos ,,.,.,n.,... "h11, mt th .. """" .. , .. ,,
cn<.:d 10f ' fl fl('ATI O' Ille l\\O 'MlOt)
011 drt> nape UJ1/it \orthftnt Hat u '4/llft> lt'a.lmg l'd,...- 111 tit<'
alb..111"~ arc darl. haH' n..rro" anJ long Southern
wi1rg as ad.. th"'"~ tn onhcm . '10-t ;aJ S.>uthcm (illlnt
p>tnlcd "'"" ... h1.:h trc uncn hclJ v.11h. Petrel ban: datt eyes. bu1 th" 'u1c- Tht' "'frequent .,. hlft'
11 ' " ' ahkl t.cnJ ~t th.: 'cit>.". !'he Ion'- romi.:d sail funhtt
Ii\ "1111Ule> 1hc1r d.-11n.;1t\C .uucture. Thc11 01ah1" 1t1h1111d morph. 'WhiU' \elltl/! ', u '""' 111 Clr1/,. u,,J ""'' IK'<"un "'
SomhHlf Giani-Pt>tn:I
'""')lint 11nl1\\' hul~ 1cr alb;Unh>C' ~1flh1-man11cd Albatn
Mt J,.11110/ p.11,r 1'.J,1 u1rJ ur:Jl'rp.1'1> ..,,,1r111111rs: Mllh
Ii l '''" IJtl '""~' .uJ ltnttl Tbt- lrong comra.i bct-.ccn
Northern (Hall's) Giant-Petrel
ti 111 11111 heuJ I u...c1ut for 1dcnt1li.:a11on 'otc that Soal) Petrel gigante subanUrtico
ii tr ' mn ltlc11<h ~nd "c.u to form pale pa1,h on the Macronectes ha/Ii FLK, SC, ANT
1 a11tl 11~ '"'' ~. ,....10.:u!.rl> b<-tOt'e moulting thO<" fcalhtt- I Ml 9oh11111: lTI\\' llSO 200
t.h)' I t mcn a druc """ the: polf' Nw ukm (C"'lfllfg cml11 111 Muchrrcrr~n th<'
h 111 .fta '"""~of l1gh1-m.antlcJ Alb.ttrO\ prc>lllUI reel<.'.' 1n ( t11fc, but
rr111'Jhly nlllf<' ltc11ucot lhan
('Un\'1\lly thi1u)11 R..-..,orJ,arc11<>1
nwc ltl 1, 111 lhc nor1h. dcp11e
SOI Cl'lnlirml'd from 11 I It h rWn<' 'Oc;;.1 11\rc:U
e11 I fill ' I II I('\ 110'1 \'cry
.inul 11 Ir "'uth.-rn C...mll'ctrcl
and onl) crn<bh 111 do" 1111111<1 \t ,;ii I'<''''' m111ra\llnJl
foddi.</i Up fll t/w ll //,111 flt/I h ,ft11111ml!o I h' tlfll\Cllt~ A\ a
tlnrk tip even Ill ii l"111nc'. h111 l1< .11111t' lh111lh11111 lcf B1;ic111sh
bill 1ip of Southern 0111 111 11 1,.l 11111 look tlHr~c1 in >01110
conditions. There are 110 11111" ""'~ 11111l 1111111~ 11l'j11v, nr 1111111.
giant-petrels. Ad Nonh\'111 11111111 l''ll<'l 1111~ whltu rc~11ictctl
10 the face. corum~1111g rn11ki.1i. I~ "'''" th1 durk(r crown nud
""IX'- While morcc~r~n'"~ 11n "'11lh(11t l11.1111 l'ctrcl. In l111Jhl
has darldeadingcJxc Ill 11111g, p.11<- 111 "outhcm l.)C-. arc oAcn
t 1 '""'~ 1 h h" .uttl UOt\.\!n
uld II\ (1111111111<1 h~ lu"ktng p:ill' in ad. Nonhcm. bu1 "''""' m rrl.11
Ill// "'1 , A I 1~1/, 1Tll" "''
luller's Albatross
1 1 Jl)'ll I,. h1,11, ~ '"""""" l"llkrn 111 \\hll~ unJerparu and rump. wnh cnun:I) J.irl. 11rrcr,<1ng,, .,..rJdlc'
'I II r~u n. fll\'jCI ""' 1f.~1..:~ .,,. ~rcy c>n 1he neck and bead. and undcrwrna p.inem Tht'..e lhrtc fc&llll'C\
111 lit hi ""'" "'"" \l11ll)rn.1"L' brc~ 1n colonies. bu1 lr.ld g<QI d1!t.11Jl<:c\ ~'"'" 11!.: wu1hcrn O.:can
111 111111 rt r&l hJh 11lrmm;11un1y.

Aull"' , All111huu (l'.mflc Albatross) unJ hrad than Sah1n ~ Ad anJ. to a lc,<er c\lcnl, 1mm ltJd
Alli 11' 111 11111.., puJ,.r forduuul of S..h 1n ~ The mo" rchablc featu"' ror
ll111/11u;i1d1r l11tll<'11 \P TX#S ~gads. is !he bnght H'iln l>tll. "'llh rc-.1nc1ed blac:I.
lip to lo..-er mandible ofC'M.tham Alboat""' Imm ma) no1
l IW n t 111 J \\ 110 cm llll"I Pcbg1c
~ rcadil) separable uni~' ad bill colnW"> arc c>1dcn1 ''''"
llrc J .0111u~ll), Oct \fa), 11n C'lunham h . Jarlcncss of head and nccl. C'hathllm Albotro..\ ma) tend 10
JI.,... / \'ulntrablc tot' I II IC \ -
\how dart of necl. c."tndtn~ to Oanu. I 1clJ 1dc:n111ica1ton
1 I CI' \ 'rNllcr and hmm.:r n1t11l)rna"'I. ~ma arc still ~mg resohcJ.
I I th"" t>(hrr1 \J m<>I hLcl) s.tvin'1 Albatross
'" b.. confu<cJ v.uh GrC)hcadcd"' Grey-headed Albatross
l 11>k,.,.1ntofBullcr'sMullkJcrald1 /.n1-
"'/ b/,, 1 /n.u/ing n/gc \\ tlh a ,,.,,.,th .,.,'fl/I Albatros de cabeza gris adult
'""il "'"'""'
1>aru//, / 1., th noc the br1>adcr Thalassarche chrysostoma ANT, FLK, SG
.,,., '" ' n l ..1,.,.. tr.I cofGIC)h~~dcd Grey hcaJofBultt-r\ l 8 t cm 1)2" 1 \\ no 'm (f\7" I Ptlagtc
I lo 1nl """ .t mot contnl'Jm11,pul. /on/1,uc/ uncl ' "'"" Bm:J.. t:\Ct) '"o year\, 0.1 \la). on Doc
I 11 \lt'\H, th1 h1ll 11r Buller'' hh l>n><1J.-r \'l'//1111 '"''"'" go Ran11re1 ond htnl>lh 1>thcr \Ubanum:hc
l\llh ''''" t m1111d1/tl, 11r1111 """''1 nachmc up (11111111/un island$. More clo~cl> a>,oc1111cd "llh 1111ld
ult ul I "'"' /1 '' 11//t111, n111 ornngc. Juv. irntl youn11cr unm wa1cr thon other C'h1lc1111 mollymnwh.
11111111 I 1"'"'~ Su lvm,, Alba1ro llowcv~r. note brt111dcr Vulneroblc. ll>ENl'l f'lCATION A >mull
I 1il111v .-;If.Ir H umlrnvtng or Buller\, which is ~uh.flullinl l y
chunky nwllymnwk. Ad. shows c1>mbm Ch1th1m
111.1 1111 .111tl ~ll 111nwr hi lled. or
at ion /Jrr1atl 11111/ /1ng11/r11 h//111k '""'''"!(
edge 111 11111/1'1'11'/ng und 11rcy head, Sec
(hHd only)
\.11Y111 '~
Albatross (Shy Albatross) Bullers /\lbatms~ for scparoltun rrum 1h111 irccrcs Grey
Alh.1frn\ de frente blanca hcaJcd has a bll1ck bill wuh n11rro11 1<"//1111 l/Mf'<'>,Onc on lower
/ ll,1/.1HJrche cauta salvini TX #6, FLK? manchble (no1reud11ng1111g11/\) untl the uthcr cm the culmcn
bccorrungorangcon l>tll 11p <..ire' h'Jtl 1111h only 'hsJ!tly J>3lct
L <IS''" 1n 1 \\ ~~II ('lll (Qs,
forch~d. bnm. hb """"'" "'"'" "'" lacl..ontt r31cr ha'IC
Pelagic. Brc.:d 1111nually 0.:1 -'I"
on f;k,unty ~J> h Sc"'
Youngesrhinls hac almo\l cnurcl~ blacl..1-h ~~ Imm'"i'>
most similar to imm . Blad.-bro,..ed, but nut..: bladcr hill
/ .cal.v>d The .crnnJ-n,.nt .ibun "'nhout pale base.. and ihH4l' gm Arud ...11h ' ""''"'''"g ,..,,,.
d1n1 m oll)'m... l <'Ill C and ~ ched parch. not dusl..> collar or Bb<l..-tiro"' er.I
C'h1lc Vulncrabk I Ol ' 111 I
C i\ l 10' T\t: ltJf'JI~" "'""""""4. Black-browed Albatross
ha"n11 lo~ "'"ll"" tth ct) hnlc Albatros de ceja negra
blacl on unJcr1dc 1111n 11 lt11t
/, 14/ng nl ' '" 11/010 mg ~nJ "1l.lll bl~d. 11t11m/111.,rJ.' wh<'rc Thalassarche melanophris TX#7, ANT, FU<, SG
ltlkllfi I o nll"th h...S) only ,h;arcJ "uh Ch~tll.lm Alb.nrm.. l ~"cm (35"1 \\ 224 cm (811"1
u1 Jle l'ltr on saJJlc than 01hcr moll)ma ..h , oOcn Pcl.:aa" Rr.-cd' annu.:all). Oct -
""'" tUIJl 'IO 111t .J ll~CI .. 1ng.' p.,1. 1...-lln ...hnnt """"'" Jo1r \t.l), on Sc>mc f11q1un ~,lands. the
t /, 111UfU/1hlc 1J, >Cf\&f't1on from ad Buller' Alba f-'111.fand .,,,uth leorg11 ind
It At.I tm lat '" !\lNlnh>, "'h1ch ~ 'IC that other ub,nta1,11c hl3nh The
11111 I ~y N rJ"' 1n ( htlc, \\1th"''' 5.thin' bcmg 1mm cumm .. nnt , '""'' "'1dc,prcad
..t.11 In t hllc "" h.n cmm: up 10 bill blad. drcang in mc>llym.a,.l 1nl h1k. ll111Aoc\cr,m
1111111 mtlJr h> 1mni Buller')., but bill of Sil brttJin ' on ~I lllO\C 'loOUth,
In ""'dt1l q lt11l l1pl11!~ d>rlo.crin colour. unJ ur>dc:f\\tn& lcav1n1 11 .11.111~ only 1mm' off
I I 1p1I) '""rote younp Sahm' havona wmc and C Chile. NCllT Threatened IUI ' I II IC \ 'l 10'1 Orani:
.1., ~ "'""""' ""It .;,ft11!1 llj;c tipped yellcrn bill of ad. Jiagtl'"'" Onh ( nmllymawk
with an emire~v white hem/. Su111ltl11tll) 111>11C.1r' hkc a hu11c
< lrnl h 11111 Alh.1lro~s (Shy Albatross) Kelp Gull. Blackish 'broil'' noit ~uhl1 when chose, uml contru-i~ dult
l\lli11I tor, 111 111~ INlil\ Chalham 1Vith white head. U11durwl11g /1111 /111111tl 11111/ /r111:1d111 II/ark
I /1,t/,10,111 111 1.1111,, Ncmita TX#6 lcadl11g edge, like Grcy-hc11cl1'<f l\lb111111-. Juv. hus blackish
bill with black lip. With lllJ.l' th1 h''" l1ecu111~' paler. mnk1 n11
I 1111 111 I I\\ "llu11f~1"l l11ln111c lln:c11Nannunlly, Sep the dark lip more prominent hi\, 11 11<1 yn111111cr llllll1~ shfl\\
11 "11 I l111h 1111 I1 N<' /r.ilnn1I Onl) recently n::co31111cJ diffuse but noticeable 1/111A /.11 "'' /~1111/ .ond nc,k. n1n1rmllmc
111 11 1 oll 11111111.. 1 nll I hilc 1n1mlly "'"h Sah in~
,..;rh paler head Lntltrl\m11 , ,,,,,.. /1 ,J,,,4 in JU' S1m1la.r It>
t 11 1111r1 Cri11.:.tll) I nd.ln~crcJ (onl)
J"' Grey-beaded. bul hill h r 1ler "'"' onrJ l:M:I..' d3.l'l.hcar.lcd
I 1111 I If fl \I II" I \lrtmd) "11111t\l!'>.ll\t11'' ..
and pale-cbed<<d "J'PCill'~"'" 11.111rr
11 f lh< 'hhll) ltn3tlCT, AnJ ha~
111 r tn'J'<r l fl 1 II haJ.Jrt,.,. J:rn n(
t t~ 1 l/t t 111 1111 ~ '""'" 111 whooh fut mars are the best-known rcprc,cntame, lhcy arc more cfo,ct~
tlo I lh I ""~' 1; "I 11adll) petrels Pterodromo. All of the 'l'CCIC> ct\crcd here nc,11n th~ Ant~rcllc
I 1 m1 dtll' I h> "'"'"north m winter and \001C non-brecdc" nia)' ummcr v.cll north nl the
It'"' ,. I urc "'""" ll'd t(l pact ice. All are stitr-v.1nged n~c" ltl..e hcaN.alcr., but 1.-nd '" n~p
I 11 t i. I h 11<111,., ~nJ broader 14ings. 1\11 ba\-c "bite underpart> nJ \llflal>lc an1t><1nh ol v.h11c on the
11 11 u _,"lil) but 1, tn:atcd here because it JS a spec;c,. of colJ '>OUlhcrn "'Itri
onJ iu grncral colour

111tllt111 (A11t:.11cltc) Fulmar Petrel plateado Antarctic Petrel Petrel a nUrtico

I 11/11111tru ,;I.< t.1lt>1tlt'~ ANT, FLK, SC Thalassoica antarct1ca ANT. FLK. SC
I '"' ~<Tl( ~ 20"1\\ 114--l:!Oan L .t0-46 an (16'-IS"t \\ IOI lfl.l Tll (40 -1 I I 11>'" J\1~ cold
C4S 471 Or... of lbe m0<t ,.,dc- >.nian:tic: and ~1.: "''n-.A ''takd ,.1111 t'C Oo1h
!'f'fOJ and o:oau11tJO '.>Cahmb tn 1b northern~ m mler '' hm11CJ b, the ('ten! ol the
( h1k, 11 bc.:mc mu.;b more iec. l;sually south of Chilean \\llt.:t" b-111n r~" Int~"' mo\C 1n "'llll"f Part1rulatly31 nonh and 1113)' be: 'v.tttlcJ '"' b..-a.11<, llrJ l>ll chili 1n
tbC" ... sat.111, cun1monl) enlCJ'S Antarntica. lDE,llflC \110' A, IJlq;c, turd) and l>ull~
h~rtoun And " .;cen ""-"'> from pettel ";tb a deep bell) and h<'n ncd 01\cn Ilic h1i;h 11-<l\c
lanJ \ti) fnllo14 li\lung cs~h !he "ater Darl. on head ~nJ UJIJICl11'1rh, llfl/~ ,.,, '"!!' 1l1Jr4 ""
'" lor1t1r lllOUJI' IO~' fl F ICA- leodi1tg edge c:onlromng "11h "hue "'' 1incl11r1<1 11nd l1mtr
11 " '"' l) f'Cllcl wllh 11 appcarnnco: and primaril!S. Similarly, the While tot! contro'1 w11h lhc d.n~ h.i'l
1 I tt" h hro.ul round llflpcd "ln11 Ollcn 01c' sc1111nong wnh and black band. llch1\\ while, w11h nnrnm hlJ.t,
th h 111. l1~1k1n 1k1wn unlike 'hcnn11tc", which 1c11d 10 view fe.ading edge to undcr1Ving~ uml contr."tmjl llilll'~ i~h h~nd
'" " " "" 1111/ 11111A1111/11"/mA ''I'Cicncrnl c<1lm1r p311Cm ;,i milar Wben worn may appear much brnw11cr n111I 1111tcr. w11h con-
'" 111111 111.1111111, huv1111! 11 wlt/11 /11t11/ 11111/ 1111tl111111rt.1. nnd grty trasting blackish head. M11y be c1>nfoNcd with much l.'111n1111mcr
/,,,, ~ r111d 11'/ll.~1, Nole, ht1WCV~1 , thc Iii ncrcnl bll'UclUr1.1 nnd sti ll~ Cape Petrel, bu l nolc lirnl A11l11rc1lc flctrol hn~ 11 ln11t1.1 forge
l\ lt11tl'1I ll tghl 11f th~ l\1lmn1. Th e 11rcy wi1111~ ~how <forker white wing pa1ch, no11wn 11utchcs scpur11t(d by 11d111k nrcn in
0111li11 11 .111111>rl111uric,, wllh n nottccnblc wltit<! 11111dt 011 lhe centre of the w111i,: 11s ()11 t'1111c Pct rd . 0 11 thl.' waler lhcy
th 1111111 p11111111l1111/ 1/,1 111111trw/11g. 1>u111culnrly 111u th'>l:tncc. also resemble ca1:h 01h~r. hu1 An1.1r.11c Petrel hll u Hol1dly tlurk
1111. I' 11d1 m.ty tctllll the "lute patch or ('a1..: t>circl .inti the bacL. scapular. nnd f<>r~wmp
'"" c.,ulJ II<", al1h11u11h the fulm.1r" 1mmcdin1cl>
1 011hlr hy '" "h1tc und lac~ nr w blac~ 1.111 White- headed Petrel Fardcla de frcnte blanca
Pterodroma lessoni ANT, FLK, SC
C.ipe (Pinl.ldo) Petrel
L 40-46cm111>-lll' I\\. 109 Cln (41"1 11, "'ln1m;1 pcutl ol
Ptlrel moleado (Damero) cold !iOUthem ""'en..brctJ1ng in.inly 10 ulanJ~ 1n th.- cv.
/)Jpt1on capense ANT, FLK. SC Zcabnd regionaod s lnd10U1 O.:Cilll Ot.inbutK.. In ( h1le roorl~
Wlderslood. regubt m the rolJ \\111.:r rr:g uia lrom the
I 3 .1<1"" (1~ 16"1\\ l!l->11 cm
Golfo dt Paaa, soash to C. llom, b..a 111<.>rt> d.>1a 1&1c D<"CJcJ
tl2 16"1 t\mong the mo>t "''de
$f'<Ud anti common .cabirds 10
IDL 'TIFTC \TIO' .\I~ l'lcmJrWflll tlw 01<"> on bu"'cd
<rulc,o.;,VTml r,...,. w Peru\WI "'ings. nsmg m lugh ~ t)PI ...r the pin llrt111g Oott,
bordcf lo (pt Hum )CM-round. h:lndling lligh md> '"the~ TlllS l!K ""loured petrel~
ahhol!gh muo:h more cummon m ~~ dart "PP<'"'IA,, o"'1" COlflftlJlJ.lfR ..11111.ilt ht'OJ anJ
...... n"nh In,., IC1' 0Rcn follo1"s whitisi 1a1/_ The "hnc head ua<crnh,.tcd l>yu bQIJltlltt ~'t'
fl'hln \C ,cf, In hu~c gTOUJ"'. paiclL Undcrpart> ,.hlle. ncq>e ~l pq bteat-b.u>J, and
contra5I "ith the en11rely Jad. WlI""' m~ I he Uflf'(N ong,
ID~' I U IC" \T IO' \boldly
11 11 11c1I h><h fk'lrcl, 'hapcd \nmc,.hll hkc Soutl!~ possess a darl. \.1 panem. but th" "rall~lly ,.i...,ureJ II) the
l 11111 11 lut .... u~ ~nJ e1cn hl\.k1cr, "llh \hon bullocck. cbrk inner primane. and >e~nJancs />.nA un.Jrn. tn}l\ h1rcd
C mp/ I'' .1,.,,,, "' 1111 llflfll'I> tnK and 1111/ tha11110>1tt" The by Grey Petrel. "h1ch " larger, l11ll1~r .1nd much bmadcr
f.IA I 1 lo" 111 Hh"' .1 l11~c white flJICh on the mncr primaries
Winged_ Thewb11e bead. up,,...l'\\lnjl f' 111.111, "ht1.:to1l 11nd do1l
It,,,, tlw tnmr win/(. Tt"1d uhlte ''"ha
1l111I lt1mflh 1 ,,/,,,,~ l'"fi
eye patch identify \Vhllc-hc.111...1 l'tt11I
/o/,,, A I'"""''' '""'" .11111 the lnrscty while lqil-covcns are
1 1 I h 1111.1 ~ I h11111Mh wc111 lhc 1clnt ivc pri1ponio11; ufwhi1e Snow Petrel Petrel de l,n ni rvr~
111.I M111 I 1f1,111v1 111111thll f!Wl e~ llJlpCnrs clnrkcr when worn, Pagrodroma nivea ANT, rt K, CiC
lh lo" h11 11111111 111111 111 11111hrwlng. while, conmmlnf\ with L 30-35 cm ( 12- 14") W 71> 711\111 (10 11 "), 'llt is tliN(tllCti vc
1i1,,tf h 111 111111111 ~ 11111, ~ h111l 1111d d111k 1111 l l1n11d immediately petrel is confined lO the llllC~ let 111 <'11111 1111' "' lhc 01r .Olllh
Snow Petrel
11111 '" 11 1111111 ~111t1hl'111 I 111111111, which n1 a di. rnnce mny even in winter and hn nol 1><'<11 tkt.-.i11I 111 ( h1ku11 wn lcrN,
111 11tulo111 11 11111111"11111 111111c111 An111rc11c Pe1rcl 1; larger bu1 is common in Anturct1cu ~nil'""'" t 1~urw11 llH' N 11 f'I
1111l lo11l ~l[I 111d I 1... """"~ fl.ll l<'lllCJ , DUI ha, .otid white CATION Perbap' the """' <11.1111111\c pt1rd. 1>cin11 1111/rt'/1
ilf\1111dtf11" fi111l 111n r 1111111.110:, l ht whire "" 1he wing 1s white with a dork <'.I<'""'' lot// 4'111.111 l"r ,1petrel, w11h n ~lncky
I' u1t1 .I 11 h\1,1 (ttl\h 111 tpc t"trd body and short fan-<ha['<'1l 1.11t ()uicl. t ill .1lmn>1 blithl.c

f IAll H c 1111A1/.u1.1 pt.trc l ~ and-'pL...r_i_o_n_s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
I 11 I he l'l'rtlwmu Jl(tn:I ts ch~ruc1en.edb) small size. compa-i ~11'\k.-turc Jnd 'hurt"'" compared I<>
II " "1>11c hcln,., "tlh J.arl. \I pantm on lhc uppcrwmgs. Pnon, arc vt1.&ll ~h1rd, ur cold "alcr. 1ha1
""" 1b1l M J>.lllcn1 on 1h.: uri>Cf" 1np and cnsp "bite undc:tpam The) are 'malkr and 1n<irc ~ump;a.:1 11\;an
I 1 rd" "m1l;ar'"a rnon a1 loa. and appears 10 be closely related 111 lMm
M..., ,,.,,,. (01' tlhppi's) Petrel J1agm""'" of Bl~ Petrel from pnon1 h)
l 1111h1la l1l.1m.i dt Masatierra Nm:l Np etlllf'lllltng .. 1t11r f""'h'..J ur11/
t'tr1 11/1c1111.1 tlefilipp1ana TX#8 lac! nf ""'" 1U('<'1T1l11111f Al~ nOI( uppa-
"' 1na \1 brukcn on lower l arscr
1 'I .m 1 IO" J \\ 66 cm (2b"l Pelagic. Late SICJ""l!tr'' Petrel h:u 'llntlu head p.111.,m ,
""''<' l>fc:eJcr cJul 'o\. Y.'mctunc lo1cr) but 1~ loni;cr ta kd. hll'l~'Cf "ui+ed and more
..;,,."on Rub1n..cw1 t """"'and Dncnllltlkb
araccful an 0111h1 . 1m:inB hahcr ab.JH
'' \11ull '"' \far Vulnerable {c 10.~ ocean . Uprc,... na \ I or Oluc Pcucl 1)
111J, I ti) \ llH C \TIO\ \llhl >tm
na.t'l'O\\crand tn'J)Cf 1n Sl<'Jntgcr'~nJ
tlr 10 Cool,. Petrel. bu1 " I J.ur. large1-. olbcr Cooblario In add11ton. Bl~ Pctrd h.n cnurcl~ ... 1r,,,.
fy,.,.J,r n1ngrJ, nullccabl) /1<011tr h1lltJ
ijfld ti. 1 brwdrr luil D1~t1m:1 darJ. I:'"
Ital( 2cccn11U1cd ht """' ,..,, }Ur
Antarctic Prion Petrel-paloma anLirtico
11H,/ '"'""''' ' ' I }C'\ l~r11c and M:t '"1hm a lorg..
111 J.1.it1h l.11J. 11/ tfurJ. tarl 11p J1u1:no\/lr, bu1 man) ha\c Pachyptila desolata ANT, FLK, SC
I') "' 1.11l t1p. In clu!>C YICW, tfn-p./~11e1/ /Hlllt'rful hill I 27cmII11 W 61 c.:rn (24")
1 uhl\I d111111111tc' Cool'> l'ctrcl. Ile" nrc \\Om hnd' (Sep Nov) Pcla!ltC. !'>ummcr breeder (Oct
h11 h 111111 llflpcnr 'IO'mcwhot dM~cu11red, J1Lc S1c1nc~cr's. .. Apr) 111 Sou th Clcorj,\111 nnd ,.11111d
nonh or A111urc11c flcn i 11 ~ 11l 11.
Cook') Petre l Fardela blanca de Cook Moulls Mur Mny. ll) l: NTlll f.
l'l11oclrom;1 cookiTX#B CAT ION l:xlrcmcly similn r lo
I hm btllcd Pmrn , and 1101 olwuy~
I 21> cm \ 10") W M c111 121"1 Pdui:1c \cpm11hlc 111 ~a A111un;11c 1cn(l\
Summer breeder in Ne"' /caland rcgllln,
h holJ head 1i11h1 anlO OO<ly an
0,1 Apr. non br.:cdanc >h111tr '" Chile. 01gh1. acc:enuutmg 1h1do,cr ncI.. und tlcep.:r brc.N i\n1~"11c
~hiulh Mar \ug fnd~n~crcJ IOI ' I IM-
C" \rtO' MC>'' <1m11Jr10 \h...,11crrn l'ctrcl.
bul lrlfllflP,!""11/.,r, thrnttt 11111 ,Jandn.1r-
" 5ltgbdy dancr. p.11110.:ularl) 1>11 1hc head TllC bro.~d. d.lti.
gtt) half-collar '' roorc c'tcn'lC thJn 1n Tlnn-btllcJ Pr1on
Antaraicbas la.. ,.h,,,. mr 1M-}H.<', lllld <ltcn h.u lwnf,.YJ.l"J

n1" ,., 1o11lc.J 81/J """// '"'" ull<I ..rat I acLf

gl'I 1 lwlf~/ar anJ ""''' ,..,, Jum.>1111<1'.
dart and more c'llcn~c cycltnc. g1'lnll more.,.,,,,,,.,
l ~ c'\ '"'"" 1111</ /tnJJ" aurroundcd facial e:cpression. ~"'""' ""'"""''" ~t.tll)' ,.fl.:n '"""'
Upperwing \ 1 ~hpU) "tdcr and nul lppc;uln& broken
f>nl) h) a""'"" ,f,rr4 f'<ll< Ir J\ ""'>'
ha a bl.acL l31l 11p. Tend> ..-hen worn (Fcb-\1mr). A\cragc' ru.v" bl3.:li. on 1:111 up Dall
11 tl111,. '"'"' "hue 1>n nu1cr1;uf. but '"tcn,l\c u\crl.ap :.hapediffi:rcocesd1<1gno;1tc. Aoun:h la'lngaJ..-pcr, """'d""
bill. bur this is dtfficuh 10 ob.c"c a1 '"" fnrog<' d1urnJ1ll1.
\lf'jneger's Petrel Fardela blanco de Masafuera b) holding .wing open and u,1111: l'cn In pru\ldc tu .... uJ
l'tNudromd /ongirostris momentum ..-tuJc lhnbllnl tnll and of head undcnulcr
I ~bc11CI0"1W~cm12111 Pelagic: B~s
onh on !\lcJandro ~ILarL 1Mu.afucr.a) I Thin-b illed Prion
..,...,,.,,.., brttdcr (Oc '4art \touh. o\pr Petrel-paloma de pico delgado
\.ulncrablc (262 000 1nd1\ldual<)
11)1'111 IC'ATIO\ f'tom "m1lu Juan Pachyptila belcheri ANT, FLK. SC
I'""'"""' Petrel hy mu.:h mallet >llC :ind I 'I 1111 I \\ .S/\ cm (22"1

h1>r1,r "''"~ Al"I)' ha; dark rump 01hcr- Pcl~JI" "ummcr brttdcr (0.:r
" '!'C 10 Ma,~hcrra <ook ,, hu1 hlh J\tr> 111 th, ~ l~lnnd,. \foulc, Antarctic Prion
1111t1.1-111111 l!IJCl.l\h c:ap and C~ICfl(l'C .. hale Mo11 """ 1111 N 11 ~'I CA fl O\'
1 " 1.. ''' 1111 I 11111 t\\11 ""n nppe31 d.orkcnp1icd m the field
il110 tu h11111111 11111111 h1d1caJ pullcm. lln hlnckioh hnlf
I ~11.-11111~ lllt h> Allldrctic:
1'11011 (\\Ith h 'fc). 1101 alwoy

1 111111 ,, ~lo1 11111111. h11t 1l111k~1 nnd lcN~ cxlcn~lvc. Uppcrwing <'Jlolr11hk 111 '~" Slim , very 1lnlc
I""' '11111, 1,111 hli111111. 111111 blncf..ofu11dcnvingollgh1ly mm~ fll 1!111 \\ llfi /1111: 111//<ll///I 11/ ll'Ji//1
I ,, II I 11!1111 111 111 I lt<ll r't111A11iiri11. lMQ thin hill, 1111llkc 1111 /11'<' Wiiii<' 1111 <.:\tensive und
P-t l 1 01 It I , , I s upercili11m brood, j1111wl 11111/ 111i/1A111 Nurmi\ cyclrnc
conlributes 10 neutf11c1u/ ,,,,,,,.,,, tJ11p<'t .. lll1!1 II.I bhghtly
rower and ll13Y appear hr<1Lc11 "" v.o1111 I I .-1 f\lr) ind1v1dawl~
Thin-billt'd l'r ton
11111,. l'll t<I l'l11l t1111lt1do
Forages e.rc/wnc/1 111 111g"1. 111 111.11111cr ol 'turmpclrcl
11 ""'''""' I .11111/1.1 ANT, FLK. SC skipping. on water and p1, l1n 11~111 It urn in1rfac:c. Slralltn
1 I' I 1 '" 111 .old"' at<I'\ Summ.:r and""""" bill diu111111<1tl', 1>1111ltl11,11h to obloenc clos.:ly at
1 I I "" I tnI ( a~ ltom rcg11m sea. Usual!} bas le>- d.ulo."" 1111 11r
1111 " I II II \ 110\ l'11on.l1~c 1n i:~ncr.ll
~ 1\~ fl, ... r ,., 1/,/ .,.h11. 1a1l t1p
f'I AIf 1 l't ,., "''' ""''' fWI
I II I NlllJ#t" I ftte :aluJ' lhI lllhl>ll ckq>.:r \\"1en fut from the Co:ll>I 1 ~ \ &!')' In J')umagc pallnn, bul
a 1l.1J l M JUll1'fn of 'II) ini; If ngth on the uppeiwln~ f'tt'todrvma fly ma hani.:lc:n>ltc manner. "hcelma
\I 1 "" 1111 "ll!:!J l\cr)!u<kn l'c1rd ":l\ once classed within P1etodn11110 but " fl(l\\ accorded its o-. n genlli>
Muttlo111I Prlr d r.1rdela moteada Femandei: rroup Occu1onall) our m81nland Summer
I lr114f1,1111.1 mc\/>t'rtata breeder: IDF,TIFI CA flO' 1'11l)100rph1c:darl. tntmncd111c
I 11 I} (111 111 11"1 \\ 7-l 7~ cm 12<1 30") S1a1us on C hole and pale morphs c"'' In Chile dJrk and int~"Tmcdutc morrl"
I 11111 <I 111hc1hn<1 llmom:all) when r<'J'ult10115 o( th1> 1l'cdom1na1~. Po... crful n 01&:ht. ~)' rc.:all a PCS"' Jue to
r I \l\'.lt'mt<h 1.&11<' then: -.ere r."COl'd. fruin Cluk~n \\liters. >Jructurc .:i.od plumage 1'31tcm \'ccy umtlar 10 Hcr1ld 1'1:1tcl
1111)1 1q11111cJ 1>c1wccn CllJl<' llom and 1hc An1ure11c which occurs m Ea,1er I wale~ Kcrm:nkc:" J010 ln111cr thdn
11111 1111 \ 1..-11d I ~ulJ -.a1er-.. 11 ,houlJ be ~artbcd for Herald. and shont-r tailed. appc:ar1na more robust and 51ock1cr
11fj l 1C111I 11IK'c.:1'c-.1rThtcatcned IOf,, I IHC \110' A "'th a broado-. more '>qUJIC-<Ul 1..t1I '\II m1>rph of Kcmud..-c
11 111 t.1\:1' 1nJd1,11111:ll\C gadfly Sho\\a a 111<dcr:udy ,tmng bac ><ml.: pnmary <ha/I 1111blr ''" 1/r, 1J/l/'<'r-f11g. -.hoch arc
M 1""'111 ""th.: uppcrwonp, anJ lt"CY IJ1I. laclmll "huc of lackiog on Item Id I unl1crmorc, 1h.: ba~e' of1hc uppcrsidc or
( ~ '1/;ma 1,,, "'"' <'<1111ra.rn11g "ult Jh, ,...,tcr tlrn,.,/ .,,,J th" priman<"> 1ltC u-u.111~,<r-ltl.e ~ch
h "' tlu '"'"'"
I lvt1l1 l""h\.('
,,,..,,.,,.,J011J bold Mad""'''""'"'" f'<Jllf71 al>setu oo llenlJ UnJ.:r..on!!' J..irl but~" piq;cr.toke bold
"hue fl'll<:h on b.t..: uf, anJ b.1-c of greater under
pnm:iry-.:o>en. (comma) \ '"'c c~100 <>I the d.ttk lllOf'Jlh
l'hocntlt Petrel Fardela de Fenix '3cks lhc \\httc unJcr..1ng ratch. bur docs ilO"""
l't,., odroma alba dt>cli~he \\bnc pnmal') halh Paint t-cnnadec> hac
gleaming "hue head" .1 pluma11e unknown 111 lleruld
I '' 111 t I l''l W 8J cm t 12 JJ"). In C'hok. knU\\ n only lrom
11 " I "'"' I . ~utus unccnm. Vulncrnhlc 11,.; 'Tl-
1 IC \I 10 ' A "'l'.l /1111>: 1/im g(lf/{11 1111/1 lmt)I nnrro~ 11 tflgs.
Herald Petrel Fardela heraldica
I 1111111) 11.irk cxcep1 rt1111r<ml11g wltl1e /111/1 11111/ 111t/. /'oh Pterodroma arminjoniana TX #9
/'''lli111111 (1 1111dlng t d}\c to undcrwmg). Mo,1 likely Ill be l 35-39 cm{ l4-lti") W 88 102cni(l4"40"1.lnClulekn1>wn
'""'"'"'I w11h p~lc-murph llcrald Petrel but Phoenix ha' more only from E.ttcr I (wmtcr brccdcrl Unlikely near <:111lrnn
1t111to1111lv tl.uL undc1"1nfl' darl< lore' anti forchcad. \Ohdly mainfand IDF. ;TrfIC\TION l'1llymorph1c. only p~k fonn
I 11~. lore'"' .111rl ~l11nmcr structul'<' l 3h111 l'ctrcl {unrecorded common 011 Ulster I \lund. dllrk 11111rrh recently recorded there
"""'I i>tcr I but l'\)."oble) rs cry 1m1lar 1,; ih.-.:n1~ 11 hlb a b idencc $UJ:gcsts d.ltl. lll<>rJ'h " a '<p.italc .pccoes, HcnJCt'S(>ll
d u1cr 1h11 I IA~c:r bill. no pale on pai..tiJUm and hold ..,1ngs Pct:rcl. A dim. long1>J1-uil~ o;..iJCh uf v.ann "r.:110 M't
llhl litcr in ll1rh1. "11h1>L11 rhe l)J'1cal 'bcnt ""'' nrPh1tem~. u,u.aJfy confused v.nh Cf) Jurul.or "l'cnnnJC\: Pctrd (-.hoch
l'hot111\ " c 70'.. smnlfcr than Thni Petrel and 11;a, darL ~cc). Hc~ld Petrel u/..-.,i> /,u At """'" pr11rtary lro(t.t nr
' I' 1.111-co><n' ruhcr tlun pale a-"' T~oh Kcnmdtt and 1> iltmmcr. ITkrc hi;hrly l>wh, 'it1111111~ billed
and looi;cr tailed. Plllcmarl'h I l'l'llld tcrh lo h~c tl.lrlcr fa.:c Fernandez Petrel than Kermsdtt. Undcrn ong rrtcrn Jilk" wmcwhst. wnh
1.udela blanc.a de Juan Fernandez Herald ha-.11g larger \>hlle J'"ICh on r.1111111m. and "hire of
l't.orodroma externa primaJ} ba.'CS cittc:n.h a. p.&lc ~~h ~lh lo -.ccuncbric>
\\hoch an: dul.crm Kmnadec. U.irk nu"J'h clknd.:l'><ln Petrel)
I 43 cm {17") W '>5 cm cl7") 1hc mosi scparued from darl KcrmaJc.: l'ctr.-11111 111" 111rc. d.irl. pnm31')'
common P1erodrom1.1 1n thtlc. afler M.t.'11- shafts. and often lxh f'.llc j>.11< I '"' unol,r 11lc ~f pnmanes
ltemi Petrel ummcr bfcal~r tDcc \tJr), See Phoen1J< PClrel fe>< iCf\311111<>11 '""" tlUll rc-:ic<.
more than one million p'1r' on AlcJandto
Sclkirt Vulncruhlc IDE" IH C \110' \
l:iFJC anJ :>Jim pctr<'I -.uh 'N> Ion,"'" >
Kerguelen Petrel Fardel.1 de KNguelen
UfC) above "llh >Irons M r:mcrn on Aphrodroma brevirostris TXll 10, FLK, SG
UJ'PCT"'lR!I>- a 1w11ru11mx J.1rl. 1"P ond ,/,1rJ. L J6an (14"1 \\ 81 cm P1' I \ ..1,1 11 ' 11hJntJrct1q1c11'<'I
tml "'""" ramt'llm<'\ /r1.1J tt ,,.,,.,.,,,. 11/r11., (.. which brttd> on islanoJ, m '"-' .., \1141111 ""I Occaih
1 Ir Hlfll' lt.uch h..., pale cull~r behind d~rl car. moI 1.uus in Oulc U1KctU1n. bu I \ll h '" I>r~l.c P:i'>.tJ!C and
ft I 111ly Ink' 11~>11h1n~ (0a f>I \luch lo11jter-.1n11cd and rmbabl) f'l'J:,'lllat off I. cl>d ul '1rni:l1 ul M 11.:llan 'iummcr
111111 1 I 111..1 l""f\01t1tonully lnr~ct nnd thicker billed. thnn breeder. IDENTIFICi\ l IO" \ .111.111 111..L,ct petrel -.11h o
111111 1 I ,,.,1/111111 l!nnr Also lw1 a vc:ry ,mnll uncJcrwmi; proporrioru11cly shon rnil l'lu111" 11111<1111.ut. t> w11h
11 1 I 1h h '" '"1 h~C) 111 hcconru..,-d wnh Ma .... ucrrG l'~tr"CI, Mhc!F) wa-.h appan:nl m 0111 lt~l11 I h1 .t.ul 11tt1ftr,..lng
t.111 h 1111 11, I'"'"'"'~"' 11h11c f11rchead un\( whuc (HI nomp /lush pale ""'"r 011 tlll' p111ot11111111 11111111 /111111 "'" lJ11pcrc1art>
1h1111111.. ll1 111 1111111 I 111111111<1, foil more cx1c11sivc ly dork on entirely dark. cxccr1 ~l 1 11hlly 111111 11111111 111111 dur~~,. lotlltl
111111 I 111.111111 'i111111111,, \\l111.: on rump. dnrk r.111 und prese111ing lwoclt'tl uppn11.111,. 111 """ \1, 1,..e quanm, \hon
umr , ..... .., t 111 tH ltit It( fu\tn Stc1ntger, P~1tcl bill and srccp foreh<-:tll ll1>11I .1 ''"'"'' 11\C rl1CJJ'IUlc:c llcad
may look propome>nld> ''"t!' 1111h,.1-.:trcl Confu>oon lllOI
1( .. 1111111111 11..11 el l1Lely wirh Sooty .111 01 c1 en \\ h11.:...,hmncd Pc1tcl
I1wl1 I 1 111 1; 1.1 cl" Fernandez Tht' sbcaNater 1\ '"''"~.-r \lh1I \lhn~-.hinned Pclrel r
<Ubstantiall} ~ ~nd l>ulLrn ..11.. ~h 1111)' h~e palc under
l'tr1'""""'' 1111;/rrt.1 pnmary flashes 1n ccn 1111 hj1hl\ hon neuhcr h' a s11\cry p.nch
I mll\" t\\ P,111111.1 tllun l .a,1,rl,San lch\ ,
n \mhP\I 1~1 llnblnun l ru ..... -.~ni~ l la~ on J1i.n
on the patat:1um "=.. kn ~url n...- fo,t_ lllld rc:rf'omh '>lttJI
high loops "-' c the lier
111111 11()t ll)Hlll "'' 1111 \\ ng-. and grviogqaicl: flaps mtcrspcncd by Ihde Cihdin11 anJ d)'nam1c
11 I 1rln \\ ""' I h41 ",utn, mc:luJc some of !he commoocg and moI \\ 1tk.prcaJ 1ubcn<>sc 1n Chile To
lool hit.I 011!Ktr re
anJ f'"""'1:11 ~IUC1llte.. "1icthcr Ibey ba'c pak undap.arh, /lftd the apc.:11ic undcrv.1n1

lt1llt' 1 ' \ ht'Jrw.ater r.trdela de dorso gris nttkban4tllfdno1iuab/,. ,.,,,,~ ,.,..PPll4:lt lllldcno~ ,.hole
h1ffl1110 lwllrtt "'ilh a narrow dart.; d1J1gonal bar frPm 11\c a\lllancs t the
I .CCl<m 11!1-1 W ~7 cm (JS~). 8'ttch ID~~ lcadi:ng algt. \'ent darl<. anJ ha_, a Jw~no"" darJ. g~ pattli
Oii the bell) ttwtTl'. "fog "m1lar to Buller Sht--1tcr, bus
l.e:abnJ "'&IOI\, H<lh>rto <.'lulcoa m1granon..
rni.-td~rl) 1n ~ch \l.v SuOU'IU bra:da- ~ bcb \f. and i.. a..11.:<abk .. b11c 111mp p.a<h .....t
1 \ 11 \rrl \ulnc11blc ID' TIFIC .\- nedband.Also. undcnnnp aftd u~. noc fk.&m "'h1tc
110' "' latJ:c. bc.-.u11full~ .lwpcd. dcgmt as oo Bulkrs. Al rest. C\ m mllf'C "1T!1lar 1<1 &lier bul C1R:~tn
is bro"DCT. less gtty. the nccl 1$ more c.1~"'cl) ,. h11c incl
I 4rv.a1cr I ong. narr"'" "'"'\ OIJtd slttl.
rroltlc due 1e1 /,.ng /'<1nrnl t.i1/. S1nbng If the: uoderuil-co\cns arc dark 'iC1'4t1tcJ lnm P1nl foo1,'1J
J'dlh rn on 11/Jptr-.. m11. nu11ru.,111tg ntlt pale Sbearwater by blad bill, cri,p "'hllc thrl);ll, conlra1tn11 blad,
1:"1'1><m.-l t1n 1tt'htlt r C<1"f'rt s~ar blal'kuh
cap and wlutc rump oond
,,,, .1.111.<1 11rcy b.i~. uud th in hlJl~ bill l,nJtnmg Pink-footed Slt11a1 w11I
1n. 11.. ll1w '"'"'of 11mam glr111111111111 ltlt<'. White underparts. Manx Shearwa te r Fardela atlcintlca
o,..,.. , "t1h p.1lc-bdhcd Pini.. footed Shcurwutcr. but note Puffinus puffinus TX#13 , FLK
11111111,r .11111 l.111~~r h11ild of' ll11llcr' und mor~ ~111ccrul flight, L 30 38 cm (12 I ~") W 7( ~9 cm (30
h.. l1li111J \\ 111~~ 11hvio11Aly bowed. llntJht white undcrwing~ and
111111' 1'" '' ~ scpnnnc llullcr'N tr11111 l'lnk footcd at considerable .. 35"). BoroB I hrccde1 111 l ' hllc rci:ulnr
aro1111d Cupe I lt11ii n11d cnsl of 'l'lcrrn dcl
.11, 1.111n When backlit , Plnk l'ootcd mny llJlllCn1 to show 11 p:lle Fucgn. An lncr~u slni: po1111 l11rlo11 off W
111"h 1111 1hc t'<WcftS, 111.c 13ullcr'~: In these situation~ rely on roas1 of North A111ericn probnhly winters
ltupurr 1111.I 1111tlcrwi111t pullcrn llu llcr's sllllrcs plumage in or m1i:rotc~ 1hmu11h (. hHr1m \Hll<'l'S, n'
I'"'""' m1lur111r> w1 1h Juun ~cm1111dc1 Pclrcl, but lauer is M1ggcstcd by rcccni ob..:rva11011 rmm ('
111.111~1 und "'"" .11111mcr w11111cd. "''ha \\lute forehead, smnll coul<t. Breed~ in Nnrch Atlnnrlc (durmg 111.1rl on undch1dc c1rwr"' und oncn "'hue on rump aust111l-..1nter)and 'f'fleal'li tn t1C col11n111n11
N Pacific. ID E:NTI FICAflOll. /\ fma// M111t-nn1/.,.hm
Pink-footed Shearwater Fardela blanca shem-><a.ur. smaller than Sooty '\hcal'\\1tcr \hm and v.cll Great Shea rw.:il r.r
Puffinus creatopus pn>ponioocd. flici.,. lib quick "ingbc.&t l.IOcJ ah\lc, much le>
L ~II cm I IY"t \\ 109 cm (43"). than latgtt whitcbcl11a.I hcaN-acrs In iaJJn,.,n, tend h.> 0)
clostt IO d>c ~tcr, pcrfomung l<l>ot'f 1111J fc,.cr atU aho\c
. Cummon. thc111<t~1 palc-
bclhcd ( h1IQn ~llltt Sum- surface. Much smallcrlhan P1nlf-cd "llcarn-atcr. ,.itli N11c4
lnt'r hrJtr on R'>b""''a Crusoe bill Ollll ckar """~ tlrmm. ivNI atJJ ..,.nl 4/w h/a. l<'r a.J
anll Moch h II'\ Region) ~-ifonttt!J c:olou>YJ "~'Ing> nt1 lvt A ~litr ~llfttJ
Vul~T&l>k Cl4.0110 60,000 IOdt- ear-cm-rns. 'ear <ld'r0"'1 : Ja111u:11 ... ~ l.111k ~hcltt...-lltcr
\WWllI IOf' ' rlHC" \TIO' A for separaooa from tbat <pee~
l.ii:tc t>r"'od "1a cd <hcvwucr
... th. hon t.ail. night~ littfe Sbearwater Fardela ch1ca
liiIDoint th;in tb.o1 vm11.:lfJ11al 'hc:arv.'"' bc111.g laboured and Puffinus iJ5similis
llC:IV) 111.. 11 nhh ah.1\c. Wn)' M l"'llcm oa uprcrv..mgs. L!.S lh-m!IU l~"I\\ 'W '17cm
ll t1\\CH'.1 \\h.:11,,, In~)' 'ho" f>.1k lfelltCfCl)\Cft panel. 12J 2111 I int found 1n (.'h1lc Manx Sh!At w01t r.1
ll~ c llulkr '\\tcr. llwJ aml 11..cA ""'"""h "''" rhc clunn11 c:ul) 1'170 I c-.. 11h11ne
lh""'' />n A/1'11"'''" n nut white I.I) on other palebclhcd \lllW, bt1t .1pP,:3"1 tobo- rcwulM1>fl
ht "";le'' I """'""JI tl<1rk II 11/r n pcrlr 11111d1 011 under (. h1lc. 11nd hrccdin~ >h11u hl b.:
111tt11t1 ,,,,./ 11111/11 W mu/arr ""' rh. I to"'c"c:r. lhi: C*<lcnt of scnrcl1c1J for Mound t'h d11c
I 11~ 11111111 11111!.-1 Wlllf' v.111c' 11ulw1du.llly. \\ llh ~ome havang IOt:l\i l'IFI C'A'l ION lhe ~mnll
1111~ 11 1111111 . 1111l 11ihcri- '">Wl111i1 while there. Sln11larly.1he
c~ shc11rwa1 cr. C'1"11ly "'"'~ 11111/
I 111111.1111 ~1111tin111ld1q1t11I Vlll'I Cs, bul nll f)OS~C>S !II least
whlu. w/1/r 1\/11rfr1l1.v/11111 rm111tf
'"'"' /1 .. 11111/1111111//1111 m1f/1111k11111/ '"' 1'111/n/y dark vellf. eel wings. Flies wl//J q11il'k 111/11g/w1t1.f 11111/ 1'<'1'1' llt/11' g/ltflr1J1.
1111/ 11114 1111/i 11 /l/.11 4 ff/.11l h1f wh ll ~-hcllicd slic1l1wulcrs have 'l'he form in Ch ile, elcgmt.f, is ns~ocl11tr1I wllh cold w11lc1 . II
hl<11I li1ll ~
has dark checks, and is thus quite ~ 11nil11r in "''' " 11111 lcrn 10
Manx Sbcarwater, from which II i '<'f'llllll1ll hy 11 ,/uirt<1: Litt Ir. h n11 1 Wiii il l
more round-""i11ged stn1c1wt. mu/11101.- '''' "\'' 1/t H Iott 11m.1t'r

~ings. Furthennore, L11tlc olkn hau1~11t 11111 / m11J11 J!nurrr

Nn-erts. Juv. and frc,h Llllk ~fot'lll\\.1ffl 11< 1111~d white
above. giving 3 '>Cal)' r1i.:Jr.n, c

Flesh-footed ShHrwater
Chrbtm1n Sh..rwlet

f111tlt lnolr1J ShC'.1rw.tler higbO\-er-r.noe:s. Wbtmq. quid lbf".shalk>,.cr 1n ampliluck

l4'trlrl11 nrsra de patas palid;u tbao dttper snff' ~ ( """''
I 11(/111111 '.1rr1c1ptos
I 41 4 milt. I "I\\~ llll-mll9 4~, '-t.at1Bunclor White-chinned Petrel Fardela negni grande
( h k> I '1nrq1onC'd1-.1,1.'lrotn\i.;1nnyafJuanrnnan- Proce/laria aequinoctialis ANT, FLK. SC
h1rcbgu aoJ >hurt' in \ Region. bu1 rtt<>rd> ma) l ~I <~cm(~> .1 I\\ 1\4 IH
I I I to C"\ lltme J.ul. form of rinl. h1<>1al "hc:an.l<'f' Summer ~m t~l !>II I "u111cr<>uJ larsc
bf nkr Ill:-.~,. /.('~1.mJ. tn!Dhllnd lnJwn C> IOE:\Tl-
1 II \I II I:\ la!fCt hon..tcr -.11h ''"'~ n:lall\ely bt03d
V.1n1 r.iruourolly nucrncl) '11ntl1 10 P1nlfomcd Shear-

I rctrd 11r the S<>Ulhcrn 0.:can
Summer l>rkr 011 m>us Jub-
anlor< I" ''lnll Vulncrohlc
" 11 r b111 thmnitr "'m~(J \foI h.1hlc 10 be c<>n1u_..ed wnh IOE' 1111( \rl0 ' i />11/A\'f'CI/
~nv !.he.11,.,11cr I k,ll-f11<11cd "craralcd h'.w' 11i larger ize, />d/trr/ P trd, noll~ubly h1111cr
""'"'" "1n~n111t mon: fluid t115h1 ""h much 5hd111g Flc;h- nnd hrnnd~r \1111~~d 1hu11 Soot)
""'''' 1l 1lt><" 1111 h11" a"" cry N 11-t111c llah on the undcl'\1 mgs. Slmu"'n1cr I n111cly hlu<~1oh
11111 i/1114 ,,,,,,,."/II/IA /11111~ \ ts1blc HI It di~inncc. l'trh plt1A leg. brown "'ilh a 1111y wh11e fXll <>II ~hin wl11d1 i 1111 i~1 ble 1n lhc
"""" lllll1c11 1t 10 ~cc. h111 11 1 ~0 1lil'rcrcn11111c from S1>1Hy lici.d. Bill deep-based and hus lursc nnul 111hrs. I m11c head
\ hc111 w.11cr. Wl111c-chin11cd 11nd Wc~lll1111I llctrct~ nrc 11lso all and l arge bill alone 1mpu11 di fferent w11<:t11r<' ~om1111rcd 111
1lt11 k, h111 11111ch l11rcr 1111!1 h11 lk1cr w11h rroporho11n1cly shoncr sbearwaters. Dill yellowlsh-/111111, ll'ltlt ('/1r/t /1/1111 u1111/11,1l /11
w1111 11111111 pm l>ullk d 1111pcnr11nc11, Wh11c-d11nnccl luck" 11 cl3rk dark, most 1101ice11/JI~ 0 11 tlw hi// w11/tll1'.' tl1111tl
h1ll 1111, unll w~,11111111huM11ycll owii.111111hcr1h.rn pink bil l base.
Westland Petrel Fardela de Nueva Ze landa
Sooty Shearwater Fardela negra (Yegua) Procelfaria westlandica
Puffinus griseus FLK. SC I 51 cm t20"l W 117 "'" (~4")
I Ill ll"m( It> lll"l \\ 11-1--10-l an S1.11u '"l'h1lc uni) rt<cmly dJrt
(17 41 "I fhc common o.Llrt.. lied lkgullu, ulbe11 unct>mrnun
>h.:~r,.arcr 1n Chile Aburnbni. and ahuy1 1utnumhcrcd h>
""') b.: ~01 '""" ''''""' In llls \\ ltlk-dmmcJ f'cue! llr J on
ol ctral 1h,1uund liain1og island off Nc / .. land 1n
c.'.\('C'naKc.'i'1th1hh,~ateri, ~ VulncrJb IUl '111 I-
uxlUJ and scoo :a. a n:fttenc:c C \I JO' I "m: r 10
j>\JUll for uln111h1~ ol"cr <;Ca WJ11tcch111ncd I circa, aln1011
binb ~ummn bft a rn '> C.ln~ idcm:ical m nze and !oll\M;lllfC '""'"'" II lend. IO ha\1.'.
\uraha 'I;.-.. J'abi!J IDt.' nn- deepC>" bascd upper awMi1ble 81/I to~hl t' J //OM l/uui Uf
< \ f 10 ' \ IC'dium-~1led, dt'ndT ~ltrorMTll<r 11f '''" rv" H~ a.I up Nod. <YHllrmtlng, lnzTh M 11Ji 1lrepa1,.,.
" fl 1 th qwcL dttp "' t ntrrcl) J..rir. bmv.n. ~- During austral 'Jll'ID& f Oct :'\Om I In ha') " mg moult,
~nng l:Kl 1111JH.lallC. (,1t1/u>11t,;1 '""a stll...,., Jla1 ,. hen most Wbi1t-clun11ed are 001 moulh111t
"'th. ,,,,J, r rri"""' ""'' '"tJ"' rconJoJn'<<"VT" ~olc. lhc
trM~h of the u111kr" 1ni; flah " dcrcnJcnt on hgbtang Grey Petrel Fardela gns
" nd111011 ''"'SI 1J11n "'"' t /.1// I cg bl.i.:k lloJJ, 1a1l 11ghlly Proce/laria dnerea
\h NI '" ll111h1 11011 m~ l1>1k ro1n1cd, pam<ulrly af tips of
I "l)l<m(1\l"t\\ 117 l''tm(~b
11 11 1~n11111h11g \lmo,1.1l,.<1y1 ccn in l11'llc numb.:". anJ
~0"1 I( II Ill I htlc ,1-.<ICIAICJ
o~'~ 111 111 11i1I lr111n lu1h. ,u n~.1r-J\htlrc w;a1cnt
? WlllH1lih llr1 t Ht.'111rn1ds w11h
< 1111\ t 111 11\ Shtorwnter Fardela de Pascua r11l ul l.111 '"" I lll"N l'l F l
< \I I ON \ .1111~~. 1lm~ ;c111C1rci
1111/111111\ l1t lllVl l 11l h with 1111,.,/,I i/111 AllA fli.~ltt. high
I Ii I~ 11111 l l I ~''I W 7 1 HI ~111 (2ll 32"), A 1mpicul shear- ? <1V1'1 wn111 ~h1y 111 1u1111 11 >ml lh.1111
''"" 1 1 ~11ol11h1I Y. IJll w111111 IVlll~rK, 0 111w11rdiy rc;cmblcs a II hv11hl 1111 I 11/llll'J', 11'/ifl/~/t l1t'-
111111 /i1111t Mu " 11 11 1 11t11 111 11~ !1111~ Jlh1111ug~. bu1 appears l1111 "/tit I 111111.1111111: ""'A
111111 I""'' , J,, I~ 1rlo1h 11111 I 1llll' 1111!1 A11tlubon~ Shcurwnter ll'illgs. Bill yellowish 11Hh i/1114 ,,,,/,/11 \\111111 hr.ukI l'circl
I lh '"1/11111 '"'' 1111 ''"" ,11 1111111.1l11mllan11c.-.11hoo1h. shows a poler heaJ an,I d.11~ r~, 1 11\ 11 ,1 \Otll a u 1,111
Pale shearwater~ all hnvr '"" 1hh a11101111tJ nl 1~h11c un undcr-
Wilson's Storm P~tr~I

!!i llli ",,,. ht.c, g" mg rise 10 !he Spanish Mme Golondrini J., martr 'Ka '"'1110.. ',
'"" 1 ll'Cu fn 1ru.:ture. flight style and subde plwnage d1fT=n~

Legs shon, feet do DOI e.imd be~ onJ uul '" ll1ch1
brown abon: "'ith larcc "'h11c """I' p.irch rr1rn.l1'Ql iln11
I l'I 11cm11> J\\ JI; 2cm mtirPS1ppD1ailan"h <f'l'Ul"'I: o lo1f'!l<"lrlil~11lar put, lo tlout
( 15 If> '\"1 n,., commoa ~ a1- <><n'!'n die slton t.111 Thc disliil ectcc or ,i.c, namp ,,.,~h
l'Cltcl "' <'bile As.>o..-wcd .. ;111 is almost .smrigJu. The Jonal I/) Ol thit '1ormJ'C1~1 rpean
"'bile doe to didar~ rump pai.:h Uft<brarh ml1ttl) Mcl Hh-
J Bttcd '" s OUk IQ Elliot's Storm-Petrel
~r ,,,. 1 l"'IOuh Apt Jun. brown.. Lpperv.-ing pou~h bold "' ., woni I Mar JulJ
ll>t' fll'I C \TI O ' A datl.
,,,.11 lllftpdrcl In moq >llWI White-bellied Storm-Petrel
llOn, the '""II ' trailing edge Golondrina de mar de vientn blanco
appellrHllllShl tlrnd of,.ing i> Fregetta gra//aria
t.1 ht-I, DcnluJllng l~~t. 11f ~ harJI bend in the wing L 20 cm (8'") \\ 46 cm ( IIi" I Subtmpical h1rm >r1111lrl b-.h
111111 I h11h1 '"'on.I ,,.,11.,,..hkc. oflcn ,...u.,.,, 10 'parcer' (Dec-Jao)on Juan Fcmando:-7 I\., r~li~ and S~n Amhro,io
'"' "' 1111 ''' 11111 "I"''"''" lii:lrt/1 nmrlt~J 11nJ Jut protrude Unknown near mainland. 03rl. morJlh not m:onl.:1! in Chile
I ~"' ./ 1.111 m /111:/11 (due lo l1m11 '-II) Yellow webs and dart. IDENT IFICAT ION Mcd1um .. i1cd 'ltlrm11c1rcl, "Ith 1 fnt.
'"' u 11.111\ ""fl<""
hie lo 'cc 111 lh<: licltl Pl11mJge J.1rk brown. stocky loolL Wing; shore ond mudcmccly rou111kd, 111ru1gh1 Wedge-rumped Storm-Petrel
.. lilt r.11\'r h.11 011 llllllCIWlllit~(i.\n. nnd ObVlllll\ Whtie rump Lrailing edge. tail squnrc. Feel do 11111 rcnch 11111 1111 111 ll111h1
" h11 h "fll>' ormmtl vcnt~ulcs. llu1nr11101uh i visibly Uslu1pcd Blackisb above with con1mshn11 while rurn11 hunJ , while belly
foraging postu res of Wilson's
11111111 1'11011 v1uwh. IJ11tl1rp11rt.' tlt11~ . lloru11c~ by pallcring and Elliot's Storm-Pet rels
and while wing li11ing1o. f'nlcr 011 t111ck thun ltcud; 111 l'rc~h 1)1 11111
lll f111c 111~ca whh dn1111tln11 fCu11 while wl11i;s held over buck
age has ralc tips 10 upporpuns, 11lvini; 11 scoly look. lllock or
111 11 V 'i'C ,fmilor Hho1's S1111111 l'ccrcl. br<l:ISt cleanly di vided from all-wh ile rcsl 11fl1111lcrin1rts. U111lc1111ll
cove(l's blackish, When feeding hold wi r1g~ floe, ~~hl~ nhin11
[ lliot's (White-vented) Storm-Petrel with one fool in water while hotly Wll1jl wildly, nl~ll houncc'
Colondrina de ma r chica off ocean surface, huung 11 w11h hrca,1 nnu chcn r11wcr11111 oO
Oct>Jnites gracifis using the legs. From Blnelbdhcd b) while l><:lly and feel
l I~ lhcm(f ti~")\\'40cm(lt>").Astorm shorrer lhan tall in Oighc, p..1lcr Uf'r<rJlaM' .1nd urr<,..11111 bJr, White-bellied Storm-Petrel
pcltcl ul cnol "lcu of ahc llumbolda brighter "'ilire \\1ng Iin mg>. and 'lnllJhtcr lkn~uo1tn1111f blkl
Current Wing m>uh '"mplctcd 10 May. hood. Bulkier than Wilson, Ind l-lht>1'< S1onn.f'c1rcl. with
CMhctlMn\\of un-.\lormPc1rcl ~~ ncsb "bite lmings and c\tcn"\cl)' ,. hrlc'
ltu,.n btt.-J r.. C 1 rk '\Cl Pena l>..ur Deli-
a.. IOt '\ Jll IC <\ I IC) ' 'i11111C1urall} and Black-berlied Storm-Petrel
VI II) " > rr I ot to \\ .,., '- bul -11tt. Golondrina de mar de vientre negro
II l~r ro-.;ht .nu ~ ~ to '""I' Fregetta tropic.a

aarpil bead - ltoJy Aod '11.allu...,-l10ldlccf '"'( L20cmtx1\\ c46c ti~ I \r> .:1icbrttJ.
1.ail "th rrocniJ1n11 f,"Cl llu-rcr, flight wrfla and more ( 1 - er. cold -att I D 'TIH (. \110 ' S114' Md
cn11t1 tlwt \\1l1"n., "'ith frequent d1rc..--11oaal clwigo and
7 1.awnt- br....111\h "th c>1111ti111" "'lute nmip
J stru.."tm'C lmo'I - ,. I t Wh1 bellied Black-bellied Storm Pet~I
Storm-Pct~I. c\<:tpl ft'$ (., r pro1,.,../11tg
'"' l"lc tlJll'Cf'"Dal p.uicl 111111<' hr/It J1/Tl(u/110 .<r<'"' tM bn nJ 1o1il111 //1glt1 l'l=ic 1m1lar, o:'rq-1
/ll'IJ hut JurgttiUtu: ~!.o>k 1> a """" p.Jlt' a~a ""
Bla.:k-belltcJ iw, Mad /,,., "" "'"""'" if foot skidding by
1lo. umlt'nting, '"'"' h \\ rl><m' l~<h In comp.ins.111. thc while ~lh . From ~lllcdh\ 1L11i<crUJ'l'CTl'ill1...,
ntrr111 "'1nol h """""er 11nJ nm~ 1'4'rJllcl\ldcd oo Wil- Black or White-bellied
black belly. less eten>l\e "'h11.: "mg 1111111~ k11 p1u1ruJ1nr Storm-Petrels
101 l 11r1h~11nutr lhl' uprcn1>1ng bor acra11c narmwcr and
beyond tail io lltght. Md oflrn ha' "htlc chin h1r1i;c, ltkc
I' 11 r 111..1,. '""'~ ~untr.hhng vn 1111111'" ~hh11ugh lhtJ> \llrie1> White-bellred. See Gn:)backcd Scnnnl'<U'CI for ...:parutton
11)1 W U ttlll tlhHlh tillllfllC

Markham's Storm-Petrel
W1il14c> llllllf)t'd (Galapagos) Storm-Petrel Golondrina de mar negra
<.1111111111 hi.1 d.- rnnr p<'ruana
Oceanodroma markhami Markham's Storm Pet rel
(), 'olllttc/111111. 1 t1thy~
1. 23 cm (9") w ~o ~111 ( 1J") ll11mh11ld1
I I h u 1 111 t I K'') W I ~ ijtn ( I ~"). A s111oll s1onn- Currcnc nrco, hrecdlnj! 1.1111111111 111ll'~t l 11i 11.
lfh t I ul "''"" 1111 w111cr, ~ttongly pelagic. Oal:t D.:f1clcnl. Ill" 1'1 l'IC A'l ION A h1111c
111 I ~ i 1\ tut 111 l'nu W11111 mnul1 {/\ug Sep)
bul slini larm rcd "''" 1111111 1h111 w11111<
111 11101 "" rl1 "uh lh .11111 Wot,on\ and Hliocs and /011g t/111111 /mA1 d tar/ "'"'f'llhdck "1011
1111111 I' rd 1111 '1111 IC'<\ I ION .\moll "''" profile, wuh "'"'l'"hlllt<tl) 1111~lrJ f1111n~1
/111 d I
/>lui-Allh '''""" '"" h.u '"'''' "i'l"'"'lnll "'1r.
\\ hrlc oh.tit tr.- h ut lo "c ''' prrmartc,
lo<nu11111111) ""''"" l111i.ra<:<'ftl Nn1>1hcr
blacl.Wi 'lonnrctrd "Uh cl.rl nam1 "'"Uf~ 1n C htlt. \iarl
ham'~ a ttraL"C'lul lhtJ11 ,.11h '"" lr lut, bu1tcrll)"hl.r
f!JAt I I \ <,, !j st 0 1111 p1 1l 1tI\ and diving-petrels
Grey-backed Storm-Petrel

I ~:; 11.u kf'd ~ torm Petrel rump separate from Homby'< , l4'C lie 11.., aucful t rom
f.,1111111.h 111a de sub.1nl.1rtic.i \\lute-filic:ed Srorm-Petrcl (ttcenth '"''Jed
1n (. h1k, 5tt P1ak
<Mr1t.l1.1 t1Nt1\ ANT. FLK. SG 95) h) d3lk colW and .,.lute Nll1J'

Ll,...N "'" ~ 1\\ J9onll5). Pcl~

r. , 1n colJ ul>< "'lit<~ U>uall) Peruvian Diving-Petrel Yunco
fitundarounJ~tin.Lclp.,,d.."bn ~ Pelecanoides garnoti Homby's Storm-Petrel
ral .w1u1>c:r.nntN~W1~100nlc

1n L 20-:!4 c:m (8 9 ~1 IMbor(' mann." llf'K""-
on '" th. f al~l.anJ \loulh Feb \la . rcstncted to H wnboldH urrro1 UittJ, >car
Ill '111 IC \ JIO'\ A l1m &rt'11flr <to,.,;.- round. v.11b "inter ~nna cggla)1n1 ,,..akt
prrt.lnh 1;u cl) "hllc undcrpan, \\ings
It ll ,. 11h 011~1 l~riJ ch..., h """'> hut m1>dtni1cl) pointed
lt '''" ol Int c\l~nJ bc}<>nd 1.111 1n 01ght 111< fa\I and
i (ro Peru. prc~umabt,_ "m1l11 tn (."htlc:I
Complete m<>uh Aug 0.:1. '" fl"(-11 plumF"
m Nov. lndangcrcd IH.000 211.1100 md1
''"' 1 "" h.11 hL.- '"n!!bcah. murc crr~uc "'hen foniaang. 1duab). IO t\'TI H ("A I 10'" lurs:t'I
,/i. fl ., '''J! '''"'', ,.,, Ult'f ftU'( rl\, u /11ch lltr llPfH:d '~''"'* dfrrng-pc11"(!/. Only d1vm1111C1rel 111 ( and N
'" "'"'''"'~' 1mlt /'"''"' When fre~h. 1cyofu11p.:1)1J11Ji tipped Clute. Head blackl'h, rcu,01111bly writ
" '"" '"""'' '"''lYAl11C:imncc. I lctl hlnckl1>h, 1'ontrh11ng with demarcated white lhron1 and gicy hnlf-oollur on neck Him~""
r h.11 ~ ,;, .... I 111111' 11111/ 1i11/ b11wtll11RIJ(J\l/t', Sq11urc-c111 1;rcy neck-sides extend as brood 1/11skj' 1111nt11/ /1111n/./11111d. lJt1dc1
1.11/ 11///11/111/1111/1/11(41!'111111111/ //1111tl. lie low wh11c, hlnck head wings greyish-while. Greyish flnnk~.
1111f I""'"' "'11l 111 ckur-c1111>cclornl line. U11dc1win11s huvc while Polynesian Storm-Petrel
11111111\', hlnl'k lc11cli1111 cd11~ rind rc111i11c5, whi te cKlUnds 10 Magellanic Diving-Petrel Yunco de Magn llanes
1u1 h11l1 """' <1I' p1l111nncs.
Pelecanoides magellani
I lornby's (Ringed) Storm-Petrel l. 20-23 cm (H 9") W 32 cm ( t ' S''I.
lnshon: marinc spccac\, one11 1n c.rnalond
Golondrin.1 de mar de collar fjords rather limn open <k:can Brc~d' No
Ou',inodroma hornbyi Dec. moulb Apr Jun I he m1hl common
l 21 '.l cm (K II") rclu1111:, l'C\lrlctcd 10 d1vmg-pctrcl 11'1 S Ouk II)~' I ltl( \ .
I lunih.>ldt Cuncnt "atcn. Brtt<l1ng groun..b TIO'i D>fTt~No rnm 11ll 1>1h.:rd1vm~ pctl"(I
unLnm n. h)f'ndic"icd h> be in th< A1.icam:1 UI us "/Ille /kJ/f-.:111/ar>ptng ""'""''
fkoat bul f'<>l~nh.111> coa ll ('omplct~ darJ. Nr-cm erh ~nJ accntualcJ by the
r. ..ih D '"" l>t" Otfiucnt O \ TIFIC \- d11r. darl. ,,,,,, Ull '"" MiJHtJn r 4tlern
110\ \ I ll'JC 'll>ml f'Clrcl olOd.)I and makes it 3flPC3T anon: capped in the r.cld h J~ plturtagt',
"'" ... .,, :al 01""'1 iar1glc <11 ""n.t, giing ,.-Jriu rips"" cmens olld !lppc,.,,.,,-U 1/tai;1"ntlt' Urrcr b<Qt Peruvian Diving-Petrel
ll'lp \loC1'4b.i.:l Uf'Jlnnll'l\:t', ToJ1/ f<Jll
onJ o.lw:t>< pure one. noa 'J>kLkd or "uhcJ ~) Bnrhl ""hllc
dp/1jtwW, lcp""' no1 c\lcnd bc)ond wl st2pUhv patdi. WluJt' uconJ"n lip bn.odrr lllWn" ;11"b11g
n llos;hl. ""kb o ~lul and'""'''" of'"" >Jo,. 11ro~ l/taa C-Dnvtg-PctrrJ. C/<'UMJI w4J1, 1uiJcno1Q:t t>( Olt)
~ '"" I b) ii ~'""' of ghd1n& Dt>11,,.11c fl'C). black and dii~. and fbw Jattcl\ "hole..... l'r(\I h
""' flum:tie ''"' ulot.1.- 11111t N.uJ. "'"g 1111/ onJ cop.
" ' ""' I 1\ .. '"I:-'
bc h.>l<l i.-rt) <:alJ"I v.h1ch t\ broad Common Diving- Petrel Yunco de los canales
111'""1.kJ 1rlli:lun1 l>cr1<I of ""'"8 1\4"'''"'"1 to pn1n1 on Pelecanoides urinatrix FLK, SG
t 11111 liu/"f'O'h "// ""''' t111lr 111/d. '""'""""J: blacJ:
I , I ,,.,, I ' '" ~Ith l l..20-23 cm Ill Cl I\\ P ""I 12 ~ I s1~1u,
unclear tn ('h1k, ... 1.,,., ~pp.11cntly It" 111~1-
' cd lo\ un1J IJoHh nr "''uth ( rl:.UI)
l'ol\'n"'1.111 (Wlute throated) Storm-Petrel outnumbcml h) \l.11wll.1n" l>MO!' l'c1rcl, Magellanic Diving-Petrel
1h de garganta blanca
1...1111ouh11111 but pcrlwl"' n1111h111111l111ol rn111c'l llrccth1111
N 11l111tl'fl,1 111111:1110\.1 grounds o( ('111h1111 1111111 ln1ppl11>11'rt)
unknown IDI~ 1111( \I IC )N S1111lt11 r In
si7..c lo Mo11cll111m /1111 1'11,A 1111w/1/1, ///('~
f11golwi1111.i111tl11'11//111 /11/1liJ1it'111'1'fll'('l1.1.
Grey waslt 10 bredst, 1m1 wlr/11. 1/1111/111h1/11,111/ I.> t111/ 1th1lm11/11
white. Lack.~ strong capped 111111co111111n 111 rl""'d~111ur.:111i1111
of white throat from dar~ luc~ '''"" M1111dl1111f< k111111/11r1111tt'l1
greyish. no1 ...h1w. but wltlu11111h\11111 /,,/, ltf'V /111rc11111/11m
Common Diving-Petrel
rcslricted. often ''"'hie 111 llll' lld1I t u9"h und~rwin~' un1I
c~tcnsively grey flani~ Ncc Ill\\~" h11~ l1p t11 ~1,.cn nil
uppctpart fcathen. llf Ire h ~ljl('ll.1111t
t I Al I lft l\l\111l1d .11111 t ,..,tc-cJ pn..,,
g_ ui_n_s_____________
oou 11111 t bc ong l.u~.:. ,1unl). flightless mannc bml> .. uh strong boll\ anJ clwl'll<lcnllC
I 1 t amt - IJlc >mtcally; lhetr black-and-..-buc plumage be~' comp;ui""' h> h1tlc men

bill~ Typ1calJ).juv. \131clbnic 11&., cbrlcr I"> r""c. v.h11;h

becomes d:ukcr oo lores. Okkr tmm sta11' to ""'""t 1~p1.-al
broad supescilium of ail. cuaua,11ng nh bbo:k1.Ja fa.:c

Rodchopper Penguin
Pingi.iino de penacho amarillo
Eudyptes chrysocome TX#12, FLK, SC

. 1~ _, =~:~:!~~~l;:~:~~r~~::
" Fcb-.,lar Imm nuy J"f'C"" mnh ind
should be !>Cllrchc:c.I for m (' Ch1 h: I he: mo.1
common cn,.lcd pcn11u1n 1n tht1c
Vulnerable. IOf:N l'IFICA 1101' A 'n111ll Humbo ldt Penguin
; ihll cn:sacd pcn~11111 1~ilh blilk u11pc1part
and while undctpnn'< /lill 1wl. l11rk1111: pinA
fleshy area at base. Obvious Nparse 1'!'//f111' c1'l'.1l ll1111 cf111//1111l'
f6nvurd as a 11c111'Qw yellow .Wfl('ld/111111 1c1lfltill!J //w /111(.1.
Length of cres1 varies, som\l have loni;cr. llrouplc1' crest.. rtu.o
only penguin tha1 erects crown (r111hvr. /ti"''~"'''"'< rt'VI l111pe older irnm. ~
Eye and bill rod. Juv. similar to ~d. bul 1111~ 111cy1~h 1hrou1, and
narrow yellowsupen:ilmm with no ere"" Scp.u111cd lr11m l11111cr ~f '7 adult
Macaroni Penguin by lack of nc,hpmk 11arc. narro, bill.
spJrser and more lemon ~cllow cr"l3. "' 11cll a~ 1h111 )clln"'
'upemlia that do not meet on forchc:ul \1<.Q. R0<:kh11~r ha
a neater. suaigbler d1vision bct,.ccn 1hc hlJ<:k anJ "'hllt' <n

Macaroni Penguin PingUino macaroni

M 1111 1111 1.. ngum Pinguino de Magallanes Eudyptes chrysolophus TX#13. ANT. fll(, SG Rockhopper Penguin
1l1 11 uiu mlft;rlf.1mcus FLK t}' L 7J cm 128") Pclic 1n colJ ui...nar,uc

L 11 cm I'~ ~1 Pcl.1111c Brttds / llnUtt>. Brtt<b lJl a~.lral wr ~ Oii ulallc4 off
In 101111>crmno~ ( b1k. P.1u1onia .. socn~ Cb1lc \t. ill I rl> \l&1 \ulncr
ni.I the I alkl111Js 1n au11ral .-" ablc. IDESTil'IC \l 10' \1tJ1um-t1TcJcrni~\f a dull
umm.:r, rnnull afkr brecJing ' ' penguin ,. uh blacl. urpcrrorh unJ .,. hue shorter-cruted
ti cb Marl llt hly m11t111\lry, nndctJwu. Btll n.J, Rdh /utf.(' pJd /l~h\ fl1TI/ (youngu?)
min" nw.n c '\Url1h ln \'Int.ct -..:ta' 01g~ ObnousJttpycll"' ,.,..,u tltoJlc 11111111w individual
lhrr.otcn<J IOl'"lflC.\ flO' _ fonwd in a .,,J, l>anJ .,,,,1,,.,..,, ,.,. '""
\lul ltt"J rcn11u1n. "'1th turd). E}C and bill rcJ Ju\ ~111111.11 h hI hut h4 Mn
1111,I. 1>111 811/ /1111< 4 tu h.Ln bu1 orange-yellow forehead band 1hat \'\ltnolo hchtnJ <"\C
or ''"""' mandible and Separated from smaller Rockhop[>er ''"n~u111 h\ 11c,hp1n~
gape, thicker bill. densc.r ond nun.: or11n11 \1 !111" '"'~'hut
project forward as a band 10 m~1 on lmdmul j\l.;1, Mnc~run1
lacks erec1able cro11 n feathers ol ll11< ~lt11p1w1, .ind thC' hlnck Macaroni Penguin
on 1hc throat reaches n po1111 " ' 1h1' hr111I ..ntr.\ unlike lhc
straight cut of Rockhop1>er.

Little Penguin PingUino LVUI

Eudy ptula minor
L 4-0-45 cm tl6-lll) Ne" /<.11.11111'I""" 'Ulllllll In C'111lc.
w11h several record!. 1111 a111J \ I ~11111 I Mohl hk"I)' n,..,,
colonies of Humlr<tlJ1 l'"11i11111 1111 ' 111 IC \I IO'-' fh
rmalles.1 pengwn Brit '"''II 1111d 111111 Ill .,, 1 " " ' " ' 111..11
he/cJ,. wuhpal<'n. s~r-" it"'" h;;t"'n 111IJ1~tt urrcrJ'llrl' "'"'
"'h11c ~ inw ~"' 1 llli: '"'ll Ju:rll) '"""'""II nn
unm. Splwni<ob I"'"&"'" but IWI hlUC1'fC} rlum:igc: Alll.l
, lJll "*"' 11r1VoJt mul bmh I I tt llr l'rnguin
Adelie Penguin PingUino de Adelia
Pygoscelis adeliae ANT, SC
I O 111 I l ~ 11 M.u11o<', p.:lag, rc,1n.:1cJ II> \n1.1n:lr. l 70-71cm127.S 28"1. Stnctl) "'111~r.11c, unl.nn"n lrorn
nol t p.1L\ Sclol,n1 lc1nd ,....,, frnm 1u ''>I
Cp.-.:tcd mainbnd.. A food spcc1ahs1 , fora11n8 wrcly on knll,<h
111 ll1411tl.and < 1111 Brtt.b 1n ,.,n1..-r 1\1ar lkq e>n
Conttntratc aroomd ice: al> r.-c ""'" rclrch due: to ~hm:uo~
111< uh I>.;, I ti> 10' rt l'I(' \TIO' Tlr. larJ:cfl change. this pen;,'Ulll ~ ran1.: ha,, l'\:tra..'1cJ 50u1h 1n th< .\nw.:11,
It l'llfu/b11l1;r p.,.,, .,.J. Jc.:unC'll btll ..11h r ,,~ po1d1 Peninsul:.. and II.lo porulation h~ J<-:rcucJ there Summer
In I ll0011um1 Oarl<&r~\ abo\c, hole bcl""' Blad, breeder (Oct- Fcbl i;.:ncrall) 111<>uh< un cc n~, ffcl> \fMI
;J Ill dlo <J<Unj;... ""l<:h bch1nJ C'JfCO\Cfh n,,J'llttJi IDE..'\JJFICA110' " m1J-,11cJ ~n1uin lona-fa.;cd hut
, nJ I wid und "'11" d1ff"-<" <"f c ,.,,,.,.. 11 .,,. "g,.., n:nher shon-b1/led Cru"n flat, hur ma~ h1he d11111U/11(" I" aA
It ll>Q the 1>111\.k hM that beJtn' 11 lh.: Otl'f"'f anJ
on rearl"t'O"n Small oranC boll \lo 1th tiarl.1cmunal marling
1 I r 111 ~ u/ '~" bflC1l\t. tlldtnJ: 111 a ''""' pur that Black alx"e and "hllc bcln\\, ,.,th blc~ lhrt>.ll a.nd upp.r
1 If , /J 1/t " " 4 r.1tc It hu.- tt Ml'o't th1 for, aI 8=;1 breasL Mo~/ ob111111 " "hm !l1b11ul rmg. \1>1blc ~I stmc
" 11..1 I' 11, 1 .:Ito" S11c: alone i helpful 111 'cpar:urng lrom di~tance and ghcs 'JlCllC' a 4u1u1c.1I h'flk , ln1111. ~1mll.11 111
I 111 1'111f111111tuu11d forohcr n11nh) hut 1hc honer m1irc cur~cd ad. but has" hilo 1hro:i1.
11111 1l.11~r1 11111xrJlllth nnd doOcrcntly cunfigurcd neck pn1ch
'" il11111111h11r h111ioror hu~ les~ while on 1hc 11111.lcritlo nl 1hc Chinstrap Penguin PingUino a ntdrtico
ll1111w1, 1h1111 K11111. lmrn . En1pcror ~11nilnr 111 ud.. hul lncks
H 11.,,. 111t'k 11o11Ch nnd hnK n p11lc: 1hrn:11. S1ruc:1urc cpnrntc:s
Pygoscelis antarctica ANT, SC
lro111 1111111 1\1111. ~111 alw note: brumlcr whl1c: nee~ IMldt und L 68- 76 cm (27- 30"). Mnrrn~. pclu111c, ubuntarcltc hut nl~11
11111 1111111 l\1n11 h.1 u 1hrn;11 occurs on Antarctic Pc:ninul,1 'iummer br1mkr INo>~ \11,orJ.
moulis Feb-Mu. One n:curd rt1>rn i.t~ Nuc\u ('1(11 Region)
Ko1i; Pe nguin PingUino rey IOE:\'TITICATIO' \hJ-\INll p.ngmn, ,h:ipc '' \tkloc IM
A11tModytes patagonica FLK, SC noticeably looger bill ,itJpcJ Irk.: rnng lno re and cn11rcl)
L II< 'I~ cm (H P' 1 \bnnc, pelagic blade. Bfaclabocand "hate bclo11 ff1t111 /okc11..Jd1u1111Hl1
Prt>bhl) m<>rc regular on ou1hct11mo,1 hluct drinstrap /111c jrt>nt .,,Jtrm ~ 111 tltmat Bl.kl ur b.J.: k
(hole " L!kl\lon lnJl\1d11;1" rq1uLtrl) cM<nds as fOWkkd ,. cde on btt'llSt-'$td...,. "ransc c~ e
tome 'horc to moull on lhc m1nt.nd Ad. C!Silyconfu>CJ "''th omm Alkloc at J<a. but" hnc ""~;
1'1n11111 \IJ~clLan areal lnd1Hdwtl brttd abo'c eye on Cbtru.1r.rp ~nJ boll no11cc:ibly lnllf'r. ''"l"""C
differentjizz. Imm. hk~ad but h:a.' reduced \\hlleM fa.:educ Gentoo adult
"'-Ctn thrtt )'an. ii. llo.hnf qdc IXCU
pl('< ihnoI a )CAllr. \11JUlb ~ f ch. 1mm, 10 'ehinstl'llj>" line bcm@ niore 111 Jch"'J "nd flr""kr
nol U1110.:.c:nf11I ~re Jc" c;arhcr 1n thi, l"'nuJ '01 improbable
1lu1IIhrttJ,111 (hale Of\ 111' 1(' \ TIO' \huge penguin Snowy (American) Sheathbill
'"llh o l'f1t harrl> f't>1n1cJ h1/l 1fcwra1. tf /. u lvitht "''"'le" Paloma ant.irtic.a
""ill tr1p. 1,1cyah.t1caud\rohllcbc1Q" . Blad~wnlr."1\
lh11/ It ulOl'UW1t<'dpalrh /f{tprJ/Jl.t'u~ 11p11JNl1mn
Chionis alba ANT, FLK, SC
1 Inv upo runvtg j<1n+an/ w1t'Ur<b 111'CI The orange
I lol Ille llC'C~ nJ l><.'\:Olll<'> p;ilcr 111\J )~llo\lo(f tn,.arJ Adelie Penguin
It !A '""Y'l<YA 1idt!.t'.t111d/<>,...artlua f'ltruflnmt
In (mn/ Imm h.i1 "'""' l."-"tk.T.ll J"lll'111 I aJ htu l<J111ial
u 1 t I 111 I; anJ nL p;tlch "hlll\ll \\Uh onl) 1 hin1 of
II \\
.011100 11r
11111 I rnp1:r11 l'eni.:urn fur ..:pMu1111n

nguin P1ngUino papua

L.,__ - --
' *" Htnc rnam-

chunk .. ~ur /11,/ 1 11 IL wmc .. hut

upnght. an.I " 11 ul 11111 11ull H1ht
strong on pointed \\ing' / 111/11 /1 11 /1111 1111// 1111A /(I( 1 111111
ANT, FLK, SC .1ellowisll bill with darA 1111.
I 71 )O cm (29.S 35.4"!. A h11h11n1 nnd
hrn l ~11111111li sl 11mo11g l'yi;tu<'l'i/." 1H11nbcr~
"' 1111 '"''""ItSlimincrhrc:cdrr(Scp Mor).
Chinstra p Pe nguin
111111111 1i.1 Mor Ncur1 hrcatcnctl IDENTl-
1 II \ 1111"1 I 11t~cr mhcr f'1g1J>ul/.>
11111h 1lh J /rin~ '"'"'>I'
ht// an.I .lar4
"' ,, ,,,,./''I' lh:.aJ h,ng. "llh rounded
ti hn lhrt 11 11.J .,,,,,.,1, rc't of unJcrp3rt'
A '"" "-"" "' ,,, n, (/d. 'ltc.vd-.
\ 1 11 ;unuun1 of \\l111c r~hn& on

In ' ' 11111< h lilt' nJ , b111 111:..v 1i;a, c

I II 111 h;ll c.olcour ~a.lph.>P<"s' m.&)
Snowy Shuthb1ll
Kt>d I lll'd lrop1cb ird Masked Booby Piquero blanco
Av 1lcl lro p1c.o de cola roja Sula dactylatra TX#14
/'l1arll11111 rubricauda l. 81-9~ an (3:!- 36"1 \\ 15:! cm 1t.J>1 TM coomwn brttd111g
I tnt11 j\\ IO t \ J, IJ< ~l'f,a1"'1LlyG0mu booby at Sala } Gomez I alw br<edt "" I ~ I and 1n
I ;n I~ I llH' llfl( \110\ 1,,..lart'lllropubird DcS\"ennaadats. \"isnor10Rooin onC-ru ~1 .,.,.,11irmcd
II ill) l11ol1111: p.1 11,.J 1n the licld Slt><ly appearance from die Chilean mainl.1nd 101:." 11-1(' \ 110' r"' lugc\I
1 111 tal In <h n.' nu/.,,...,,,.,.,., "h1Ch illl: no11<:cably booby. Siad) and bca' )-boJ1cd .4 .. "''' ., ,,1r """''"""g
Ii no th11 lht' 1~..i, length fJ "'" '"' bill an.I ,...4 101/ />lad.: jliglu femhen and tail Tm/ unJ tc-r/luf\ "''"" , /ol.,, l
lft'hm '' 1'111"'"''11oflu,,hft n tltt '"' tfr whll~ "'"'''and !see whire Red-fooled Booby> n11c 1>111 I"< 1/1111, con1rut1n
"'"Jl' "h1d1 ID<k h111d. urr-:rwin~ P'lch, he prmlllrtC hcing "ith dark facial skin around ycllo\\ c)c. JU\ l>ro" nl'h, 111d11d jlMftlle
'" 1l.c11 1!.11l <!re:~ .11 tnU\l, 11111 lonntn~ a bnld pn1ch Bod> mg bead and neck. and whnc bchw. '""" con11rn<>1I' I~\\ hilt.'
"11111 '" c '""w dork mer1,, on 1rninlH, Nearly while neck collar separating dar~ bnck unJ hru" n head. l>uc 10 dc.11
"l'I """' '"II' 1fo1g11ut1c. Juv. b;1ncc.I ulwvc 11kc 01hcr 1rc1111cb1rds. division between darl. hcod aml while 1111dc11mrl<. c1111 ~c
11,,. .1d.trl lull wil h 11 ycll111v ba~c, wluch Dc41omcs yel ltlwcr
11 ll111nhh'1. l.otk 11fs1run(I. block pnl~h 1111 prim11rlc~ dls11nc1l vc,
111111 111.-J.. 111 hli1ck 11111ch 011 11rc111cr prl1m1ry-covc1ts ,cr nn11os
11 ..111 ll.c<I h1llc'I I ropkoinl
con fused with Brown Booby. Note Ihut the du1l./lighl hun,i1inn
onjuv. Masked Booby is 011 lhu neck. while M Hmw11 it occurs
on line across brc~sl lo lcnc.li1111 et11:1c of wln11. Mu)' ulMl be
confused wi1h juv. Blue-fooled Dooby. b111 l11 11cr hu~ whhu .11
<lw({ \"-
base of iail. on rump and as an bulnlcd pntch 1111 rcur neck (mll Whit tlld
Red billed Tropicbird a collar). Masked has whi1er undcrn '"' cx1cmlm1o1 hi 1hc under Tropicblrd
Ave del tr6pico de pico rojo pcimary-covens.
Ph,1ethon aethereus
I Is"" 1w1 \\. 105 cm 1-11 1 lh~ mo.1
Red-footed Booby Piquero de patas rojas
~'""'"'lfl 1mp<cborJ in Cn1le1u1"l<1'.1 "n;all
Sula sula
,,,lony " ri~n1 on <halbral I 1Ill Rea1on1 L 66-~cm 116-30") \\ 91 IQI 'm (lf> -111) One rc.:0<J, u1
1110."1 \pr Rc~larly cnc<>u~-n:J in :mn- $313 yGOincz I. lDE,TIFIC \TIO ' The ~!IN booby. ..i1m
Cf ~t.:r,.. otrr.borc- from Uf1 hr. """' 111 and muil-be:idcd \\lib a mall h ii ,, .,.,. Fat \11n:llkln 1n
Ilic r \bsnll from S p f ~~ lhc pluma!'C wnb lut~b w and curL adt Ill oJ, Aa1r
.. I t or~buds ran;c IOf YJ IFtC \ - grry 1>1/ls lritlr purki>lt fllJ. onJ retl /<'t:I. Ju\ oil d.Ji1' anJ
110 ' ' 1lkr and shshch , ,,.. >Cl" 1 3n m:J) ~ Btmtn Boob}. bu1 note onullcr uc llnd t..l of
tcJ "1Tnip1,buJ.bulbq:c1..,.Jb\...l..1er dlisioft bcNtto cbr\;cr bead and bf-t'a'1 and paler undcrp.111>
llw> \\ 'hitc-U1Jc:d IrgpicotrJ Ad ba rrd bill mu/Jinrli-borrwl Jui. Red-fOOled Illa} -i.o,. du\; ~~and "~O.lcd
"PP"f'ilrl' The onl) tror1cbird 1ha1 rt1.a1ni hamn; on paler bron ab<n c. DOI -.olid bro10 n lilc Bt1nu1 Bootl) Brl/1
111'"1',," 1n lkl.. plUlll.1~ s''"' Jul nv l.. f<)elinc1 i:. Joag pdler dttm nd~,...flt.s:.
nl Uri> urward;. 10 n.:1rc. l.uFJ:<' blo. 1,,.,,, It 01t ouru 1~.
(1111<"1 Jlllm.:mn a..r~el~ hlacl. , kn kl Oii mcJl~ll J'lllll1J,<nc<;, Brown Booby Piquero c.afe
hutrh. >n/J tn11ich11J "ulr l.irxdJ hl11c! P"'""'}'<muh Tail Sula leucogaster
1rtw1<1 "hitc khrr\l~rnvtch lonr .. hc>J) . Ju, , rm1lar
L 64-74 cm (25-29"1 \\. 132 l~O cm I'' ~11 I \act
11 '"" 1 11v11<h11J,, hare larj?t nlllunl of 1>1.1,1.. on ou1cr
distribuuon and OCCWTcncc ob,<llfO: If,,. h"<ll rr<11~J fr<1rn
1111111111 "'11h \\Inf< 11111,d hul -.c1;aro1I from laucr b)' ln~t>r
c03'>131 Chile. but m1~idcnt1ficnt11t11 !""""''' I Ill N I I I I( A-
I 11111 (\h '"I\' hl.1tl..11n 11rc.ncr p111nary-co\lmN. Funhcr- TION A medium-sized booby th111 "111111<' l1~1 l y llCHI CO/hi
11111v lld ni. ~ '"' lktl hilled ex1enil~ 10 nnpc. crea11ng
1han 1he more pelagic Rctlhlnttl '" t.h.-kc<I lloohic . M
oh 11 111 111 11 11 I 1111111 h11 has yell owish hill with hlack lip.
brown above and 0 11 ncrk h111 /1111 111r11,. 11111/1111111111, /)11i.1/r111
Wlill t l11ll1cl lloplcblrd between dark bret1st 011d wlil/1 11111/,111111/1 t r/1/11111d 11l lt11/ I!(
leading edge of wings 111.fU11;h1 I lt11l1hh ul 1111111 wl1111 whli ll
Avi rl11l l111pl111 cl1 tola blanca with dark ulnar stripe. rlil l 111111 ~vc~ 11111111 I 111111k 1111< d111k
l 1/1.1r'l/11Uf /r/11111 II\ loral spot and yellow foe<". t1111l 11111 It 111t1<') 1.1.i I c11ydlo11 i~h
I Juv. brown on belly. but tlMlm tly p.1kr 1h.111 1wd.d1rc;i.t 1111d
has demarca1ion ltnc . .i~ on u1I I 1111. t" 1111 w111t1l'll1t1&I)' p11ler
llllln body, unltkcJU' lkl lu.ito:I
l'l At I 11 l\1111l11t\, 111. 11 I 11g.1lc bird a nd Peruvian Pelican
I ill 1ftl 1.. 1111111 "' IJ1 (' <' ol111t ht<h look pomt.:J at both ends due 101hc1r ,1ou1, 'h.irp ton9'JI b1l1' nnd pumlcd
I . 1 t II It 11 " 11 Ill 1111leI 111111~1~ a11hc 'wn~1 Om:ct Strong llight on qwtl \\tn11bcai- 1' mt<"J"'Nd "''h lllUth Peruvian Booby
II ) 1. 1 by l'luntt "'""K 111 ~" PllJ!lc. I n11a1cbirds (freg;atidae) are wun1siabblc. huge. hhm. <'trcn1cly hnll" mrcJ
1 1111 11 tar c li~lc:d ~unJ tnn 11 hu..i.-urrcJ bill' The) arecoastalo.-pelagicbu1 canno. '"'1m.1h9 uRC'll klcrh("lt11u1roc
t ud< ahlk:JUJh rl.I) tn m.inl> ,,,. O)mJ li<h offshore. Pelicans (Pclccanubcl arc ,.cllLrk>"n b1rJ, .. uh lure 1>111,
JI I t

P1qucro booli;cd at tip. Sexuall)< dimorpluc. oJ _,., .-11111rl1 hi.,, A.. 11Jr
brok71er pmid 01t -..1ng-co1utJ L~ t<J, donn& d"pl~
C"<Pfnds bri~ red throat ,a, , fJ }C'mal" blfl<4 J..,.A /trod
I 7-1 cm (2Yt \\ ISO cm IS'l"j.
CINIIn1.fiiJrg itlt puler tlrrou1 a..J du, /wrau Ulx I.. ..r !1(-11~
The' Hmmi>n and tdcprcad
~ 10 lowerbttast h toneuc aloog m1Jl11~. ~Pini,. h1tc
buol>} 1n ( hole ,\II <>her
an: coil,cr ran:' l"C>lnIN 111 olT- of undcqmt$ into an io'crtcd U. Ju\ lu (t11\llc. but
i.borc 1 lnJ. Abun.J.tn1 us cold
,.hilC ccmre to beUy. C'ltetld1ng 3> put to \lllJttn. ;,,, ""' ( um:nt '"1lh:rs.oftcn 1n
cinltQJllOlf kt!ad. lt1clr Jvc,,,,,,.
p<1f,r ,.,,. Ill( '\ ~1da1cJ Blue-footed Booby
plumage changes complex. tMrc ap('<ar tu be three plun1;11c
hu11c lora11n noel Breed~
s1agcs afltrtbc Jui. bcfll<C ad plum.1gc ac.1u1rcJ \cry >1n11lar
tOln1o1lly (SU.100 ptCIC.) Pop-
Mal!mfirent Frig:iu:bird ha.> been rcroncJ ln>m t h1lc, but hJ,
ulJhlln hill> ou1h 1n 11 Ninos.
IOf;:0-11 Fl C \TIO~ I\ mcd1um-11cJ hooby sh11wmg 1yp1cal
DOI been confirmed. Ad. male> can be \Cf>Jr.ilcd "uh cJrc. nm~
the pink feet of Grc:ner rJthcr 1hon t)tC)' of Md11111 ncc111 1111d
po111tcd 01 bo1h end> .iru~1urc It/ 11/t111hr111ll'll 11nll .,,Jri1e
pale bar oD of Greater which" lackm on Mn11111
hdm !lack an1I w11111 duri. , 1h" /111d 11111/ n11"1:rt11/ppc1/ "-/1i1e
t1w11111g 11 l't11/1d fl<ll/~111 11/11111" Hnc whi1l~h cu l1111: 11ivcs
ficcnt. Mos male Greater J><lS>CM 110111c p~ lc 11~111101111111on1hc
axillnries. Ad. female M113n1ficcn1 hu u hind., thr11111, hlw
lbrcwings a Ri lvcry n11pcnrnncc liul dnrk w11h pole busc. Legs
bluc-groy. Oi/l hl111-1:ve.1\ 1011tn1.1l11M 111/1/1 b/11ckl<h Jiwi11/ ski11 orbital ring and 1i nurrowcr, mOl'c 1101111 od hluok be lly 1111tch.
t1111l 111/11111 el'I', JIJv, ~i1111J11r hut s1wc~ lcd yollowl ~h-brown on Juv. Magnificent differs from Cir(ulcr 111 lho bluo l'ccl 1111<11110111
diamond-shaped whi1c bel ly pu1cl1, nud uc~cr h11~ cl11nn111nn
untl~rpo11s ond neck, MOsl "1111lor Ill Oluc f'outcd Booby. head colour.
Great Frigatebird
Itm1cwr Pcn1vinn m 11ll .1l!C\ l1111Hlark rump. 1'111 1hcrmt1n.\ uds.
h;11c un,1rcakcd hc3d~ und n <h1t kcr, more t1>n1mi.1lng race.
Peruvian has wh11e ,cal111g' 1111 up1K:rpnm nnt.1 "'F' more Per uvia n Pelican Pelkano
e\le1h"C and nu11cc.1blc 1l>1n un Uluc-r1Kllc:d l1cru1 ian always Pelecanus t.hagus
ha' grc~ 1>h leg' L I Sl cm lbO"I \\ 22K cm C'lll"I
The 0111) rcl"un 1n Chik l bi
Blue-footed Booby Piquero de patas azules qu1hUU"1 ~ ultd ( coa-1, l"l
Sula n~bouxii pclaa1~ , man> .,01 fr.m horc
t llc.ntll I ~ 15:!cm1N> I \r"1'C\l,1lorh1nocthnnmost
Breed> 1n la~ col>1111 m C h1lc
l lulc f.t l1ld) 10 oc .- J1n11.111 '11\0 )Ul'I. udjUH. or al'ld Peru (J.'Wn<> '1'"'''lyp1.:al
p<:c1u 11( llumbohh <. "rrc111
1num uw;ilh '"''"'~-.! IOF'' f 111( \ 110 ' \ ll"N~
zone IOF',TIUC \110' llu1c
hlJOb>, >m1lar 1n~1..,.. io p.-nn...n 41 f J1 '""'"~ A)
N...,.fttr l11dtd1.v.t .. 1111,.,.,.r.... 1>n... ,,.,,......L..,
l!nJnp.ub bull) -c..ob1rd "''h bf'" .J ""IV
and s1one.:1 ,.iagtrJK Often 01c. 1n k>nJ!. ''"'"h 1MKlo1l.11nJ
..1111e Bm;o o} rd "'"'" Olld wu1,y11A;oJ contra"/"&'"'" lilacs \' fom13tion on ICWI but ~, "'mgl-ch f ccd b\ adult male
, W lu-11J 11"'1 bn>-.wltlr had tltc bfu,. "'llB> do llOI
plungc-di,ing. somrt~ from 1:<>M1J..ubk hc1a,ht Tip1rol
IKJ'A lbc J(llS( ,. h11c ,..,..11ng (11ppmg1 of Pcru\ ~. tM.1
,, "' !'111311 llJld h;l(I. llllt'11ll'1\C111>111(' hllc 11pp1ng. ero.. n
pel1ca" bill.,.-;,,. largeguwr IX*'",.,... ,
nea ..-lien perclrl!d. On land, bull) boJ, nJ a11L1.1~rJ ,
llJ'I n1 111 Utlor1cl"il'tin "'"''""'"'f'/'<J/1 It, IJ1I\ \\1th .. hue
I 1 11tl "1111"1 1c.lt1C l111t bluc-11rc)'. ~uh '1m1latl) some"' hat aprigln 5lallCC chan.:ter""' \11 ~I" U\ 1 k.i gre~
body including underpan.. 111~.\ .11111cly t.1.ut.. S1i>~n
, 1!0111 .t 111 \ I ( 11l ,k111 ,.,.J ycll111.1 C)C Ju. hn11.1n1<h ~th
uppen.-ings contra$/ hi/Ir darAcr Jltghl 1..11ha" 11111/ J111J..
I 11 r I i i~ \u11111111 ...1.,1. 'hm hllc nape p.:uch, o' "'ell as
rectangular patch 01 bo."' 11) 111111: In 111,-. 1h1111 plumuac ha
1 Ii "'"'I' '''''' h ..: p "'"" 1hcin tro111 P<n1vm.n and Other )Clio"' crown and, c"emhn11.11" 11 hll.- lrf1" Cn lront of
neck Nape and back of net~ hh11 ~ lh h111wn 11111 n1lt111r1
it11ensifj1 IQ yellow b(ISI' 011,/ ,,.,li/l.1h rr.111~1 1/11 ll'llh 11 b/u, Peruvian Pe lican
gul/Jr pouch. Non-breeder> h11w p11k1 hill u111I li11 11"lv white
head and neck, some nlo lunk111v wl1111~h 1111 Hl'll''' h11~~ n11d
upper breast. Ma1urat i(lll 11V1'1 """ y1111N, 1111 , (lirHI yc.111 )
brownish with white hcl lv ,uul ~f~ hill I 111i111wl1111 dln~rH Juvenile
from ad. in that i1 ha> u p.111 '" '''""' 'il'l1111l)'\'li" have
a darkerbcUy. but arc hn11111<11ho111.11I 111111 d11lk1 bill colour~
a nd a weaker head l'llt111 111.110 111 lh11 w11 l'cll\'.111 I'
ocddentoltSn:ac~' 1111c111 '"'"' 1111~m>111111l lute II 1~ 1nud1
~mallc.-. d:ltLcr lwd1l 11,, 1 , .,1,11 h I'"'" h .inti ~d" latL
contnbftngdarl p.i1d1 '"' tllll( \\111 ~
l'I Al I IH: ( ui m m .mt ~
Med-legged Cormorant Gu.may Coe"'"' 111
1111111 1l'l11l11 1"' ,.ru,11l.1c1 u11 dtllnc111c. lal'{lc, long-nccltcd and long-bod1cd s.:ub1rd. with IMti. Ihm. blun1-1111pcd bill,
1'I toloe.1 1, 1 ..111. P"~C ar.- ~n11wn as lti~ Bn:cd colonially.
Mt-cl legged Cormorant Lile bea>ming buffy or cco "hllllh on nc.L and 1hr<>;11, 8111 ma)
l'h11l.1crocor11X gaimilrdl be ycUo,.isb or doll oran11e ""h dan. cul men and 11p
l 1to en\ 00 1 \lann<" . 1'01
pcltf<:. n:m.11n1ng d.-1oshore Rock Cormorant (Magellan Co,.morant)
B~ 1n lo.~ coloru~ or1 chili. de las Rocas
tlin clotc 1<1,.111tt, ll.>U&ll) smgl). Pharacrocorax mage/lanicus FU<
M- ...., no.:J.. "= T1un1tlll:d
110.0011 2~.000 1nd,.1duals).
l 66 a"I (2b I \I 1t1r.. Ctlf'mOfaJll of cold.
101 ' f l t IC \00' A ,Jun md
J>&tJbo111n '""ct< I ..i 1n mull n.,. i...
oral.- brJ,cnlw !ly<ltHUCL) d11T1
ill'lall ,..,..onnt Grc1 ,. nh an
ID' Tl H C \Tl()' \ mall .and .hm
,.,..,,,,,. 1<J11nltJ'l'l<lt<11ltt'n.ct-
ronnoran1 v.11h a lc-iJer ltL'< l and thin btll
siJc Grey UJ'l'Cr anJ un.k-rpan1, and huv.1 ttmigcs
IQ 01glu Grey ~11), /tUh tclu/c u11./rrpdrtt ormo.1 Chil~ B/.,r4 "''"a""''" /v//1 ,,,,. "'"'' t>} lh<'
11t'd it rlt-ar/1 d~,_.,,. atrJ t>n tltl' ,.,...,,_,,.
connuranl~ 811/ l>ri11h11-r//1>11 1<11/t 11 ''"' /lu14", Rl"ll lf1:s J1ag-
St:f'l'NllllJ>: ii '"'"' tlw 1111111' /Jt'//1 I
nQ.111c When '"''""mna, v.h1lih nc.:J. patch 1s v1.1blc and.
mcludm11 forched. red Durina hrct'dm11
g1cn a good \1<:11.. 1he ttd .1nd-)cllow boll No other Chilean
season has a 11hi1e pmch 011 <'Jr-011..-r/\ One pl11nia11c v.1nan1
connor:1n1 Is la~cl)' 1,ttt)'. and ull except Neo1rop1c and juv.
has a white throat. and ano1hcr clcnl\c wh11c 1hn1 c11n1m11c
Roel. ha'"" h11c on 1hc uo11k:rp.1n1. Imm 111mllar 10 od. but l>Jrc- to the upper neck: (most pre' alcnl 1n lhe I nlkl1111(b) Nole thlll
pan coloun1 duller nnd 11rcy body 11l11111n11c n111y be wo~hcd buff.
some individuals are dark-eyed, while 111hcni hnvc whh 1sh C)IC$
(again more in the Falkland~). When 8win1111ln11. no while on
Guanay Cormorant Guanay neck is visible, Much larger (lunnny t'11rmoir111t iK ~i1111lnr, 0111
Pha/acrocorax bougalnvll/ii allopalric tsce lhal specie~ for ~cpnrnhon), Juv, dnrk brown,
L 7<i cm (JO"). Mml11c, 1y1lico l of the llum- lacking white on 11ndcrpa11~. nnd c1111ld he con l'u~cd with
h<lldt C11rr.:111, u aunno ~pcclc>. Can be higJ1ly Neotropic Connorant, b111 Rook IM smnllcr. ~llmmcr, ha, u Rock Cormorant
l pclOjlic. rorlllllfll! OlllO)I km from shore in
deep w111cr C'nlonrnl, 1n 1mrncn;e, dense
colun1e on tlJI 1~lnnd, Uually m Oocb.
straight neck in fiigh1, and n dull redd1~h focc A11c~ over n1
f;,ast two years. thus while develop rml~hI)' on 1hc undcrpJn

101'1\ rlH CA"l 101\ A 1'1rgc bull) c<>nnor- Imperial Cormora nt (Imperial Shag)
~nl'. Jb." ~ und "hue beta-. n hue on Cormoran imperial
hrrul 1<1/,. r. /1> u f'<>llf/ Ulf '"'cl Rn/ fVlch Phalacrocorax atriceps TX#lS, FLK
uro1J11J n '" hut f<wh .ul Noel The small
"hne f'llch t> K"ld.>m \&Ible tn the field. When ~,m l 72 an 1211 I MJnnc cold,
mtng. lool.. bl3d ""h ml~.,.,..,,, J, anJ ,m.tJI am.xint oflt/uu .. a1en. BreeJ 1n l1r1e colonic. oo Oat
rlJ1b/C' un tJuo lot1~r lfir4 DffJ 4tJ l/t~ MOfffll~ " t/t;: />rr.zs/_ ,. i,Jand. Oflrn1nOud 1Df,Tlrl(\-
Y.-h>IC ~lb aod ml ~e !"Ith .q..uau: lrom ~~mpamc Tl0' Al.lfl<'*lh rr>n<'Orullt ''~ rorJ.
brood ,.,,.~, Black abo e dnd ,,,.,.,..,,,
kaS kggC\I arid ~cocroric cormnrant ~o oC1Up11h Roct
Sb.1s. IMJl lhb $UWW Jf'CCICli I> wn.tlkr. bu In ftll1ROI) blade "'""t be..,,.11"'1 "If ~nt1n>jor~MrA ltttd
hrr ii reJ orra..~ e1nid1113 k> forchrad. anJ a l11rc fatt pmcb throat .\d b.u)cllu,.1sllnn"1deun lroot
In the linTdln ~'Cl Ju\ anJ 1mm tiu.aNt~ Cormonmb lil:c of C)t' and .,,;J blwormtoJf rmg. I unhcf.
ii bul llrl1111h-l>l.i.:I; rJlhct than, anJ ha\e a pale more. brttJ1ng ad "- crn1 h<"e C)e
ru Variable. wilh nr.o fornh fOWld 1n C111k lhe ll!Qfl' llC.,,hem,
,.=em and 11idcspiead fonn. Bl~<)ed l"1lk<t1n1. 11.1, "hue
N 1111h lJllt Cormorant Yeco oflhroat e..-ru-nd:ing behind c~c: abur lc\cl 1\f aupc, anJ lu
v.~1e patch on bacl ,.hrn brced1nc More aleil)' (A1lan11c)
l'/1 1/,11 t 11 m '"
br,uilianus King Connorant has wh11e of 1hr031 11111 c\lcndina ni..1, c le' cl
I ~M 71 cm (2.1 21>").1\qualic but ofgape and lacks whnc bJck patch. Imm brown .. h. lnckt wh11e
11111 II 1clly munne. common tn- bar oo coverts and facial ornamcntauun 11ft1.. I y11I'
1111111 u11tl 1111 fresh wn1cr. Breeds 11111 1.. ,11llng
rnl1111111l ly In lurgc trees usually Antarctic Cormorant (Antarct ic Shng)
111 ;l1lr w11111ho1l1ci. F'ound In Cormoran antartico
ll1to ~ 111 11lo111~ IJ11 llkc 01hcr Chil-
111 111111111.1111. tfkn Illes high
Phalacrocorax brans fieldensls TX# 16, ANT
du,,~ wuh.'' u111I u\IL'tlnntl Ti1': L 77 cm (30"). Marine. res1ric1~d 111 A11rn11'llL f'c11l1i.i1ln, Smtih
Orkneys. South She1lnnd~ Cle. i\111111.11111 wnh l1111<'1i11l ond
Sou1b Georgia Connoranl (111.111 I\) In lll'hJ 111mllar 10
Imperial (Blue-eyed) Cun1111run1 11111 u1h,1111111 1lly ltuver nnd
ha more" hue on lace
l'I All

t I- II oltt 1 , l.11 c t11~l11lcl b"'h related 10 the 0Strich Strothio camelu< and l mu Drom1111" 11111od111/111n.Jia
I 1hl111111 1 th~t 1111.11111111 I I 111,umdJcl belong \\ttbon this general groupmg. Rhn arc laf'Ct' ind luc trons. po"ct1 ul
an 11111 quote ~I I hrn nc, k- arc long but they arc ;,mall-beaded. \\1th small ch1ckcn-hLc l11f, Their leather ar
Darwin's Rhea
"" 111trol I h k111g the'"'"'' l~t bind fcathcn together and tbercforcappearinort tile fur than fcathcn Rhca1 luc thm:
d plnllf\l too, :anJ .iron~ 111rd) fen There u no' 1s1blc 1111 and the" mp. while reduced. arc ><ell fea1hcrc.l and can he
1 11 t I to help l'fakc the birJ ''' a<i1'1 II male hMp tw1i.- The Lesstt llbca poup oo:urs 1n C111lc. ,.both 1> often treated a
I I'\ o Nit here con1dcttJ .u '"o (.cc Tuonom1c l\otrs). In ibeas the mal~ perform chc 1ncublo11t>11 duhc. and tend ti
"' llJ St'\ cul troulc. ma la) tUJ "' lhc no1 or a ~tngk maL:: Tbc young .,., ~"' but -toll mall m.>Ugh IO be
rnual pte\ ''" m.1n~ ipc~~ Male. cuarJ !he Slnpcd )OUDg until lhcy are sufficiently LvJc Lo cffccmdy e\\.'ap.: prcJat,on,
I lu111!1on 1~Lcs s.:cr:d )CAn and 11 roorl> wi.krstood. Yowigcr birds (Ju\'? ) ace dari.e<1 btown. older uoo Cl'C>" Onlv full
I I ~,(1,.h11C feather llp> ScC>fli (C1eon1cbc) arc not d~ly related IO rhea-<. being more ~lo>ely refaced tu :\c
\\ I I 1ul1111co 1C411wl1iJae) ttnJ hero~ (Ank1.bc} Tbcy ~large. long-~ lons-ncd,cd bm!. v.nb 1h1d. uni) l>ilh
I n J 1ori ~1crtaccJ on 1hc l>.tmc pl~le due to tbe1rsharcd large size rather than lift) real re>embf;ina ordo.c: rcla11ooh1,
l>.t1wm's Rhea Nandu 1mmcd1atcly behind the base of the necl While wh11c 11p111ns
l'lr1 ornt>mia pennata TX# 18 is prescn1 on the rc:tt of tile Lrt . 11 "much le" f"Om111en
Like Dar.. ms Rhea. 1he frPnl of the IM\I ho r.:11~ul"1c (jr~n
I 92 100 cm t36 W") A common spccu:s
ular)scutesat lbc ba5e.11nd rc"lllnllular 1nn"cr-c -..;UIC't near"
ol fVll ') Pa11tgon1an \ttppe "1th ~tered
1be foot. Howeer, Puna Rhea hA\ 0<11) 8 101mn~cr.c ~ute
$hrub~ Often fom11c> "11b flocks or
roughly half1he numti.,,rofDarwm '' Rhc" VO i t Unlo.nown
or somcumc w11h Ouan~co~ l\a11ve 101hc
presumably simolur 10 Darwin's Rhea
ma on lnnd. 11 hus been onirooured 111 ricm1
<lei hc110. \I here Ii~ CIJIT~n MBIU\ IS un-
clcor 0 6()0 Ill, u~1rnl l y Ill flocks of 2-.30: Maguari Stork Pillo
olnrlll)! lm1mcr 11 is nm unu,ual 10 find single mnlc~ Jl1cndong Euxenura maguari
'""'Y~ 1f1o1n11ll chock~. NcnrThrcntcncd. 11)1-:fll'f'IFICATIO L I Ill cm (43"). Vagmnl I litonc~lly a reguln viilor 10 ('hil~ Puna Rhea
l 1111111t.1~~.1ble in range. no l)lhcr /OIJ:I' .nl11h1/i:t landh1rd is from Argentina. frequen1in11 wc1ln11ds on 1hc cent ml ~one. muny
1..11111l 1hc1c. All ho) brown neck untl o~ck. hccnming (:n:y on of which arc now dra111<:J Ii lia' bc:cn uuc.1cd rhut ''' prc...:nc.
111r '"",kin' Thc.e grey fcothcra arc luog anJ plumc-hkc, m Chile "os linked 10 dr1>11ght' on A11:ent 1no Nt> rcccn1 n:porll
111111111~ 1110'1of1hc n.111k,, BorA and <CO/t11lur fi-01hcnfind1 Either the population that once 'mlcd ('l11lc 11 c~tup.1tcd
llf/ot: I 1111' lhr\c ltp~ l>t-com1111r lm11er luMcr dolln on I/ti' insufficient habna1 rtmam\ m 1hc country 11r 1hc prec1-c chmatt
J.'h 1 ft tll1<r1 trra111111 o "huefrillgt' ro tht' '1lurr Tbc strong cooditions tha1 fnrccd their ani\al ha\c not nee~ rc.;cnll
lrp 31(' IC411~cd In lhc hue or lhe ..,...U\ On Dar..10$ ~ ttistoncal rtCOrds "'ere maml} from V X Re91nn. \\1lh at lea
hf lromt of 1hc 1;in11c ha' unall rcuwlte -..;utes l'~lcs'I our one record m \upllann fC>Q~c tn dncr area adJa,cnl tc
the t<.<~. and lt>-.ltl lrall>cr.c r1&n11ubr ..:u1c oo tile fo,.cr largcman.hcs.somcumcsm ><ctl~nd. IOF'' l U IC \TIO'
n11r1111110 I cmalc hgb1ly mllllcr than male anJ sbo"s le... large d utL r.ort ~th Ma, l /o,...,. bu. 4 altJ fl1111t1 ftathrr
"ho IC lf'('tllnS <>n llrpcrpat\ C111ck a miniature \CISIOO ofad dorsal J:J appears bloct. t'U11tra1r111g """ '"'' "'"'"'' 1'cd
h1111.... iri>ngl) wi.,N no:cl 11nd hc'ad JU\ ~. but same"t.-u llDd bead ofien sumed buff or 1'1111) 0111IOftg.straight. 1h1, l Puna Rhea
mu Ila dw1 lld . v. 1th tc>hJ cl.rt.. bru"'11 UJ'l!CfPlll1S. no ~). and s!wply poinrtd. blutgm """ o mlJHlr lip . <Mall running
ornl l.irb 'l'<~tm11 As the Ul'f'Crpat1 (c.&thcr- ate >honer thaa rrtkf'ull ....,,t ~r till" 1rllm t')" Tail "hnc, hut OUtcr
LW1ild 1~ .. h11cbcll) 1upp.uentonJU Oldcr1mm. 1>11rular rec1nces blacl. manaular and pruN<k <>Ul\\ani.. &"118 the
1.. ,,,. hut '"'"'"lll<>fc grey on tn .. crurrcrran feather., "lu.:h r.ail an odd <bape. Lons rcJ I~ In ll1sh1, !he blad 01gh1
alet hihtly lnn~T nn J"' Allop111nc Puna Rhea differs 1n fealhcrs separate 11 from Cf"" ~nJ 1hc d.trk l>caJ aq>aratc>i
'"' 11 rnc p..1tcm, 11 Jll"l'l'll<lmlcl)' lk>ncr leg> anJ ad>- from Wood StarL \ OICE U.u.tlh ,,fcnt, II""" 1 t\1-0nolc
1 nd I hloc kn unccn "hlle border to the 'sl1n. VOICE whistle.
lo111t,d 1fcnt. but ch1d0> nl3~ 81\C Wft pecr1111 note~. Dunn&
hr 1111~ """"n. m~lc~ m.iy 111vc a scldom-ht:ird booming call Wood Stork CigUena de cabeza pelada Maguari Wood Stork
Myderia americana Stork
P1111.1 RheiJ Suri
l 107 cm (42"). V~nn1 rcc.,,.J.. I lr.1m S..nti.1110 ond Anca
l't11<>rn('m1i1 (p.) tarapacensis TX#18 Associated with wooded pond.,, .111d 111hcr ,1111-wulcr uqut111c
I 01\ r111 (37") Uncommon 10 rare, declining. habita1s. IDENTIFICATIO' A \\hltc lllrk. ~h11wmg hut.
H(t11.i,1I 111 oh1plano llm~lnnds nnd shrubby black on lhe p1>;1e1101 nrc11s or th.- holly wl11lc ul rcs1. /I///
111111 \p1w11r. 10 prefer nu1 nr.:n.s with some wet l>/ackish, tltidrnntl dtrHJpN.l 111 lhl' If/, t1111lu11111h111ofun1b1>
1011111 .. ~ hn1,dotc~ nr ct111c~ <lrlnrgc1 lakes. ChJle bu1 broader based. lll'/11/ 1111tf tit' ( 1111/1u11/11111/ hltttk wi//1 u
I1111111111 11 'lr11n111Xlp11ln1ion oflhlupccic:s. which bare area 011 the fol"l'ltcad I c~ hf,1ck, l<c )Clhw1~h T11<
'" rl 11...-11 .-.crdy in nc1ghbo11rmg 51a1cs. 3500 naked head separates i1 from CjlNi< VOi( I"Silcm, Ofl 11runh
I Hit 111 Nr 11 l hr.:Jlcncd IOt~NTI FIC TION
I lo 001ly /111 //1~lol/1"1f h11J in II range, thus
rn11111 ta~, 1hl, 1'111111 Rhea 1~ 'lruCtW'Jlly '1igblly
.1111 "' '" 1<11tht1111\'1~11~c Ad ;,nmlar m overall
t I AII l O 111 1 on~ and ~r_
e_ts_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

1 lung kll.Jl"I 111111:-11, wading birch. All Oy "uh Mad lucked 10111 the bod). 1hc ncd. folded bclo"
I 1"11c lhtht rruOk 0111 and ban: facial skin colour changes dras11callydunn111hc brtt<Jing ~n , hut mav
I ult~ I " "ctb lu\cniks ha'c C\cn les> dc'~loped bill and face colorauori. At 1hc"" 1 hcn1n\ S"'-' d1,11la)' rn
I I o<t hm '.1mu\ knJ:! plume'" h1ch JUcmlcs bck.. .>\II breed colon1all) ">mct1mc 1n m"ctl colon1a.
, ,.., I I g1tI G.:irza grande Cattle Egret Garza boyera
Atd~.-. ulb.1 Bubulrus ibis
I I'S 10~ cm fl 01 .\'"'de l $0 $1> cm ( ~O 221. \ m!I
~prcad. l~rgc egret found 1n a egrc1 of 11usland, field and
\Vici\ ol frc-h,.lll<'fhab!ab. 0- p;a,1urc,, u\111lly lorl!'"ll near
:woo m IOt.' 11 IC TIO' A hesk>Ct. Colom~ ~,\l!Wric;u
1.-JC csrrt 11h. >Zn>n&-11-:k l&...:d rrom \fr1<.:a '"lhc late ll<Olls h m
hill and 1111&- "'"......, nccl.. Tile >1ghtcJ 1n Chile in 1%'> fAnlola
lio,..- lorc1I f<1< .. /"1tC'h >ho" fa spttr g3.lll). ' " " common 1hrougbow
lt'-<'ttl<nll'JllOl-..J"l(h<lm oltd 1he ciiun1ry, '111nin" rc.:onkd on
ltt:html tltt 'll' Bill ud/o,. ""h <;ub;antarch< land, ind u..1cr
1/1J1A.-tr11/w. fa, p.t1ch )cllo"1h, ~n.-b in high breed- blnnd. 0-1000 m IOt' ' 11 ICA 110'< Stocky, wnh lllrt md
"' lo l11~h 1>1ccd11111 thc bill may b<.-comc 1>rangc ycll11". wuh blll anJ leg.< Tends 10 lool. hun<hb.i.;kcJ The b1ll 1 thick '
11 u~ '"'''"'" It ~ hlor t int /11dmi.: /<'1'1 Bo.Ji u11.J dng.1 cntifl!I)' tbe ba>c. stou1compared10 Sno")' l:11rc1 Yellow face 111111 eyC'-
""" 111111.. llrccdinJl mlull h;i~c lon1,1 plume~ on th.: lowC1' Plum3ge is cnnrely "hue, nccpl in hrt1tl1t1>1 11d11lt, "hit'h
I,,,~ .11111"crh.mgini,: the 1011. \ OICh A deer cnrrrr. lwve bufly pntcltt'> 011 the <'l'I>"" bar t>/fort111rA. \t'U/m/u,..
mt1J lowu back. Some rctnm ~ome bull" nil ycnr. l11r le11s ond
~nowy Egret Garza chica bill tum reddish-11run11r In high lm:ed1n11. '11011 -hrcedina ndull
I s1 l'lta thu/a hnveyello11'h1/l,v11111/)1'//1111 leg.v Juvenile~ luck h11fly puiche.
I ~(1 60 cm 122 2 1") Wide-
'J1"'nJ, found 111 u 'nnc1y offrci.h-
anti sho" blnckih or grccm~hlll'I') lc11 T/111r m t></11tln11 11 Ith
ft),sto(k 0111/ gra.v.1 ltmi/1' /.y t'/111r111 ter/\111:. No Cl Iher ci:rct how
" atcr hab1wt' 'ion1e11mt' fomgc' ~cllo.. bill and lei: In n11:1h1,, 'CflAMC ll'Olll Snowy 111rc1 b}
tln rocky coa>lllnc,, und ..undy bca- slighlly fuster w1nsb<:.11., aml ,h.,ncr lcjt- \-OIC' f' A \On r" '
hC 0 2000m IOf'llf'IC \-
1 10'11 J\ \lim. 1nall bod1cd egret Little Blue Heron Garza azul
wuh a 1hin, ~harpl) pointed bill Egretta caerulea
ld11/11 h,,,,. l>lad flt/ls. eontrru1 L 56 cm (:?2"1 Ollcn on rod) ct>UI\ and

11ltJ1t1lmg 1.llu-. /'~I

mg "11/i """'' IOI\" B/11ek lt.'gs
,.,,,. bt,./1 u1tel" '"i:' un: ~nJirC'/1 ..hur.
l'lum"' un h1nJncd. ncd l>J'IC, ind on lower~. In high
!>cache>, 1bo inland (r,~h..,ller habitat\
1JnJcigo1ni; range c~1cn\lon. r.~1 rcponcd
m (1ulc 1n ICl71 '""' a<"'" "11 on lhc \nca
brccd1ns rhc lores anJ fI nut) d1.. n1e 10 1n oran1e-red. .?
coa-t 0 ~00(2400mJ 101'111< \TIO'
J111c111k hJ\C gr.-.:n"h ~ "'"h black ''"P>n Illar front. ll!llbr.. -u.c k> s......y l -n:I. ttme\\ ..... ""'".
nnd)cllo feet The)tltu... l1>1n, ndn>br<lywh11cpnmanes {
lcgzcd and 'lOUlb1llcJ Rill N~. tv> 11Ji
ocr;11n1c lrom JU\cntlc lmlc Blue llcron In 01~ Sno"'"') .: a b/u('ti.h ftp R,,./, p/U""'JI'' tMrl. N11t~J(ff'1 breeding .dult
I r<"l Aho"" Jo.11no:tly l<>nf<I leg , c"cnding ;a 1rcaicr llJJlOuru 11Ji llttt e11Jd NaJ .1,,,1 h/uc-\'iolt'I The kp
1 11 L 1111 nC.aulclsrci.. \ OIC Ata.'Pnrnmrrr arc blad.lsh. Onl) all-<brl< hnnn in (111lc Ju,cnilc L\ "'h1tc, h~c
S""') Egtt1 but -hov. gm hit I' 1 fl/" al-.u d10C1' by bill
Coco1 (White-necked) Heron Garza cuca colourandll'C\-"ll!Shgn:y k.'f,:uwJkct \O IC F \lk-rtAA1<1<1
ArJe,1 co coi
" L 120 cm H7J. lnhJb1t;. maf$/les.
Tricolored Heron Garza tricolor
ponth and lakca. t..ncommon. ITIOSI Egretta tricolor
lolcly bct,.,ccn Conception and I.. 66 cm (:?6). Vagrant. rccorJ~,1 111 ( M1U11nbo and Anca
Pueno Monn. 0 ~00 m. IOE iTl- IOEt\TrFICAT ION A mcd111111 \11~d h~r11111h:it shl)ws t111rlk
~ l('ATI O~ 1"1! /Clrgt:~I Chtlt'Ufl ittg{l' lung. 1/1in l>rll. and propu1111m.11rly lung nck. Ycllo\\ 1,h
/Imm. Only (Jl'l:ill l:!!,TCI ~in1ilar m face skin, orungc eye In l1111h h1cc1l111v lucc 1111\l bill bccnmc
,l;c lhe('uco1llcnmliasayellt" blULSh. n.., hl't1d, llt'C'/.. Clllt/ ll[l/111/'111> "' t/tt\ itl'ITlll <111' 1ft1i<t
lsh bo ll. ~11 lo11011 u1the ba~e in high bl11e. purplish 011/IJIW!r11cck 11111//111111 1 11111/1< lm111 hmA. C'/l'(lrl_I
hrecding I he f11einl ~l"n and orbi- tlemw-cotl!d white belf111111/ """' B1 c1'1lo11~ 11(11111~ ' how whit<>
1.11111111" him ~111 1l11d111111n11-lm:cdlnjj 1i111cs. Show a white bead plumes. JuvcnilCj< hll" mht11 hl'.111.11 <~.mtl w11111 co\Cth.
nn A '"''"'"'Jr" tth" r/11111/1 '"' t>/f /l/C1r/c t:Clfl, Thi: h<Jdy 1$ Eastern Reef Egret Garl.J de los arreclfes
~ 1 111tll11//11,l/orl/q>i111/i .. 1t1111/ilgl~rn11d1-e111 Gm rnrgs
HUit 11 bfu, 4 /'0/1 It rtl //,1 tt rl\I, \/Wit.\ up U.\ ~/UJu/dtr patch Egretta sacra (not illu\trall'd) llCluh
"h1 If/''''""' 111< 1111~111.11 (11\cn' arc "'hue. and appear as L 58cm(23"). Vogrnn1 rt:tnkd1>11 I .hll'I lla111J 11)1';1' 11111
1 '" \\l11t h 1.1t1~h1s' 1111 " 11111111 bird arc blackish. CAT IOS A stoc~y. 1h1dc hllkJ 111"!ouin 1-.-J hmn "'"h <tri4
"I\ 1111 "'"101 t 1 ;a.luh hu1 urrcr nl.lndlbk dark. and 1~ occk
I rA) I h I 111" I lh lll \I h11, '>cJ' llDlc lrolll fllhcr darl. herons
mRfyslion /11[S B1ll an<I fo11.1I .~11111 l/1111 t1/I '"'h dC11Jc 1:ulnll'n
Olld ap. Polymorphic o~rl h11o1 <nl~I) lle1n:y v.nh 'n11ll
I ln1 lffnJ 11111 1onghb;~,orr.J,.hnc1>ed \OICE f)3tch of"h"~ on chm \\ hnc n1<rph ha' \cllow1$h btll "1th
"uml """I" .11,J u~I a I call ~huu.w.d.. cbrlc llJ'. and ~cllo" t<h t<> ~ kg'
ftl,1 f k ( 1own ed Night-Heron

1 II 1 1J tun Ir. 11,J 111 1111, JllJt< .ire 'h)cr, more retiring than !Mir l31J!cr rclJtiI!" on~n huntini.t cmcr or lit
111,, ~1u11111l111l 1chrc l.111,1c d1n11 b1nh, rcl:ued 10 herons bm immediately rcC<!ilnl'141blc b> 1h.:1r lon1.1hin Jc:.:u1'.:d
I ,./,. 1b1 .1h 11111IJr !>nth~ cbrl and mow iridescence on the bod} end "'"i\>

greenish-blue 1l0t Cl"' f<J o,,J/"'"' JJm

J11ki rlt~tl. l>t,,.J~r~ b1 o "'"' of 11111'
I ~~ M Clll IH 2~ S"l \lai:nly fc111lur> LC'l:t r.-dJult In n<1nbrccd111;

.. rurag.:\ at DIJ!hl, but DOI 1n-

rrc<1U<nll) 111 ~y. ohcn found
pcnod occt. be.;<>mQ bro11 DJ "teat.~
lo>CS bu.: burdCT to ~~. bt>Jy pcnum Strip Lttc~r1I
ruo'lt 111 Jen~ t~ hell noc glo--.eJ lU "ell " cmcrb J1l\ , hle Bittern
fora 0 -4\IJO m IDE,Tlfl- nao-brecdingaJ. bacc-C11f'Wll"l:Sm:o1\h ~
C" \ 110' \ <>cl) loion-na:.Ud. Puna lb"' r... sq.ant "' \ O IC I \ mufllcd
hun< heron ~J uotl ~nes. ....,.,,, .,,...,,," . uall~ 11 01"11

grn ,.11ltN"'-J.1litapanJl>od:
/, J!' """'' n r r,J The dark Puna Ibis Cuervo de pantano de la puna
I I 10 fi/srmu. " common 1hrnuchou1 the country. Plegadis ridgwayi
Ill lt11l111 In '""'JI nor1h l'lcr ""'"''" ha. "hllhb-grc) L00-61 cm(2J ~ 24"1h>unJ1n"n~ll011d

1111 k11 111 .mJ '' ~ lrt<tcJ 111 nh1pl11no J11 bro\\n w11b
tn aJ11pl1no. bu1 rc11ularly c.ko,centl> 10 co.1'tdl
I "'""I' h.111<:J whnc.- Mrc311\ ubuc, nnd 'lnpcd nccl; and
wetland~ (Anca) f'!mac~ m open wcllund \ I 1 l11led He ron
u11.I lj ttl '\i"\'<llllf)Colr .. mlf3r hut hn dnr\: Cnfl like ad.. less
0-SOOO m. IDt:N'rl! l ('A I ION 'ohn1lC 111u~h
111 1~ 111p, 1111f .,.1l1d hlll\\ 111hIJ<C)' buck 4'1npcbnckcd Bi11em
""" 11 111.11111 i\ 11h 101111 ycll111 lnpc on back D11d burfy wiag like Whitc-foccd Ibo~ b111 '""'''~' /1gi(r1/
Breeding o<I. 1'how-i dork chc.i11111 hend, n111I
1 t1111 YOIC ' h 1\ bJ11k111g 111111kl
viole1 g/o!J'.~ tu hC116 1 mul wing\, lht1 t.'tWtll'f\
hovillg a purplish gloss, co1111t1.vtl11/( h'il/I >;1rn11l.M l1r//ol.1. 11111
\ ldnicd Heron Carzita azulada pi11ki~lt. with a 1/tirk btw 111 illl'e, w/1rrt /1111..11.1 lh<'./11c10. f..)1
/111/t11M1~ )tr/atus red, whilefi1cial skill w-ey. tmtlimtl ,,, ,,,,,4
(1k/11, llOl./1111/wr.1)
I I 111 1111 I I I ~ l<"I Vu11r.1111 rcurdc<l 111 Aroc.1, Co,nblonca Belly blackish. and lt'g> hl11r4il1-11n1'. Non brocdrn1111d hu'
1 111 r11111) 1111IC l"f111111h< llny. IO~:N 11~ I( A 110 /\~mall, browner bead wilh >trca~. duller 11111 11nJ lilcc ~oloun1, nnJ
" I h '"" \\ 1111 '""" neck 1rnd v1\ 1d )~llo" Ice> Id har gre.:msll gloss toco>el'b. Cicncrnlly 11llopa1r1c "llh Wh1lcfocc,1
t :11o A him A /I 1t"'1111!. ""'II'
(j.-111/u:r> 1ri11,d huOJ Ibis. but lallcr could occur \\n coa<t 111 IJr north 'icpar.1111,n 11r
1 f /,,. n I "<A Ju more l>ru1<n1h and ,ncalcJ, could imms. and non-bf'Cl.'dcrs d10icuh . S1ru,1urally, Pun.i 1> l:IJ'T,
"'''1 I "11h "'"'h l~rs.,.r Imm OIJd1..:rn1<ncJ '&Ill ~oclocr and bas proponion.ucl~ '"""~' legs In Ori;hl lqr
Not linN hi11fy lrl.'~~1n 1n v.1n1t I'"> wihb on nttl lmgth diffamcc noticeable. 0<1Jy feet o( l'llnA clcnJ bc)"nd
lit"' r ol 'u~1cJ llct\lfl \ OICf .\ Jlarp quNU .. . WI.. while ft pan or lc8) 1>1blc on Wl11h.~ f.a.:N \d.
Puna. e.-m in ~Ill plumagr. fla.,. r1nlcr bill "'"".
~ 11111., b-Hktd Bittern Huiravillo dark b:rrat ~ aod ~)' r~cc th
r1n\.1<1t umunJ \\1111
, /111, mvolucns l'aad has a t!R)ish btll 1th p1nlih f.Jo:c anJ "" lllTl'IU1lJ
Bod) gloss ofl>uiJa ~olrt. mhcr thu Cn:t'tl!.11. 11nJ u~
I l I) crn 111 111 T1nn-e1..,,..,.1i hml. bl:ackish.. rather than Juli brov.m>b 1n --brco.ln Ju\ and
tlul l~ -ell h1JJm 111 .~,.,,,,,and Tpho mun. do II()(~ dUl1ncu c fa..-gl Ct'l"n of aJ , but note
ma1h 'L 11l.. 111t and 'h~ . much more blacl:er belly of Puna. SINCU&nll dllCT\.-iKn, llllJ more '1okl
"" '"' '" n 1-h-co-:11100 n:nca O 00 m (as opposed 10 grcco1~1 mdc~clk'.c "n hacl. and "'"I'
1111 ' I II I( \ rtO' The nn.illr<t lk'tf!n 111 \ "O ICE Call ;,. a 8""a!-g,,J>al.
ch '" II ,...J,,-J,.11h11nywl. ll.-..d nect
""" "'"'' ~, ..,,.,, ,,,,.,,,,,, ,,,..,, .. ~t<llO'h .
Lp-pc...,.... Bla ck-faced Ibis Bandurria
I "I/'"''',,,,. 11 1rt1 of /.11(1. .1d/m1uh and
Theristicus melanopis
hi A""'''' 111111 """"' huJly r1>111ra.ning
HI ' (1/11111\ 111 /lli:/11/ I cg1, C>c and bill L 74 ?S ~111 ti11 D"11n~11c 1h"
"'"'" "~1111 1J, 1111lic~ 1111, b1ncm, bur back or1111l.111J,, l111111;ini; ma111ly'" pa
11 tnjl l Ml 10. """' 111 1111 \1111111."1l llc11m VOIC't~ /\low, " """' 1111cl hcld, 11"111lly 1n fluck
I lu1111111 '"~'"' ''I" .11111 1111111y t1111cs. Al~o a 1hrou1y <:111111111111 111 I ukc 1)"1rlc1 Mllllh.
NrI 1111 h11~c1 l!l'C~ Ill clilTs. {)
25()() 11\ (1111/1111111/11): 1()1)() ~000"'
Wlo t Io " I II.I C111~1110 <k pn11tnno (lm111/1W) llrnN 'l'lll'I C'A'l ' l(}N
/'/1 / 11 fl I /11/1/ I 111gc, M111ky, hro111l wm11cd 1111,
( lrcyl,h, wllh /111//i d111111111011 lwatl
I 1 111111111111 111 l 1111,111.-...1 ""''forage~ 1n and neck, black m11lerJl"rl' 11111/ 1i1I.I11111A '"Ii'
lllncl. f11dnl
1111111 } 11 11 1, 11111 ' ' ' 111uddy fields. skin outlines red C)'C, w1dc,prc.1d 111!'11111111111 h11, lur11c bl.icl
~ 11 1111 111 11>1 I\ I JI. ICATIO" wauJe. Form bl-0111dii ( \n!kn ll>t I 111 lt111cully rcJlOrlcd fr\1111
11-.ut\cd bill. Lauca. may no loogcnx:cur l>olkr lr<1111 rn1/un11J1n m 'hincr
bill. smallerv.:ntk, m<>rc '" ..1.1nJ<\l~nuu: cmn..amoo 1>n 111
:md back of lhXL. Ptlc:r ""'ill ~nd h1r~ncd, aod '"'""I'\'''"'
l I
black belly. \'OICE DltU1\..1t\C' I011J bu11hn1 call>.

( hllc.Mn Fla mingo subadu ll
1 I !f'h lf,t "1 '"''" tttl<ll\C"Jd111g bmls. with long stilt-like leg" lon11 neck sand churocccns11c bent hill "h1<l1 ~ adult
11 1111 1 ' "' '""'l!>lil1111t h1~11 d~ w~tcr The) arc "eb-footed but ~I) <> Colon1.'1 brttdcr' T"'' ~cn<011110 (111lc,
I If. 1 "' l'"'l"lfl111f1i l/'hm n""l'h n11 longer legged) and bill shape (Ph<H"111cnP<1m1.< ha' much dC<!'K' lower mand1bl
'"" me eJt hes u,Jrl) t<> the culmcn). Plto,-,ucoparrvs is restnetcd tot"" alnpbno "'Ouk lclcn11fica11<l<1l'lf1mniatur
I 1 hkntJl1< onc mu.i h>e..,. on bill <:tructurc and bill face colornrion. There arc ill lca,1 thn:c plum~ t)pcs bnn\DM
11, 11nm21urc lhN~"" 1..,1th "bile bod). dull bill colour :md no uppcrpan rt~ 11Ubadult Case'!) l~c adult but ,.11
II l>d> 1lu11"~~ ;anJ adult 'l;vcc that plunuge <tagcs n01 well lnown. and 'ubaJult ta~c mll)' a''IUJll)' n:tcr 10 a 111'111-
1 h 11 , I a.lull hme\~ burb l)'J!C' can be ~"Cd i111n11ed floe\.$ dun111 the '1rJ1ng pnjod

l l11l.,,1n Fl.imingo flamenco chileno le v. ~) to lq> fnm A\cn~ ia, c - '
l'/1<1..111<opterus chilensis suea~ on' and ha' d.arker bru'' bas.: Yo 1th collv
of.ireak> than Chilean from Ju Puna b~ Larger ..u. looftf
L'>~ IQSon(\7-41).lhu:ill)'m
nccl. and legs. .ind m<>rc e'1enm bl.1'1.. on hall
n...u. fon111111 m hallo" lakes

~ l
. ? or lattoon>. ~c1all) brack1~b
.. MIC 0-IXOO m The 'suandard'
Puna Oa mes's) Flamingo Parina chica
fuim1n;<> 1n (.l11lc. the lll<lSt wide Phoenicoparrus jamesi

'Prc,ul. and ~f\>C> a. companson L 90 cm (35" I R.:,1r1.tcd "' n11r1hcm run.a for
ror the tlther t .. o .pcca~ \icar ging in shallow ..1hnc lake pond,, .J()C)()-4WOO rn
:l 1hn:a1cncd 1200.000 individuals. earThrc.11en(d IOH rll 'l(' \ 'T 10 ' Themu/1
of "'h1~h Up lo 30.000 m Chile). tm Ch1leu11.f111111111~11. "1th rcln11vcly ~hon lea Ande.m Flamingo
1111 \ I IHC'A 1101' I he 1mly C:lulcun Phot'11icof1ter11f, ii daf- nee~ 11nd bill Uod) pole p1nl. . cu11t1'11st1ng w11h
1 I rr1111.111ly 111 thc follOYo 1ng chJni(lcn rrum Pl11>eniroparn's redtli.hpinl.. ncol... breast 1111d hcod. Al(l hn~ d~rl
I \ 1111<.111 11 ml l' unu). Rcl111lvcly lougcr lc11s. I Ins o hind toe pink in po;lcrior -1Cup11lnr<;. Pini. lcnmi.. nlll hlud
lhllU\) which Pl1tJertlrnpar111.r Inch Rill suhstantinlly like Andcnn, b111 pl11111cs shan, OXfl(lN111g 11 thi11
<111111,111 111 ~hope: the Cllll lllll CdJIC ()f f'l10111itIJflltrrU< juts Up wedJ:t>-t/1<1ped /l/11c! patch /Jluc4 11rml11a/ p<1r1111
"""'"'" the 1111pcr mandible. and die lucr mandible 1s deep bill much 1ed11C"cd,. m1~1 roHr111g 11rml1111/ l/J 111 M>. l'fllt
1111l 11111111hhkc m crn,~Sccuon m Pll11C'11/cupurn1 but br~dcr dfraio11 """"'"'" J>dl"' u11d Jark conr<iH How t1/ bill ""'I
11111,.,. 1111 op1..ni1 Ad pink tht011i;hou1, conc:cntflltcd on brea't. .~'t'/111>1: """" rul >/>tll ut 'lwml' to/ r11/111c11 u11tl dar4 pl11M.1/i
luy,cr 11r<k, bnck nnd rilume. Rcor body tends to appear mas4 aro1mJ tl11rl et'< Cllnn<.:tcd h> ball h'"" 1..-g ~nttrr/1 ,.,
i.11 lo r pinl. thin the re>t Usuall)' no bl"I. v1>1ble on folded Imm similar 10 nd but boJy "hue nnd 'hll" mon: bind a
1\111!1' /111/ pu/,. p111A '"'h Mu<~ rm l<'tt>rtnal /12 or~" rear Separ4t<'d from mrn ( htlei&n by mailer'"<. h1ll ,l111"
h / 1 1t ,.,,,, rf"il JllnH und/<... / In 01ght, red lei; Joints ycllo" btll ba.c. r~1nc1cd htod, hill up nnd lad or halhn.
1c,.d11n1l up Juv brt>"n"h, < 1bo\c, tad.> ~1s1blep1nl.. and from mun. Andean by -11c. lt1ll c.,.1.,111 and. p.tn1cubrl)o
lc:p CJ<), lt1ll f"C)'I hat !>aw. Imm. ,.bnc-bodicd. lacl.> longer extent ofbl3Ck on bill Ju brown lllld trcakcd. bill b:i.c FY
1111111.~. thu' blJcl. of folded "1ng ""blc. lcj?' g.rcyisb but :md bbd up more <'~tCMl\C than olJ.:r bird. but'"" k-.. diaa
II. I' L.1 h bill baM' and rate C) c of ad. ocher thm1ngo-. S17c and n:-otrictcd bucl b1ll 11p i.cparatci. from
Olhcr No~,..,. 8111 ttu<lurc kpu~c~ IR> ( halcu Le\
Andean Fla mingo Parina grande coar;cl) stn:akN 1hJn 01hcr t,.., Oamin11<>~
l'ltoenicop.irrus andinus
I 110 cm (4'.\") Rc<mcted to nonhem puma. Roseate Spoonbill Esp;Hul.i
l<>nJ:!ln(I ID 'Ilalio.. >ahnt loY.C1' ponds 2.S00-1800 Plata/ea ajaja
m \ulncrabl~ 1fc,.cr than 3-1.000 ind"1duals) L 70 cm (28") Vagrant 1n Uuk "c\Cnal h ra:ords.
IOt \ T it I(' \ 1 10 \ I.attest lbm1n~o 1n Clulc. 'Cf) fc"' reccnlly. IDE:\Tl fl CAT IO \ l..u'ljc y,.adin11 brrd
Puna Flamingo
hut due ton:t.111-cly huncr lep appcarssamc>11e pinkish hl..c a nammga. llu,.e<r. '"''.intly n:copuzabk t
~- ( h1I. 1n Flam1nl>u Stt lncr for gcnen diffn-
spoo11-shafh'd bill. Funhcrmorc, l.1ck, blncl. on flight fc.ihcn
cnrc. Ad pink, p.1n1c11l111ly on ncc:k, becoming has bare head and. unhlc 0Jm1ngu._ hJt brcchtc't pin
\ m.i.:ct1Up111J. on lu"cr brc<&jt Duwt<:ti e blod color.uion of wing, on Jcscr co~cn'
'"" ltJ, d11r tn blud.. tl'ruol ond ~lion plumes.
I flllllf II! I 111 hill bl.ick, moss c~lcn"\COfthe thm: lbmmgos,
/lo1" "' 11111w1 11111111/d1/1<'. c11111111.<1f11>: withvt'/1011Iowa
111111o/1/1/, '""'' 11111 pi11A J"'ld1 111 /HJ1t'). /ouce giTenlshg~>
1111/1 111 /llllA /11111/, ht'./t11~ tl11rA 1'.l'U leJI-' //rig/ii yt'llow. In
th11h1 lo I' iulil d> '"" h:.ich 0011 hp. In night blacl. 1enlnls visl
hl 11111111 .. 111~ '"''Crl~ u11t1ruly pink, but dorkcr pink 1rianglc
11111hill 11 10 1111111 .11111lu1 l> ad hul hody wh1lc. l31ll yellowish - <;
"lit 1 '"'I 1111 11111111111 rnl1>111 ~ ufod Scpnro111111 from imm.
1 Iott, 111110111 uh 1..11uk1L1rt. C)\!', )clloYo ball b.uc. red before
111111 "'ti 11111 h 111" 111 t hi Icon 1hol!nO>llt, us is presence
I 1 1.11 .. , Ill . L ., ""' u lul cn '-Cpar-.il1on <>n JU\ . 1mm. Ro$catc Spoonbill
I 111 11 "'II"""" ' I""''" tyr1col uf i\ndcan 1han Chilean
1111111 1 111 '""""""" l'un tlw lul'JCr 11e. bill colour and.
1 11 ~1111) t"''""""t11thl11L 11111>111 lu hro"m'hand
l d 11 m 1>11 1 lln11un~" fhll tr hU< ma' be onl)

I 1 li.11 '""'1 nu Dl'f'C:IJ '"I~ rJlhcr uldgroup among waICrfowl ~are lonclctiflcd (feet IUOJ~I beyond ta1l 1n
I n I """ rn ..1,1u l \\1lh a l)J'll"lll uJ>Nghr po~tun' Widespread in tropical \\Cllancb. ~u Chilean J>tn arc 111.!fnt
111~1 I lie me ~"an< 1:1w ar.- reptt>cn~ 10 Ouk b} Bbd-nctlcd S"an Thi~ STUUJ>" m3onl) J"1ribu1cd 10 the
111 rtlN.- " Iii ""'" 1r.-<1c' in .... u,trah . Fually. Coscoroba S\\an is ... hue hle a ll\lc Yillll. but 111 affin111C< are
I 111 ti J I

t 11lvo10 Whrstlmg-Duck Pato silbOn >DUil llo.;ll (n<>nb.-ttd.:'r."'1arc common.

11, 11. lt oc.ygn.J bu:olor IDE,1 IHC \110' '"llNCsYi-.n. 1
I A I I \~r:r; 11 II 'Ol:ln'Rd"'cnl umn in ;ippc-a1" ncr ncdcJ anJ I~, llfllCfol
1 11 I ton<' '\m.111 JJ<>nd and la.kc. fl\ "ell ._, IDU'<bC>. 1han '""" fro1u nunhcra hem .. rbnc
lli(ljl('nl\ltr IOf' nflC \TI O,ArathttdWl-plum;agcd Ho-..ccr. tru.1unll) lon11-nc.:kcJ bu1 per
In 111111 1111, ~. "llh "'""' bulJ j uu "'"' nrd. 1111d .. arm haps "nh a~ 1oooc-l1l..c 1h.1n '"'u-11
"n Ir nr hultr ""''' ,,..,,,, C>.u\.cr abo'l. 1u1h rndl!>lnct ilruc1ure . IJ 1>h11r 1.itll u m1ru>11ni;
111) bo1n11g 1~1 l>J,l \/mt nt11tu11M~ urr tire ~llo>1dh f<tutlrer rnld111t hill and 1.-x, In R1,h1. ' "'P 1'l.1t~
" tb ff.,, " '"'"""" " bvf.I tnf"'J pullrrn. Bill a.nd 11p1 '" l'nni.me11/1111111 "'" ( ould be con
I II'") I b wh11..- on"'"'!" ,ho"' d3rl undc~ing.' bu1 fused wi1h domes11c gcC11<' or I.user 1li1mc.11~ Ju.;l~ J,.., 1u 111
I JIJ ,.,,,,, """I' ,,.,,,.Ir \
01(t. Call nlll'lll:llly J '""~>liable "'hire plum.igc; no1c rcr.ld1~h r.uhcr 1han ;nnnac bill , Iona
\lh1 II, /1111 ll\1111. Al;o u ~hDrp ,.h..ilcdfX>rpt'l'TEEEF.W. necked WUClllfC, Ja~~ ofbl.1cll'h 'gnn t>al~h' <lrJo1ncllC J."00
I '"' 11 ~.1. \\llh uc11cd qu311ty. bill. lacl.. or neck ndge; on neck 1yp1cal or gccMe. nnd blac~
wingtip. Juv. similar to nd and U\uJll) toahcr Sho.- .i Jarl..
Whit' faced Whistling-Duck Pato pampa base 10 1hc bill ond Hlrinblc u111m1111 .,r grey or hrvw11i~h w11ih
/ l111tl1 ocygm1 viduota
10 head, neck nnd back VQ l('r, An 11noma1opoc11c three
syllable cos-ct1-1'Qw wuh n d1<t111c1 1vc b1111h11g quulliy.
I 11 IK ' "' 117 rn''). V1111rr1111, 011c 1ccunl fN111 Metropolitan
II flll .1 <111 111 011c~ near <.'ulamo, anJ enulhcr report from
Black-necked Swan Cisne de cuello negro
' 1111! 1,1 I ..unll 1n mnll 11ond 11d mul"<hy cugc. Morn rci;ulor
"'" 11111.1 I 1d..in11 c~lrll\ll'C t1l\cr1han other wh1~1hng1hx:"s.
Cygnus melancoryphus
1111 1'1 I II If .\I IOI\ "' h<1ldly pn11cmcd "hiMling-lluck with I I I 02 124 cm (40 4'1") A w1dc,prcad
11! " l /lcJcA unJ l>l'llllt t>"''"''"'ll h1tl1 l>lu<l..- an lound rn a artc1y of open w1tcr
.,. "'''" '11 .1.J I occ, throat tnd cro... n \I lute contni-tmg "1th c11v110111ncnt... Bl\.._,,1, '''''cs '"''h abundaN
lJ '\ ''""" anJ upper nccl.. \mall "hnc 'f><>I ~' bend of nee!.;_ cnicq;c111 H&;C1allllft '"' h <.ma1 t 1ir recd' Coscoroba Swan
\\ 11 1111kl 111\\cr h.1c~ bru.-nl'h, <vn1111,11ng '"'b rufou> ba<:L. Al<o lafl!C P~ll~<ntan l>rack1J1 b~et.. arad
114111,. fllloin on l>rc.t'' ha:mc> l>ladbh on mid ~II) and con11n<1nl) found rn mannc ljnrJ, and c en
; I untr.1'11ng \\llh lincl) b.irtcdl>lacland-,.hnc ~t.IUll un Cl\4~1. 1'llr11<Uf.trl) 1n nunlm:eJ1n
~ 1 1rn " J ''""'c I cp and bill Ill')1.h In R11ht. llarl:. linSOtl lnunabl> 1n 11.>ck-, from ram1I)
11111111 1!>o~l: id l>.lu\l, "1th n1(<111 ft'U(},,. Nl(NO 11rpcno11g_ arour> 10 20 .lO \t lttd1n'1 or ~rng
I II"' hb;:l \OIC"l 'h11.llcJ ~J"'Y'l-WEETJFET- ~ qu>tc arid can be ob>cr\cd 1n hundn:Jo lhahh
mobile. noct~ lll3) be elKVUnlcrcd far fm"'I regular l'llt ~. h.. adult
b<aaiiglrtedon \lkl~dc l. 1n \nl.lm1ca 101 \ 1IHC" \f10'
Ol,u k bdlte!d Whistling-Duck A l.ugt S'A<lll \lltb l)pica.I Sra<:cfuf l""I lkl~ oO~n hdd 10 a..
I' Jlo "lbon d~ ala blanca S shape. Same,. bat long-1.11tcJ 1nJ hJ> lo" plllile on
Pr11drocn:nJ Jutumnalis
"'3ter_ Unhlc any Others" >1n !hit ;pec1~ hat 111 cnt1NI)' "J,,,,.
boch " o ct>ntrmtin>: l>larA ,,.., .l 11t1d h,.,,, II cad ;iJomcJ
I I "11111 11 Vo11nu11 OncrworJncrlalJni6n(X by I \'3Nbly >llCd \\ hrtl' Cl I' p.Jlt Jr u..J l't:/ 1tJr1111 fu IJ( /Ja1t'
fi 11"'41' m.111 .,.,.,,._ a.nJ mal>h> cd11c> '\prc:u 10 require of/.111- unter more cxicnmc on m~I.- thJn lcn1Jlc U1ll 11rc>
l '' 1li.111 Oll~cncnc>. prc(crrmii 'mall pond;, with
" ' r1 and legs red to orange-red S11c a.nd blaknd,.hllc plumaac Black-necked Swan
11 ' II '"" h~ dnJ JJri<. ~had) re> mt:.'\TH' l- diagnosuc In Right. cn11rely "'h11c "mg. 1n Chile a li:aiutc
1 \ 111 ' ' \ i'"'ll"''u whMllntcJucl.. w11h a bnhlol'r111gt-l'l"d shared only by male Kelp (,00\C lwhi<h -~J and cgrcl' Ju.
111 I I "'' ttn.f lll'f.-1 1u.-A 11"~' 1< Ith "hilt' t1'<'rlng. similar to nd but neck nnd hcutl d.irk gr..-ylsh wnh u hrown
1 I "''"'""">! l11r1111111/1111111111tl li/111/11t'1A W:irtn brown nccl.. wash. Wh11c bod)' ,,,nably ..:1;hcd bro" n, ma~111111t oppcar
111111111 'I'''' I 11tt1r br.-1111t1nrn1 tn1tl\I) blocA. While much les conirnsung than nd. 11111 ln111ully loch cunmclcs,
111111 , .,, /1 I l<lhl1 "" l11ldc1I Wllljl 01 l'CSt. In 01gh1, block which arc gained slowly over 11mc. Younger hlrJ, muy he
1111.1 '" Uhl 1l 11L 111r-11~11111 w11h b(lhl "h11e wlngs1npc confused w11h young Coc<r<>b11 Swo11, bu1oven111 1his n.ic 1hc
11 I 1111 I 'il1111ln1 111 I ulvous bul with more note~. a di~lincr conuaM or a dnrkcr net~. clearly ..:p,11111.:d l'rum 1hc
111 ti I / II f 11 U 11/111 11,.,., paler brcusr and bod) 1;, obviou V()l("JI U~u.1lly ,Hc11I In
alarm may giveu \leak. muffied "l11\llc, pl1111< plWt'I plit't'""
Ct\nt' coscoroba repeated al an cer-increa""ll rm dc11e11tl1r1i! 1111 1,11.: of ularrn
111111111f11111\l lltflfM
Kelp Cuu)fl

(!I rJ.,, :" i. ""' " " ' M'''" nd ore more closely related to Old World ;hclduck. Tu1/nrnc1 l 'nhl..C' lruc ;cc.c Andean Goose
' hon Mrnna se\u 11 ch1111>f'Jlhl\M f'unhermorc. sm,tdgeese plS<:S< ~lnl1ng \\1011 p;IUcm.. hl~cl rrnn~n~
lo ,. 1th lik """'"'Y ""C'IU, nJ l.ugcl) "'hllc 1Mc:rw1ogs.. The illlleN1ng.s Jo""'"'" 11d;irkb.r11rci11rr cocnl llut male
I I t.1 '"'" !i Ii Jrc.:111~ or ru1 rh,h rnd.:>cC'fl' depending on the species. Undc:rw1n1 ~Items c.i .... 11~ rnlmc. cnllrcl)
r, rl Ma<L 1uni rto Shc!Ji;,C'C all h:le >hon bills and a lhick-ncd.c:J f'Pal'ancc

CO#UTllSls"a rufoas 11td allJ hnuu ad tkrt K'1'J ~ female

Small "'1iilc e}~ CT<N:Cnl. lllld bJJ blact Rni of undcTp
I 7~ o cm I ''I 12, Typic:llly o.."CUn rn hiu: "'ilh smki.rag blkl...i,,J.,.f111c bamng on 11.lnls, and
lush ndcan '"Clbndi lbotcdalc,) 11h rufous nm. Tall bla.;l. ~ blal'l u,,,J OT01Q;<", h' l 1
abullCUnr <U\hl<'D rlanl\ Of gra>>, ~\Olds and orange oo l'C2I" Slnl111g rlwnage rattcm. rartK
~nhn Rcqurrn ncatb) drO l..v ncsung rufous breasl scpam~ I (rum all other o.hcklg4 \()I( t
In \\inter ~cnJ 10 l<Lmd Ooo.ktt licl<h \ialc: gn-cs a "'hwlc fnnalc a mmt.
DI lc;i,1 In Mllllh flf range- \ta) lucm mall
fl<'<l of Up l<I '\O ID llOllbttcdtl'4' ~ Ruddy-headed Coose
I 11,~~1-c 1n ~"' 100 ~ m. IDE\- Canquen colorado (Avudarda)
1111(" \ 110\ I he lars<I (hokan held
Chfoephaga rubidiceps FLK
'"lh 11..1,.c.shlc 'C\ual llr 1f111l<1fl'ho.m, male much
I~ 1111111.11111< /I hon-hollcll. l>llflncckcd mnd dcc(H:hc~c<l L .:is-so cm (I~ .W"I RN hcldi:oo ,,,
le 1.1 "'" ll1ll 111nl 1111h 1111y hhock lip, nd red IC'Q>- Boih Pa14gonrun ''Cl'Jlt !fewer them SOO ind1
~ l111r 011 hc~1l, neck and undr111nrh 811t/, white wllh ''dual in (hole) l.ool 311d '"''"r, mn I
11 "''"'/' ltc1/hc/11/11c k 1/1111A,, l<'l'I of 11111/ir111111.1 m11/ /<11/ solid common 11c11r S1111 C.rc1or111 un1I "''""
Mi.' 111 ~'""' hl!lll, l~rlh1I, mny liow IJl'Ccnish tnde;ccncc. cmmost Isla Grande, lnhnhrt ltttijc :rreu,
11 otl li,11 1111 llJll)<'rwi1111 in lllj!lll hu p11r11tc lridc,rcncc, Un or sc11sonally Om\dcd jlr11~s lund wlthtn
Ill ' I~ 111 ''"'""'"I l11r1111gcof'1111y1Hhgr lnr11oly whir\) wn1crrowl; Pat11go11inn ~IUf)j)C, Ml!Jrltlltly. IJ )00 111
d1 "'" 111, 1111111< und bi11c~l<lr\:nkcrl buck dlng1111~1/c YO ICF. IDENTIF ICATIO N SIHtpc very much ll~c A;hyhcndcd
I 111 i 11 1 11 whllk. li:111ule 11 low l111n1 Goose. smaJI with slurin1:1 forchc:1ll nnd pull'y hrndnuuk A
greyish goose. with a nrfou\-wn~hcJ brcQI 1111d 11111111111/11~
klp Goose Caranca rtll/d,- head a11d tipper nt'd. f l:tnk ftndy b.1rnJ hluck ml
r l1fmph,1gil hybrida FLK white. upperpan_~ greyrh l.111 e111J thi!th ro/11u1 Hill blucl
orange leg$. some11mc,, spedlcJ bldcl at lf<Htl 11l 1Jr" Hl.i.:~
I ~~ ()~ cm nz
2S ') 'ilrlcll) C<l<hlal , rail. Ofteo confused "''th fem;llc Up~nJ (JO<>;;:, but 110" \m.tlkr

lhll.illl) in rucky lf'C.h in .tichcrcJ b.t)' or size.. smaller bill. and ttlQR' ,1or1og fnrchcuJ Snull .. h11c eye
,.litre 1t loraiC on l<lr. '><>mnunc-s c=rus typical of RuJJ) -hc:.aJcd Goosc. ,. hr, h h.u a rufou~
oo '3nJy bc:i.hc., but 1><11) ,.tint DOl bladc-an<1-... hi1c ~ml, .tnJ nifQV11h1sh "nh .. h,1c b.and
r.i.:barc rcnt111 UJU:tlh &np.l<f'h>rflmtl} antetionolhe leg.. r.uha th:.n bud. ,.,lh .. hire bean <hC'fllll,
t:n"Jllt'$. rarely ll..x1. ID\ TlflC \TIO\ undcrp311sofRuddy-bcaJcJ m.>rc find~ Nm.I t;jllmJ,
\ ihcl~ ,.,th. hon nc.;1 r.Jlhkd
and legs more Olaal!C- \ OIC[ \llc UllCB 1 Ihm hltlc,
lO<l) bod ;and rounded kd Seu~ fcmaJe a quadlikc gnuar Hrprrer P.htd 1b;m Ashyhc.adtJ
S111kmgh 1hffc:CTnl \J ma/~, ull lllli' Goose.
lq; a,.Jd.Jrlbill mulc~bl~lardiiuncc Upla nd Goose
L11 I)' ht.d.1sh ltrad, nc.;l, and lll'f'CCf\Ub <ldonlcd
Upland (Magellan) Goose Ca1quen -~
1f otb11;tln111trmdhm,.n'1"'" !kl" bt..;l,.111l .. h11c
11 t1o m l>rofl Iv bcll1, "fnl 11nd unJnta11,...,,CTt, 'Ahne. Chloephdga pictl TX# 17, FLK
1 11 "'"' !\!i:irn ytlfo" leg vf nulc, hul bill r>nl. L 6(H\f\ cm IW 'ti"> \bund.tnt E)()SC of
I "' " nulc ..111t l.1ri;tly M l fcmal< 1>1lh1tn.;111 t wnen P<11agoma, found rn ~cprc ncaJom' ~nJ
j ill b 11 d Inun male inllrll> Irle fcmalc, become gta>S) area.' "nhrn lorc,1 1<>nc Olten 1n
! ' r ~"I) "ln1rr '"1 urul urP<fl'n \\'h11~-brc:i.1cd
I 1 I 1 ~ 1uao 1111 u11l1l,h n.-.11rn~'t'1hlwrc1 b.1m:J Oanl,
lal};c Oock' 0 I OOCJ m tO"' rt M ( A
TIO'\ A 111.1\lc and l:oulk) 'hddg'lll\.C' 1111h
11 1 llh hu1 kit~,.,,. hlu.~ nni yellow. VOICF Mnle a rcluuvcly la~e !>ill nnd 'qturrc,horml
I' f t1Mh"1t Im\ 8""" head. Male ha., while hc:1d, iJl'l:Y uppcrpnrh.

"'ltf,v l1 t1111lr cl1111/lurip/111!.1

1 1111/t. 11111
Gtrn\r C.111que n
white vcnl, nnd .111r111g/1 /i/urA11111/ "''""'
/>ar1'f!djl11rtk 1\vn fom1( u11e wllh h1111 cd
underpans and the 01f1er wi1h while 1111tlct111111s, which r1111 Ill' hMred
ob$ervcd in lhe snme n ock~. B1111cd ntt1f~ 111111t 0111111011 111 male
I \IJ I\ 1 111 I Jo 'i"J. /\ ~hc ldgoo~e M'
1 """''' .t 1111111p-. WCI 111,udow, nnd other
1 tillI ol111n111 111 N111/1t1f1111m forcs1.
Tierra def Fuego. Males wbi1c-b1c11s1cd (II th" I 11ll.l1111d Mulo
has black bill and legs. l'cmalc 11rcy uhul'l f>,111cd b,lnw 1111d
has a rufoushead. Leg~ycllow 11111l 1<'11l 11/i/l1 11111/h/ml Sec
I 1111111 Jh lno.,t u111i.: nut ,,,th1~oninn
Ruddy-headed Goose for :0.1>111< fcrn.ik, ()'OUlllJCr'/ J
1 11 h1 "'"'' t 1111 11111 ""'"''"l lidd, and have pale buffhcalb VOIC~ t\t~lc g1"" n "h"1lc: kl113lt a
ho ,f !\ 11 'llMI 111 1111 I\ 111 I( \ 110\ Jeep gntnl, guff-guff.

rr' ltf'".11J
l'I Al I i , Ducks Fllghtleu Steamer Duck

11 l u d1 "'"'~'"~" I>} th"L,~t. plump 11n:) bodt~ and bright orange leg.. Both 'f'"'e' 'h"" "'hll<' p;:~ufum
\\I 11 1111111<,.l, thn 111..orMlil) run ncrl'I.\ the "ater "'lule flapping the wing$ to make a ""btc 'Pl.1"1, a N:h.i\luur tht
I "'"" ,.f,tc.1mh.t1, trnm "h"h th<y <kme their n:tmc. Crested Dude and Spcctadcd l)ud. iuc n:Lttcd and
I I ,,, luug ho.ho Jnd a J ..lln<tl\(' p1nl1,h'OOlct 'pttulum. Torrent Duck 1, a c.1j>tl'attng Jud. I r~,tflo.. lns ,\
" r '"'"<~ 1 1nL 110 h ,..i.,pi at n:<o<ltn the current and using it ID lb bencfiL
J h& l111~,~ Stt'.>mer-Duck Quetru no volador
I 111,,,.,,., ptcneres !Ital""'' "I' "''"'"' nlf'<rn<nh
fhe.c J'llchc, rui.-.1Ddi\1Ju.:ill). ti.It an
! 71i J cm 110 J11 \f.tri114: 01gbtlc-. "EC~k:r(lll fenulc 81llmm'" ~ ,.1tb
t.~uffr,><I..) cu:s~ pmtia.l:atl~ ~ a blue tone Ualfeh bfo,.-n ,. 1th d.uln
>hcl~ , .. ..., ~1JOS ..., ....,_ O..,,.,. llQI bad..blad.uhf...,1/rn-ttn1"" -11a,,IJ. 11Dd
'" "'I" ar ,...,... butr,.m...11 brt:a.I In 01gbl.1xlflid1
11( \l I(" "' lamil) JIUUI' IOf 'TI-
o\ luge bull) JucL. "1th a
' " -i~ b<...t~ b~ head and bill hut linn
1iokt 1~'-1. nmu"I~ hnnkml nn rrall-
IDJ! edge l!otlh l>tl and htlC ( Jc1~J r I
ouht,. "lllg\ 81/I brtJ;IJI OTU"J:t' / If h<>tlt trru d1<hncl11c, nc>1 c; n11t~rn for n
,, "" deertha;ocd ""ha J>t'<111t11nccd blad: othttOtile:mducL Comp:an: IA)QUkJ<: \\ t~111(1'Ltk' I \ O IC'I
11,111 II lllK "''" ulmn/1 >lwrt u/ f'<'I <Ir "4ale g>ves a soft ne>c7) "ht<tlc. fem.tic a na..,.l It""""'
ftr1nt11J ,,'"''I.:'J'tTJf10111on of'''"''' u11d JundP"rt.f
Crested Duck Pato juarjual
/,I 1tn1d '""'"'""'II' llt>tly pluma~c 11n:y. 111h 'cal)
11 "", 1ft11 tu Jnr~ lrut~c, cn l>utk, -c11pulani dnd Oan~~. Lophonetta specularoides FLK
l' 11 I"' '"111111 lrnc d1M11wtovc ul ''r;1111crd11ck, Older male L .SO 60 c111 (Ill ~~1 lound on
fj I \i lllh I hl'olll, lllUfc ,1IWUY 'llh,lnt1tl11 1i) IOl'JjCr lh~ll rcniOJC, /\11dc1111 JnkcN m11l 1wnd~ 111 11onh
/1111/i , , , "1lw111 " " w11//w 111111'11111/ 11/11111('.~" 1111cl bill f'()flllw. 1111d cc111111I 1m1c. lowlund 1111ml~
.... , , I ''" '"''" 11'11/l'I' litll <11111'/ 1111d 1111/1111d. r/11~.f 11111 l'lll'I nnd lll~cs i11 111111w111i11. l1~1111l l y ht
1111/i '" l11 I lv11111 :itc11111~1 U11vk. Pnr ~c1mrnriuo1 ,<ce lnttcr, 1>nlrs. dtocN 11ot lend lo !lock, 0
I n tt I ~lult i!IVc' n l111llow ~l1111crl n11:11t11Jrw1111:ll'r.-o ... -1600 111. 11)N'l'I FICA1'10N A
11111 1111 h'111.1lc wc~ luw ~nuns Iorgo lo1111bt1dic11 due~ w11h d
1111111rlh 1i..11d ('~,, 'hort, 11101,
or 11ruunJtd1111l c1n the n.ipc. bu1
se?VeS 10 give it a dil.tincuc head ,h.1~. lJ..,,l.gn1 hill '"'');'''
{Nrle bro...71 wi1h pok marblinl( <Jfl /lw1I. m1J Jori"""~ '""""" Crested D: l u k
ne. Tail long and pointed In n111h1, "lttt /rnlulft un.t
pin/ash-viola ma/kin rol'n I''"' It Shaht ,,,.,,.rh,.. m. tton
>A>01hemspecu/aroUt.."' .mallcr and has ~rC)C 1i..1111 nonn.:n
aliirola.. "'irich bas )Cllo"~ or uranic-)clto .. ~ \ OIC
Male gi\es a repeat~ hollo" 'n('(''Y ,.htMk pit
female !!J'-CS a grunt
J'~ - -
Torrent Duck
Pato cortacorrientes (Pato correntmo) 5pectaded Duck

. .'
Merganetta armata
l40-46tmflf>.1~"1 R~tnctnl
I< ruuuni; ll'Cam> and men In
the Andc' r1t1n <,.alcr
'''"m s. hut .. ,11 Uk' mort' tu1h1d
\!oater. C'l'C<illl) 1n l!o1n1cr ~nd
spnni In rN tit lamtl) j!lupt,
dnc, 001 fl<1<l onc11 perch.-. on
large roch m \llc111 ur h) 'horc
f'hcS 1011 rollnll'fllll >t1Cdll1 Cl\11
tour and ne;irly alway~ upstream I he wny th,. du~k hancll~
1orrcnts, even as a chick, Is lruly >pcllh111di1111 100 -1200 111
I DENTIFLCAT(ON Ah1t1)'S 011 r11vhl1111 v/1111111v, <\ ~11111, long
duck with a long stiff r" il, Vivid 111'1111<'-ml Mil In 1ul Mn lc
holdly siriped Mack 0 11 while 1111 /11'111/ 11111/ 11c1A 111~'"' nntl
flanks blackish, s1riped black ontl iircy 1111 lJP<'Jl"'- l \'11111/1
lwsgrey cop tmd 11ect ,..;,,, r11/1111 1/111111111111/ 1111.l1111111 ' ' Muk
of central and southern arml'11l1 h11 ,, d.ot~ t>.or hl'11m eye uni.I
1s largely solid black un M '''' ul llllh~rn (I R~1111n1
h<'rlepst:hi (leucosi"ni.<I IJd J irl J. II l>dt\\ C)~. h.1 "'htt(I
upcn:rlia that meet on ""I"' 110.l 1><1 11.:.1h-J flank I cm~I~
of both races ~imllar Ju "hh .1. II. 1,,.., ~' b."~ anJ '"''
mJ"11nctly grey-b'.im:d 111111 \ OIC I \llc ~,..., a hit)\
r11d1cJ,. ho<tk. female a lo 111, 11 hl\tk'
t'I A, 11 l' h J I >.1hblins ducks -_.....P_in_t_a_ils_ an_d_ te_a_I_ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _,
Yellow-billed Pintail
to l " h I 1111111~11111, ~ , 1;l11d1 include our dome.tic duck. Lll:c all duck~. they urc aqw111c. l>Abhhn11 duck$ tend to
1 111 ft11 "I' ,.11111 "11111111111 inJ IP""l?"'8 on ~ubmerged aqwuic vegeiatton Nc>tt u~uall) on the 11rnWtd, ~nd they Oud
1 1 '" lucc,l111!l "'""'" ll111lllcolou~ males moult imo a more subdued pluma~c. the cChpj<, "h1ch Ilk:) rcu1n for
I " l I f,, '' .11111111 11...., hrttJtng plumage. Parr formatJon 1n1ds 10 occur m "mcr
t llow lullt'd Pintail Pato jerg6n grande
no t;twg1c.1 TX#19, FU< 'cllo btlltd P1nta1I, hut mc
,quarchu.Scd, Gnen ao<>d
l'I l .fl! Sol Cll'I Cltl :::t"). Widc- vteW. tr'J buw 10&'"J NII >vp-
f'C'caJ. bncb llCI rnll llOd brnd;isb kd ... ,,,, ,,,,,,,.,,J,'t/ ,.,..,., <"lrtt!
" ,. er 6-.&000m. IDE'llFICA- "'111ur>o1 d1~p101.hc lfo,.na
rtO' \ .-..:J;....,.,nd but $1.un, In h.antl lrthJ and II a d1<Ua.:e
bro,.n-plunurcJ ducL. "llh an lky can l>c d1ffi.:ul1 10 KJ'.lllll<
cl<Htgutn/ Jn'llui/ \ppears lhiu- Tloc pale, nearl) 10h11c 1'11 of
nlcd ""'" a lho.propot100iitcly \\ hllc-.;h.,clcJ 1and out I a
loal\,-e haJ. Sc'{o. ahlc. 81//}el/01> dis1:1nee. Female $1m1br IO 11\ik bu1114, '"'"'er larl iinJ 1>.ull}
""" a Jari. , 11/1rfln und 11p. \10st dull...- bill. In 01iht. 11ttn pc,ulum (brrghrcr 'ctto...
a 11; onl11w:I llh Sp..'Cllcd Teal. ,..h1ch "abo brownish billed)" ith a runo.. bufl leading cJj\: anJ" l>r<>ud hufT1raJ11n
""' h:i 1111111.11 11111 c1l1ur Tho: pm1a1I ,, lllfl?cr and has a edge. VO ICE -'131c 8"' u 11 \l>h1,1lc. "hrlc lcm1lc quad,
fnnn1<1 l11nr1r nccl , as"~" lun11cr. pointed iarl. Ycllo"- softly.
11llt 111' 11~1~~ '"'"~olourou,ly bro"'" 111 lhc lic ld, lacking
111 "'"""l"' hend nf 'ip.:cklctl Teal In ~me lighis. Puna Teal Pato puna
' ' """ IH lll'<I 11111;111 muy P11cnr 1c1 h:1vc n pale check, like Ana.s puna TX #21 .iltipano
\\ 1111, 1'11111111, bm 1101,1 y11tlow bill of Yellow-billed
1 11111111 1111111111111 11~1lng pale 1:1il of Whllcchcckcd Pintail. In L 4~ -49 crn ( 17,S Ill") . RcMrictcd 11111hlrlunu, I (~YP"") - ~
11111111 11 llrn , hoown, lon1111cked duck wi1h n pointed iaj l. II Reg ion (3000 4~00 111, vn11rnn1 <Jn co11~1)
\11'11111111 d11rt. ween, nurrowly bordered by buff on leading
111ol 1t,11ll111' <1ljjC \l()f('~; Mnlc 111vcs u whi~llc, a11d female a
1pi h l
IDEN'f'lf?fC ATl ()N i\ 111c11i11m~iLcd duck wlllo
a rky b/111 Ml/, w/11//.1(1 /i1r1 11111/ l/trk. 111/
co111ro<tl11g h/ll(M1/1 mp. Urc1i.1111eyrsh bro"n urul
spo11cd black. 1he ~jl(lls ~cmn1n11 frnc hM on
\ p{'t klcd Teal Pato jerg6n chico Oaaks thm nprur 111cy ftl do\l.m<~ I cr111lc ~rmilar
10 male but O\ cnill bro..,ncr. p.1n1culllrly on llani."
An.I\ fl.1Virost ris TX#20, FLK, SG
In Oigh1. appc~n ll'C) l'h,. llh J'lllc .:heel, anil ha
I 10 41 cn1 (IS.~ 16"1 oplt'm :r dull greenish speculum bonkrcd "1 lhc kllm11.anil lrarhng
.a.i m 117"1 WKbp~~ l~ely edgi:S by buff. Alljtpatm:,. orb mc ''''h\'l'h 1><11 1m1l~r S11H7
on frc,11 "ucr T o d1stinc1 Teal Puna is subsunuall)' larger. m.>n: ''<")'I h, nh a "hlltt
gco1raphrc form,, " face and dicbill 1~ blue ID the ba...: \ OICt \fakg"c' "cal..
oourhem J1.,rtmsrru (0-1500 ml IA bislJc. fenulc a .CO~ or I~ or " q lo
anJ 01 .,.,....., of 1he al11plmo 1n I-
ll RC"gio , l.lS<~~OO m. rardy Silver Teal Pato capuchino
l<>lllallcch IOE" flFJC .\TJO' Anas versko/orTX#21 , FLK
....-,n. alike -' ""'11Jud11onl1 a
h<lfl'Cl<'( DJ'l'Canllo;C o,.,. """'Collll'USIS ...11Jr
r l>frufl mtd J1'nAJ R,..-,,,, pollril ht,1 f/"d< IUllllDrUd.
'l ..L .ao ~3 cm Cl~ < 11 bul
prcaJ 1n C'lule, moll Cllmmon 1n \II
f111 lu 1rl/0tt "''" ,/.,,4 '"'""" 1111.J rrp. The ><>Uthcm.
rcgl\111 , Fn->b11oi.1cr ru J .1nJ lkc 0.-
fi mlYI f0Jn!C'"'1,,.. \\ 1lcl) v. rth Ycltov.-bclk'<I Piniail. Due 1000 m IOE:o.orn rc \ 110 '1; A ,mall
1 II 11 nlidual 1lurr1Jf~ r.nd "m1far hrlt colour<. they att oftc:n <10.:L> d11<~ w11h1h11/ff. , 11tdhro .. 11hlt
111111 rd llo\\'Hr, 'ipc<LkJ fol\ durl hc01.t. unmarked hw,tcttJ 8/u,h1//M1tlclt"fl1m I>.~" BulT
fl nl a11d .iudy, ~hon 111,kcd 'ln111urc ~re d1al!JIOlol1c. The brea I J~!.CI) J'l<llcd hl.1.:k1h Mnd Oan~t
I 11 ~I 1 I,.~ llu lr.urlv l'\lllllCJ WI ur1hc prnu1l Nonhem. Coar.!I)> b.irrcd rcu1;1lc Alnlll~r Ill '"llC bul
n111p11111 ot<>11o1 11 c1c11 1111orc c1ntrn,1111g 1han /1111fro.s1ris. bro" ncr. le~' jlfC')'ih, nnJ h~~ ~ rnorc
h 11<1111 I' 1h 1 l'I CV 1rnd ~ ulso much larger 1han restricted amounr of ycllo" u1 baw nf bill In lll11h1, look.
1/ '''""'' In ll 1 ~ht .1 111,111 und ' lucky duck 1hn1 11how~ a brownish. wi1h pale cheek. and hn~ n 11rcen ,p;:cu l11111 burdcred
on the leading and 1rniling edge~ by pule buff. Widely ~y1npulr1c
l11~h1 11 111111 r h.111 ''' '"" 1ccnh1111, bordered l>y buff on
I 111011 1ot1 11111111111" 11111111oll1lfl Cdf\C, VOICE Mn lc glws a with White-cheeked Pinrnll wuh which l1111uy he c1111f1iscd duo
I 1111 '"111111 1111 "' f' """ h11w l1 11 low r11111r~ lo pale check. Scpnrn1cd rrorn lhc 1>11111111 hy lt~ Mllllllcr .tic,
stockier s1ructure, greyer ovcm tl plwnn~t\ ylllnw hill bnsc.
Whlh , lt111kNI l'l11t.1ll P.llo gargantillo comrasting grey dO(Snl pon,, nnd conrsc h111llnl(1111 ll1111k. Sec
l'ul)a TeaJ for diffcrcn11n11on frM1 1h111 11llo1n1ri~ 'llCc1c,.
~ 111 I 1/i 1111111'1'
YOJCF; Mal~ gives a 'Wenk whillc, k11i.11t 11 ..rlc ol four or
I I Only so quacks.
I .1hhl111g ducks - wigeon, shoveler and teals
~ 1
,, r 11111 "" cJ lnl a;1uuparcdabbli~dud::sormarshcsand frtsh11n1cr bodtt\ \\111con~ ''""' ~r1kio1
,, , 1o, i., Fl""} i;rnn ar<J\ aroum.1 the eyes and blue gte) bill~ outh~ 1n bllck The ll<l\ dtT Blue 1n1cJ
11 111 1 11
I" Chiloe Wigeon
blllt' "'f'8<0\<'ft> and a frn."11 srccu.Jum of,<YiAl!le t"<lmL The blue "'"I parch" mo~ c\rcn,l\c on
1 :. ln, long 'f'l>0n-ll.1J>l'd
hi I no rlr
u-c:J 10 fihcr food from "lllCT or mud In all these d11tl.... JU\cn1lco anJ r.:h~
l11lcu~ Wigeon Pato real
A11~0 ubtliJtmt FU<
but lkll"ca"lc 8111 bl.1.:L"~
Malt' " 11111111wnrutm "1th ITJ
l 43 $4<m(l7 2 11. ~nN1.. a1cr .., .. \bo1c rufou1 ,. 11b t o n-
IAJ..u. p.'G<b ~ imnhc... \J,.,1 oiucuo11' ll11c.,tr1rcd blcL
c1>mnwn """'" Cm<:l]!.:nt "'llClll 'ICllpular anJ rcnr~h . 8/a.A Mir
tton ur 11'2) -~ iH1: ptCSCJIL 1~1l<<1crt 1. t.111 dar" anJ
In ""'" ,., tam1I~ group 1n sum mll\lcrarcl)' po1ntcJ "om11111e
ntcr nod' tn ""lier 0 1000 llL form v.1d.."prc.tJ in<. .ind!)<. h1lc
I O~' llH C \110' One of larger nd 1~, pc>ttrJ onnmrtus
<h1lc'' nio>t \lrtl.1n11 duel. $. in hjghl:tnds ofnonh FPmul< "flm1 lll'V1111 "'"" n1ftm /11n('J
\h:J1um l1cJ "th a "ocJ..y F3ce brownish. "ith \\t'alt: ltluc!11lt r1rl111r 1111J m1/1 ltxlt1l1
'""'"" JnJ pe11111cd 1.ul l>1\hnctl\C head profile .,r ''CCP paler <1Jperri/111m; paler ~J'UI .il b.1..- af bill bully, 111d1111111ct.
'"" h1<,1J uml h11h U0\\-11 8/111J1f'l'.I' hill 11/1/i hluc4 llp ~mall Legs of female yellow1,h Sep.1mrcd fl'\)m \1111""11 fcm:1lc Blt1<'
'"' hir,r~ 1\cn1ll "1c I ll> 11rcy1,h M~lc h3 a lllf'll<fr "'"'" 11 in~ed Teal by warmer, mo~ rufo11,brnwn plu111.1~c. """ li1cc
'''', u 11h """'"'( c111 >;it''"'''"'/" ht ltl11tl 1t't.'. Al~o, a tvuml wltlt(' pattern l~ss d1s1inct due to br()wncr bnckaround col(tur which Blue-winged Teal
1,111h lw/11w 1ur.i1iv,rrr Neck dark, \cUlcd whuc on brC#J-t obscurescon1rut ordurkcrcychnc. S11p.:n:1hum uncl paler 'pot
.111111.. ,~k. H11(m11 /ltmh oh''"'" .11 clo-.c rnnac 1is1hly marbled at base otbill only ~lightly 1>11lcr 1hn11 bnck11rnu11d focc cuk1ur
ti ,11,:1kctl 1>nlc1 rufou~ nr ltun, U1>pc1 r>~rt d11rk. wilh while Most import~111ly, ('ln,,11111011 n11l /wr a 101111..r <1111/ 1111//u11hli
,,,,111111 on bad beconuns 'tripcd. blaclo. and 11 hnc. Ctn broader hill 1h1111 Bl11c-wing1d tn d1r.:ct compnn~u11. I dip~c
IJ1111Un. Qlld 1cn1nl~. In n11.1h1, ,, "''"I lllllJl //1111 o /111)<c wit//(' malcsiin1lar to female hut d1Minctly more rnfou~. wuh rel.I eye
''"'' /1 ,,,, i111wr u111trw/11)l (m11di.m nnd grcar.-r co-.,ns) and In Oight. l>lue "'1ng-c0Hns and sni.111 i:rccn p.'<:ulum in mile
1..-11 >j'IC\:ulum the unly Clulcnn dud wuh \\hire rump remaJc similar but blue more i:TC}'t>h nnd ~h1lw, le.- green on
I "'"' bd1111, comm<111111,. hue belly dl,1111ct1>c ~clllJlc similar speculum. VOICE Mak gi>c 1 ge./;A-11.JtA tn ' tcmak
l11t l1tllcr "th m.tllcr "'"I Jlollch, lc" 11h1tc and m~t a higb-pttcbed quack.
B'"''" "" l~c Sf'C'<tdcd l)ucl. lo ha.' Mnl.1011 "hue p:llchc'
"" I i.e. hur dtltcr- 1n 1~1r pllkt'mcnt and at..., lu.. a "bllC' Red Shoveler Pato cucha~
11;;,t. \ OIC f \blql"" d"1tnt11\c t"ll-llOlc whistk. Anas platalea
p/tfM .,,c,u. ( a 'Clft l!Orr '(dfY
L (I 51>~111120 .?.?"! frc-h,.accr
lal~. ponch .11\J llW'll\c, UWlll) Cinnamon Teal
Blue-winged Teal Palo de alas azules
ID ra1r. <Ir f1m1I~ 1roup ID
AnJs discors
brccd1ni1 ca'''" at other time'
I , .i I <m t 1~ lb"l \a~r1n1, r.-.:onkd tn t'oqu1mbu II\' ma\' form ID.Ill OCJ<h 0 bl}I) m.
kc fOlll QRJ n.;ar \anti~ o l 11111-dounu m1gr.111ob aoJ ID E' rlH C \ l 10' A l1ri;cr
lcndcn.:) h> "..tnd..r urcl)' lll<"an 11 "111 be l'\:ofJcd naain m Jabbhnp duck "'th an u<rl:'li
1 hilt I r'>h\loatcr lake and J'<nd' I Of' I IFIC \ rl 0' 'Po<'""'l'l"'J hdl unlike that of
SrnKtw,~umlJri.t<. nnan >nlnl, butmallc v.uh~laun:ly any orhcr Chilean duel.. OOen
111 lkr ml narro"'cr bill \llJlc crcamybuff "''lb dali. spo<s appears to bnc a high rear end, ~nJ pon., a hng rc11ntcd t.til
()ft 1l 111~11.N11t JI'<)" ,,./.,,,J,.n 4 unJ '""'"'1 """"''"'S<'t'fll Tends lO droop />11/ l1wrJ, .. ,11cr, ..-ccn1u..t1ng ''' '"c ind
'"'"" r" R.:Jr ll.1nl' ~ho" la111c "h"" \pol anrcnor to darl. \hape. Male c11111am1m. 1/rn .. 11" IHlflttl 011 /111nt, 1111J hr'cJYI

111ukrt.11I \ "":rh. u, in Red Shot"lcr \\i1ng JlJttcm C'inna- n.:ck am! head gn,ycrl>m .. ,, and 1..1., d11tn<1 r~~c pallcm
"""' h 11 I <m.1k wry \lm1l~r ru laucr bul .:uldcr brown, Er<' 11h1tr, sinking. B1tl black1.,h. llurk ci11n11111un brown.
1. 11 ~""~1\111111h111w111nnc~nnd111111/ltr/11/l,tl t\l<.1.Jo<' "f>ult"" ~apula~ and lcmals blac~1sh '"'h cm1l,,.h1te edge' Ob\10111
,.,,, ,,,,,,. 1111/r i/11rA.-1 <'I d1111 1><1/1r :iu{H'T<'illum. mon
''" 1"'" ., /111, ,., , 1111(1111.1, nntl l11r11cr uncl more obvious while
1,.,, 111 hill h'"" l1lcn1l1i~.11lo11 'HQhlly more 'tru1ghrforwnrd
"' 1111th \1111111 ,, 11t.111 111 North t\111(11c11 ns 101:01 fonns of
1 1111111111111 1... ,1 11111'1 111111c 1uo1111ly rcd1l1'<11 l'emolc~ than in
round Hlr11~ p1Jl('/r 011 rear jlt111I.." con1no1111g 1111h blncl.
undcrtail,covcn~. Tail Jons and blncki1h wnh \\hire cdljc:. I c11
yellowish in all allcs. ond both cxe~. l'clipw mnlc ~hnilnr 10
fomole but ha~ white oye. 1:1'lllnl1 /111)1111/"I' #l'r,1 l111ki1t#
11(11/ceableface pu11ern, dppcnnng unitolaurcd nnd brt>wn, hur
Red Shoveler

"'1111 \OH t \t 11. ""' .1A11J.. tc111Jlcah1sh p1td1cdquack easily idenuficd by t/1<1inu11r hi// 1/1<1111 Scp11r,11ed f10111
Ill 'l111mrn11 11 11 female Cinnam1m Teal by la'l!cr bill 1111d tl\~rull J,e. p.1lc1
pllunagc. longer tail ond duller face p.111(111 In lhj!hl 13ri;cr
l 11111.11111111 h11I r.110 rolorado ond paler than Cinnamon Teal; '"""'lc1 hfll 'hapc .irtd >11~
Ob\lous when ocrbcad \ OIC ~ t 1ull> 11 t. ntlllc I'<
111ult: ~ dunn1 d1,pla), fcm~lc '"'' <IU.H k

pochards and stifftails Rosy-billed Pochard
~ tr 11 I h 1 ar. 1lt>t. , ind 11Clll 11n ln:,h "'a1er All are sexually dimorphic Both pochards arc Jar~. whdl) coloured
I 1 11!1111 111<~ h<m 11rll111g "11110"1ng,1nrc> The >1tffiails are n:latcd II> lhc "'cll-kno"'n Rudd} Ou;;~ uf ~rlh .\mtnca
I l't I ""'11'1 111.- llu 011ur11111c wry ,1m1lar and males otTctao idenufic:111on challenge 1ha1 "ncttlmtI Al ka\I Junn
I 1 lllL') ..:l lhcu tall- I h, r111lrs bl~ bills an: d1sn0C1i~e. Blade-headed Dud. has a remarkable hk h1,lt11'), bcina 1b~
1l1l I 1Ntlt l!bhf!ltlc bh'4lol'11\' olu.;k Elljh an: 13td in the DCSIS ofsevt'ftl 'pcl'.IC>. USWlll) COOb F11//N On.:c the youn,
It ti Jrup ml\ the" u'f ind 1c11J tor 1hcm'ICl'.:s. not competin~ "ith rhc h<>-1youn1ti10 ITl<>'li 0111.!r ~n>oJ p.ara'11c)
""'Y billed Pochard Pato negro s1ripd. fcmoak ,,_oly ~ from female I.Ake Dud. b>
N ''" pcpouc~ ~sac. daBer Jllwnagc and la.:k of'"''"''" raa
~tales '"Ct) ddlicult 10 Kparatc, bus Andean m_, a bluer bill,
I 53 57 cm 121 ~3")
la pairs
Jurina brccd111g sea>e>n, mJlll
..-!Ucb IS~ 81 lip. ancf Ille ltlaJ U #Wt>~ toflfUlrd, '"1111 a
SINfJt!T~llv.n Lale Oud..Sa fmm the front, tbc.Jupc
Oach cir ""&I~ Otha umc,
I rcsbwatt'f \\ctlends, pn:fcmng of the bill dcrnl>< <1 I ' " hn't! I/ lllN'LI '"' /r>t~f.nul nJnt1
atca e>I Jttpt'f \\8lcr. ~fore likely
nearl) alway coc~' llil, "l11lc ~l.c Duel. uni) d<lc, 10 '
display. VOICE D1pl1y of malt mcluJc, oh\ mu' head-
to Y1'11 tar:cr bkcs ind "ctl3nds
pumping and a froa-hkc cro;ak1n11
1n nc11t-bn:cdingseason O 600 m
I Ol 'I flfil C ATIO:'\ A lu11c immature
bulk dul duck w11h a /~1/d 1<hw: Lake Duck Pato rana de pico delgado
rn1 Maf.. I>/," 4 ""h II"" .iJn '1ntlKhU.'1Wtt. The red Oxyura vittata
111"' "" nla1-i:1-.I 4noh 01 ' " b"'" Imm male s1m1ler bo1 L 40-46 cm I In 111"1 l'<>nd' and
!11 v. oLI <k:clopcd lrnob, dull~ncd bill and bro\\ 111sh "ah marshc' with nbu111l1n1 cmc'icnl
I 1rt 1111 I 1n1ult' /11T11111h/1111v1 with 11/111., 1~n1, darker atxi1 c vcgc1011on. 0 IOOO 111. I OR rt
111ol .11111rr brown on llnnk~. I emole focc pmlcm vnrioble, lll CA1'10N Struciurnlly 'lml lnr
ii '" 111111- look~ clatkcn1111ct1 ond hus po le 1hro111 and ltl A11dcu11 Ou~k h11t .<t1111//1r. with
bill" I 11 111111. Otlcn 11ulc 111 hill buKC. /"1111111/e hill P,t\'J' rm/y /11rrg<r 1111/, 11ml 11w1wrtlmro1el;
/11111/1 1 p<mtl"d 111 bt11<' llnifonn ct)lour. grey bill , wltitl' MMller 1111d 11urr<11'l'I' tlp1w1/ hi/I
1111 '"""'.ind "llill'lrlflC wr.~ 10 ..:r.1ra1e female from mhcr rend' tu huw Jlmtrr fi1f'<'heaJ
1111 1111111.f \.01( ~ ll.I01lq11vc wft \\.h1s1lc. female a na.'kll than Andean. and ntcI often
observed S\\ 1mm1ng "llh 1t1il tra1/mg l>.ltt"'1 on tJr/111 t'o cocli.'
Wl largel)' in dt>play. \lalc chc>tnul, "11h d.trlt liul and bli,~ Andean Duck
111tl1t'rn Pochard Pato castano head and neck 8111 bngh1 blue. 1-,.,,1<J/r hrn1.n, jtn"IJ
N .. 11.1 NythropthillmiJ \'ermU:u/arcJ on ""'11 unJ 11<11 t>lwfout pal.. tfl/'(' l>t./111>' ryr
11 19 W). V!lfanl ll1,1oncal!lpCC1m'DfromAnca. a11d pale throat. ~emnlt: ..epanllcd fruni Anilcn by 1m.1lkr ''"''
I Jiii 1 1 {inb. unhlcly du.- tn ~cent populauun tkchnes in and face stripe ~lalc tt1tl.1crto 1dcnufy. l..tli.c Dud. i> 'malkr,
I I 11 hy h1nbu11on llH ' I l fl (' \110' Shghdy .mailer, has proporttona1cly lonccr 1011 , a Oancr hcaJ profile and
t ::tlcd head. >J n1 re roundcJ ~~ ch.on Ro.y-t>illcd ll3tTO\\CTb1ll. II u.'SU311) ~noc cock lhc 1~! \l.'lulc th<'. btll t
11l lfiJ/c- chnunn 1th l>ia..#. """ ortJ lt<aJ Red C)C blue. ii is !es.~" iJ thAo ~adcaii.. "'till a /Nr!fltl"r o...a 111 1bt-
I "bile bill ,. blucgr.:y "''th a "'bile Mlhlcrm1nal biU ~ ro1~ tli<I11 ~'"Z ,..,r,,/r bright hlw c.:l. ~ '
d b111d. 1~11 I 1~e Rosyb1lleJ Pocbrd, 11 u.; an more blad than Oft An<kaa (d1ffiC1111 '" >) ~ rnlft'I the
> lrtk Mttptrlpc . althoup II Ii le> C'tlCIL\I\~ 1M1 from. !he sbolpc or Ille I>.// J~mha " i luzl/m,.. U ..-1:,.... ,t ,....,..,,,
tl;;w 1n Win I c:malc lm1lar i..1 RO\)-b1llcd Pochanl. tbefarehectd. \ OICE Oi'play of male 1nclu.Jc. hcadpump111
eclipse male
I ti. ~ ""'" cu1111,l\11n ,. h11.- l~c nurl.mJllo and >1n1llcr
while Dtt'k mJlatcd. .i.nd I!" mg a soil p<>PJllOI f'llPf'tJf'-/'flP-
I II Ii 1 1 111alc: hL< lc111.1I~ Inn h.u m1>rc c:-.tcn.'"" "hue at pnmp.AJSll '1gorou.<hcad and DCC'k <ulKncr<o1on ,.h1lc l1Nnl1ng
Lake Duck
I 111 A nllC!>"' '"' "" C"ar Hl~Crl
Black-headed Duck Pato rinconero
A1ult .rn (Ruddy) Duck Heteronetta atriapilla
I' 111 1 111 de p1cu Jncho L 35 38 cm (14 1s1 Pond nd mar,hc. " "h
abund.an1 cmcq:cnt vcgc1a11on. rart1<ulMly S<1r1 w
<hp11 l<'trugmr.1TX#22 (n:cd}. 0 600m IOE.Yrl~1CATl0'11 A/11n~l>t1d11~/
.t I 1' -llC n11 (17 l'l"). l'onds ond sUm dud nth ti lung narro..- bl/I, hllf 1/111rt tud S" Im<
1111 ,., """' cC\111mc111 1n Andc low on wa1cr. add rng 10 slun ~~pc~r1111cc. ~clo11wl )
Y11I l11wl11111I nr~ni. in Wll\ltr in short wini;. 11111n of rill! r1111111111111tl< ll1:1'11111l 11'/11g
11\oth 111111 , 1111111! 1011c, nnd rcg- 1/icm 011 8imllttr-slwd 1J11cks. Mnlc dnrk hrnw11, wllh
111 111 l11lowl1111d' 111 l';11.11:1oni11 0 warmer brown llttnks nnd ltlu1All1 lwml. /Jiii h/111
1111111 111 llWN I ll' IC'A l'I ON gn.'}' with,/is/1 b<1.fc. Female \ltnilar but h.1, 1uq
bill and paler face und Oanks O:u'I. cyd111t. p.1lcr '11pcn:1luu1
and pale lhroaL Perhaps the mo.1 d1'1111<11'~ k.11u1.:" Ill<"'"'
"''"' .fhape. In 01gb1, '"''htte traJ/ltlp rJ,., t "'"''"'"~ "h1rl.
" wmehm~ ll>lhll' '"' (t1/Jnl ""' \ O lf ~ I '"~"> iu l<tll
male give<> "'10 runt nJ '"""'' I 11110 1"n <l111;Lm
1 V11 llt11 c~.
1'1 Al I l AndC'dn Condor and Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle
111 ''""' 111 1111111111>< I h "' 1...-.,. ~'''"ltkr.:J pan of the order that mcludeii the hawk, ind ldlcon, lhll"on1formc) for
I l 1111 ..11 1..-1,.,,.,.,, ,, a111l 1c:"nll} genetic data have all pointed 10 a d1ffcrcn1 ~m1ngcmcn1, m.aml) thJI lhe'>C
I lll(l<C' '""IY ~I 11 .11.. Ilic: h" "Ihm the Ciconiiformcs.Afl att large. blacl.1-h. ~1.111n11 b1rJ lh.ot r~cd "" um,lO
ifl 1!ih tvli"uc.l ,... i.e.1 h~ lhe \nJcan C0Ddorisamoogthemost1m~~"ct1fSouth \mcn:t" brJ, The
t I '1 rd I I 1 11 I A ultu1< '"' an oJdl) 'hon-tailed, rapror Iha! may be rno-1 clo\c,I} allied tu Bulro

1111 li.-y Vulture Jole d~ cabeza colorada size ofcbc coodor" l'"l'fc "c. 11.,. C\ er. 11>1ully lhc) arc rai
ith.~11~' ~uril TX#23, FLK off"'hc:rc tbr luge IW'C ma)' !'Cl4 be ub1 ~ fl1.-. ,. uh .i11lu
I " "6un12-4 J-0 1W160-182 dihedral and up curkd outcqn~ \\ ~ l:>nll anJ panalld
cm (II ' 72"1 \'anou hab1ta1>. sided. rttWtgubr. ,.lib 'f lu17g 'fiARr'' "" llfZ 11p fall to of
rr.,,n dC'!lcn 10 PataplUI <itcppe. modenic length. but 1> broad anJ latsc ,\nJc.n <.:oo.J.lf ts
but re chn rnu1mum dcnslnes shaped mos1 lite Twl.c) \ Wlm:, but ~onruau111 Mly lit.ti)
on n<>t1hcm COHIS 0 1500 m. 'hen obscr\-ed al ~t Jutan.~ Tl..: arcatn urfao:c am of
I Df' rir1 c \TIO' A large. cbc ,.-ingsoflhc condor. ld. ofa llr'<ll'IJ! d1hcdnl, anJ ,h1>ncr Black Vulture
hi ll\hbro'" 11 'olttJrc that ili~ broada lail hdp 1dcnt1f'y 11. Adule NcJ<A 1tlr "it1111n111g "h""
on '""" M llfj/t ltl!IJ llf a d1snnCI Uf'PO"'ing, olld et>tllrtJ..1111g }111111 """' ""''"" 1m1"'J "' 4
J1/u:Jr.,/ \11mc11meo. 01es lo'" When standing. look\ bulk~ wllh umc1< h11 lt1111c h 1..1.-A.-.I
Y r111111I. 11><cl.11111 h,1,k MJ lorth ht..c a la~e black harrier postl,fr(!. While on folded wing Intl on collar uh1 Ou' Jl, ..,J
ltd 1 /1 //11/" olllil \\hen II tloc the 0Dl1' art \IMI and laboured. naked Kilh plnH1h-orong, rn/1111n w11/ lt1t)I 111111/1 1111 11111/1'
fl I'"" lh11111 c.1rhc1 1n dny, ond ''O)'S 11111 lnrcr in e1ening than Female lacks comb and hus i:rcylh hcutl. "1th lcs 0111n11c
111.,, l \ 11h11r< 'V11Ar1/ ht'ud I< hr/11/11 1,,,/, H<'foll' 1he wmi::s colour. Adult plumage nc:quircd ovc1 ~vcrul J1111111lc
"/'/' 111 '""' 111111~/. 1hc cJnrk w11111 llnin11 co111r.1sling with the brown with paler covens nnd Inch ll111Ty whttl c111l:or. Olclc1
111ff1 lrllllj!C. ru1l l11n11 ur11I lllllT(lW, Cll'COICr covert~ mid SCC juveniles and younger lmmmurc~ of'lc11 look vc1y W(llu untl
1111il111 I<' nl11od 11nlc, clt hct 1111lc 11rcy or ln1tf; lllO~c pale edges rarry, with grca1 contrU$1bc1wccn older, t~l<1111od wl 1111 fom hc1 ~
1111 11n1t1111hlc l'Vcn 111 ro dl~loncc, When sill Ing uppcnrs sm111/- and newer ones. rtic)' cl11111g~ to blnc~cr hody n11d 11c1111irc while Andean Condor
/10,,,/,,/1111111111111 lim11 hmllid S1m11N '""" /1<>1/t1111m/ po<111re, oo neck collar und uppcrwingK, Mr111y lntcrmcdlntc 11lu11rnfl.C~
111hl Ill\\'' 11 "1hm111tiol f'rllnor)' projcclio11 Ond o l<log fail. possible.
""""k h,,, H hr11w11..h hc~tl; whole lnimuturc (fir~t-yearl is
11~ ' "'"" hu1 "1lh n 'li~htly r.1lcr hci!d anti cl.irk bill up Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle Aguila
Geranoaetus melanoleucus k Vulture Jole de cabeza negra l bO 711cmt24 '0"1W 14<1 1114
( 01,1gyps <i l ratus
~ . I .Sfl 74(ml22 29"1WIH- 160
(m 1s~ 1111 \'anow. habitat>,
cm I S<I 72"). \ 'a nou. h.ib1m,, hu1
of'lcn near n1<M1nt1in l<lf'r' both
1hc Andc a. well '" C'11a.1a l
lllll8Coi .\1\\1 founJ al lC>t edl"'
m.1 ~ c..-.mvn 1 I.ind 0<?000 m.
IO~' 1 ltl C \110' l71n onjkn 1n Pa11g,n1a, a1ncuhunl areas
"<. lfO J1l;c Jl'l1f Ono. nol rod. ,.1 '""'
'f ln><>rt'. '<' 11 11nd de><n
\, " "'b1I~ 1n 01a;h1 T)ln~IJ) gl\CS ()lllS1 .al ) IQ tho. P""11! () 4000

Jrtr,ol <flllCA flopJ ood 1/1t nt I D~' I If IC HIO' .. la~

glidn "btgr b~I.. 1uh..rc w11h r.rptor -..,th a bat-bU lt11~ 1 1n ' '< bt<Wd at I~
~ ad modcralcly ro1n1..d ....,,. th~ ,,,,, u rli/1('o
~ '""' u11I alld 1WirJ """kl<'d
,.., ltrod <>utn M\ prunann tl1uu1Ctl} Jl.l)n i)Qn fCSl 1da<uslydtonandd4l,,,.mtl""'prJ lhcl>road 1nPC:r ,.,n..,.and
uf \\ 11 ~IK'" 1ng a a""'"""''''" "'ti f"'lt li 10 f11W.1 "bo-e 5bon WlgM: lhbcaglc thcudtl lllld1llil1n.:llc trningular h.lflC,
I ,,. 1~11, tllfl> "" Ulcr rnmancs On vound stocky wltl1 lhc -re" a the tall Ju1cn11cJ h.>w n4rTo\<i:r \\lngs anti 1
t11hu11! 1ha1 .tland l\I"" 11pr1glt1 The rnm.11) C\lcns1on is longe.-1.11L loolio11 ITl(11T hLc a W11tl;uJ Ru1i-.1 in >hap.: Adult
.t11.1141111f llo~ iail 1 hnrt S...pan11ed from l uii.c> \uhurc by is dark b'1''.1 Mllh f"'/.:r >111111.,'<Jt'rl cJnJ u ftmtrallllf: M11cl
hnot 1111 111tc ""'II "I'' OJ1-w111gcJ ghdc f'\l~lln'c, Oap-and- cites/ and .. JuJe hc/11 \\lute un1.lctpart vu1ahl) hJrrcd or Black-chested
1 ''' '' I h11""' u11r1ph1 -1untc, uml t!Jrk head . Streaked dar~. In 01gh1 ~hO\\\ 11ul1 lrlli llntl ""'S l111/11Jl1 Buzzard-Eagle
comra..<ting S1rongl1 nlh /l/t1rAnlt rr1111>;,1, loll 11111/ /lrrtl\I
Atttl,111 Condor C6ndor Juvenile hellJ"' buffor nl\~I' our/111>/1n111rA11/11i1/1lm11111,1101
Vu/I 111 111 yplws appearing so much like wen~~ us 111uch 11 tlu1k hl111ch111g on
underparts. Face >h1Jws .vir/klllg p11/1 111/tt'l'rt/111111 11111/ 1111/1
In I llJO 122 cm (JI) 4~")
.1 1(I ( 1 1)~
w 274-
122''), (.'l111rac1cristic
moust11c/1ia/ s1ret1k thar c11111111.1rs ll'lr/1 d11rA 1111i/1w <11/1111. In
night shows greyish fllgh1 fculhcrs 11mt 11111 1ln1ke1 wing 1 11>~
s1w~ ic of Andes. p11r1icul11rly and narrow and rMher im'li,1in~1 IUll b.ir1 "'titlu wnlk sc1M1111ed
\\h1r" ~11 ll\. "' rocky mountains from adult Rufous-rniletl lluwk hy ~1cy1h 11111, ,1rll.l11i.; 1lnl~
'"~ 1111111~111 1 10 more heav ily supercilium, a11d blotchy n111JC:11111wr 111 11111lc1p11rl luve111lc
~ll1111,.,1 "l"J'<:' 1\1,<1 found on Rufous-tailed Howl.'' while l>el1n1 lh 1~<11 il..rl Mth dl\llOcl
' ...... Ill ,,,,. 1.1r """" ll>>OCi3tcd belly band. lackint: ru.'I~ col11111' "' hu11111l l~glc Juveml,
111t lr1111~ nl l""'l'C'I' In Pa1a- Variable Ha\<k" rnu~h ,fimm.-r lh 111 ''" llu11.1rJ-e~11le IKl1>
more pornted 1>111g nr. llu.ilh p.tkr 1hr1.l1 ~nil brc.M ara,
and 3 d:u\. 51tlp." bcl111< Ilic O <'

Wl11t1 l1ll11 llWt
Chilean Hawk
l'I i\ I I ',O I t,1 wk~. harriers and White-tailed Kite cf. Chlmango
c:.a~a ra
d 101111 i.i1,,1 l1l<"~l h" ~ lhol 1-cn11h\C m bunung birds. The) rel) on surpri<c, and 1hcah1hl) 10 chn\C 1hc11pl'C) 111
I ll11rn1 h ""'ol I ht" .1, tun< 1111< mJnocuvrab1l11y "11b 1berr shon. rounded w1np und IQl\111.1111, and ~lw cccl 1
h -rJ r.arw1t' 1larrm '"' aDolMr ma1ur group of rartors "hich is global!) dii11nl>u1cd They hunl hy >urpm1n1 thm
hot i:lo.1111g I" mer 1h.- i:round lo 1hdc cffic1cntl) m the unsuble atr clo<c lo !he rTound. IM) haH long "''"I" I hat ar
en ~c d1bC'Jn1I llam.~ hlc ""lhl.c disc, around !heir C)cs. \\hich help 1hcm 1u hear pre) .u they 0) <1cr
ll II in\s ll"I. 1$ rla,cJ ID II m<>nt>i'ric gC11~ Iha! U>CS scrub babilllU . II 1> a ~d pt'I 1n lht Amcm:as, aod tn
II l ~ 1 l k; Uf th~ fC rapltlr' 10 fur.tgc in '>()ci:iJ gn>UJIS- lfO"C\ef', IR Chile: lhl> bcba\ IOW' .. U"lflto"l11

Gnereous Harrier Vari

1~1 W ~i.. '0 cm Cll

Grcus cinereus
Ll'I l!<cmllS 1111\\ I)() llS
'I I F1rn1cJ lie'- p.m1cularly more open cm ClS S"l. lnhab11 sra.uland
locc,1 or forc..i cJ,c In WU11cr ma) occur Pd>IUtc>. m.1,,hc' and ra1~11on11n
on more open nrca, , eHn urban Lono . 'tcppc Prefer open, irclc"
lJ 11<."unllll<>ll., UM1.tll) 1btcr>cJ 11} mg lo" area.' Pcrchc' on jlnlund 11r !>Om
b.:h\ccn furc't ratehc\ c;\\;I" r.trcly. and ltm.:-. un " lo" I""' not in Ire.
Ihm 1nly m bri:..'ll1n11 -ca<'n. I OEi\ flf 1- () 10()0 rn IOf:~rl HC \110\
Ci\110' l ypi<al 1td111i.-rw11h1ltmb0Jr. \ tyr1cuf h~mcr; o '""' /1111,. Clnereous Harrier
ht>rt 111u11d1d" "'II' uni/ ft111g. NllU1t/1d ((If/. "''"'1"" /11111: wtlrJ rup111r th.. (
11111 1111,1111.: wml.1r 1u "lllrth 1\m.:11cun Coo1i.:r I la"k flies /011 11wr gro11111J, glttlmg 1111/1
11111g.1 h1wt 11t ,..rf;t 111111
I I"' 111 lltj,!111 ~1111\1 ,is ul .H'W111f 1111trA. ,lffj jlup.1 /i1/1011 et/ Ill' Judd in /J dis1111c1 d1h<!<lrttl All plumac' 'hlm """' rtllll/
11 n . ,./Id, Kcc11 lung 1nlf d1hcd unlc~~ 60Unng. Tail and fuce hos owll rf..t dibc> around cyc< ty11l~ul of hnrricrs i\J
/1111111/1 /11111/ttl 111 r1/I111111, 11 Ith d11rk />1111tl r/1111/ur 111 IO'idlh malt! gt<i> witlt blork wmgup.,, durl. 'ccondnt')' line und d111f.. r
p;1/. I 111.f, \d 1lnr~ ~rcy rlhO\C wllh /Jlu1~fah ""P he/ow sub1erminal !nil bn11d. Be low grey, bnrrcd ttM)' on belly KnJ
,,,,/, I"'" 111111 tllfm" /H?lllllJ: 1111rtln1/u1/1 e111 lii111lflon!t1 vent Undcn-.ngs whuc with cnrblack llfl nnd tm11Jn11 cd11c

dI l/1 S11111.: 11111d1n1111.: nJfo11, hclow, Dcllll! furijcly hn ndcd 10 sccondllric,, Female hro"" \\ 11h tmnJcJ 1a1I .ind w1nf
111 11 1111111 '"~"" do" n lh1sh' ulwap ~ohd rufou,. 83nd.ed rufou~ on l>elly und "tng l1111n11s Juv, "milnr 111 lcmglc
111 1 li uM"''" 11/111< 1111t In l11~h1. tu1I aud "lllt;' banded but more dh11nc11y ,<J on undcrp3n and darf..-c)~J
I 1f Ill I h ttl "1n~ hmnr\ ll.11 rate ra1cflc\ Oil pnmane>. VOICI:. A sburp \Cne' ol h-f'k 1 note U'ually 'lent
1 mn "'""' .. 1111, l>du11 "1111 trt/t d"rJ.. lnaL1t( and
~I i.,. ..-rnilcd from ( h1mani;u Canicara by ~malkr Long-winged Harrier Vari huevetero
"11Jl;k1 muscul;ar tltuIUrc and cla.ri} bandcJ tail Grcus buffoni Long-winged Harrier
I l11f~.1n fla"I< ld .,ale p41che. on '""r> \'OIC E L 4b-OIJ an (18 2-11 \\. I Ill I.SS ~m 1<17111"1 \agranl
1 ar 1,;,.,, ~ ~ 1ha1 ..:ec:luain. and n) rcmmJ Se\cral htstoncal n.-conl ~uuc,111 ma) hie hn formcrl>
I 01 ln I I pt< 1 u....11~ "fcnl ~1ann Onie. :'\o ra:n>t ~sh1ni \Iott~ lo-cly a oaatcd
with mal'bcs than Cuicretl4l Hamer IDt ,-, l fK \TI O'
Whtl 1.11lt'd Kite Sailuin Bulkit-nnd 1oni;tt" in~ than C1nc1roua H;amn- mu.:h '"""'
' ''""" 11111 11111~ \\'"10~ zod tail al"~)~ 'llOClfly b.&nckd. lrp.TJ-uTt u..J chol
alt1'tn'S w/ul/1 J.>rk \i.alc bl.~1."h aboc. tbrk on brc;UI DML
I 'S l cm 114 111 \\ 11i! 1112 cm (3S-
t0') f annl;and aJ.1accn1 l<I Wfcr Im:!> IJlOrllbl-iliu<intallako Mada,b bd<"' female\ brovn
n.111 Oft<n p..'f~he, quietly on uuluy posl. aboe. cbrk on brca<r and "h1I<' 011 ~II~
I II $1131 or fcn~"C J"'I \\hen huntJDg 11 Harris's Hawk Peuco
l1h1cll)' hO\c,. llH:r field. ""h lhc ;ud of
hc..J1>1nJ If pro:)" l1>c::11.:d.11~chu1cs Parabuteo unicindus TX#25
l.wn "uh ,..,.._..i
h1wh O\ er b.>J} 1n I .tS 59 cm (Ill ~l"I \V '>2-121
\ 0 l~llllm IOt,rtFI C \TION i\n .:m (lb -Ill"). Op1:n dr) forol
111r.1Cll\C clc11.1n1 r.ip1or .\/,,.,.bojf,,J .,.,th edge. maiorral ,ind J.:,cn 'tCnoh
1111/ long. /Hll'ullI 111lc1/ t<1il. Falcun-h f..e i\lsu in formla11J nc~r di') forcI
111 11lar JIO"crlul JU. lhu~ PP::"
gull- 0 2000m. IOF N llH C'i\'llON
" 111 t 1111 oily due 101;li11l11ly bcni wing.. G1'1'1'l1bo1-e 1\ bulky, hon and bmad-wm11cd
~ I 1/1111l 11111/ 11111IN/11rt.~ white. fllocA pt1td1 hnwk w11h n long 1011 Ad 1111d J11v.
I I 11 ",11,1111c1!w look. 'Tii1/ ,.lif1t ""'' grc.1 hO\\ f'U/r /II/Ith Ill /11111 u( / II I
II I' 111 wllh i/111k1r 11n1/,1 ' 11ml \ I 111111111s. .luv. lll llfl('\, while l'Clll ClUlrUMlllJ.'
J 111 11 11n hc,1d, brcat on1I b.icl. Separated with res\ of bod) plumGge ani.l mm>m 11/1lt1 111111/t, i\11 //n11111
'' 1t.1mcr by luck of bluet.. ~houldcrs. olxie. rufou< 1111 1/t1Ju/Uer ~nJ hrt>\\ n h..111 \\ llh inc" llJI
r h.111\lcd hnf nd bcha~mur of Oying streaked or blotched palltm. l<uloll' 1h1 ~h' ,,11111,"1 " ll h wh11,
111 h 1i11cll\t hhrtlral VOI CE: A soft ven1. Rumpwhi1cand1.,,/11/,.//,l .J, A 1tl h, . ,,/,.h111111
' , h "'"' ", ,,,,, A1"' -on rpmi; no1c' Ju,. has paler head and ,. '""" h t111<th h111~i:cl t>cl"'
<NH.fderpak ruf'*> "''" 1lmAJ<>1 Ml <Nlfn.> R111t1p "'"'' "''"
greV1sh. narrn"IY l>JnJr, "rp.111tc.t httm J"' 11nJ lir t
bo>1c) \'tlriabk Hav. I. hy Ion ,.. t 11 "'~tk 1 fiCCltl.1n.:, nJhll
<htiuldcr, "b11.: ru11>JI a11<l l1" J. I 1l ~u~nnuul 1.1!1.bafld

1""1._hN1>;1_,,, \lorl 1hlcl \ Oii I /\. lo1MI , h.uh M lt'llnl

typical female
'11111.tble Hawk typkJI m.ill'
ind femdle
h'(I 1, lruo1t ''' C'<I 1h.,n-1a1leJ r:apton. often seen <n&nnll on lhtnnal\ dunn1 mtdd.I) Tu rdct>lr f)
11 1 on I 11 r 11 m r"Ct<:c ut 1.t<:~ of a dart. palllgial bar. and s11c and .iructurc. Wing moult oc~u..., all.-.
Ill 1lorflli ftol 1hl\ ill "111tc1 ljWll r ht \\bth.:throa~d HawJ,;;bo-.-e-a-. )OUn 'borJ.. lltt" """l'\cJ 1n .. tng 11\0llh fn>m
V ltlc: H.1wk Agu1lutho Jar!""" l'tV f"1lr11Jirt1.; to 1ull-n11 rrtt and
rn.t} ~ more oh.,ou than rcJ of 1a1I
ll11/ru 1mlyu~om.i TX# 26. FLK
I I t>2'm(20 221w Ill - ISi \\'h11"h on 1hr<'At and brul .an~rnon
(111 (511 5111 Tiie: mo..s C(>t11!Dl'ft
ct.c..bcrc, "'lh J.rrl hri/> b<J,,J Ind hfasl
p:uchc Urrcrpan<1bru"nhh, "''h tthltuli
Rutt'" 10 l lttlc Open areas and
for~ cJcc:. from~ In cl 10 5000
,;.,,1o1., mt SrtJf'l'lor Rc.1n,1cJ pale 1hroa1
fie)( dearl) $<:1 00 from r.-;c lb OD
m \ J"1rnc111" l<>nn l'i>""K""<~I
\\ b1tc-thmAlcJ llA\l;I. In n111h1 . Rufo11,..
,,. Uf' " " lhc Jun FcmanJcL b
u1lcd /las o Jur4 potu~lal bc1r anJ 'nna
lilt'' 111 IC \11 0' The mosl
1Jnhk Rul'r>. .,lructunlly rarhcr mon "i"l! lmms 03rk morph 1nttrrh hrrM1tt1h-h/"'' "'nh
>Orne Miiite P<'CJ.illf[l on -.,1puf<Jf'\ and narc Tail IJ'CYth"'
loni: "1ni;.:J. "<\:undan"' do no<
lu c\1~111 <>I Rutuu,1111lcd ll~w~. W1n11 protilc Oa1 or u
narrow bamng. lack" rufnu, Ju> wh11"h hclll\1, "'''" nbvrnu
unmarked 14hll< hr11tr/ and Cl>nlta\llns fur4. tr.uA1J l>t / '
" .~ 1hh~1lr,,J Only (hr lean 8111""' "h tn4ing "h1t<' tu1/ unJ
band Brown upJ1Crp~n;, w11h 1'11itf\/1.<mp11/11r11111rJ.1n11.~. 1~11
, t 4 1, 111111o1f 1111f./tr111d 1\1 lc.N 27 d10crc111 od morplh known
H J, '" t ,, 4 uUJll) onl> on r~malc. bu1M~01crl3p L~oungcr brownosb Wtth uurAl!r ""'" MJ<ldl'r Jlwn "" ''"'""'' ''"" A
Undcrwin11s of 1uv. show dor4 p111111,1f11/ 1111ir4, und bold d11ri
llltk 1 MoI common morph ~fm111/1111 wftltt bt/,,.,. 11ightly
1..,, ,1 il.Jo1111~n .ind red 1>.1d, (lu'l!cly fctnafc,). Cum:spondin11
commn on grcalcr 11ndcrwmg-covcn \ OICE \ h,,,.,.h A11
1111111 1l1111h11. f)111 11h<lo111cn whl1c11111l bu~k 1!/'C)'. 0 1hcrcomrno11
111 .. qoh 111111.,, h111 m111.: dcn..cly li.1rrcd bchm. {1n:y morhs
. 111111 11111..Jv i:.rcy bulow. ~rcy <111 hrc.l\I anJ 1hrCM1 "nh barred White-throated Hawk Agullucho chico
I lh "' ncn rcdthoh nn belly. bud.. grey or red Reddish fom1' Buteo albigula
111 I ~ 1,t1JiJ,hl!rcy <ln 1hro.11. rcJ1H'h on l'l:'l llrundctp;tns vr - __........, L -10--lli ctn t 17"1W11-1 102 cm (37") J\n
toof.h Jr.i;re) un 1hrna1 and hrNI onJ rt'ddr~h on belly. uncvmmon /111Jt1 of \111h11fu1111' fore
1111111ulro11, hJl 1trc redhh l><'lu" arc ahia) ~1"1 on bad dunng hre~dmg 'CJ'l>O Sea le\ cl '" '0<1Cl m
111 I 1~1 " Ith 1...11 )' b.irrrng tln belly, 1cJJ"h t>n ba<k uml Hti,ihly n1111111COI'). 11 ltaH\ Ch1lc 1n wmlc1
ljhll "' .u1J 1.11! ~1m1lr In J UI' C\<<'l'l n<>11ccablc cbr\ >Uh- \11J!r.ttc 1lnoi Andean lc'l<>lhrll, ~ lca't h i
1< 11111111 h.uul I 1r-tb;1"c: \lm1l~1 10 JU' llnm,, Ha"k tn Sanu:ago. funl>cr nutth m.ay m ,,-ol cit\I of
r .. ua,c. l>ul ...,., ,rJ: o/ bn>.1J ....,,, Ju1l 1111. rufou> Oii hac~. Andes 1rou1c> unnnwn) IOt" 1 IH C \ .
Iii>! I" I houhkn. JarA run11' and uu.:1ural d11Tercncc, Jui TIO' The J Malll'JI, """ ..,,., ' Mf'ilC'I
\ar h hul ah-a1> b.u gmu" tu1/ '"'" nJl/ll<"f>W '"'""" 8u110 '\hnI 3lwa~ olhcl"lcJ 1D
f.irl. r hu,.., \1011 arc p.ilc c1~1tamon bck>,., ulbt~cd on OtgbL Sboft-bod1-'CI. >hon-1a1leJ litNtlurc, wnd 1>1na1Jb11r:111hns
brc'sl tfalC'J Oii abdotnc:n llnd ~IC rate 1upcrc1hum and ~ 10 .. 1ngs. ll1ni:pn!fil/IUJ. M1th1/111t1Ul w~rl6/n1tqtll~
d 1L nul.u 1111'<' IMrlct lt1(lrpb JU' hc:a\ll)i bcl.,,. . Win!?' l'QCb 11dt hr>n of 1a1l lip I tnl C1111trm/ "' "'"'
m 1nd111Ju.tls ~re moukJ on hrcaI and un} on throdl "i1/t durt 'ltd"'"'' nuuceablt: <:1cn at a d11ao.:c Un.ltt-
t..J.,mcn \I.a be tonfuied "''lh J U\ Utx.. -chc,ICJ 8tU.r.ard- ~ "'hnr, wnh brov. n chnt l'llh<. 3n.J hrr11 nt>h /"JI It " "
I 1,, but mlkr "'th Jc, h11l111ng '4-,;11ndoinc:a. llttcr "''II f/an.b 111lid! is \hiblC ID niahr \'ariahlc. bul .....11c-m1 leardn~
I rolik- rid ruundc "'1ngtrp> ~l.o;lc 1rn.t.1n ~ shaped suc::iks"" b-.t and bell) 1 high barrcJ connamun
<I) '"'I hdly IJvth JU' \\ h11c-1hn>.;1tnl ;ind Rufnu.Llil"<i Dari. brov.D aoo1c, /<Jt"kilq/, >dlt~ K Jf'llf.,, '1'"""'1' ot Ruft>U""
1..1 Irr 1 "'" " " ~1n, and bro.i.krJ.irt. Uri wl~ Haw!.. or grc)'>h uprcrpJrb nt V1it1.1blc lllwl. G11cn
1>1111111111 J1111 h tnandc1 Ila" k (form rt111/1 OIU.:(~t IO~ good ,.;.,,. C'iJJJWlfftNlMJ:ltnl htnHt ptllcl.l!l 11nJ ,.....1; .,.J,-s
All 11 lhr hconr neutral 1re), J1,11nc1ly -.h1tc- \1,;ibk Tari ~rt.. grc)r$h, wnh m3'11m.illy n;1rro11o uul
11p11\ .11 .1,J,; t...utwr. .uld while undcrp;ut \lor'U\ct, no f'Cdd1,h band. and lightl) broatkr 'lllbtcm11n.1l h.utd Ju\. '1m1IJr h
I hen m ~nowrtruu";uron bJ~l.oc1fc11h~tcx oflhr< fom1 ad., panicularly on upperpnm fuct' \lrcakctJ, II t.lark helmet
1111 lmtl.u IJ p.ol<r IYllC' found on mrnl~nI \ OICt:: Maon I~ pronounced than ad Below whrtl\h "'"h 1111lc nnnnonun
' I\ 1h1111011 t..:~111 Milt 11 lo11gcr m11c 1hcn rcri:tncJ A<o11 nolc~. wash. streaking more no11ceubl~ nnJ blacker lht1n t>n ud , nnd
th11 A.1, I ~. ,,,. 'n>n A1m (t'f>"- ~HI" Atou kttm .ltuw- W'" cittcnds to cc:nirc of brcu" nnd ccnrrnl belly. A1~11>1 ttnd llnnk
A.''" 11111111 ,,wrnl ccmuls. J11v. jjlVC\ 11 l11~hcr prlchcd patches.comprise lnrgcs1nink>. 11111>1M1h1l1hllll In lh11h1juv.
I I' """" ,.,......,.,, Alltt'f' may be confused with 01hc1 1wo R1111M, 11111 111111> /111'4 <!{ d11rA
paragi11/ 11<11ch and /\ola1r1/ d11r{ m1111m1 .\1:.- 1111(/ ''"" tttl\
lh1fo"' t .iil~d Hawk Aguilucho de cola rojiza nrc bc.~l used 10 sepnro1C" from .i'.lmc juv. Vurrnhlc, und nok
/111/111 v111t1,1/n Whi1e-thro:11ed\ lack Ofa rah: llJl<'f'1hU111 Mnd lln111 nt/, mun
uniform uppN(JOrf\. \IO IC t <\ hnll A1 r11li, 'cll11'1t1 heard While- throated
Southern Caracara

more \dk" ~ ,., nrmi;c fac1al ~n J en

brn,.ni.h. utrcmcl) Mm1lar 10 JU\
l 49 ''~ 19 2(;"1 \\ 120 an \fou111am. 114~ '""Y.
tt:puahle 1n fldd
I 11 1 \ m"' cf habna~ from \\.hitc INO&la! htra c. d.vltn br,.,...
l&rml~DJ to ~ open fcn95. bod) . 01 fer 1n <11n1lu manner from
Patagonian Slt:rpc aJld coasts Omnan C.,., 111 d<:~, JU\ \IOW11.ltll
f te>lntled IO~ m nonhl. l:.u:H- Ch1ch I \ 0 1( I 1'oc kn''""'
ur 11arl>a1c Jump>. 0 :moo m.
IO~\ I lfl( \l 10\ The lafl.!est
umc~na tn Ch1lc Robust :.hape. Mountain Caracara Cara ncho cordillerano Striated Caracara
I lh I 111 .. hli' 0.11.rpv.11 Id Mm ~llhhrrh'1l t:<1ntrasi111g with Phalcoboenus megalopterus
IH1ll1 II' lr11 A <1111/ hrotnt 11/11tli 11 Ju1-./) lwrf\'J hro1111.
I S2 $(cm (2U ?2") W 11 I 124 cm (44
I "" 1111l.1111d ollld p.dc, Ctllllr.1111111\\Cit111th.blnck cap. Large
4<J") SolltAr)' unit~\ Ill c.11cn'~ ll111h \mlc~n
' " 1 /11/1111111 lm>:ht tittlllJl,<~ ti.I /tJ<WI <km. the colour gn"stnmb w~ttun.i, mHJ chn~. 2fl!Kl $(KIO rn
1111 1 1 11~ .1w1irdl1111 10 ' 1a1c Mbml l.un11 yellow leg~. In lllght
ID F.NTI PIC'1\'l'I ON A l111111tu llcd um! long
11011~ l111 t11 11 hlr~ prlinnry p111chcs nml burred while tail with
wingcil curn~uru, winl:lM ncnrly rcuch It 11111
h1111ul hlnck 1orn111111I hllnd, l' nlcr covens oppcar II' l)[Ownish
lip n1 rc.i. SliGlll Ct'CMI . At/, Mai-4 11/1/r w/111,
111111..t 0111 11pp~rwl1111. Juv. .imlltu hu1 browner. nnd st reaked on
11r1 ~ a111l 1111dcr11un~. n01 bllfrcd. Ynung stngcs may be confused bl'l/p """ l't'lt/, 1111/ hl11d "''" IW'/11' 11 '/r//('
"1th 1uv, ol t1thc1 lur1wr cnrncarus bu1 c(lntra,ting dark cap It"''''
'""" 111111' ""'I' 1111111/ri11 111111/1111/ h1t11J
Smn ll 11lute11r~ to 11rl11111nc... wh1d1 conttnuc
oh.1~11u,11c lu1t1cl)' v. hlll\h 11111 1\lth many narrow dark bars
as white 1ru1hng cd{lc on ,,.,onJorrc Unll.-rwin11 ru11crn
~I o 11d11I h>r '''11.1r1t1011 \ O IC' F 1\ ni'pmg. 1011. repealed
1;,,,( striking, M'h11e /1111ng111111/ 111111 r11111r111/ "11/1 hloJ Ar,111111<'
Bill $k~ blue 11ith redd"h ha-. o1nJ 13ciAI ~Lin, bn1h1 )cllu11
leg.. Juv. bmwn1,h, L1<k1ng v.lutc on hell~ Whnc 11~ tc1<01cn White- throated
St riated Caracara Carancho negro and 1enials Tail bml>n1-h 1111h bu01 N.~ ~nJ rump Jui """"s Caracara
Phalcoboenus aust ralis FU< a pale pnmaJ') rarch anJ 1n l111h1 111 he confu><:J 10l1h
I. b-4 < n 1~~1 \I, II~ 125 cm 1.16-49"1. Chimango Cania111 llu..,c\-.:r. ~foun~1n" much L>ricr \011h
\\ 1nJ,,.cpt i;ra1Wlds on fuci:ian 1\lands. darlo:atail. ... brtcr rumranJ J1ffcrellll) 'l"'J p;olc """ f'Aldl.
R11rc r.-~111,tcd 10 largel} 1oa..:cnsible See \\lute-throated Cancan""' .qiatoll O"\ \ 0 1( EA ,Jurrcd
ac- or n11~ s lluJc,. ~'la' 10 fmd in muffled w..~...,fthft
_ 1~ ran L .t 'nr
Tiltt.'ltcnN. IOE.\TJ-
Chimango Caracara Tiuque
1 IC' \ fl O\ Luce 10.:l;i. c:.nian "id1
n ''"I
"'"'1 lftJ ....S small bill. ,fi/. Milvag o chimango
'1PJ><un hlacA11N l>..t hupc: lkt! uttJ ~,~<I <trraW
'- L -40 "'1116"1 \\ fl 9<I cm 1.ll
u/..:ry, <lellln; 1NICJ ''"'" Bill rate blue. barr/JoiJ/ ~u. _l<i1 Al<11nJ.an1, c,of"Jli.'311 Ctun-
,,,..,,,g,B.irc ra,e pat<h tnU<:h rcJu.;c<l .:ompared to other
rc~rt uf nur1hcm ht"m"rhcn:
<olr.IO>lll' &>J Na< .l, dtlu:r tltalf f'llf"'" 1A1glu anJ 1 rnt. Black
Cn>" s. Olt.-n m llOI,, n..d, u....-s
'"" 11/i ~"' ltf' In ll111h1 l1'()k' blad, 1111h ,tnJJI buff primary
rrct~ uf h~tiu.11 ~tmat un) Mountain Caracara
r-11,h u11.l 1inna11111n '"'J'C an undel'\l in1-coem Juv. Ilk" ad. "her~ m\ludm1H11Jc,, farmland
1'1111 "1'11wn"h. "11h 11111~ lu<1ul urea nnd 1rey leg" s~-parared
nml 111hcr open or cm1npcn
h11111 '"' Whnc-1hro.1Lcd t'nrncarn by ln'l!Cr '"" ~mallcr bill. hab1t111s I nrcly tcncstnut while
fl,111,r <r111o11 Jnd Incl Ill pule ' l>Ots 1111 llp~ llflcnmls and wing
hlru111ng, wull1nv w11 h dcrcr
11~"' '" lull c1n11.1n11111 with d,1rker 1crm1nnl band. no whitish mined gaic. lmroduccd lo f'n~rcr I I) I ~0() 111. IOF N !'I FICA
llns< u~ 1111 \V h11v thront ~d . VO l (' I: Ad. 11t1crs u hoarse TJON A smnll bmwn1~h cnrncnrn wlch 11 ~1 11111 1 hill nnd rnthcr
1m1111/1/t/t/, yo11n11~ivc11 crnwJlkc "'""'"' 11111ml1! gentk cxp1 cssion due 111 folntivcly l1t1"11c tyll. ll:uc lildul ~kin
restricted. pinkish, 1101 coloutl'ul Rs in 1cloclvcs1 11111 pnlc grey
White- throated Caracara with greenish cip. Brown but n1t1ltlNI f!Qlor lhrc111twu1, p.1 lcr
co1dlllcrano dcl sur
C a 1d11 c h o on ~iroat and vem. Thooc from C'oncc11cii\11 'outh ,1r\! dnrkc1.
/111.1/cobornus 11/boguliJris ln Oigbt noce dis11 nc1 bcnu u1 wm1 tunltkl' < l11fl111 fl u11ok),
pale primary pa1ches and pale llAo,( 1111.111 W11111,fl11ro. 'mllcr
I ~ 11111 I ""I \\1110 IN cnt tn -4~"), Gnr~lands of
~Oii '\IHI 111 IO t:~'l IFI CATIOl\ size and pale pnrnary pillth '<l""''c' lro111 ' "'"11. llams\
Ha11 k. Juv. like ad. , bur mor< 'r' 11\ , .1l1l 1>11 ut>J>Cl"J>.trh and
more blad.:.i;Ji Ml 11r \ ()IC I ~ 1.-.ucl ..._,rin~l""'' J"ttt:
lrt<a lr"'O h"a 4,..., A <1 I tr I '" ""!CS lurrcJ ~nd lon11. end
notes ttptlllllT, h.h .,ub'hht; q...illl\

Ooclt foraging
l'l All ~= ()\pr ey and ralco_n_s _ _ __ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
1111 1 m111101)11< lomoly 1l .s11J1vn1.UC). It as ;i large fish-c;mng raptor \\llh a ch;iracterhl1 lung, hcnl\\111tcd
II I 111 ' " ~1111 "" " c"11 1Ci ""''~ th.u "dp lo bold ~lipper) fish. Falcon\ arc ch;ar.i.:icn,cJ h> thcor lc1111. l"illltnl
11 or1 r ll In grn,~l I")~"''"'""'"' hunlcf" of Otherbirds.e\.l'q>t IM l,.e,.tttl ,.b,,h hunl\ mall Rkkoi. and in\C<'t
I I Alt' mhh l:.rcrr rh rnak>.All .how d small notch ltoothl along the cunani cd;;c ol rhc urrtt nunJ1hk, nc:ar I

fl111ty Aguila pescadora Aplomado Falcon Halc6n perdiguero

I' 1111/10 11 IJ.JliJ~tus Falco femoralis
I ~8 em llJ "I \\ l~O 1~11 cm (55 7 1"1. L l1>4S cm I 14 Ill" )\\ llU cm
\t111111I> .o,u.;1~1eJ .,.11h \\ater. lar&d> c-'l"1 lnh.tbrh r.1n11c or habrw
CNlll on l hole, II prefer> C>IU~rtC and all o pni ur Jcmr<>~n de
mnlin bah Ii.ti.,.""'" 11 ca1<~..,, ~ hoer- farmland. marurnl Pa11t1
11111 anJ 1h\111g. "'n.' fiN. to rta-UWI~ c"
crre O J~(JO m 101 ' 11
~lricc pre \f1~n1n1 fmm nonhcm hcm1- I IC \ l IO'o "' hm, mcd1urn
rtierc, moult t1111h1 r~~lhcr- -.h1lc on Chile. lrr~ fal.(ln "'"""'"'""Jtcl> 1.
tu" m.1) ,1.1y 1hc1r lil'>t )CM 1n Chile. ().. 11111 nnll 1<11111 narrn-. "'"8'
5011 on 10~ :0.. 11 FIC. \11 0~ A lurgc. long- Bc~1111fully plum.11(cd, ,,,,,,._.,,n11 l1
h, ;iJ r 'I'"'' Wong' hdtl nn1:1lcd, aml from u tlos1ancc may lead gl"l!o con1r11mg ntllr />11//1 l>rr1nl h/11.-Alh h'\I ,,,.,,

11 h 1l.ir1 a:11ll When perched ln1111 \\>Ing ""end beyond c:mnt111w11lx!ll11<> 1mdert11il-Ml'C'rl /:"' t' lt111J, ,.11/r thin bla I
lotl l //,,,,.I ll/'/11'1/111//< wot/ 14/('11111111)1 lilllt umll!r/1tlr/$ Strwrg mo11.>ta(1rial anti dorA <'.Vtluw 1111t1m11111g with /m1111/ hll//
""'' 111"""1/11rA r'l't'llt//11'. pule >up~rciloum nnd crown. Sup<'rci/111m. In llish1 nolc ~hm, lonlltnol(.'tJ ~h~flC 1\ll U!!C~ hn\\
11>11 1111. 1l1t...11 hyc y~lli'W in ad, Sc~< s11nilnr bm male blackish 3xillarlc:s ~tld win11 li11h1g, la1I blud;"h \\ilh man:
h't11I I .1i11w nwrc ltcukinl! 11n b~"' In 01gh1, gteammg narr()w. whi1ish bnnd,. Juv. .rm llu r bu t hrown"h nbo<
11111" 11111111111111, 1111<1 wi1111 hnlng' c11111ru'l "11h block 'wri<1" Jtreakcd on breaM Jnd bull 011 bclly1verl1 . Scporutctl fro11 1
"'' nrul 11" . 1 111111.rric~ p.11cr 111 ba~c. b111 blnck ttl lips_ Ju\. Pcrt'grine l'nkt'" by 11111111.-r 'h11pc l11ngc1 111rl, dao
11111111 h ~I h111 up1ocrpmn tea1hcr. ~rtpl) fnngcd wh11e. undcrn mg~ uml dork 'vcsl' cot11ra\lin11 wilh pJlcr brcuI
11111!11111 I .ol\ ""l'<IOCI, lye rcdd1,h and brca\I onco \ 'O ICt:: Slwl'Jl <,enc, ol Ack 11t1IC.
!.., 1 l~rll I to be (Onfll't(I wrlh an~ 01hcr ( hilcao
1 11 1 I I " pakbclhctl \anablc Ila,. h ma) cause Peregrine Falcon Halcon peregrino
'' ~IJ f, c l"'llcrn bLM:I. ,,.~ JICllCh and l>alTtd Falco peregrinus TX # 28. FU<
, \(I I( I \ "'"c' nflouJ """'It'""('""-"'"""
, ., ,,, , ~~cJ ~ c 1., mtcn als, bu1 van<'S L )K ~o cm (IS 201 \\ QS II
r l1I "''cl .. ~ t37 -46"1 C'n,1111>11<ht111. in
<111tc O<CU~ In V8fl<)U h:ab1lah
1ndud1n1 all. h11h Andt')
A 111r111 .1n Kt'strel Cemicalo
Pa1Jgon1an lcpp.- anti, more
'"'' ,.., ~I'" ~flus
, I 2~
cm WI'! \\ SS cm 121").
rcccntly, <,11,.,, 1.. 0 "''"'' .,,.."
dent brcc:Jcr " """"'' and 11 Peregrine falcon
c)pen C<'W!U), la~I) farmland. m11ran1 trom 1hc nonhcm hnnl-
ll'J' I.ind and .\n.X.. 'r:st ID 'ph~n: ltu11tfn1111 -.hoch t J'l'C1CO''
CJ\!llC I he most w1d.:<prcad and bigel~ msummer, BurcaJ ~ moulr an Chrl~ srnn 'umm..
"""'"''" r1kon'" (bric. fmages \\bile t:USStnl moull on .lutullll\ .,.inter II HOO rn IOE' TI
ftf m-.-.:1 and ,m.1J1 nummab b) FlC ATIO:\ A bulky, deep <hci.1cJ. fl''" faf<;,
hmcrm& o\cr pre)' iUIJ dropping IHngs long. rt"Llrl11ng tar I up" hen pc~lr.:.J ,ft/ h1u hl14'A l111tx l
11111ckly 10 m.11.c ktfl Endemic blur-grc_1 bud lpu/.,~ in nralrJ. pvl huU U1JJ.-,.,,.m< 11 h1< It orr
-<th,rc~conJu:an Fcm.uKk..:and srrong~1 tw=d nn b<'lll um/ 3otd un,1n:~l.ed 1hr0;a1 and
IOlt'i f If.IC \110' A m31l, ,hm brean. Blucgrt) tuol nllrrO\l>ly barred blnCkl\h Mou1/u,hwl
broad and blends into 1/urA C'/1uk" nuturg /o,/m1 ''"' ll/1
pee.ranee. A small amount of pale from neck rcachc bch1n1J
moustachial. bu1 is variable. Ad 111111/r/111 uvcrngc paler aboH
nnd belQw. wnh lhon mou~lltchonl brna1tly b1irdorcd pule 011
checks. A rore pa le morph of tun1111, fonnc1ly conMdcrcd 11
~pccies (Pallid Falcon). occu r In 'i1r1111 nf M11gd lu11 and
Pauigonian Steppe. Ad. whiush bdow, wnh vuri11l1k sp.u11<: dur~
barring. narrO\\ mou~1achi11I. pale forchc.ul or '"l>crclllum
Many Peregrines in the for 'o<1u1h C\h1b11 ><mt' ckmcnt ot 1ruc
Pallid Falcon. Juv. rnss111/ lokc nil hul l\111"1111h11\c, w11h blue U1 tlftf
cen: and orb11al nng, bu,ad pJlt up"' 111 n111t ,11,,1~ctl undco
pans. Juv. rundnuf '1m1l.i1 bu1 h.t Nlht\\ '"""'1a<:h1dl .an '
obviou; pale <trpcrc1lrum. paler h11" 11 nl~l\C Ju,, l.:dlu.1 ~k"<h
lil.c ..d.. bul <! hdo" r~lln r Ito.on hrrcJ, with hluc <ere
llnd otba1al ~ 'See \pl.lf'lr.Jd.l I 1tlron kif >qUral1on ff\lm l.rttcr
ildult ' P.illtd
\ 'O ICf \ ~lo,. "'"'ul n rn ,./,..A"'"- lc""I> ac:..~kr.;11111-1 rat<on \o.11 111g
Plumbcous R.111
11111..111 '" h1hl 1~ ""''ti hut Im 11.1111111ly elusive denizens of marshes. TI1cy ar~ >tllCky bu1 lntcmlly cum1irc 11
11111 ""I''""''"' \\~ILrn~ thwu II tire Jcn""st marsh 'egetatioo tn a Stealth), quiet mannct l"o of('h1l1!' teol .n
I 1 t ''""'" 1111..! t11ll111ut..-, arc also rails. but often swim in the open, in the manner of coo11f11/tc ,,
I lu1nlu,ou R.lll Ptdf n Spotted Rail Piden moteado
I'.,,/,, 11//111 \nsuinolt'ntu' Pardira//us maculatus
l 211 38 nn (ll-15) Marshes L 25-3:? cm (10-12..5") \'l1ran1 cmc: rc.-<'fd rrum Rciht1Ul111
nnJ pond bordered b) dco$c Crusoe I. \ur<lic IOF,TIFIC \TIO' .\ ' tri'dur{ roll t/W
aq1L111c c1cta11oa or sbntbby is olrriowsh SJ'('flt'ti ottJ stn ' <I ~ 1 l un (I l\ bead :wr
thi;: let nm brainbla. :'\ot sh~. geenish-}ello"' btll ithn-Jb..x ,.,,o,.v ""1m/1hk. RcJ
cam.-nnl) obcr>cd on opca. Smaller lllld S:o.:licr then J>llllnbo.>us Rlltl. tqW&ICJ b~
111ltlt rd1mcs 0-JOOO m. plumage~
I Of '\TH IC \TIO' A large
""IA b/11< Aul '"' 11.ttps tail Spot-flanked Gallinule TagOi~
co.:lcJ or rump '' rrctliog Callinula (PorphyriopJ) melanops
'1tJ I Nqpilshtl) ~cd btll v.tthdccpttbuc.&n-
' l>/u, ""'' 10 "l'f"'t 11tJ11J1/1/e and Ml l>tu.- 10 It,....,,. U< 30"" 110 12"1 Pon1J. :mJ
11d Ne ll'J:J IYJ, J\d d.trk "')' llf1 h,'l!J and breast. l~Le. "''h muh) cJscs "'
I KltUI l>rnv.n uh<H l'1n~m ''"'"n11> m.tllcrand bngjitcr mar.he "1th open cdgu fl
11111 I than nuth((n lun.t/1...-A,, nd llmJ1~1 Soutbcmmosl "'.k>prc;id aollmulo In Chtl.: fl
111111/11 tlll.1a.1ll~11<1) cl')' lnr11~ and ni.1~ lac~ bn1P11 colours 71)() m IOP'HIFICAI IOI\ 1\1
11ll lo1ll l-.1~ J1w hmwn wtth huflbruwn focc ond underpartS. attrdclt\C 'm1lll 11.tll1nulc. uwull\
I'' \'td1 r1111L 1~11 1111d 11rcylh bill VO ICE Usually given in ob~Cr\cd N1V1111mln11 near 1:uvc1
11t11 I 11 1t.11111cHt1uttdl1111. eerie 1>rnc1ra1ing >Ong. cl'\!eowww Stocky, Oat-hucl.ed, wtth -lt<111
I , I ti WWW' l'('t'(IU WW thw/1111' clrnt't'/' C/iU'(!t!p! rcmalc inter 11olntcll tnll lh~1 1. rnckcd ttl rcvcul
jl ..,.,low, 1>11m11lng hoor~ Imo the AOllJ!. Cull n plcrcmg weep!. white undertail pa1ehc$. Riii .vl111rt, l'lkkl'11 W t, l/11w /.!H'l'll
legs dull green; eye red. mirm /il'()ll'lt 11/1111'1', "'"" ('(lll/l'lll//1111
A11tt.1I Rilll Pid~n austral g~J' rieck and undtrpart.<nnd dnrker cap. Fln11k1 11111//t' Jll111"'1
white. Juv. brown above and buff on neck nod 11111lcrt>Ut1 \,j/111141
11,//11t .mtnrcticus spo11ed like ad VO ICI:: Son cluckln11 ound. Somcttmc
I 20 cm (8") Very rare, ~cently redis- louder hult-h11h-h11lt
cll\(rcd. prc\tnuly not Ccn since 1948.
I lttonc1lly" n rrom Santiago area and Purple Gallinule TagOita purpurea
I akr o..
tmt, t>ut pn>habl) C~lt~tcd ID Porphyrula martinic.a
bc>th Sh) anJ cwcmdy dtfficuh 10 obscnc.
C\Cft U'lni pJa\bad., lnh1b11s Sc1rp1L$ L..30-36 cm (I 2-11 \11'11nt, lhrtt ~orJ, 1ll 1n nonh Ju
lllah"" It Paw,:on1&11 ~ forc.i bonier. partkuluty prone 10 agran.;; JU rel) .,. tm ta> l<1.rgd)
ti) requun abu"<l ot dead 411\d bcnl"1\er Slalks fO bidden m cgcuuon roL,Tlf IC 'flO\ ''" <II rord> 1
\\,l~IC' IOf "l lf'IC' \TIO' A mall. loag-billcd bnrtrnish, (J3kr bclo.... "th )Cll- k< 0111 )CJl<>,.'bh, Mtllg
U ,. tb britflt rr;/ /egs " J " l'hl l>d Coclu nd flic!..s htn'e dull b/w.grtt'll Moui. fd llltTrwlb.o I mOUl'{llf, pc
~ I l fi"i f~ Ind un~ b..- , lta.TMJ Nod a"'1 .,._,,lie abm'c purphsh-bluc: nl lllld ~ l\h;ltt,aloumt
1IU.tllf$ "'/th rifle \-rtfl 9,_ n1~ aho\C sacalcd
boll with st) blue weld,
l R )ti 111g pattlt Ju unlnown \ O ICE Song a
A I mculltc t.'C'-<ltt J tt-<ltt tu..,... each patT Common Moorhen TagOita del norte
t t 11wrn 11 0 ' 1n1cnal Wlk:a 1l.11rmcd. a ha.rsb Callinula chloropus
( 111111 ( 11011.TJ 1mmeJ1a1cl) b) a throaty pln.-.1-pltltu- l 3~38 cm (IZ t~"l MNh<>, po11J
" h 41f'('C;ltll that C'.i1h P>IC type I" en b) one mcmbtt CSIU3rth anJ h11hl.1nd Ja.. C. SJ1rUJ1111
ftl I' II south, should be 1.iu~cJ for in any mar>h)
mer mouth from VolpJr.ii>C> n<1rth O 11"1
01111 k R.111 P1denc1to m. IOf.NT IH C;\TIO'I u,uallyw1mm1 nr I 111ple Gallinule
I Im''""' }11111.1irt'mis s.Jlinilsi TX# 28 size of o tnallcr coot but 1w1m 11 lh ,.,.,,,
I 11 I' 1111 (~ (1") llttlo known . probably e11d hlgh~r thonjnmt. 8/11111111lll~ltl l'l'U 1111/t
111111 ~ 1111111111111 lhnn 11crccivcd. Wet sedge yellow bill tip. Ootrk brown nbtwc und d111 k
m 11 ~h1111111 wcl lint~~)' fields. Near Threat- grey on head onu u111loq1u1 I~. luf,f '' /i111
stripe 011}/(Jllks. Le11s green with rtd 'garter'. l.01111 dltl'k tuil,
' "' '' ' lllJIN l 'l fil ('A'l ION J\ 1!11y.Ji11ch-sized
1.11/ 1(111111111with ~lwrt iiltl<'k 11111. yellowish with white undercnil-covcn pntchcN, ~u~ll)' cc11, us ttnil to
/, '' ' ' ,/ "'"' 1111<1shm 111ol111cll w1I. /Jluckisli cock tail. Altiplano nico (garm1111/) 111111'11 liugl't 1tttd blnckllt
1111/o'd 1111ol 1111t1Acd ll'liill', m11trOSI even on uppcrpans. Juv. brown1>1t, ~~1l11r.11~ll f'to111 youn11 ~""'
"/1/J t /t, 11111111.. ,, 4 lklnw llJlrrblackbh by noticeable whirejlc111A .1111/'t' u111/ 1////111111 llllf'<' \/()IC I
Clucking notes, also a longer 11n111l)'(1I 1/11A 1/114-d11A111!
t y ''' \l 111 ' "11tu""J "''h chicks
1 1101111 ''"
phtrr phtrr phrrr.
I J 11 11 II 11.,1 \ Clll I \ h"'p kl1 Ut k1c
in '' 1th ,\tncru:nn lur-d'
Re d ga1 t11rtl Cont
White-winged Coot
"11111d atll( !.). M.1~!. rat!- th 11 hr c "h1lc s" tmming: somctunc-s coo fused ""h duel.; by le,, C\flCrtcnccJ ot>~nc
1 n d11 lcn hli.c 1>111, ~n,1 t\1'A1tllcd fn111t1I Jhaehb. as well as lobed rather than \\cbhrd fCC'I , /\II cc><ll ire blado,h, "' I
tn"""' ot ,.huc un t114' un.t.:n.111-.:<',nt .\pan from s:azc and gen~l .otl'UClurc, thc important 1dcn111iu1ton chln.,1
nlralc rt ire ti>( !>111 an.t ~ludJ cul<>W", h1cld shape and bead wpc.
Ju,cml~ arc palC'1" grey, <'ficn "'1th \\h11"h thn
11111 "''""'' u11J h1clJ 1harc' Jo out de,cl<>p unul fully gro"n. ldcn11tic411nn of Juvenile 1 d101cull, p1n1cularl~
'<'c chan1 c "llh ~~ . .inJ arc pcrhaps best 1dcnlified by the accompany1n11 aduhl

Whitt-wi nged Coot Tagua chica Andean Coot Tagua and ina
f "''' 1 leucopten Fulica ardesiac.a TX#30
l 35...a~ cm tl-'11") \l.anh&. L 40-.&11cm111> II> 1 \harl I.Ile. and
r "ldS aod J.le \fa) form >0me11mc, dc: ... cndana to Ju,.L .,jf c1lnds nol
l"'<'<kralNUd OocL 0 !.~ m. 4!00 e IDE.,'"OflC<\TIO' \ l.qc co.>1 1
IDE, l l flCATIO' Tbcsmalleg bull.) lk-.fy. althouib lll\lll<T 111.111 lhc
t ol lhc three ""'prcad coots. Has !\loo al11pbnocoot> ~P~",.., fl"'""'"'""t'd DI.IC
a rounder bead than the other No. 1 h hod) "'nh shghll) cbrkcr hc,J, hnlc "hat<
Olacl.t>h "-1th im.all white under- undcruul-co,cns Narro" "-hhc lfJ1hn1J edgt I
tol patch. Bill pale 1rllu>< "uh sccond.tnc. 81/I yd/011 "''" 111"&1 11p a111/ ' "'
___ _ _ _ ___.! ariub/1 colourn/jl"Q11t<1I rli.irld.
b11lhou. rrdjnm1o1l 1h1.-lt1 Li!g< gr,, 111ilt There
II Vrit/rorn d111/) ~11,,,, 1flk1t 111, b1/I) toun rntC11Jl!, l>ri1f.l11 a whitc-btllcd anJ shielded morph that ha ~-.:uncJ ''" "i."
a~g vJ/n., \'o tftlr!n tl11/f1on /'bill strup'J at JuMtfon of
loll/'"" "rilt fl"Qlll<J/ htc.JJ She>\\> broad. roondcJ fronul
hotltl 11u11c d11fcrcn1 from the potnted sh1cld of Red-fronted
Chikdunng "nl"f \'OICEComtn0<1call 1>a l1>wthlp0t

Ande an Coot
Giant Coot Tagua giga nte
1 oul I c11 11rcenish /It ///11111. u n11ril1w 11httc 1ro11t1111 <'<f1te on
Fulica gigantea
11 ..ui/111111 \'OICE A fi101 lnu11h11111 scroc~ (2 s); prrpq11u 'qua

/llt '111111 '1111u q1111. /\l~o cluckinlJ ko w-11011 ncJtcs, undo shorter L 48 64 cm (I Y- 2S"). /\hlph11111 lokc~ nnd poml
Bl'ccds on spcoiolly co11bln1c1~d 111111 1fvcgolu111111

, 111111 Cllncru lly hl11hcr pllchod 1ho11 Red.gurtcrcd Coo1 cn lls.
onen seen bnuling with ncliihlmur~ for n~.i111
Rl'd ga rte red Coot Tagua com un nrntcri~I 4000-4600 111. IO l:: !'H IH C1\ 1'1 0'
ful/ca armlllata hust- blud: rnot lackm11 wh11c nn undent1lhm<11
I 4J -~I
cm (17- 201 ~unh<'~.
pond and lake$ Ml) con~atc
an larae nocb 0-2500 !40501 m..
IOl ,TI FIC \flO ' L1111cst of
th<' three "1dcsprc1d coots,
II and \I tth pcculUU' head hapc llr<11J hulh ,.
N'l1K11 ponrJ'h.1 narro" h1/l hlrlcl. 1hu1 UPJ
to hatr '"" 41101>1 rlthC'r Ide' of rro1111 Ill
'-"---' COtnplufl po11rrttrJ, )a~cly ITd 1th I l'llll. I
"bite fromal al'Q and )tlln\\ baSt' to upper mandible "'h'
1) pacall) 1hc commonc-i an C and extends to side> of<h1cld Onl1 rrillclJ:rd "'"'' \ OIC I OI
vocal. Mufficd hoot,, h0<1-J111ul11111 h1mht1< II
S Chile Head square-shaped.
inrcrsperscd"' nh an IMO)'Cd H'HEE ~A WHHAA llHt'I A
8lack1 h "''th wnall "httc unJcT-
Also a p1gcon-lalc lfO" I. GGGGGRRRRRR
1111 pa1ch \o "'"'<'
011 ,..,o,.J-
""1 lta1 Mlrilc IC'OJ111g n/g, to "'"&1 Bill u11J li.1dil
Homed Coot Tigua comud a
" ldi a JarA ml'"'~ (bill trup 'J "' ''"" ''"" 1 btll
nrtd hidJ fr.mtlll hiclJ mod~tcl} pointed L~ Fulic.a cornuta
" It 'l'tt" nilc ml ti.bUI (pm,~ \ OICE \ q ' f \ n (-1-6 L "6-6.? cm I l8-z~1. Rare 1n ah1pbno bLd"'
1 f 11.ual nocn, dchvcred slov.l> and C\COly. nhttl; nltttl. rod.y botcom-. 1n and J'Wlll The blfli coru1ru.:
nM A11/trel 11111..1 nltu' nlc.-i'A lndl\ 1dual notes 'Cpantcd mound of rod;. unnl 11 reathc \Urflcc ot ,.11
t 1 Ion r tlun the ncitco. Call a sha11>. hq1ud chud. then build nc$1 on th" Sen"'" t' tn "'~1cr lei
Hrd fron ted Coo t Tagua d e fre nte roja nuc1ua11on, 4000-4300 m Nea r fhrc.11t11
(Ch1ll.'an populauon e>llm3tcd at JUt blO 111d
f 11111: .1 rufifrons
v1duals) 10:\Tl f'IC \TI O' H111e Iola, A,
L 31>4J cm (1 4 - 17") Manhcs Licking ,.h11con uncleru1l-co\CJ1~ :Sh11htl) '<ltUll ~
and pond> Mlh abun<Unt 'cge- ll____. 1lw1 Gi:tnt Cooi, 1n Chile the t\IO ore mcly r..., C1anlCoou
LU1on A moorircn-hkc: cool 1ha1 t~thtt Bn11h1 l't'llo" htll141th 11 r1ra1111<'/1rh11rr.11'c111 I on nest 10 51ay cto,cr 10 cocr 1ban rests a1op bill and has brushhkc up. 11 "bcllcr dnclt1"''
the 111hcr 1wo common coo1s. 0- male. The brushy lip stand> erect hkc n hont, po1t1tltt1i111111" I Andean White-winged
11100 m. IO E TI FICATIO N lhe blll tip. Fltu-crowncd. an nppcurnncc occc11111111cll hv 1t.
proboscis. The bi ll , which Is pnninlly hldclcn lly the rrolw" I
is yellow with n p111kishnrangc bn ~e ond blnck culmcn I
green. VOIC F. Muflled grun1s.
I hit k krw~. l.1pw1ngs, st_i_lt_a_n_d_av_o_c_e_t_ __ _______ Peruvian Thick-knee
ftlnV t i 11l 1t1l11d .. di D ,.tlla11J lncy ha'e broad. n><Anckd Wtn&>, tarae <pu~ M lhc 'nM~'. ~nd ,11
I 11 111111 111111 I l!.1 I flK k ~'""'' .uc a ~null family (Burluntdael of rathn- ecccntntarrcann1 noc:1unul
11 uf ""hn h Cl\C 1111 1111 1111 """c11unJ11111> (Rccuniro.s1ndac} an: clcpn1-loolm1g <horcb1rJ.,, the l\OCCh "111!
bl' J I II 111 11 , '" I 111 k 'anJ \tl'l1aJi1, needle-like b1lb..

111\llAn Tluck knt'c Chorlo cabez6n Similar 1n Jtrucrurc 10 Southern LJI"''"" hn

11111 '"'"'' ~U/)(:rcl/iJfl!> smaller 1111d rclati\ely honer lcaacd Sh.Ire, bnghl
l 411,inllt I ltr 1ndcJ101Mnonbcmmosi t>Mc-psn colour-. and lorrc """" ""'S patch '"11
~ llC)S nl l h1lc, tho Lluui and At.llj)I . Noc- Southern. Andean ha> an ollf'"I /tnJJ nk Qi/
\ tunul, '''""'~~tune FOUPI h1ch roosr
in brroll. becoming ,.h1tc on Ct<>.,.n, and llrea t
ficld1 or lier \CICUIUon. oAni dl)I corn tcm11n.a1et 10 a cbrl;cr bbcki-b hnc tlwt
mlb 1\lthousJI tarre bitda.. tbcy Jo DOI !DO'~ 11 from ,.h1tc belly and e111 Uf'PCl"pl&lts bnl,.1111h,
Md cu be \'Ct) JltrK'Ull to spoc. \al al n1aJi!. but Hng~ocru and Kapobn ha~ 1 deep
,. hnl mu~h m<>rc KU\C G 500 m IOE,11- shttn., and the Wlnf bend 8 dirk J'W1>11h JI
111 llO'li \latgcplO\cr-hacb1nl"11luLvchca1hndhuac. Tail is ~hnc 14ith a broad blacl band \ OIC't
wl I/tr t llnK ~" l.on11lc11tccJ. but has 1 shon plo,cr-hltc Sharp repeated co" notes. tcm-hkc in QUlhl)'
bill I h< l Lncn 'tnJ upn1h1, "uh 1a1I~ pointing dowow1lrd
11 en antil I h< le Jn po""" ~rvc. knobby 'l.nccs' as the White-backed (Southern) Stilt Perrito
nanHl 1m1h 'ind)sn:> on ncd. and body, shghtly arcycr Himantopus me/anurus TX#32
n v.lnJlt """' 811/ ,..,,,. 1lf'f''flllh.1cflu,. '"th o bliKk llp. L 41 cm ( 16.$) Manhy cdf!ts, ca1wan~ anJ
tll!J lrm.l aJonwJ b>"u ,,.,,,. ll{'tn:il1um um/ tlar4 croi.n sm~.
clccpl) Ooodcd field, ~um!\ null fluock 1n
111111 h1 arpc.trs lnn11nccked and longla1lcd; the i.fllgS situ" non-breeding ~ason LOI.Id anti no11tca1'1
11 ~II I"'' h '"1 tlw 111nrr prlm11ri"J 011d a sepurol<! pcmh CHtOO m IOENTIFICA llO~ Suh' ha><
I ".11,/1 up 11/ llllll'r prlmurlcr Complc1 wing paucrn ding- the lo11ges1 legs rtluti<' '" th111 hmii' tZ' ,,,
Andean Lapwing
""'"~ \. (llC't Noisy 01 nl11h1,
111111 lwti.trrou~.
\l'Olt1 """"' wlrt11.. loud 1111y hlrtl. A slim, medlurn-Hl1ell shorcb111t
with o 101111 neck und Nlrul11h1, nccdlc lik<
black bill. Strikin11ly ph1n1n11ct1, cntircl~
Southern Lapwing Queltehue (Treile) black and white. Crml'll, /11r-c1 um/ ft1r1111rc A
V.111,-1/us chilensis TX# 31 white contro:rt111g 111th blacA poSttK'11/11r un.a. llDfW 0111/ b,11 I
of11ec*.. Blad. ofbacl ind" 1ngs ~pan11cJ frum black ofnc.I Southern lapwing flock
L 36 tm ( 14"), Among the most
uh1qu11ou-. and no1ty. pcclcs 1n bya white bi-ind (the .-hue 'back'), Lo"'"' l>ilck, rump and 1<111
C. .uiJ S Clulc Wcll l ouv.11 to local ...-bi.It. Undcrwtngs ~I)' black .-11h hold h11c tnmglc"n
J>C<lplc In pain or mos dunng inner,.ing. Ho14ccr. most noc1ccablc arc the b1111h1 bubblCKJllll
brccJ1na ~ea>00. but fonn, large pint legs. Male blacker aho\ c. fcm1le hu bro" n<"t bac~ Ju, ,... White-backed Stilt
Oock~ tn non-breeding <cason. bas darkcT crown and browner uppcrput. Duk tro"n m~,
Oren (0UJlll). arasslands. field..
sugges1 Black-ncc~cd Suh H mcxicanus of N South America

pa.\IUICS llnd C\cn Cl~ parb and Repons oflancr 1n Arica probably refer tn JU'- ~uthcrn Sult
to<tcr p11d1e. Also mudllatS. \ 'OJCE Rcn11n1!nt of 1 <mall banana Jos. '"""P
10rn anJ c>eoann \, 1,nUltto Juan Fcm.o.ndcz and Des
'1ida1 t> noom IOl.\T lnC \TIO\ A~.\locky.
u1lru pl.>\c-t Lfi" ti....JN. "'"ha $lCCJ' fotthcad and
lfof Andean Avocet Caiti ~ adultm;ile
O.t uu..n tnltngly r~llcn>cJ ,.,,,.., 0"~""- '"'"' attJ Recurvirostra andina
IA "'t tin1U-& "' " '1rtp.- J.,,..,, muJl11tc of ntt'k and L 4.5 an (18 ) Rr<otnctcd to \ahnc L1kes61Dd po.n.1
md/11 1nw ,, lo1fKt' /tl,u AhlYllll (JfJtclr Blad. on face and 111 the high Ant.le Flock . my a. o.:1n1c "1lh
111111 I htt!kfcJ n.trnm Jy I\ hnc, .-h1lc head t! &fey, Mtb 0 >hon Oam1ng~ 2500-5000 m lln.NTI FICA' rtO\ \
ii n r 1 11.iJy hHfrcen. but 11tony, shoulders mon: heavily larac blacl and-whuc wader w11h short le~
"'' ""' 111J ll'f'<JI l>r<>n1y 1n the field. Bell) clean .. hue. (parucularly for a suit) and a droJrl~ up11"n~J '"'"
11 II r ht 1""4 "111t ""'' 4 11p, ,., l>ngltr rrJ onJ ltgs bnght b/11 The upturn on fcm3lb 1s srca1cr than In mat~
J 1ti J ''( In n1J!ht,lirooJ-wm11c1htructureno11ccablc.nnd H-'111111 bud1 >oth CtHttrostmg blutA1th-bm11 n 1'1111f'
>1l1t i '"'" 111tol v.11h /11fJ:o' hh/tt' poJtt:ltufrom 11rbt ' 10 bad and toil Rump "'h1tc, UnJcrv.1na.~ ha c "h11
f II "lull' m1<k,..111a " white wuh black rcm1gcs. hmng... and blac~ rcmiget LC bluell'CY No o er
\\ 111 1111 lJU lo10011Jll.11 k \\1h1rrn11n31 b;ind :uid narrow wh11c lap with White-backed S11h, but cosily i>Cl"'rated by bill ~hnf'<
1111 111 110011.11111 \111h-.111 I "flWln11 I ~1111ilar, bul always hn$ all-white head nnd n~k. VO IC'E A hq111cl 4wtp k11tp Andean Avocet
I U' 111 11 I 11111llri 111111 hnM 11 pnlc cap. VQ IC F. A loud, kwip..
111111 11111 1111111 A1111ln11'l'I A1111/1,11tr km111/tl(!u1-. . , cnch
I Ill 1111 I o l11t1M
Semipalmate d Plm1r

I "" 1''''" 11 oh" 'Ii' 111 '"" l) pl1111 """ ' llltrl. ,1ruigh1 hill~. All ,Ito" 111k.i-111 1>.1111.11 hrcu,1 h 11111 11111 111111 I
II olllh 1 1111h1 I'"'"''"' 111 .oh ''" t 111 1 .. 1111~ ullJron thc bindn<-ck.All .are llbl ll1cr,, 1111J 'llll\ 1><11nh 11 '-"' 111111
"'111 l"I"~ I Ike 11tht1 1h" "., t 1t.11,1,/r11" kcJ usually. They walk f<>f"'iitd. \lop. luol for h.>111lo1111I rn L 11 l'h t 1l
oth f'hli. lh If lllil In lho llliHI hl~ s:i11Jp1pcr>

o il.ired Plover Chorlo de collar Puna Plover Chorlo de la puna

Char;1drius co/lam Charadrius alticola
I U I~ '"" I~ ~ h"I lin<mfTl(ln brttd' bidc
slrcam 1th QDJ anJ J'Cbhlc oland. Or bores. rarely obscn cJ on "" 1 1n c~ lttnll'
\\ontc:l'lOC1u1.>>11. 0 l(JllC)f't IOf,lfflC \110" ~ U~bocllfl'NlanJ'1t01<L1h t 101
stun. cl.,np1ru (.'lt.:,,..,J,.~, "'"'"'' nh lon1t>b btll 5000 IOf'' lit I( \I ltl' 1 IJ I
- i IOllJ l<P- fJ 4a.J l>/u</Ohh,..J ""rq,,./ bfuc! large: IOCI..) Clot..t'<dr f> .. 17' 11 It
h<roJl-ltuttJ l.ikh "'hllC' u.Cl.u oa lunJMd.. Cnnu a.,o l>rot.-111 hr""'1 bnJl-battd Oft I
11nd t'OT-<1 '""'"' d"'"""""
br1gllteI CM! male, and brrint 1111d brv4nt "fl"' r 1i,...,,,
"'11141 brttding adult
rct11ncJ 1n mut turJ. }Urr.iunJ Ju J11Tc... m J,,,f -rAing on h1w111
appt'tJN II>
bf.,\cn ltKmb.inJ. nd fad. 1f hla.:L ""cmrwnoo Brccdtng male h.o J.,,,,,.,,)r,..,,f
hur ""
Oft 1.,. r / ,i:, ut 111/ oi;n l'"'A"A Ju ..q>orateJ from SrtO") t:Offlil!MeS aso blod C"Of<OIO'rl ,,,,,,h, bchinJ th<' IJ1l I If
11,.l \.-m1p.-lm~tcd l'IO\Cf> by cnttrdy lbrt.. hondncck ;and pale head and 8"k are ma1nl) rnu1amon I <:male h.1 J11ll 1 I
111nl "'r' \ OIC Mctalht c1111 and,,,, OOIC'\ Slmilar pauem and tends 10 \!)ow a pale 'UJ"'r<1l111111 II
brown and underpans 1h11c Bill and leG bl.w~ M11 I ..1
Semipalmated Plover Chorlo semipalmado apparently retain blncl nod cinnamon oma111en1iit1011 ol I ,
Charadrius semipalmatus and breast all year. runa doc$1lul ~ho11 n d1~1111c1 nn11 h1n olw
plumage like Two-banded Plover J11v./1m111, like fcmuk 11111
11[ I. 17 l'I cm (7 7.S"). Breeds in
duller, lacking all black and clnnnmon mi fucc VOi( I 1
no11hc111 hcrnisrhcrc, rr11~rnn1 IP
""~,. .. ('hll~ ; ' "llH' 1c 11111i11 nil year mellow, sluned ''""''fJ.

{ (immN.) In fur north . PrOl:rnbly
rrn>rc 1c11ular In(' l hilc 1h;11111111p
Ul(llCNI~ .
( 'ontn l (0 500 m).
Two-banded Plover Chorlo de doble collar
Charadrius falk/andicus FLK
l 17 18.5 rn1 (7 7 .~i ll1rlil1
ncdcd Cl11m11lr110 Mlh a ~hon. rn111rJtury. b1i:c1l111e 111S<1111~ 1111.t Puna Pl~r
th'l. bill Mthll) obl.ef\cd in non- ...
mo ing north tn "1n1cr \ I"
l>kchng pluma1c 1n C:h1lc IJ1t11H1 """'" ,./u/r l>t/1>,.. k1th br<!t'd in l Chile. 1><1111"' '"'"
l4/t11< f><!Ud 11"/ pu/<' upc-rn/111.,. Rru .. n t:ar"\'.O\CM and ('o;u1al rn nonhrccJrng _...._.,._,., <>-ntruJI fln>11sl1 ,. 11/t .. 1111, 1hm,11 II /t11, t'Oltar un Junni b1d1n11 u may be found
lt.indtt,. t aw,,,.,,.,,,.,,. ""nJ'"' btt.n1 rh1n1..,1.-or1>11al n11g. "ell tnl.mJ m lloNlcJ 11r.aulolllll
tloll hLl<l. "''h \ttl.,,., h !lllt.:h at hacc, kf' Hlk Orrecien and uth<!r ctlanJ In nun
bl..ulvuttJ b<ll, bl.Kl. btt&l-bunJ anJ rl( ~tn .ca cn l'olflo~I tu mud
\OIC ~ Abt"Q1Kl(>o;)'llabkv.h1>tk,( /IJi llFl:."1thKttat llal$. sand} baches and ~uan~ IOt' l If I( \ rt O' A
on " JD1o11c- rather brgc md 5tod) CJMJraJriu. '"""a J'l'I bell I'd lcapc
BrttdUrg lllL lroJ n<-o /told Nack Nltd ""' lint lit. lvwN
Snowy Plover Chorlo nevdo broad1t.r. Bbcl. forebud bar cont1nut& a l>ld '"'~
Ch<1r.Jdrius alex.Jndrmus TX#33 n:stnctcd to fronW car-co-m.,. ma of cu"'"'O'cru anJ lllUJI
of head cinaamon. Bro..nish ab<l\c Md bite hclu . I <'male
l I\ cm (6"1 C,.....i..1 rhncr cloocly asso-
ha.s slight.I) duller face patlcm A -nt (putt<:UW!) C<"lln -
c1~1cJ "'llh .,.nJ\ lihc<> \ho c.'SlU.tfloc
ro the Falklands) bass uprcr hrea,1-1>.inJ 'unb"'edcr
muJOa11 but OCH'< r~. ''""' .and Stnctly
and juv. dullcr. black ;and cinnamon bcina rc:rl...:cd by tiruv.11
c<>a<u1I 101 " I IHC \llO"'I A5tod.y.~hon-
1ic.kcd (,, l'alc tir""'t11'h at>ovc, the Allopauie Killdttr is laricr and h.b lun1- rufc>u\ ""'-~ 1.111 i ..vo-banded Plover
r.1le.i <.ht lean ( '/1111mlr1111 Shares 11h11e
Most "'milar 10 Puna Plover. "l11ch .tl>u mJy hat u Jouhk
'ol/m nn h1ndmr4 "11h Scm1pa lm a1ed banded appearance. However, Puna Jl" ''Y' Im~ h1okcn uprcr
Pim er Snowy has /1rn4c11 h1<'11t1- l>and, band. Funhennurc. 1hc lower band 11r ad flunn "iircy"h und
it has more extensive blacl.. on cur-c11vcm Some d11ll .1uv. vr
'"'" w11tl 111 ll/11cA ur h/11tA11h 1u11rile.< 011
h1, ,,., 1tr/n t town h111w111h WU>hed clnnnmnn 111 Qmc. wuh
non-breeding Two-ba nded Plover mny have 11111ch r~duccd
upper breaSlband and look q11itc likcJ11v./i1111n, 11111111. Mu~t <>f
/ /111o'/t1 11d /1111 11111/ h/11t'4 JIO.>lllrttl11r .11rlfli'. f//herw/se
1'1/111(111fr l 'hl/1 /1111'. Hiii 1rntlrcly hlnck, IQgR greyish Qr these dull Two-banded show UI lc11s1n'ph0Ni ' 11111tcm orn f'uil
upper breast-band, and urc lnr1,:cr 1111d sll 11ldly ~o~klor th1111
~111 yl~ lt I""~ N1111 lt1111ltlf 111ul .111v. slrnllnr h111 blnck of face
Puna, which is unlikely IQ be ft\1111!1 nw:oy 1111111 l11gh AndcN,
11111 l1 '" ' ",.1.,. 111 hy h111w11 Sn1111: (only 1nnlcs'/) retain
VOI CE A sharp risingwC'el , f11ghl ~ull u 1h1llcr 11/11.
lol 11Ii.h11111lilh11lo11111111l11111111h11111 ( lttlcun winter. VO ICE A
II h1il111111

u------------------------------------------------------ "
Black-bellied Plover
I " h11ib lh 11 uc ""' "" urllt ''"""' "'acer. They feed "'suall). rather rban b) probing" 1tll rhc1r bill'
1 11 111 lln llc ~'I' albl o"' lii:loa\lour 1>1 running and quickly sropping. lookons and rhcn p11;k1na food liwn 1
l\\il f'/urnJ/IJ rlm-tn uf n:ll( hrttJcn 1nJ long~ mi~b "htcb ~nJ 1Utnc ofthe )Ut In Chile 1'1llJ<ot1 non -breeding
l -..n to N1>1llt l\nlt'm n , bul l'iUC tn l"h1lc The n.o dolterds att not cl~ly "litcJ but hate "'1ktn(l plu= adult
! I ni.1 \\,orlJ (l.MI .... , A l1u "'"""~/1111.

I I Ii l1rll1t d (Crey) Plovtr Chorlo artico forehead band and "'hue roi.tucuw 'upcrc1hum Cotnpl
1't11u,1/i ''IUJt~rola '"bireoa:l collar Dari> bro,.n abuc In n1,iir. \tnl1nv ""''
I '7 \0 mt I 11 .!$") ((111111, on '2nd wingstnpc and d1<11ncmc orani:c-rcd Nmp and 1111 Sh.11 ~rll;ltl,,.. or muJOal\. Often in flocks size. da:r!ccr uppcrparu, and 1:11Jour nr rump anJ 11111 Ur\< I
l'otllun be: >0hl.11) Brttd, 1n An:uc. non- difl'crentutefrom ratherd,.qm1lar~c>-~Pfocr \'01( t
l>rccJ1ng H>llOf to Chile, but nun... may MOSlcommon ooomt1topoct1c At/14,~. 1\11/.Je Atll...
pt"ttd Clllltc (11)1 )Car tn C1"'1lrl')' IDt.:'Ti- repeal.Cd se-mil timcs l\l>o rnll "'hai abnnccl
t I( \TIO' A larac <rod.y pk> er. tooling
J,..,~hc.lcd and ~rcJ ar rear M ost ltlc Tawny-throated Dotterel Chorfo de campo
\ m~ncaa Gulden Pio er. bur larier "uh Oreopholus ruficollis
lllt<l.:t, >lOlltCTbtll fa.:c pmrm. C\Cft IDJU . Lis 2Y cm (10.S II S") Foorid
ubdued tli;1n ,\mcncan Golden Plocr, u ually dart~.., American Colden Plover
1n npcn uplanJ~. panicul1I
m 4/ f'"lltl111rn1 tlutt'nl uffac:t g11 inir II u f.c,aJ1 -~1 ed and " ll"")lattd$, and dry puns Prclco
rt ,, ,.,, ",,,,,~ Note much ht1r11r1mn1uf} t'\lt'MIOll M)'Olld
Oa1 1cmm. In nonbl'C'cdmi: '<
r 1' d In ll111h1. hluck '1<1111: pu.r d1oi:nns11c Also hns bold
On may be ~cen m nnck I11"
"'"'' 1111111111/'e 1md 11h/1~ """'fl
unlike Amcncnn Golden 1>0pulntions m C'hilc, 0111> 111 n1111h
l'lu ' 111~ lllnu~ ~l licd Plover more clcnrty mcukcd below ouc In .irn1h. Southcru hi 1;1 hl)
11111o1i~11ly 1>ullc1ncd ttbol'c th:m non-brccdlnJI nd . l'rom Mar, odult
ml11ru lory, bu1 111nvcmc111s sllll
11'11) hnl 111 llmw blnck 011 undcrp11r1~ nntl \\lhilc neck 11atch of ~ubjcct 10 clnrilic111ion. IOf:N'l 1
loo 111111~ 1l1111rnNc. VO ICE A 1hrcc-,yll nblc, wlm1lcdpe1-oo. FlCATJON A sliin plover with Sl!Uorc nppcriruncc 10hcud111111
\\ 1... 11 n.:uctl mny be shortened srrangcly 11prigh1 po.1111r1 . Loaac11111:tl topu nd-\11111
movements an: ch:ir.1c1cri\11c. Su~rbly coloured. with 11111,., Colden Plover Chorlo dorado throat patch, grey t>n:u1. buOy underpart.> and l><J/d hlod l>o l/o
/ 1l1M 1/i\ dominia TX#34 patch. Aboc appears Sln:>n&Jy Jlri/'f'tl bludtllt 011 palit 1e/lvM Tawny-throated Dotterel
I. 24 28cmt10 2.S"l field:. and bvjfbad:ground. Head paltcrn \lnlo.1n11, ,.11b IP'C)' cru...n. "1111
tJPCf1 if8.'-b:nJ.<. b \\Cll b estu supcrcilium and hlad n~/111t In 01ah1, ma.) be conf~J "11h
1r1c~ a.nd beaches Breeds 10 oon-btttding Ammcan Golden Plou which ~ '""'''
An:uc. m1anm1 and nocibfttd1og habitat. Howccr, \\ tRC,lrtpe or dollcrcl nronacr, IDd
\l<llor rn Chile M0>r w1ntCT 10 uodcrwinp ...-tutc. not ~le)' QI\ en JooJ \ ICW, dottcrd \ bL>(l
ara la.nd of A11cnuna
In Chile belly parch and mort' complc\ body colura11on n011<tahk
miy occur on small nods. \ OICE A loud. clcind1n& "h"lc "hut'()(>QQ(> U\U.111
IO E,, l f lCAl 10' An clqiant- silmL
loolint1 hm ploHr "'"b long
u11J ,....,, ltl<' Blackhclltcd PloHr, but noce Rufous-chested Dotterel Chorfo chileno
t 'l'C' lang /''flllQn' nlt'llJUlll, tonier lea, ind ,ltmmCT Charadrius modestus FLK
'"' 11'> more tnluni face paltcm. cbJt ero,.n conlttiung L 19 22cm1& 9") R.i.;ky c
to 11 lu1J.tlflll'C'"1l1um l cnnooh~1nglkl ha.oomcgold anJ muJlla1> "'hen not llrtt-Ju11
lhn m Mime "J'l'CIJIMI feathers . GtT>11lt 11nd~n.111gs, 'bb 111 upland mo~Y rundra-hlt
~ 1 11 t l l'JI< h "' fllJ<.-1.-bcllted Ploer. l "ppnw1np neatly !l.b1~b "'tlb lmlc ,,.,, nd lu11
' 11 tall '"'J
1Q: """' "'"'I'
ronrn/"""''" '"'" bar Juv.
bm11 d 11\C'I J>et.lcJgolJc>nup~rp1n Al><>rcndsro
cu~h1nn plants In non-brccd111
SChOfl form~ mall Ooclo.~ ()1 t
~-1'1 "I 1111' 1h;mc1l1~1hcrrl111n 1rc1~ed <'II undcrp3ru, unltkc
ntU'I o( COUnlly, \lOC1ly 0 Wllllll
1111 l I Ill .1 1'1"' co I ro1m Mnr, cun Mon 10 how black on v1s1101. llH : T IFICA l'IO \
1111 I 11111111111<1 "'"r nctk 1i.1d1 nl brccdon11 plumngc. VO ICE gor11eo11~ hlllc 11Jovcr, llr<'cdlu~
II 11111 '~ ll.1ltl1 r/111 11 .,., 111ort- 1 m11m11, louder and more plumage spectacular. grey face ruul ('f/Sp wh/111 .wpc1rf/111111
o 1ol1 111 Ho 111'"111l1111l111n1i1I lll11vcr,
brown uppcrparts co111ru<t wi1h rrtfims h/V'(IS/ 1t111l blt1rk '""'"''
band. In winter re1oi11s ovcri1ll pt111cru, with bold 1mli .YllJM 1,.,.,,,flng a dult
I< 1111 111 .. 1 Chw lu grit6n cilium and darker brefJ.11. conirn,i ing w11h while belly. Rnthu
I /1 !I .11/t /II\ 1'111 lfl'f II\ dark non-breeding plumuac Oflcn ~ornc rufous vlsthlc 1111
bceasL Upperp3J1s unmarked und dark bf'(lwn Juv ~h~rc, " ""'
pattern bot paler. pan1cularly on brcu-1, und upperpan fcJrh. 1
crisply edged bulT VOi Ct: A '"'''Yll~blc pu--.tte' rh.11 foll
slightly: may become a ~u ~u1x11 "'hen ucucd.

1 Ill 111h11J1c1 '"' P llllAll IJ1111h ul 1athet" unifonn-lool..1ng barJ,, either cnurcl) dnrl or 1o1h11c l>eh11 ""
I "11 h lull 111111111, I 1111l 1J1 I ~ 111\0~ 'rcc:1ahsc in fccdirig 00 mollu"" \1'1 gl\c Jllptng call, OC<clCrMllRll ko
I It fI /It 1i;cll '''' f'I \Cl 11 tht "'k mcrnbcr of!M Pluviariclhdac. Thh ,., mall and odd 'hnrcbord, ''"'''Utt
I lole fl 111111 ,.,,.,. hon'"'" 11 Jo 1111,tl~ Jtl\thlc appcararicc_ 11 C\Cll fccJi. n )OUng crop mtlk, lokc a dcl\c llo" ""'
ID~ 1 l1~cly rd.11 ..1111 h a1h1'1ll tl'ltc 15). 01ademed Sandp1per-Plo\cro' hlc no other plo\crun I .inh, hnmg .111111
lol loll

lll1d m h O}'\tcrcatchcr Pilp1len ncgro on head, h.11 darl cr c)CtOl'llr!111,1top us atrr FLK ~boll hp In 01ght, ,.,ng. d.ul
l .n .a 5 cm I 17 111.1 Rod..y lbo\c:,.,c for a br-t1>1nrc fi
couu. sc:ldona tttl1 a....) from 1nntr il>"> 1<1 OC>lcr gr
r U'Ullll) on pair< ~ pairs C\J\CM<, lk~C Ill.ti m'\I '<00\I
11h > don noc Oo.:t.. Coast- anc> att cbrlo.hf'P"J or cn111tl
11 10:\Tl f'IC \ TIO\ Abulky dari. , nnt ,. hue: u Magel!
U)>lcrcarchcr. PP<'ar' bul l ier Undc:r,.1n1 hh a Jan. 1fa1l1
thnn A~"Tic~n 0):.1cru11:hcr nl- cdac 10 inner h~I r Sc~ \t.111cll '"'
llu>uah perhaps an 1lhu1on Oysien::uchcr for .q>.iro11on from 1h~1,rcc1c, \ OIC't ( .111
b) d.lrk plumage S1ou1, dttp boll "-i! Or ph4'C<XJ. J1spla) an accclcr;1l1Rl1, lllf'ln ' -.C:nC'I r
pK-~e hn ..~hM'tthlt t k"l"lt t'~'t'ltl"&
111r rrol tu <>1hcr O)>lcn:a1~hcr. 81/I ,..,J """ u pulrr 11p.
I II w '"' u11J N. ,/ 1'ht1ul rln11 Other",.~ l>QJ1 cnur..I> Magellanic Plover Chorlo de Magallanes
N.11. 0111 kg,Jullr111l Juv. \ltnol.irbulbod) plum"l!cbrow~r
_,.,, I' I~ oran~c-yclluw boll hh 1 du,Ly up. Easily ><parable:
Pfuvianeflus sociafis
111111 l'lhcr U)''ICTCllhCI') b)' blacl "h undcl'JMM' Ind l,1ck or I 19 2 1 cni (7 11"). ltc,1roc1cd HI
1111 111p. 111 l11gh1. VOI C' ~. {"nll n whccp, or1>wcc11. Do~play Region !lrcc<I\ 1n hullo", n l111c tu~ . Magellanic Oystercakhr
111111111loAmcncu n Oyalcrc111chcr, an uccclcrn111111 poping series preferring shore hc11vy In ~all dcpo<il
oil ""'''' h111 louder uml lowco In pitch. Al$O lnrgcr, rnud-bon~cd 1'11rngo111t111 111~ 1 ,
Pot hrccding mny l'o1111 01111111 f1 11c~' .11 ,
Mugcllanic Oystercatcher Pilpil~n austral broader range of w11 tcrhod1c 0 100 111'mdtopus feucop o dus FLK Neror Thrcntcncd 10.- Nl l l'I CA1 10' \
L 42 .lit cm (lb 18") Rc.1m1cd to 1hi; sborcbml wuh a pccuhar >hape, lorri .ind hn11hx1kon~ h 1
i.uu1h of 1hc coontr) ln brccd1n1 ~n. brood on lhc ccnuc L<>ng share ac:cc:n1ua1c:J by -t..111 leg Slnt
IX.:ur. on 1ru,land. and J>(lCld Mo'"" w Sharply pomrc:d bill ""h shgbr urum Grn u11d ""''" "
\tlndy coa'l\ or muddy c;tuane' m n<m- on h~. 11tt4 011d vpperpurt;, C'<11tu1t1ng 141/li t1h1lt' 1111J
l>rccdon11 ...,;a1c>n 0 600m IOE~TI F ICA- pans. Forehead and 1hroa1 paler, acccn1u1111n11 dArl lnr~ / 1
110'11 \ olnn and 1hin-b1llcd O) s1cn:a1chn-. bright f"C'd u11J It'll.> p1n~uh or rr1/d((/1 Juv. rUc:d white 111 At 'r1can
The boll " ltncr and appeaD longer 1han m breast and uppc~n), wnb duller eye ctilnur ""d more 1ercatcher
\m.:n< n Oy,1cn:11chc:r 0111 bn&lll n:d. legs. \'cry fbl and J1n:c1fl1gh1. lool, arc~ "1th paler undcrp:ul
.. nh. ~1shI) mon: OIUJC llp 1a1.,.. rJY and modua1c:ly lnl mg white w1ng,tn1"' \ OIC ~ A 111
ltdtl'lnlal nng 8"'/1 pl""'"!.... /o'41c A011 l1<uJ ntti. clw\l Ult(/ wfustlc. :ISndu~ anJ then dooccl'ld1n r fH F-
1po11r. Undc:rp:lru and \all bate bolc \\-uir dart.. snc
Diademed Sandpiper-Plover
f If., liite sttond.lrl~ nd oc.1cr ~tcr ~ lJ ndc:rwmg
11 ,.hi1c un c:t111rc 111ncr half (lo bend> anJ ..i.n. bc)ond
Chorlito cordillera no
Phegom is mitchelfii
Magelbtnic Plower
i;J Jn\ h.> Jul up 10 bill ~nJ darlcr ~c AmcnCllll
01 ler<'.jalthn '' c\lrcmdy tom1lar In companson. Magcllamc L 16 < I~ cm (b S 7 S"J A 'pc<iJIHI til
"""' r hm1gc. wnh no J10cttncc b<.'1\\Ccn rhc head b1gh-An<kan '>CCp\ anJ boa 1\pp.:ru 1
no I b;d,; .-1l11ur, borh bcma 111 blacl Funhcmion: ch.: orb1U1I hmve \Cry specific h1b1101 rcquorcmcr
rit 1 n yi:ll"" nut red, and \IAl<luntlly Ma,clwuc h~ a longer. dc1a1h of "'h1ch arc und,,.ar Ab."<Cnl '"'"
1l 1111H1 11111 h1 ll1gh1 , MJ~" ha. cnurely wh11e JCCOndvlcs. boss which &pjl<'Jr pcrkct 10 an ~cf\ 1
f 1t c1111ro 1nr~1 11nJcrwan1" whuc. ind the wh11c a1 the pcrh.1r~ due 10 ocrp11n11 In w u1h "'
I I ''"' 1111 " mnr~ n1c11mc VOI CE A h1&)i and weak r1n11..- prcfc=d hJb11111 ,., nn.. -cn(rcd 1
" mrer, and b1nh d1 ...1prc<ir 01 tb1 l>ca n
hs mo\'eme111~ arc undcar. n hero 01'1" "
10 be no inc.rcose m number~ on lhc nh1pl11110. 2000 ~000 111
Aml'rlt "" Oy\ lr1 colcher Pilpilen mos1ly above 35 00 m fn 11 or1h . Ncnr I hrcn1c11 n l
ll.1111111/n pm /J111ffatw. IOENTll'I CATION A srocky plover wi lh u /0111:, 1h111
doov1u;untd (Ill/ tue o sa111lplprr. Dl q1inc1i vc, h/11rk /1eml ll'1t~
crisp white diadem a11d bT1"g/11r11fim 1111111 While brcu,1-h.111<!
aod uriderpnn "hlle w11h fine bluck11h vcr111icult1111111
Uppcrparu dark gTI:)'hbrow11 . In l1111h1 h.a. r.uhcr rnullJ .1
wings. it fl1c 1n an undul111ng pallcm and luc~, 1 "int: 1u1
Ju\. bro\\nlSh w11h cnnmon "'I'-' 1111 connamon lm I
uppcl"Jl'll'l' lklu" \\hue " 'th d1k ~mtotllflun' \ OIC I '
mcl31l<bOI\, "'hl'lleJ ~ ... " "" ~
h 111g111( ,,mdp1per_!,____________________
l 1 .,,., Yellowlegs
I llCtll<.'litumtoiargc.gcncraJlylonglcagcd WUIS .. llh\ln111h1 blll\a.lonJI& !f
wrcn:1haand many bob therrmir rui.. ,.hm 11 rc-1 The)' tend 10 be qu11c '"' I
lfil '"'' Yl'llowlea P1toloy grande Solitary Sandpiper Pitotoy solitirio
11 'l/f" mrfilnoltuc.i Tringa solitaria
I ,!U .H tlll 111 13") Borcal L18-21cm(7 S") Bomil~T.\IJ,:n11111nC.h1lc ~n."'"d
hr.-c:J,., lhat pends n1>nbrccdmg near Anca r re b,.ater ron1h and ">oded lake'h"r
W><m 1n Chile. some fim-ycan fDEX flFI C \TIO' S1mllto~r,cll01lc1>bt11 mal
ma\ ocr-wnmcr W1d~pn:ad
horcb1rd and
and ttlauu~I) <honer ~ f>.uA nap :uul DllUr "'"'f'
Of CIUlflC' fart/,,~ cu.irk'/ borrrJ ~ grtt11, lk>I )ell "' l 'ltcl nri
lll:lnhn. 10.:tu.11111 bigh-al11tudc darl:. unlike )clio.. kp. Ul'PCTJ*b ~ tiro..">h
"clland.. A ti..t-1t.ll J" ~ grey. In t11gl11 feet bu~I> proJ1bC)und1.111 \ O ICt A loud
4800 m IOE,T lrtC \TIO ' A striking P..ct'n"t'f'f l<c'("f
l1rsc Tri11Ko !bulk "m1lar to
\\I Ill! lt,;1o:~cJ ~llhl "lh a /011g. JcrpborJ hill (longttr thaJJ \ I
It /J 1h.11 u 1/igh1/1 11pl1ir11t..J t>n 1t1t>tt mdn'/Juulf und trntb
Willet Playero grande
I II"' .,,..,1..s;1111ll """'" l 8ficly lll'C)'l!lhbrown "'"b ,.bile
Catoptrophorus semipalmdtus
1111\k'.11' rtJ .,..1 .. h11c rump 1n 0111ht le.111hrrx/111-r//o,. Often l 3.l-11 cmcn 11> 1 tl<n.~Jbt.-cilcr."''"'"

l I II<'"' anJ hoJy cmbn:.:ckr lilllcl~ unifonn Jll'C) obo~e. 1n Chile but '>Omc, amm, .. 1tt1
11h one l'JIC 1nJ 11.trk pcdd1n11 on w1na) Ju may be rcmo1n durin(( b<ircnl ummcr lnh1h11
I 1~e.I 1n Ch1k CJtl) 111 ">Ulhcm spnng. n ~ ~nsr pale C08$1hnc<i, f0f'aj1Djl m.>tnl} m Ltnd) nrea. b. I
II 11 I 111 "" 1c1l1.11, ~ml cucns Breeding .111 more h~ily rc>osting on rO.:k)' pJrh Muy ui.c C\IUJrfh
11111 L 11 ,~,.e. w11h dl11n" \lrc:~k1ng on nccl and bars on mudt101, 1f ovuilnhlc. o.tSlul 101-:N 1111 11 hr eding
ll1111k Hircmcly rn111l11r 10 Lesser Ycllowlc11~. except CATIOll< A large '11ndp111cr wnl1bulky bt1J ,
lllfl11<'111 ~ In ,;z~ onil ~l rucl urc. Grcnror ht1s bill !-lil)htl y um.I 1hickbnsed bill, C.ircyi~h In 1tl11tbrccdl111
1111111111utl 1111d longer rhnn hcnd. Fur1hcrn1orc, blll mud1 deeper plumage, while 011 undcqllltlS, l:\/~urii-1 /.:" 1
"'"' 1l 1hu11 In I c~Ct, oil en wilh noticCl'lblc 11rcy ba~. Grenier base 10 thitk hi//, anti grey ll'gv l11 /llJ1,/t1, t1rlk11114 h11/tl 11 1111
1 111111:11 loiritcr 1hnn Le' er. but difference c~n be d1fficuh 10 rnngstripe ctmmwmg ~lt/1 blad f\'ltl/flt't 11 l11tt t1111111 <1tt1l /~1
1 1 '"' .1 lone birJ /\hu'" Hllcc VOI CE 1Yrmu call note. to g~y tat/ S1rucrurnll) Mm1l3f 111 Clrc.a1cr \'cll.,wlci:,, t.~1
"lll.'ll Jl\CJ1 m 0111-ht. f11<Nl nna1na Tc""~r . .,.,. r.,...,,
wmettmcs brgcr and bulkier. "'"h gfC) lc11' nJ lhi<kcr bill 0.
rum no!C>- \\hen lnnncd &" c quicker. ,h<>n<-r ,,.,. notes in a not bob like )Cllowlcg. Brtt~ ~pcdltd 1b11\c ind t...11
It oo undcrpa11s \ OI CF. A loud 1wo 1 "'

l (\U~ r
Yellowlegs Pitotoy chico Wandering Tattler Playero gris
'""Bil fla\//pes Heteroscelus incanus
I. :?3 25 cm (9 - 10"). Borcal l 26-29 cm (10 11 "I Botul brttJ.:r, 0111r.n1 1n Ch1lc Ont

brdcr llw $pCnds nonbm::dmg
UI O\lk, SOUie fini)Clln
ma~ o>ef'!ouiruncr. \\ 1clc,prc:id
record from AntMP'l&. but houlJ IK'. lc)() cJ for on l'.aua I
Coasul. tnln<ted to rocky ~. riarcly fora11ni on s.a
beaches lDf. ,TlflC \ TIO' A hm, long-,.1ngnl $andpirn
horcbird ot ettun1e> and .,..itb rdau\CI)' 'hc>n k11> lot a Tnnsmc COC1$1sttttl> bubs
~ mch1Jing h1gh-ah11ude end. '\OD-breeder l1C) .,..bnc on undaparu. I a '"""~ d.ul A ~botal g"1lenllt>l. bttt Ions C<Jlflrast1ng "1th 0./111" >!<po/,,,.uJ S1o<Ay 1d/l.11t k
pttf~ wmc cmcricnt >cgc1.111on bill grey-btitd /11 /11ght /t,11Jlf'r.I'101/ unJ ru"'f' "" "mgfl 1
near foraging arn' O -lllOO m. VOIC E /\ fo-i. rulhng 100-1t:tt1-tocJ.11H1 hke o dl\1an1. "<'al
1111 ' 111 IC \ 110.., \ medium-wed Tn11su. bull dmmctl)' Wbimbrcl cJll
I 11 111 \ \ hll< bJ.kcJ Suh. Fine. nt'ecllr//Ac bill hardly
h A , 111 I>. .. "hu II " <nttr.-11 Nud. h.u no up1um and 1s Spotted Sandpiper Playero manchado
1111 Iii lc11 1'1 uf h.:.ul .\4111111 nrr A """ ITIJr cru,.,, oftm Actitis macularia
1.t lor1i;ltt 11 """ Pft11llilj!c< hkc Grca1cr Ycllo,..lcg.5
11 ,/
h 1l'f< 111111 cl h~11r1l 11nf) lu 1-rcast-slde, ~p;tmlcd from
L 18 20 cm ( 7 8") llu~~I br~cdcr. 'JlCnI
non-brecJ1ng~son tn C'h1lc C'o:Ms. m.11111
1 1 1, 1 ly H<>Jv h.111 hulk of Whnc-baktd Snh) ind fine
1 1111 11~ l11il 1h 11 I hurter w11h11u1 nn obvious grey base. sandy beaches w11h M>mc rocky Mre~. IOI'
111 1111 lo,; tl11d.n nnk 111111111111~ roun1kd hcnu profile. nnd T IFI CATIO /\.moll, rcluuvc ly h1111
l~sgcd ~nndpipcr. IJrnwnish nhovc to hrc11.1
lh 11 11 1111 111111<111 1111111011ionulcly knobbier Al.<o rely on
nnd while below H'/1//c r~111l1t.1 /11~1m/ rn/1
"'' \. I Ill I l~p1 111f 111ll1w11whislfc<11111 l<m sho1icr, soner
11 I 1h 111 llo t I 11111< 111 t t1,1l11 '~llo\\l~i;s <love u long
at 11 ~pur l 111111edwuI;> /11(m11111/ jolcl1tl" '''
ff II n11l{1tlfl1illft11 Sirong focc puuem wnh ditrl. eyclrnc u11~ 1 11
supcrcihum. T11I lunger llHrn fold~'d '""
Bobs t'on..<tont/1 . Odd flight. "'"~' llcld ti.11;cJ ind 01r111'11
sballc,.ly and qu1~kly In brc.:J1n~ rluniJ c llalc au1umn 1.,
Chile! ht:come> empt~ '""""d b.:lo,. 111111111 C>lllnrc u1 Ila
\'OICF -\h1gli,,.hhlletlttl/l/1< 11t/'McY/l1t'<f1<,~I
I 'I I\ II 11I ( 111 lcw\ 1 Uplecind Sa_n_d_.p.._i..._p_e_r_a_
Whim brel
1,,~, 11;11ul1"l'<h ""h "'" '"" Iv ,1,.,.,.,,,'tf bills. "hicb they~ t"ttlcnhl " tup1d fouJ from th<: for.iiiini: uh!I
jlnih;' 111 t111kl "' mJ, hut""' k<1ly I 'pland Sandpiperappean lo be a curl"" 1>1lh h<lrl. ttn11gh11!111 (,.,J,.11
Ip'""'"'" '""II 11~1 hi lullt, 11'111<"1111..-, hu1'.mg an uprum. They u..: 1b.1r bill 10 rn>hc in -..ind or muJ Ooh e
11) 1 11 t ''""" l>f-.Jon~ 111 ti ' trll m l~-m1~.

Wl11111b1 e l (Hudsonian Wh1mbrel)

smallcurin.. bu1 ""'" tbt """llJU~ \~'h1ml>rel rnulJoh
l 11i1111to (Pe rd12 de Mar) in size "'th
l:tf1!ot fak1mo C-urlCI< Ocrall. like min 1
N11mt>t11us pha~pus hudsonicus TX# 35 V.lumbrcl "uh a finer, hnnl!r anJ 1n11~h1cr btll \g..111 br
in mind tlwtJU\ \\'h1mbrcl 111.)y lookomallcr brll<<I In 111 hi
l ~~ni(l7 SI S1nctlyC03StaL
C'1uar1cs. unJ) 1nJ rocl-y bca- dnnamon "'ng /1111ngs, unlike Wll1ml>ttl. An) po"1bl<' hi
rcquim. lholO<lsJi docurncnu11on \ OICP. Oo.:nhcJ .u
chc> Cicncrally ror.,rcrs laucr.
DrttJ., 1n l\'nnh Ammca. "IDlCTS
1n Chile bu1 '<)nit 11mm' I may
O\.,hummcr 1n the country. Upland Sandpiper Bal1tu
ID~ ' Tl~ IC TIO ' A brgc noo- &rtramia longiciJuda
ck..:nr1 curie" Appears bro"'ll. L 31 cni 112"1 ~al b=dcr \'af'Dnt, San111i:o. \ta.11r
""h ~~re paucm of <ponmg Antofaga.s1.11 and O.:Ccp11on I tAntan:llc.) 1 Pcr11.1p a rcgul
11ll c-Jtmi ''' uprcrp.irt~. Undcrp;1rt< buff), ariably urea.led tn Andc. of An1ol4t:a'lll, bul mll'C d.llll 1cqu11cJ \
1111 1 tt11~I~ 1111 ncc:l anJ barred on Onls In 01gh1. "tngs its name: 1mphc. not found on coiis1>. prcfemng t:ta\\f,11,.1
111tlft1Tb fo1"" 11, f.<11/1 o/l<>t't tm4' /1<(11,., lncl1njj nny wmgstripc. including roa1111cs, IOI\ ' 11~'1(',o\TI O A rned111111-w1 I
111111111111'"'~ liuf h1YJ1111 wnh dorlcr bJrs l'crcltcd, i1nppcan;
shorebird with a peculiar ~hnpc. AJl/>t'tltt mtlttr " """ lm..t1 ,/
" " 1 111hrrn111. "nh ~ltgl11ly m111m<tl11111fw 4 rro11 11 and eycline.
and ploin-ft1cl'tl, 11/1(1 11 fll'1Jt' /w111(1 hlmk '.I'<' mul d/,!//111/ 11/1111
1111111 o il 11 1111 lcr bufT MlflCrc11iu111 nnd ccnrrol crown srripc. eye-r i ng. Long-winged hut 1(1 /f d/,1r1mp ur11011111,IJ hm~
llill 11l 111v 1111d winter od. ho~ nn c1bvio11s crrungc-riiuk base 10 ex1e11di11g bey1111df11/detl 11'/llJl.V, Ulll yellow with d11rk cuhrn11
1111\1111111111llhlc, l1111 becomes cutircly bluck 111 breeding scuson. and lip; leg~ ycllo,v, VO I C'I~ A liquou p1111///p, nlo n 1ri111.I
h11 (11111 11111,lrntc<l ) Irle nd.. b111 hn more cc1111ru~1111g pattern wbisllc like Wh imbrcl. but sol\cr und fo;icr.
111 1 1t1 11111, h<'' on 1ertl1tl< und wlng-cowru. Ollcn juv. may
h 1 llli11.rn11nlly ~mailer bill 1hnn ud Scparaied from
Marbled Godwit Zarapito moteado
"' '""')' 11111l~r on,1lcth1ghc<l t'urlcw by brown rump and
t1ul n " II hr11"ncr h<>Jy plu=sc 010.:rcnc~ 1n voice
Limosa fedoa
tlillJno " \ 01( .A 1;1p1d s.:nc1 ol lrqu1d. lwllo" "h1slles. L46 cm ( 18"). Borcal brccJer \Jt:ran1. al k:f,1 flc ttc.rJ,
q I yu1 q: ~u ~u1~u,...11n, of 1-anablc lcni1h. but U$Wllly Chile. C~t31, prcfc" andy hcachc, Cir ltdJI mudll~1
k'f 2 i 111 J.1r.111ui Lowlly all, tn 011h1 IDE,llFI C TI O'\ Separated fr(lm \\ h1mbrcl b) lt1n1,
Straight 10 u~uncJ .t.rl btll "''h orangt"p1ni. b.t<c M
1111\tll't highed Curlew Zarapito polynesio usually confUscd ""h lluJ.W>lttlt" t,od,.11, bul 11J1fu<tnd ha
Nmll'111us tilhitiensis complex barring '"' 11pf'1 r1vr11 Ru111p u11d 1a1f ".mn l>ru1tft
I 111 rn1 f ll I \,1~r~n1. rttonlc:d llfK:C: on ba.\1cr I. Pcrhap-.
like bacL and la.A.;"""' "'"l:lnf't 01m~111c nrmu"""'
Hing lmmg.1 VO ICE 1\ louJ .t,,.,.....4, lo"er puchcd. IC11Kkl
~1111 1 1 ul~I> 1hcrcr' S1ricll> CO.'hlI p.in1<ularly on sand and slower than I luJ-<>ruan uod.. 11
'' ,,,1,,,.i..~ (o,"t.. Orttd, rn \\ \l~u and "lnttt\ on
PMI t Wt11h \11lnc-r-.1Mc llU '\ Tll 1(. \TIO'\' MO>I surular
Hudsonia n Godwit Zarap1to pico recto
\\ hm1btd "1'1d1 " the t'lllv npa:tcd curie" 1n Chile.
ti ltlrhcJ ,1,rr, r. on h.i\tng rupAur u>laun>J and
Limos.J haemastica
nmy/ """fl wr11ra.11tng "uh the d.trlcr bail. Ta1/ a/50 l '9 cm I IS S"I Bon:3I brtttkr
tin "111,. I " llmad d.trl Nr> U uall) h~""mc l>utf>~ 'i1n,t1~ CO&>IAI. '""h I mirL~ 111land
"""''" 1 Olf /, rt111/1. cmd "vpufan unlike \\'hunbrcl. f'l'C'd1hct111n fore-tuartc< ""h hGh
~t 111<1 ulkn JJ'fl<'rcd" lull ruffic:d. ,, ...,.a tidal change Nc3rly ~- t>f 11tc
fl l1wl 11 ~ l'"""'"'r 1u \Cc: th.: fmrgfilo111<nt< 0/1/ie 1/iigli "orld' popula11on "1n1er '"
Ii "'""' l!ll' tlt11 cu1lcw '''name li>et dwgnosllc. lara:e hap of, 1erra def r ucco
\ I 111 I ""' ~~ll.11k.~""-1 h1'ollC, /1".... ,.... '1011l(:llmcs lcni.'111- wr1h 2s; "1111cnng m 111lc1 111
1 .11 1111 \ ll.1111, 11, ,,,..,. 11, (flllll unh~c Whunbrcl. ('Iulo~ lslnnd. I OEN 1 1fll CA
T ION A rned ium -siicd godwor Hudsonian Godwit
I 1<111111 t 111 hw Z.1ruplto boreal with a hlack llJll, wl111t 111111p, bold while 1~i11g~l rl)lu 111111
N11111111l111 ili.11or111s contr&sting black wing /111/ng". l.<11111-winucd, with no1 lcc1thlc
primary cxtcn$iOn beyond 1c11l nls. In wl 111cr. 11rl)y with sho11
white supcrci lium ont.l whiter be lly c11111ra~un1:1 w11h clo1~c1
breast. Juv. :.im1fur, but buffy on brca>I. and cuvcrh and
scap ulnn have bulf11p1 ond darker 'ubtcrmmal rnnrb In M.or
Aprdistincltvc n1fou1 undcr11Jn w11h t.larl b.11\, nd bla~l'h non-breeding
back patterned "'"b iold, bern11 1c1 al'f)Cllr Ori! ~hare alooc
USU3lly suffiacnl 10 ~paratc ffl>m \\ h1ml>rcl \ O ICt A 1....
syllable 4-.. ........ c:d .
1 l11m11uc m
\1111'\' \ rath..-r
11 111 111t1h11111 11~.J A01111111< 1x lhJI arc not necessarily very closely related Ho"ccr, they arc 11nuc1l 111
1 11t '" 11, I''"'' "' 1 .11 <1lt.tr11 ...indpipcrs known as ' peeps' (Plate 43).

Red Knot Playero artico

Calidris canutus
I 111 ll<hul h..-cdcr "A11ml 111 l bile nh c.6 L ?3 26 cm f9 10") 01110
II ID lliltlh, -.uth lo Ill Mqon 0 J"OO m IDE..' Tl-
\1 llJ' " koni l~J . .t1m nJiiirr ,.,th ""2r sltgluly ' I bfccckr. rue in"""' or<lulc but
laric "1nunag roo.:cm111111.,u ift
t Ihm bill N.on btttdcr r;itbcr P'C)tdl. ttll ~ ~l ba) nr Ti.:m dcl fWC<l and I
IO'ht Ull&r1wu \/""Qi ai1~rri/J1"" ultl/ tk.rA n~btW. Stnn of \bgcllao Forfcl
tn lrcr ,.oattt riobina <unmntl), "'"'"ha! hkc a 'lanJ\ bno:"-'1 ba)' ntun
~r ( l'l.ik 41 I IL>ng &rtt1t lq:1 la Atsht, loot& kp nlCDd
11mh c\1c1"" muclntt IOt '
I tAtl C..111 nplrirc anJ Mfll/ """'' """I'
Breeding TIFI CAl 10 ' -\ li11r.1 p<I
Ila "lllWJ!Qft curOettt Mid .lcft..,ly bafnd uncltt- h.:l/1nl W1'tlf"J'l "tit rrlU11h
11& r.t t ~umLJf 10n.>n-~Jn&\\1lwn\ P'balat<>pc. bu1 slior1 I~. Straight bin btll b Iona b bcaJ ui: t/111/ grn11I.
1101 1(1111 "' ,,.,m hlc th~t pc.;10 .\dJt11lllally S111t olfre. Noo-breededmge~1 gm. '"'" ,,.,1.-r 1..-111. Brca.t11.t.'
i\Jp J1C! hJ1 loni;.-r &rttfl kK anJ brll 1ti.1 "It'\ tir.upt :md flanks usually barrrd or spoiled f11rly promn1<nl llJ1~
tinJ I .11. hk W1l11<111\ Ph~IMu1'4' h~. paler rac;c \ OICE eyelinc and pale superc1hum. often broken m ft"Qnl of C)' In
II r.1tth1111,11"'' but uully 1lcn1 fligbl. grey "11b weal w1ni:~1rtpe Hild 1111/t 11<'1 ""''r Huddy
comra.~tiog wilh darker back MO'>t ~mulnr t<l S;111dc1 l11111 h111 ltonstone
larger. wilh greenish leg., and lncl11111 lu11cr ~ black1~h w111
bend. In Oigb1, Sanderlin& hns n sironi:cr wing~rnpc 011d d111k11
l. 2 1 2S cm (~ I 0") . Bo real rump. VOICE Tends 10 be silent, cn ll u double wh1Hllc, 111'1'1'1
b1ccdc 1. l'M!lllC~ nn sn11dy or
" rocky b~HchcK, ~t rictly coustal ,
Ollcn llocks. In ninny case~ wi1 h Pectoral Sandpiper Playero pectoral
Surlliird. I l)tN l'l l'IC/\TION A Ca/idris melanotos
ocky nndplpcr with )hon legs. L 19-24 cm (7 9") lforcnl llrccdcr 1111
11nd a lwn J//1;/11/1 1111111rncd hill. common 111 C'lnlc. but rcponccJ fmm \~m"'
All pluma~c' h111" a tltw11C'/h'<' sues south 10 Osomo I or~11c' in mud 1-.111
bn11tl n~( ! '"'"' 1 n Orc&>1 darl...
ample emergent eaetallt>n Snhtry "' '"
"n111\ll11g "Uh 1\-llltc thn1~1. "11h a JI.tit 1>r \\hllt' m1ru~100
smaU flock>. 0 ~OOm IOF' 1111( \I Il l\
fh;m Ilic nttl-11.Jn tn l>rc~~ l"onbrttJcrJarxcl> bro.,.n
Highly SC\ually dunufl>b._ in ilrc fonul .
how ollni v.ahc'J cin1111m<>t1, ,.1th bro.,.n11J1 fa.;c .Jlo"uig
SJZC of large Pl' -..b1lc m.tlc I ~II~ ol
~ of,.,,,,op1c,bcn'Jin1rfw1. ~11m1 l odotrperbbite.
L = Ydlolct' A dW'ltpy, mcJum-sunf
,,, " i' ' " ll1&1i1 """''~ ..-ff/J( """ "f'l'"P'Jrb pott.-rw. sandprpc:r ,.t1ha1ut1C11UalCJrqr l"'J:' ,..u,..,
v. t hM.1. hitc.. llul rump J.irL. a bolJ hllc ,.1np1npe and non
~ aNl dull .rrlluw 8111 ~ loag a. bead, itnJ ~.. ~It
Mltpc f\=fld '" """> I rum ltultt ln.o<t CO\ M> to &cnul~
droop. In smtc """) appcan hlc hui;c Lc;w '>~
I t;i I ,.h11C ,.,,b D bn-..J blad, b.anJ 6r\'\< Clal.: (all in
Brownish abo e. includini hcaJ and nl O.vl. -.trcv1<J l'IC\ l
l 1kl Im~ ""'!Jlk-A face r-atcm. and arc N61)' ilia a
mil btQSt. bm paJtJtnt mJ.t. ufvwp11r 111 /llt>ral IYJ:tCUI II
lJ l>.tt\.arld~ 1'ot1bc~-um1Lvto'-urlbml
o{IUUl<'!Tp<UlS ,.7tilc 01~ chuige fmm bm"n 1>rca>1"
hut r.r tnl by onnFC le'-' fiMI) urcumcJ l>Jl lip odJ ,. bile belly dlitincti' e. and gl\ C> 11 a ho<>dcd ~nee I aut
dJ I>~ luj'N M';HI l\ilt h~ anJ compk\ p;attcrn. "'"I obnous pale supen:ilimn. '1.:on-brccJJng anJ ~mg plun
\ u II I ,\ 11111 Ire 111 tu 111o111
sun1Jar. but more unifonn in ooo-brccJin' plurnarc "'hen bl ~
brighter buff or gol<kn-brown fnngc t<1 scapular< Nnc1
\111 lt11rd Playero de las rompientes lh..-lcs.s. even non-breeding plumage ha cJJrkcr centre 1
A11l1111.1 ""il"la scapulars and back. giving n nn obscurely )lr<:~kcd pf)I:~~ "''
l1 I 21 2$ cm (\I 10") Borcal lo 01ght, very wealc wb11c wingstr:pc and lurgc whn~ ~ulc h
rump. Most lilcely to be confu~d "11h 1lD1rtl' SRnd1uf11:1, l1111
noie clear division at pcc1oml line in nppr11pr:o1cly m1111o ,1
Pectoml Sandpiper. Also, PC(:toml hti\ yd low1~h nor hluck k~
and ollco has a more upright, longer necked l)U\lurc. Wluv
clearly extend beyond 1~il In 13aird's but fnll lcvol wh h 111ol 111
Pectoral. VOICE A rolling, low-pi tched r11111111. lowcr pil\'11111
ihttn similar call of Baird"s Snnd1>ipcr.

1111 ~--------------------------
" lt"I" 1 ul th, , '" '-'"''" and may be as small as a ~palT(m 01 \lightly larger. All OF\" bn'"""" ,., bre~ding
11 '" ht 1h11111h1111 11 .11111"" lr~.;l h1<Jc1"11 lncy arc rarely observed m brcedma plumage in Chile. and ~-~n be 141111
1 ra 11< u1oc """' '""" Ucnl""' 1 1ltc ,b;ipc and smr.:mrc of the bill. "1ng lmgih and leg c<>lour. among I 1
! ,r .,, a 110 I' r l1t1t is ll<n confused "'th them. Unlike the other ptc1es. n lack~ a hallu\ (lund 111\I
) 11111!1 hng Playero bl.inco least Sandpiper Playero enano
a/1,fm ,t/b.t FLK Cafidris minutilla
I !II i I <m (ti ~1. Boru l L 13 IS cm 15 C."I IJ.rul bn:C'dcr, sm.f
.. t>rn-J.:. but llOOk mnam in Ouk
during 10Uthnn "inter Clo><'I)
nu:inbcr. 11.intcr tn nonh J'llC' mott rc'u
1malf peep 1n C111lc ( dt:c of muddy p.n.I
ml I<> ~nd> bc~hcs. runmng and mudOah nur ""'r muuth Pref~
like a "1ndup IO) after ~Lmg ""'311 amount ofmlC'IJCbl 'cicu11<>11 or t b(I
"h. !Mn qu1cUy bacl. before eo-.,r 101':\TIHC 110'1 A mall r--cr
nc\I '""~ arr.-u Ui.ually 10 ,. uh a dhl1n<ll\C crou(hcd polurc o lkn
flod" IDr,TI FIC \110' Lar- foraging "ith bell) clO'IC co cwund ~nd "'''"ell bcn , ,
ger and bulkier true peeps. Semipal~ ..............
1d/o1< orgreenlrh-.rello" 81/I <lion, o.1 /01111 a. hn1il >r $ht>t 1,
Iti ~ leg 11111 lr:uyhl black btll \r11r/1 al"''" an wndr finely Upped and sli11l11/v duun ..1/ unhkc St'm1palm .-.1 Sandpiper
b.,,. ltr l'.o" hrJmai plumage "n4inil "'"'' 11ppcrpart. Sandpiper 'onbttcdcr bro,.nihfl'CY h<'lc.... 1111c bclo~
f 1/,.,1 II" I 1111Jr1i.1rh "'"" "hill' l>.trl..rr ,/11111/tlu 11reu Upperparts bro1111er than Scm1palms1ccJ 11r Wcstcm, ubv11n1
1/1111/ ..1111ng) 1"blc 111 fC\l In l1J(lh1. ht1/d 11111g11ripc'. bolder in direci companson, and h~u\/ mflrr flnui11fl <1rr11Ard L" l
rh 111ti11111 '") peep' Hn:cJrn11 plumai:c rcdd1~b on brca~I, <emipalm:iti0!1$. VOICE A h1ghp1t~hcd11<1w1, lon~er than c.111
lo ..1 hi lll'l"''l'ln. Uud' moul11n11 1111,1 1h1s plum;igcobscrved o r Sem ip:1lma1ed or Western, with chnructcnllc 1olllng 1011~
111 I 111 111111111111 111 Chile. VOIC'; A shnrr . but so il kif1/
White-rumped Sandpiper
\r111l1lalmnted Sandpiper Playero de lomo blanco
l'l11y110 '<'mipalmado Calidris fuscicollis FLK
< 1/1clm pusilla L 17 19 cm (lo 7.5"). ll(>rcnl brw1I
I 11 I ~ ~m (S 6") l)orcnl breeder. rurc m er, ORC of WI.. 0 C\)Olll'IOll ~q"'
( htlc rmbahl> but pcrhap~ Jporadoc 111 Oulc, forai:c' in mudtla1i.. m et
( >.'ll>lI, mudOob near met mou1h' IDEN'n - moulh nnd 'horc~ ot ' halh"
~ ICA 110 A mcd1um\1Lcd peep w11h a l'll.~nianpctnd 0 <()(Im IOI'
""'' tul>ular '""t"-J 1>11/ 8111 of\cn <honer T ll IC' \TI O' \ lonr " ' "I
1l1;1n hcd lcn111h. and di>c ll(lt taper lo a fine J>C\.1' 1nmonn 1<1c111//)(1tmJ twl
"'''' Vrc,.cd Imm or drrn:ll) 1n fronl.
I> II o >'11/, ,,,JI ,,,_..., nut rlllCly t1rJICd l'.mal "d>s
11 ltttr rtlffl/I J1<1gnoJll
ltp. ~cwi -brttdcr dull gm
4 l"ll1113to<>rul n tr..-1 like \\C1>1cm ~p1rcr. (Jp bloC"t. obtn'f!'. "hlli! MIOM. >nth Hl'WlkrJ j1m1L> Ju, (e.11111 <pmttl
N<"' hr\'<'llcr ilull iro:y1../i c and l\h1lc bcJo,.. \\liit<" LhrNI has ru~ scapuL1rs. mI ~c moulted,, t or1h1 plum.iir
id nur of bra : ""I) J"lf'ICly nurkcJ \10!ol umbr to b) thetr arm~J \ OI CF f tlun ""'I"' ., ,,,,.-/rA, \ttf'
I m 11\hllh 1-.::1 Iliffe~ trom lcu '>:lnJr1pcr m less
1 t1>l>l """''" I<,, t.tpcrcJ boll. bl.-..:1.. ICJ, p~n.:c of Baird's Sandpiper Playero de Baird
_ .....,,.l,..-11<10 ~<- f'lllmil&C anJ Ot. tron1 ~ Bainfs Calidris bairdii FLK
,J \\ h11 """l'fI S.11Klp1pl'r by "''"'' that Jo nm e\l.cnd
I ) J IJI lw Jolkrt"''C' m bill ~pc and '11'1k"tlln:. and L 17 19 cm ((le 7 ~-1 Bnr(lll
L I iot l rumr. """""'"" "' l.1ucr \ O ICE I\ 0<IC1 chnp.
brccJet fond or
h1t1h '\nJ, '"
"c1l.1mh anti ,h.1llu..- 1'JtA(lln1.m
~"' m11111v 11111l11y oI I c'"' s.1ndp11"'r
ponct. and mudOah I ht= "'" o
,.,dnrrcaJ C'h1kan peep .11 .1
Wr''"'" 4ilodp1pt'r Playero occidental
( ,,,,,,, , 111.11111 one ul thc two commoue" 'r<"
~SOOOm IOt;l'>l IVI C'A'l 10' '
I I I Ill I I "~I-IOI ~ kJ\I '""record'" I n:gton long-,.rngcd 'peep', 11r1mu111
llnl rr rr 11111 i., h,n 111111 ,,. Sem i palm ntcd Sandpipe r. t!.\IMi/ f><:)'Olllf l11i/ Ill W ,,, /)1114
1111 N I II II \ 1101' I ' " " "'~I) " nti1111 111Semip:ilma1cd. No1 rump und black leg. Up1xrporh hro1t11hk 1u1h 1ml~ h 111tH
II 111 l I 111111, 11"'1t.r 1..-1111 I 011k 111r ,hghtly larger ~Le MOSh 0 11 breast. Browner nhovc 1h111> Wl111c nompctl, uncl /111 I,

1 \\ to'" 111111 h1l1ll v h111!1'1 lq1~. Wcic1nhn~11 longer bi ll streaking 011j/tmA v. Bill nvcrugcHlonger n1ut is s1rni11htcr 1111111
11 111 1111111 d 11Ith It 111 /"""'1 ll/11 ,/ l11ilivlil111il ifttmt1ltts) Whi1c-rurnpcd. Juv. (early ~pring) crispl) calcd uhovc \\llh
I I , .111 ~ 111 11111 111 \\ , .1,111 IJjlCh di topmd warm brown brca:.t wash VOICV. A rull1ng. roui;h ' '" '' 1
I 1111011 t1111tt1I \11 11 r rnn ht hd pful fo r similar to l'ectoml Sandpiper, much ro11i;cr and clccpcr lho111
111 11111~ 1111111~ \~, 11111 "-" h,um li>c Least Sandpiper.
I 111 \ 1111 I \ 1111 h 1it,hul ~ ., ""'"'
l I 1111 lo 'I 111 I 1ttljhtl111lh11

II ~. ~.
111<IJ'llJ(t1 ul 11101 1.., '"'' 11 llICl\kd fields with ample cover The)' 1111: oflcn ken only whi;n the' rt
t htm' IMe 111'"'"' 11 t ,.,'"'' Mhcr "~"'l they also ha"e obvious fh1b1-displa)' Tbc pa1ntcdn1rc belong' too !
I Looi u( onlv ""''I'~ 10lfhl1Jc II h a s:malJ compact shorebird. .,.,th a ""'" h ~u"cd bill :and "'""' "
I truo 1111(1Q. 'hot I htll d llo"'U<hc1,. a '13Jldp1~with a loog. srupe-hlc bill Dollc:hcn att lll>t tnpcJ abo,

oul h Amertcan (Magellanic) Sni~ Becadna Fuegian (St rickland's) Snipe Becaona g1.111d
t:..ll111.1go piu.Jguaiae mage/lanicil TX#35, FLK Callinago striclclandit
,. L.:?t JOc:m(IO ll"I Thcscancbrd'snipc l 2~ 10 cm (II 12") On< Pf lh I
m Chtlc, "'1~11 Md common Inhabits
kno.,.n CllJlcan bu~ lnhat111.. """-' ,_
cdgcs of catt11I ( T\pl"1) and rule (Sc1rpus)
f l>CJWI If& lancl.. partlC'Ubrt~ 1>111 I
~. as "'ell flooded ficltb or pas-
anJ llud, lll\ldJy bosli n .\Ollxif.1~>11 t
t~. and .era y "'c11 ndJ or bogs. G-2000 "winnowing'
Unclear 1fnonhml l"'f'U~Uon ~re
m IOE'11 flC \ TIO' A 1yp1cal snipe, or mncly O\'\"nlo1n~111- 0 ~nor
,. ,th Ions btll. W1JICd f<k-c ind ~tnpcd back.
Threatened IOE.' I l fl CATIO' A
Lona '"''"~ for a <ll1pc, rnmanes often
ntcnd bc)ond tcn1al1 h.:c bro.,..111~ .,.,th """'"'" IAtJc rotund bod). t/o, 1
/if1C' and long dttp-ba~ b1ll .,.h1th 1
upercd11nn, d.ork cro.,.n, C)'~lnpe and thee~ <tnpe. Note
stantially dcq>cr based thn11 o~ Chilean <nope.. nd h .. n
c1 1111.c n bmlcn unmcdiatcly bclo"' C)C D.1rli hro"4n had
exteosiH: pink color:1110n II 1t~ bue. Ood)' dark bnmn, ' "'
1mJ ~ "/ 11/ar, "' '1 nfutll<'d by fo11r J:t>ltkn long1wtlina/ lines.
stripes present bul llbcurcd by dark background ,11 111
111\'H t uonKI) ,,,...akcd bro.,.n, rest of undcrpans wh11e, wnh
Strongly streaked on neck , and hr<>llllll' harn:d thm11~/1 .,
tlt11l1t1~ hnmng on flonk.K Ll.'f(I' )'t'/101111/i grr:rn In night,
underparts; no large wlt/11 /)t/1111t11<"l1. !lock sim lltirly 11.111
"'""~" 11111, w11h dArk sub1crm1nnl bor nnd whi tish outer with goldcn-ornngc longiludlnul ~ripes. Tcrtio ls, cown '"''
'' 111 '' ''' ll11rltr11/11g~ white with ''"'"" c/11r4 harrl11g. On the
scapulars less complexly 1>r11tcmol1 ll11111 In othcrCh1 fcn11 '"'''
f 11lkl11111I< 11rpcar1111cc I~ vnriolitc. Mo le 11ppnrcn1ly po ler than
the coverts merely showl1111paler 1101chin11 on dnrk fculfw" fu
'' 11111li I ur 'cfrnrutlon from luriicr Fuc11iim Snipe see that fligh1, broud. rounded won11 .. 11h 1111/r1lv tlarA u11tll'flll11
I'' I 1'111111 Snipe os c'trcmely similar In C'hile the two arc
Also, tail bro1111 11ntl lack hm111/er /lt111tl or ll'h/11' "'''
1lln1ll t ult 1o111pc 10 the nonh, runicul11rly at high elevations
rectrices. VOICE Nocturnal d1~loy dc'll:ribed IL' o ""'"
a1 1'11111 S11ulh AmcnClln d11TcN rrom Pun~ in lafller ~11,e,
repeated cl11p note:., and a pcm:trt1tma chorwn 1n odd111 .. n 1
l1111j!l"r "~'duller lea colour(noc hn11ht yellow). more deibely drumming sounds.
I 11.J 11n1k,...1ng paucm. lonacr .nd mot'\' pointed wings.
I n r t>tll ,1.,l .,..tcr rnuwy anJ eycstnpc bckm ey-e.
\ Ulf I \\moo"''"I d1,ply gncn iu bird d1c-. from a height,
South American Pai nted-Snipe
1.uh ncrhl'tt>llTl<Japhr""n<""" pith.....,.,., Cirnllfttl song Becacina pintada
llf, ,,. hoip 'ftoup clup '!'l'cd at 1-s mtcrvals fucapc Nycticryphes semicoflaris
nQI II I~ ft d L 19-21 cm (7 II 'I Uncommon to rare on Ctnl
Ulbab1b Oooded field. adJ4Cctll IO call.aal or rc.:J nw
l'un Snipe Bec.acina de la puma shes. Shy. d1fficuh to' Ccuuchcs 10 &mallc,t ill
C 11/m.,~o .1ndini1 of "C&ClaUt>n .nd rrn<kr ll"Clf ln'ISlbk 0 ~lltl I
l l ctn 191 Small '"'I'<' of h1&h~lcva11011
1 IDE:\1 l f l CAnO' A wnall. '"'pr:-hkc wader llh South American Painted-Snipe
a long11h hool ttppd />11/ Urov.n hood rcach1
"' lll>ll 1n the -1h. mo.ti)' on ""'"t Andt:2n bogs
breast, udDmC"J /r\ 14ft11., hrr<U/ <pur tlut ntm1I I
and mcrbanks. Uncummon 1n Oule 2000 SQOO
m 101 'TIFlCATIO' f\tr<'mel) >1m1lar to
1010 pale b;ick -cnrc. Arpcan largc:I) dark bm...
'5<ov1h AMCnClill Snore bul d1flm coo mcntly m abc>c. "'llh laf'Kt' ,.,.,,,. hlarcM> Oii ><11g-<mr11
Undctparts .,.bite to bulT. unbaln'd l ~ bnaJu )'Clio" ln1
ii .3l1Cf Uc, J'fOPC'MIOMtcl) hc.ncr finer bill.
has sttclicd head and hrca_,t Tail pale l>ro"n 1n 01,:ht, niJI
nnJ lhnncr kg /11 /11ght fi, 1'"" t'f'ad1 tat/ ""
~un11, l>ut e~tcnd l>e)'ond tail oo South Ament:.1n. orange or wh1te<dgcd hlc true nape \\ 1na hning .,. ,.,,
I q: nfl'unI f>ngJ,1,.,. ~r/IQM tha11 So111/i A111enron. c:o111rasting w1tb dart. rcm1gc1 and lc;td1n1 ~j,:C rake~ olTmu1
cxplost..cly tban true <ni1lC, ho<ltmr .iia1ah1 up bcfor~
t 111, "'""' , 1h(1c '' a \lt~hl d11Tcrcncc 1n fa" pmtcrn, "'"h
I"'''' '""''''H ,,,,,,,, 1/1uA In port1r11lar. .:Jtlmt d1Hlnc1 a11d forward progrc'5. Wi1111beats quick nd 'nopp)'; lea dRnl~ '"
fligbL VOI CE Hu~ky. mufllcd n111ht noie.
" 1r/1 1, '" '"" ''" 1111 t11nu, but llroken in Snulh Amcncan.
I tllt1t1f1f1t I i Iii 1111 full\' rnom: wh11c 011 OUler r rianory of Puna,
11111llllh 1 11111l 111t11" lfl1111dcd w11111s. t'1'111111rics ilo nm cx1cnd Short-billed Dowltcher Becacina chica
h v1111I 11111111"'' '""' 1'111111 ~hows auuro white on ou1orrcctriccs Limnodromus griseus Short-billed Dowitcher
1 ,1 ~ ~ N11h 111111 u 111~~. //11111111111, has lx:en n:imcd from L 25- 29 cm (I() II") Vugrn11t 111 C'h1f~. one record u1 rongn1
11! I" 1 Ut" 1 n 111 1!1 h<'I)' h;irr ..1l wl1111 l1nlt1j1,\, like South IDENTlFlCATION Sntpelilc ~h:ape, bu1 hJ~p:ih:supcnal111111
"' It 1 1111 I 11 111"'11111.111011' fonhcr nonh arc snnilar and dark eyeltnc. no other focc Mlnp1na. Nonbn:cdc:r Jllq
11111 '""' '"''' """'~ \ 0 1( W111n11win8 display above. unstnped. and "hot1'h bclo"' "th 8f'CY neck In /111!,lt
h~ 11 lnn11 "'"" 111111 ""'1 11 I 1rnunJ 1onr l.~t. 11p- "hite nunp anti la14er bac-. Breeden t'U>t)' on nccl anJ brc t
ll1 111101 ~ b:tf> .. , 1h11'1hq1/ barred. 5Uipcd and 'll'C(lfcd aoldcn ind ""tY on uppcrp..11
\'OJCE A qu1cl """''""'"" ltlc a rccdccl-ur. mulll,"11

I (If rtu1~.... ~r '"'r'I'<""
thal fOJ.agc mamly b) 5'\<-untrung.111d.1n1 roo.1 frOlll lhc .....kf T-..o re- ~
Ll11 ii lfln6 Ilk' 11on l!fffJ DIJ ~'"~" "hen they att m Chile.. All hac lobcJ h>o.. 1111 aJ.-.ruoo for s-..1mm1na c Ill
t n rn-<1 b\ h\lrlins in 11 ll&h drdc. rod.1ng at the small ~Is cJra,.n on 10 1hc ccutnl on.
Their brttdJ
11 1101001111;;. '"''" fcnulet bans~ ilnJ brigbu:r lban males. l1IC so rolcurc n:~. -..nh fonalc.cOlnf'd
I other h'f lk-OS lo mamg nl<lk~. -.I m.tlc-i. pcrfonmng nesnng dtllJe<. The J-aiu "a mcmbttof an cnorcly dotlc 1
I 111(11111.11. mm111f "'""' :uc l11>1n the Old World Jacanas ba''C cxtrcmcly lc>nll IOC$ ,.hteh 1hcy use 10 -..;ilk on n1..,11n
II I 1tholll 'IQ\;IR!l. !\ ID rhal~ll'f'I' , ""11C- pcrfom1 !he pattnlaJ catC

Pollito de mar tricolor Red-necked Phalarop~ Pollito de mar borNI

Phalaropus Jobatus
L 22 24 cm 18 -~ ~ S"). Boreal
brccdcr l llc c>nly rhalaropc that
.> n:Jlul.lrl~ t>bscr>~d inland 10
JI I 18 - 19 cm (7-7.$") 11r
breeder Pcl~ic while m (. hol
'"here II I~ lhc lll..CSI plwl.iro'f'(
Chile Prcfc,.. "'"'!>(' pond> and ('~1ntou foam lone:- ,.t;
la.L~. both u1 the aluplAno and
Paugunoa 0.:<Uf\ e>n ~cs.
I ten "'di ffCttlll
mcCI IDf,TIFIC \110' I
muJnau and Ill.cs "" m1gnt10fl- mallc,1 phalaropc. but 11
ln IM high \nd<- oftco forages rUJ'll!ly rlumper and me>tt con~
lx-1" ccn fccd1n1 namongo~. than\\ 11<.oni.. Both ha'c a 1h
1 1 uo. I I' d<1n1? t1f1 food do 1urbcd h} the larger bircb. G- nudll'lJ.e hill but 1hu1 llf Red-necked ~ proponou11.11d
1011 111 1111 ~I ll'ICAl 10 A >Inn pholnmpc, w11h a long shoncr. Nun breeder >!l"I' ulHll't, 1111/111 hitl' mantlt lrtp<' 111
" ~ 1111l l11n1 lei: 811/ tll/11 and 11<'11//(. /tk1, 11111'1 s1n11lnr I<> obsc11re wltlt" ,\lt11111lw w lp1. Dark mas k nnd back ol 11rd
It ,f llr ~ell l'lt.1lnl'(11>e buf propo111011111cly lonucr, l)ifTcr~ from like Red Pho luropc. Wh11c be low, Ar sea sepnrntiun l'n1111 111 ol
111111 1 plonl11101lcK 111 lllck111g 11 wl11>1.trl1w unJ huvin11 ro white difficult , bur nolc sl'l.c dllforc ncc. Red is similor iii ~111 In
111m1 I lo1 /m1>: h>:' urayl.'llow in nonbrcctlcn.. which nrc grey Sanderling. but Rcdncckcd i~ &lightly larger rlmn the ~111111111
11111< 1ml 1111 lMck o( neck. white below uncJ 1111 forcneck. peeps. When swl111111i1111, Rcd ntckcd mies higher ln wutcr th"'
I '""II 1111<1 I.ore uey. but lacks mo~ m.1~kcJ uppc11rn11cc of Red. :i.nd rs mClrc bunyant At ...,a. uppcrparts of Rcdnt<~ I
nth r l''!"'' h:i~tng a much1'<1/rrju1 <' /J<Jllc-rtt Uppel'JXlfb
t:tt Llt:~ing~ny p;tlclmcs or p;rn~m Orccdcn (early autumn)
appt:ar darker grey than lhe>\C ur Red. and show~ p.ale ''"I". I
seen ,.ell Thrn boll ul Rcdnl.ed a fca1un:. bu1 d101, II
I onnamon nn 11<ek and a d.u\ f.11.'.c ''"JIC f cmale near!} io oOscnl' from a ro.:l1ng biiar In calm -.e:b hen 1-utl
l.1\0-.icd IDJ corgcous. mal~ b<u"ncr on na:k \ by be close. 01ce '' aho uw:rul In ~ceding plWNJIC (from \I 1
d "11h I c-cr Ycllo.,.lcg' or S11ll 4'.tnJp1rcr From bead grey "11b con111b11n~ "hole throat. and brgc rcddi~ "'11
t tw .biwtcr ltg> IUld dumpier ID<'fC l'<'ll>clhcd ~ppcar- oo ocd->1~ &d. grey '"th 1oldcn unpcs.. Male duller 111.ln
1ao.:c nd nc.:1' '"holerOf\ Wrl--. l''l'C. hum Srih female:. has -..hole .,upnlonl mtttlllll ctnMll'lon w .pcrc1h11
1Nf1 1rn I> ;.ho1ner ~-dumpier ht>dy, paler fa.:e and ncd. only female hu "hll<" 'Pt~ on front <>f eye. \ O ICt. A h1t:11
All hltutfln. thm. nccdli>-hkc boll \ OICf A IO\\plld1ed nasal pitched. hanUup "nular IU Sruidcrh1111 bu1 harper and <tronc;1
'" iohlll/f'lrlrlr Also:! clrup.

lteotl l'h1.1larope Pollito de mar rojlzo Wattled Jacana Jacana

l'lt.1/,uopuf fu/icaria janana jacana
!J r L 20-22 cm 111 K..S"I Oorl'al L 17-2J cm (7 9") Virrant. '"" ltpOflS. from Anca and I 1
bl'Cl'dcr Pcbgr~ 11>h1lc 1n Chill'. lSogales. Aronca1w f ClrliCS 11 cd zc or m3l'Shcs. par11<'t1lnl
the mo.I coml'llilfl rh;JI n1pC ofT- "'bttc !hen: IS some n..a11ng \C&CW>on or malled nn<:fCnl
shott t'onccn1r1tc 111 arclb of IDE:.YrtFlC \TIO' "l.lfl<" -..aJcr. '"'tha1tt-.l1 l1"'Jt i
c:olJer alt.T, rn Ufl"cllong .zones a1ld rrlah>e/1 1<"1111 "' Dul..>lJoai. -..11b long Deil
IDE,rlflC \110' \ thocbct Bill loi>g anJ thod., blunt<ndcJ. n<'4 lapCTCd .!\d and \<oWIJ
show $1lllang /afJlrl u:Jlu" pn11tant:. and stt"OnJan,r, th
yellow is aln10>t cnu~ly h1drlcn on arounJ rt c- en n1t>1t
surpnsing -..hen the bird Ulke 01~!11 Ad has yl'lluw hill. th
rt'd wa11/es at 1>1111' 11111/ rrd Jmntttl .fhlt!ld. Head. tied. 111111
underparts bluck. co11tm~111111 with c111namonbrow1111ppc11w1
and wings. Ju v, (111urc like ly to occur i11 Chile) while bd1111
nnd ou furc11cck. Fuoo hos n wlo hc supcrollium. contras11111:1 1 1111
black cyclinc. und luck~ rrunrnl shield and wattles.

1'1 All
I ufous-bellied Seedsnipe
I 1111 I 111111 11 honocoridae): all occur m Chile Sttdonrpc ttl.1.)1 b.: mci-1 d1hd> olh ol
111111. l'lnHt I h h111 I" ''" -rc.:1c~ 1A11agis) are associated "-1lh b1gh aJr1nc 1one ind ~re cccoh~ocatl
n 1 I 1 p ;ar1111 11u ''"' 'I'"'' he'""
I ~nuUer species (T711noronul arc 11<!,1 ~cnbcd &>an un1n101J11t1hl r
~ rut 11 tar~ \II K Ju11f1<! rrca
,1.,,.. and dnmlcy on land. but 0) stronaly vn Iona. r;rntcd ,.."IP II
I f\Jtl rncd 1tho1e uod 1lr.l!1gly r}p11.:, The) hac sbon.. chidm-ltlc btlls. and nut)' form Ooch In hotb TltJ,..
(1 ~ "h 1ucl or ullcr mound.

L ~I 24 tm 11 9"1 WiJ.:
29 'I cm 111 - 12") ,\luge thmu11boot f'MCC OC.:utl ""
1ccJ1n1~ of rhc alpine zone. m1unta1n1 Preferred hal>1t
I ound both on tod.) ~~ and Al!Jr4n bng>., but 1151> U>n
Andean l>ug., but only uses lancr ,,,.~.y c-~ cJsc' unJ h>raz
11 ..J;4'cm lo nxky ,Jopes 2500 runa Jfiil>\lln<b ,, 1.d1a.cn1 h
lm "'uth) S500 m IOE'\'TIFI- ,..,,lnJ <oo <f1<MI m 1111 .., If
(. \ 110" n.. '"'I:'"' .wedsnipl!, FIC '\110\ \ ,111.:lv, du-. I
>ecd>nrt 1ub111n11~1f)' 111 11
I bulky. prnrmogan-ltke. r1ump-
bC1Jml ~nd 1mallheadcd w11b than A1tng1s species 8111 .II"" "1th 11 ltlurA llfl 1111d, 11/1
and legs yellow. Male has grey face and, "h111 1/11,
"'" 1 ) <I """ll 1hllk lcll' lull ,hon nnd. 1111'\!>t, ollcn entirely
1,,,1.1 11h111w1h11n111n11111,rcnallcmeri. nlll sbort and 1hick. 0111/ined i11 blal'k. and llJll'l'I l"tlJ:t' oj lmmt l11m/,11d /,,
hlu v. v ul h11'C, lllnck 111 1111 lie.rd brownish-cinnamon. narrow black /i11e: there Is 1111 hlnck line t1lo1111 1hl' m1dh11
1111111111l 1l111~c1 Mo11ll1111 hcc<11nco II <'011111lcx h:mcd pnltern on the breast Crown brownc1, :ind rc~I or 1111c1u..,111rts wlt11
111 .i.1 I11lorc t;i vi1111 wuy 10 /111~<'(1 111111111rk1tl r1i(<111.v 1111dcr- Uppcr11arts brown, barred (111<1 cdgc1J h l u u~ nnol ~olil, llo
I"'' '' /1 11111/1'rfnll, ll1111cr1>t11 lN c lt11111111011-bro" 11, ~rypticnlly feathers having pu le 111>ldc11frln1,1cs1hut 11lve 1flc upp~1p11il
I' llh 111111, l111>c1 h11c~ u11d n11111l 1i1rcycr. Sc1111ulnrNnnd some scaled appearance. In flight. hu' bluck w11111 l111rn11K01111 '" '1 1
h 1d 1..11l"r h."c hlnckih cc111rc~. 1hcorc\lcnt is 111divid11ally cootrastiag with grey1:.h rcnn~c~ I cmnll' lt1ck 11rey 11tl'b '"
"' 1hl, """'' ur.: c\1cn~1vcly hlak. I C(I.\ hluc-grcy. A strong breast of ma le, 1hcsc urea' urc bml'n "'"" d.trkcr 111 .~
It li<n lnng po1n1cd "''"ll" ond putbclly npparent. OtbetWisesc>.es similar M<'~l lskcly ll> be c1111fU,cJ "th I '
I f'I 111111~ lf'~M hN"n"h, d.Jr~cl on rcm1ge,, t1111krpurtS Scedsnipe. "'h1ch is sub,tan11nlly smalkr ~hilc Orcy1>1, 1 I
111 I"'" /111111111 r11(111n Only h~blc IQ l>c .onfu~cd "irb lacks blacl hne along m1Jhnc ol l>rcdt Jn .11fJ111on. th, I
111rir1 rcnulc Grc) brc.i.tcll SccJ,nrpc. the large s12e and bill of Grcybrc::hlcd ~n: more smnwl> ~ell""
11111 r 1..:c m:iy not be rr.un11 01 a <lnw..:c. Rufou,bcllied are more similar. but ho d1flc 1n lie \ 0 1( l ""o
h ru(OWI nol ,.hole unJcrr~ In .u!Jofl<>n, 11 la.:k> a cnspl) tcpetirh-c. OO\'cbl<c """' ot>p c11o~>p , ,
II "hllc hnGI l"'tCh ulJ h.u. blllC~. 11<>4 yello..-t.di. a llllc of c.2 per s
ti l rPJWU r;ano:m m.>rc cumrlc, , hnosl n1gh1jar-hl.c oa
~ tl<'ll!Cd. but simpla anJ ltll'tt salcJ m fanalc Grey- Least Seedsnipe Perdicita
kJ \ Ol<t <rours " e ~ h.>N> ol p1r1111 -1 poppmg Thinocorus rumicivorus FLK
hfn obrmcd or OllihcJ \ho a ,1.l,. "''"''P "'""I'
h II- lllJ. I If>. IQ"" f6 7 "1 \\ 1.Jesrn'
the only sm:ill 11ttJm pc hlrt)
Wh1lf!bell1ed Seedsnipe Cl\OCW ID '"Ian.I u~ \'llfl
l'1d111t<1 cord1ller.Jnil 11ustnil b:ib1U1t, bu1 pttkn lb1, di)
Atl1tf;I\ mdloumus ccrn1nI> unrrotlu<lf\ c ar
I '1> 2'1cm110 11"1 \large sccdsn1pc of
1nduJ1ng n.1l't.tgonon 1t11
v.11h "'"11 \C~CIAlltUI and $111>
1hc C\trcmc "'u1h In summer rnhabits
pebbles, Jc'ICT'I cd11c. bc,1,h..,. "'
OIJllll<" /\lllC Jlnrculrly where I rod.')
sand dune .1nd dry, 'Hiii) rm
~lllJ'<' m.-c1, 1crk1>1 \mJll \\Ct land. or in
Oats. 0-4000 m. IOEN1 I F ICA1l()Nl1kca mnll \cM110111 r
,,,..,,, 111 rn'hi11n plunl\ (.4wn//u). In winter
Grey-breasted Sccdsn1pc. llC1wcvc1, male hnc tm.1111k1 hi 1 I
111,1l'lld< 10 l'u1n11onl.111 wtcrr1c. 0 (wmler)-
fringe to lhroa1 and lower bl'\!a,I, which nrc conncct~ll h1
'000 111 IO~ N 11 ~I CATION Struc1urally
black line along 111hl//11t 0{ 1!01/1>. lcn11lf CK fll(llC Ni n11 l:11. f.111
hlf 11 111 1ll11111ild1 lt11l11us holllcd Sctd11lpc bur smaller. Bill
Least smal ler with t/111/n 11.!llow /1111\ 111irt w11/ 11 11w11 1111/d/1
!111111 111 V" I 1111111-. with dul'ko1 1111. Wnnn brown hc11d and
"'' I , .,1.,1111 . ly ..11,.,1kNI, hc.i1111l1111 bnrrcd uncl scnlcd 0 11 breast. 1r
ouili11ed throat, bird i8 burcly lur11c1 1l11111 11 ~lltlf'row, ti I
II 1/1 .,,,./,, 111., /1111 11111'1/>m/\ r1111111/r1/1p<1ll<'nt<!d with nifcms Least. VOICE A 1c11c111ivc, tnccNsnnl rc11clitl1111 uf v11duhl1
notes. 1oop toop too tor>... or Awr111At1'llfJ4w1m
11 I 1/ol /i.111111~ 111m/11~ 1111.t 111,11Ai11H, Kump more golden
ti Ill or
I (ol ''l'I" .,,..... \1111.rhl" llltllilX'r blackish-centred
11 11 uul la k 1, olh"1 I rldy lu 11" ~1111fu-cd wnh sym-
1 l 11 I I ) !<11 1 1.,l \nohfllfl\" l>ul llllltlJO:l o(cl"311Jy
I I It h11 '"""' 114'1 11 1.othcr 1h;111 ''rcakcd breast,
r I 11 11 1tl 11ry1di 11 hom-c olourcd leg>. not
l J1 1 f I t1llk' t 11 y hr u~l l111< <rt pl) pale
I 11 r al \I ll fl \ ~"' "h1t1110.,frit
111 ........_..__...___________________________________________ Least Sffdsnipe
PLATE 47: Jaegers
Pomarine Jaeger
Jeci;cn .trc: tM '""'Iler n~111bc:r. 11( the !1.1"1 family (S1cn:orariidac). cl~ relah\C$ or l!Ull :tnd 1011' All hrc-.l on lhc Arc:h, 1-.r ~lr1n.:
1uo.tra and arc pcla11c dunng lhc non h1ttJ1n1 ..c.t\l'>n (I c. while in Chile! lDc~ \\ 111 hun1 for 1hc11 own fooJ. but 11 ,.,,. llK-~
nncn '"'""' hl Uqi!Opar:tMll'11'1 , l>a\I ally 'h*''"I C>lbcr <peClts.. fon:ing them In dror lhcir f<'llJ bcrcr. arc '""<18 and f'<l\\ttfol
1111lhc\\111s. :aftd lla>nhk I hcy 111<,. unable l~ptt~dcrnl ,.bnc \\ln! ratcb 1>! lhc ba..:ol thc rnmancs In btJ1f1$
pl~ th.:' IM\ c 1'111J:<"r, moJ1 hcd ~111ral 1a1l fca1hcn,. hich are lost during thc n<>n llfJJng pni<>d L11rgc 1ftdl\ 1dual \'llna11011,
anJ rtumagc \'llna1t1>n J1JC 10 ogc and mnuh lden111ic.>11oa t'>ID be trid:). :ind '"m~tme> tnil'<'llJblc. \1ui;I uscrul arc d1frcrc:nccs
lft ~r\ldUIC a11J UJ'l"r\\lh l>.lll<"ffl fbcf\: aM'Cllf 10 be lll least fourgtneraJ 1C: l\f'H JUh"l'lllc fir>lf>~,I<, ""cundN\IC allctllIC,
1h11J..t>.a<i. ahcmalc, .\lld 11.lull tcletin11tH I ( ageing: 3duhs al\\ ii}'> lu\c cnhrch cL&rl< un.lcn\1ng,, ID nonhrc:ahn~ 'ICMon
1hcy lad.. 11111 '"""men. hJa,c hlncJ u1rcrt<ulcnc""' and more barring oo lm'.a" and lhn~ Ju\cn1lc, fiN b.><1c arc: VCY II lo
cb1..:ola1c a''""""~ 1<1 1..: "'' anJ mufrh, hul II \lk>w \trong barring. on the urkN '"&'- ind bd, w1lo. caps S.:conJ-~cat
1mm..1un: ,h,w .,,,,.... I> 11r111g un the un.i.:r.-1111. pamcularly on me a..~olbric-.. nJ a J.oirl CJJI, but hnl\\'l\Cr bi.>d)' llwn
M111h 1111111 yc.11 1111at1!uu'' arc ort.n 1nJ1>11ngu"h.ablc from adults.. bu1 m-. I'<~'~ f<.., baffcJ l'c<lth.:r- on 1hc 1111ng hn1ngs
Sc.. 1nuu,f1,,h,,n ti '""' 011 ~ ~ 12~.

Pomarinc Jaeger Salteador pomarino cknsc:h 'oo.m:J,i'll<l/t1-rt'/lfl</'lllt"""Mf1Ylr '>hot1pc1111c'I/

Stercorilrius pomarinus e<'rl<"llSl"'ff '" tHttr.1/ < trfU Onl)' pakr JU\ h;u pale:
uppcnail-<:m-rt, JJrl hmls ll.l\c J.iri; uppnt11l ... oen.. unhke
I 17 cm I Ill S' I ot ~R cm (23"111111h 'tream-
tr' Pcla111.: I ounJ l><>th '"'hon: ~nJ m deep POlllilJlTlc Ju\ "'"" hkd) '" ho\\ I nultc:Cllbk \ohllC rnnwr\
patch oo lhc llf'J'C'"'an
\\atcr. u'ually"'" M<>uh' c;uhcr
than other ""' '"""c' complcH.-d by Dec.
I IH I!\ flF'I C1\ I ION rhc lu')lc<t /111.'/f.l'r, lar Long-tailed Jaeger Salteador de cola larga
Qcr fcmaks mny bl! con ru,cll w11h ~kua>. In Stercorarius longicoudus
fli~hl llflf'Cllt1' /lllllW'/11/ um/ rfl'l'/1-('/1<'.~lt'fl, I 3X u111C 15") or 51! cm (23") with 1arcn111cr.
w/1111s lm1t11l/Jm"d nncl lc1111l h ot' head and l'cl111.110. l he lcnsi commonly obscrwll il\O!:~
Parasitic Jaeger
hody 1n lh1111 ol wl1111s 1, roughly si1ni lor 10 111 ( 'lti l~. Probnhly 1m1 rare, but rc<trlctcd 111
lcn~th ol b1"Hly nnd 11111 hchinl'l win~ . Strong, uccp-bascd bill. clccpcr 11 fl",ht11c wu1cr~. I c~s klcp101inrn,i11c
Nnn-t>rcctJ11111. ,1d ha~ dark car>. nnd hc~\lly h..rrcd breast .and lhnn n1lwr \f'C~IC~, tend~ In forn11c r11ril\ 0\\ 11
ll.1ni.., \luy n:1n111 '"'"'''"'""//Ill/
or b1~cd11111 ,c,1'1111. Rump rvoJ. On u~~ra11c. 01c hcghcr ahoc wokr
bn>.1111) l>orr,.,I lilad.. and \llntc. On uprcf\l mg, coven.' and 1lwn the 111hcr pc:c1e' IOt' ilt 11~'!(/\11()'
ll1gh1 rcath.:r' uniform fla, " I\ nhllt p111n11ri ht1j/\ ""''"' ~ ~m11/I, \I mt.I ~/11mttt<t /Cit l{.C"T '\ppc .,....
D~rlo.mllt'J'h aJ l.111 dirk, -crJr;ilcd ln>m l'ra,1llc b) >lr'llcturc: much roorc Sl'lk.~lul ;and hu.1)11tll M ~ "114
ind l'fC$Cl'l.'C e>f i><OHrtll:d un1ril llI lc31hcr. Br.~J1ni: more 1em-l1ke th..n rakt'nhLc ( umjW'llh\Ch, muh n1<11c
plum.age sr<ort long. n. "''" p<>tJ~ 11r1~J r. ntrul "" '"" ... body aod tail ;, \ i..11>1c hrhand ..-1n~' than bcaJ and b<..S> 111
1'01c 1h;a1111h.:n 'cnttal 1~11 fl=a1hc" arc r.....,ng 1w1c ..ummtr front of"' m~' f unh.:morc, th "tn~ lf'11<'41r J'f<'f'<'r1J<>1U1ld)
tu atl) au1umn 1n <h1lc11hcy rs>ear !4idc anJ bu-a.f11rf'Cd. 1oiig and nan-0\\; al the t>....: 1~ 111ings arc d1st1""ll} nanv\\Ct
unhkc lllI 1>f 0111<1 J)!CB \ 'amhk brc>;I t l>anJ. l>u1 t1.>uall} than lhc length nt" b<'ll)' 11l l>ch1mllhc "''"l!' 0111 ral/>et 'h1t.1.
full ~nil muukJ Ju, un3blc, lm p.ilc bru\\n 1<1 JM!. choc- but due: IO lb .Jl<lf1 knglh II appc11t< Iha<~ . rclall\ cl) 1h1ckC'r
11l11c, all ha\c un1fom1 un,ln:akcd ht11<1 :anJ darl rnm.ine>. to than lhc longosh-l0<l 1ng bill of l'~na,uic J.>etr. AJ "vnlv
"P In n111h1 !here " a """"' 11h11< /l111l1 "' ,..,,.. "' j(f['Ofrr j~er wnh grc:} th, "-' oppo>cJ 111 bl3d., 1an1 \d onJ olJcr
UllJtrtl./lf~- tJ\(T/\ imm. sOO\\ d1ayoo..11c Ufll'<'OO tn& pall cm "'11h ("llh'rl thal lll'I
1<aricrubl> gr"'"' unJ pulrr 1Jr1111 th<' l>/u,J.iilr pnlflt1nc arid
Parasitic Jaeger Salleador ch1co Sl!a>lldaria; lb!> dtlf=nC I ~ lnukcJ fof' \\here 'IC"lll-
St~rcorarius parasiticus darics mttt "'Cl'h Ju,, lc" hl.dy 10 >ho"' 1h1' f"lllCm I~ long-tailed Jaeger
no-o ,.-hur sha/Q un up('f'ri.11111,, al'U d1;agno"'" ~c'lf\-brccJ1n
l 41 cm 116 ~1 or SI rm 1101
ad. grc~"b. "'"" ,oulf nc~I blacl cap, 1hc Oank' and btta.~
"'uh <trearn.:" Pcl3111: The: com-
band may be finely harrcd \h1>1 'ho\\ >hurt l""nlcd lafl
moo ja\'iCf 111 l h1lc, ollm coastal.
' Ucph'l"J~.l"l11:, 1hus oftc:n
=men.. Bn::edm1 ad l.i..~ brTa,1-b.ind. ha ""''II nut car
and whltbh nccf.> (\cry rate )cllo\\ \\Mhl and,..,... /11111dl uh/~
ob cf\cJ ne~ con<cntrauons of
toil 1tfl!umer> N<> d.lrkmorpb .;ti Jm rnorc vnnublc 1>111
!ems. pcrlun1111111 11crnba11c cha-
rypically rold hm" 1111/r 1</lh gr11n/i1111\ln:ak1tl /11t11/ Juv. h11'
..c~. II)._,~ I IM CA fl()N A shm
broad-tipped 111en11011~ 111tc>111r11/1w.,,.,,e1 f)o;:, nut sh1'"
pale lips lo pnmnncs un1I hn' lca~1~mo11nt 1lfwh11c1m 11n111~nc
ofany jncgcr. Palest CXll'C111C pule {:>cy 011hcud1111d \111dcrp11r1~.
these dis1inclly palc hc11dcd ll lumui;us only 1lcC11 r i11 juv. I.cllll)

A\ Naf:C flllf MUllH/t

l'Jkr 1U1p. "d1 11nc1ty
PLATE 48: Skuas Chilean Skua
SkUll$ ~re the l.i.'l"r memhcr' 11 th,~'"" 11ro11d.ic. nnd Jrc related cloi;ely to gulls and terns. Skua are ~cry 51milJr 1uJ~rlltl"\ hut
larger; 500\\ ~ bru'A ""h plurn.i~ 111111 ~tlulth"'>J nd l11cl long cil meamers. Skuas arc bulky 'bru1.-.. '-'hith unon\lt1e
olh..,r "I"'"'"'
('cI thctr !t~t<lt ;\ nJuh M tmnhltUtt plumages arc qu11e, prec1,c 411c:ing n 1tc:111 for ,1< 11,a. arc not
a\011labk It prul>ahl> ~lo them t lca,11hrcc )Can to m:itUtt. as inpcgcrs, bw lhi' require. further ~uJy Sku.u II\' ,..,.1..i.1c rn
pluma~c. but unly ~th l'oLu h.u dillcrcnt nlOfJ'h~. All lua> thick. pow"'1&1 btlh. lo Orght tM) ~ho,. buld .-httc rt.he:<
llhc ba cult ,. F"ti' n ht tlik: f-om "nc !Ind l:iclo,. I and rd.arhdy slK>n UJh Sec mtroduo:t1on to s cn on pa,sc I~
Chilean Skua Salteador ch1leno Brown Skua (Subantarctic Skua)
Sterconrius chilt>nm TX#37 Salteador pardo
L .SJ 59 cm i2 I 2J1 The com- Stercorarius antarcticus lonnber&t
mon lw 1n Ouk ....S the onl) TX#37/ 38. ANT, SG
rcan hld\ to be $1t from the
cOOHJ or cm 1 ihon rcLti"' Pelap.: L 51-6-J an 1-11 2~ I B=J, OCI Sllbanl:U<h< t>llDJ anJ
tn , mtn1l and Dl>r1hcm 1~. 'llb- A1112n:t:ic Pm111Jula. \\inter> <>lhlk.irc, pcrli.iro odm1\d~ ,
Allantic Occua. "llh rettnl rccun!s 1 northern bt'llltJ'htrc
bl and '""'" mlanJ tn !>reeding
area> f ....,,h.
Unique llllltlllg 'ku R3ng" m Ch1k unl,,..,.n lJ~cl> 101) m Ont.le> 1'4h.1&c arnl Bown
D, n I\ onlnntal 1'c'h 1n colo111e> oIT E roa,.i ofl -n"a 1.ld I u~go on 11\Jgraunn Statut 1n P.ic1lk'
"ht<h m11y hc 1kn~ .rnJ as l:iq:c unclear. \fouh.- cnJ oJ bnx-Jing \Cl<On m1mly fc:I> Jun
IDE:'\TIHC \ flO' Aerugc< the /11'l!nl Auu, bu1 hM a
a' ICMlll fl.llr,.. liut II< typrcally innlkr l cul1191c.1lly more gull
hkc 1hJn 11thcr ,kua-. forall'"i 1111 ,J111rc lor '"' cncbra~ prey. prt1port1onatcly "nllct head w1d bill than ~nlkland \ku
and ""'1111! gurh~go dumri~ when 1m11lublr Moults all~r Plumage "m1lnr 10 f'oJJ..lw11J hut 111lc11 "c1r111rr '""" 11 fc1" 1
br~-cd1ni;. l\1Jr !\ujt. u'uully cnrhcr 111 1hc period I DENTIF'l- golden sireuks on h11clik P11kr birds, thu~e hen' 1ly blmchctl.
C1\'l'ION Thuujjh lnrgc ;nul hul~y n 1~ 1yp1cnl of ,kuns, Ch1lc11n ""mu ptlsfr>.1 //11rAtr mmAwl rtr cw1111ttl /1wlc of 1'11lkln11d
i~ s1m1llc1 0111.I ~hmmcr 1hn11 lhc Jlrown Skun gr~up, wilh n \Jni.lcm mgs dar~. simi ln1 lO rc~I o( 11111lc11iam, l)nrkcr ituh
smaller bill, norrowur wh111~ 1111tl 11 ~rnnll cClltrnl mil fenlhcr vldunl moy be conli1scd with d11rk South l'ulor Skun. I lmwvcr,
protnrsion. Chilc1111 Skuu Ion~ 11 1l111A rt1p, 1r1111r1m11111 w//lt Sul>anturctic is l~riocr. bu lkier, more bul l-necked, hns rclotlvclv
cit11111111011 (11c10, lmmf/. 111111 lw/110, On ~111110 (u11c rclurcd'!) the loni;er legs, st:tongcr nnd longer bill, 1111d slwricr w11111~. live;,
face and undcrpum are 11n l ~ h111w11 I lowevcr. even tht'<" ni.ty d.lrkCS! Subnm.irct1c hlL~ wh11i'h or 11oltlcn wcu~ln111hro1111h11u1
how wmc cinnamon on 1hc thro,1t All have clm111n1m1 "111!1 11ppctp11ns, including cnVlfl' L>.iri.. South Polar h,i. nuwh murc
lu1111gn1h1r/11111d 1011111' 111 lli.:htl11t1l11 than rllt' u111/111irf\, umfom1 uppcrpan,, "nb a ct1n1rn,1rni1ly p~lc1 hrnllncck
tht:~ arc untfnmt in the l11own Slu~ gruur 1nJ d3rk :X>uth
Pow. and d.ltkcr th.111 th.: lod> 111 mo-t ~>Uth r,JJr M.rn South Polar Skua Salteador polar
hll\C a brc<>im111J"'"11rcv lit the b.a~ "'11h a lil~l 11r Ju, Stercorarius maccormicki Brown
SbOW~ C' CR-.1 CJ rfum.t1," mtJ I> C\ C'll fn<ll\' lrungly ctnn.tmt>D Subantarctic'
TX#37, ANT, FU<. SG
on w1derpu1' t 1nrumon ull..-n suliJ, not mottkJ br'"'" '" S ua
oo a.i_ Les 11 ~C> IQ\r Iii.kl. k L 50-55 cm (2C}-2 I "1 Brttd 1a \nure11.1 1ndi.J1n1 the
PciUnsula..,.hnt: ito,nUps,.11b ub.uiwaie Sl.111.aoJ ~rto
5"' of mixed populannn. may Ix h}briok llrgbl) mrsrat>!)
Brown Skua (Falkland Skua)
rcaclles norlbtto ~ill a~ ,.lftlcr M1y.i111111 Mllei
SaJteador de las Malvinas poor!) known off Chile Rq><>rtcJ from \lflom rta~cs olf
Stercorarius mtarcticus antarcticus CluJeaa COltSl. but idea!J:fiabfe pbQtoo (If sptmrM Uftl\atbl>k..
TX#37 / 38. FU< Possibl) migJ21eS "'di off,!Kn'? Dcl.ay. ~h 1111111 mio:h1as
L 52 -{>4 cm 12a zs-1 The Pro"'n r>t> cruup com aonhcm hemisphere... ~re tt pcrl'tll'n'S 'TI) quid. wn1g
""""' tbrtt t&.u........ or ...
ht(h ..,.,.., tn '"'' rc11un The) arc mooh in \!a) - Jul. In nt>nbrccdtn' ""'"'" dra"'n t.1 ft<h
up,.clfing zoncs. fDE1"TIACATl0' A <t111tlkr r.1<111"'tth1
trcinai sqiar&1d) here kl facthtatc lick! 1dcn11ficauun and com-
rAnMn, and may tndttd be < flrccd' tin the Fall.lands proponionatelysmall lhm bill. and shun kp l'ro1~1rtw11otd1
JnJ <N<t~ uf Santa C:ru1 and t huhut 1n \ racn11na Som( long-,.ing ed, ...-ith ndati,.ely narru" ""'Ill At rc,I. d1<pl)
h>l>111.luc "tlh Chtlcn SkuJ on Ar~cnttne ~>;hi No dcfinrtc short-oecl:cd. almoS1 hunched apj'IC4nlncc and. n:la1tc 10 otl~r
e<<r.I' Ill I ~lkl.tnd Skua lr11m ( hilc. hut could IX:rur at I! end slcuas. a Sleeper forehead and jlattrr c111w11. the head bc111~
111 S11~1t t> I ~1.t[!elhtn Mouh t1m1n11 umlnr to Ch1lc11n Skua. more squarish. Also, p11mary cxtc11s101111rcntcr Pohmoq1l111
1111 .N I I H CA I ION llro"n Sku.1 '" 11111111, b11/ky t1nd thick "ith pale and dark morph, :is well ns i11tcm1cdln1c5, 1 he 1t11di\I
/1/l/i-./ ''''ii'" 1 tu 11thc1 '~uM, l'nlkl1111cl aver:igc~ n Ii Ille smnl ler grey of all skuas. it never sltow, 1111rn/'/m1rd p/111111111r llkl-
Cllilean. Pale, intennediotc and n1 lcnsr ~0111c dnrk bi rdM hove 11
1lm11 lj11h1111111i. 111 lt111 hnK 11 11rnponlono1cly l11ri;cr bill nnd
nJud.v hv111I ll111 ~ l1111w11, M1111ctimcs with 1(u11se 1111l1/o11 sir"fl- small whi1ish 'blaze m the /)Ilse of tho llJIJlel' 111onrl/{1ft'. l'nl~
.,,,.,,4, ''" 111 .A 11.111/11Jl '' 11111 Jllllr lt. Mure so thnn in mo rph is mosl dis1inc1ive. huvlng n grey h ~nd , neck 111111
.111t,1111 111111 1l1t 11 11111t11lv 11.1lv hlolchctl thwushout neck, underparts which contrasl with dnrl.. bl\lwni8h11r1iy 11ppc1p:orl
111111~ 111 ~ 111111111111 'I' 111 l'nlr hl111,hed 111dlv1du0Js retnin n The blackish u111ierwiltgs c<111lras1 M1t111g/1 w/tlr 1/111 p11lt bmfr
1l 1 r~ I t f'" 111 1111 111 ,,,,,.4, 1/ 111 11t11 ~11k/1 copped Intermediates also show this conrrn,t. Dark birds uro owr.111
'l'I' '"''"' r t 1ul h111I 111) 'l'l'~lf ncJrly 11n1fonn dark chocolate-brown, very sparsely marked, unllkll llr11wn SJ..111
''""' '" "" ft~ ~I 11111 ho, 1 ht,. lrun1 1111ldcn >haft-
group which tends to be heavily 11rcakcJ on !lack ani.I WlllJI'
'" '~ ' 111 11.. l I J 1..111 I lul 11 L111 hy l.uv,r lie, thtd Pale. int.ennediate and even some d.irk birJ hac o p rlt 1
f"'Vr~tfot f1ll l1t ;nk., Wit ml liCl ol C Ulf\ill&U.ln utt \.hln, bindneclt.
'~'(! ,,, Utld\-:1 n It ,. ~'"'"''' Im l t.:IHflilftton
AGEING GULLS, TERNS AND JAEGERS A couple of dclinlliou un:: hclpliil A 1wo-ycar gull ' Is one 1h11l hn n 1111.:-ycar cycle of immature plumolal" before nd11l1hkc
f'l~mage is acquirtcl.. These include Orownh1KX!cd Gull. AndcJn (1ull. '(Jhrnc's uull and perhaps Sw~lltn\ Wried (iull o\ ' rhrcc-
(rull. 1c:rn and 1hc1r rrlallH nrt 1w111m111<ly ~an:ible. and often pose ulxun11.11 ukn11fi,~11on prnhlc:m.- fh~y JIJ" thrnut1.h ir guff is one lha1 undcrt10<:1 t\H).)t<ir cyde or
1n1ma1ure ph1rn~< l>chrr reaching adulthood. Tb" mc.rn 11\.11 lll\1~ "'" b.:
11111~ JrITcrtnl plumasc' bc:fol\" 111.1111111 Ind lbh lmgthy process is pan1.ill~ '"'Pl'll 1Mt ft'I" nululli! lh<:m Jppc:.u \Jnahk IP " t i-yar imm:uun:s and 1>C>:ond }'cJt 11111na1urn The"' 1n..:IU<k I ~" hmi;. r ranllrn .._ probabl> Grc}. l).lrh111 11.1111 IJ1!...J ond
Ilk lidJ A> gull> are 1.rfc J ,.,... ,,.. "uJtcd du;cly, there bas bt."Ctl 1110.. h 111rcl'C\I bllh rn rht-tr 1dc:n11fi,11CW1 and ~,.-ns p Gulls. Some Kelp Gull may m:llurc mtn: lo,.,ly and fall 1n1111hc n&t"l(<>ry ofa four-)~ gull" lcf11JI \l~(nl ur lhc
tbtuul!)kUl the hlrlhcrn b.-nurlk1\" tint ...... \Urmnaritt a mon: modan Ull<.kllf\J111g of SUJI moult and p!UID'1fC t)l'ti (Cit ~"ups of lhc renws.... h,,h furm. nou~c~ble whrlc ""''"""'''"the U('pl.'r)'.Jfl>- S1mi1u1y. scapuLr tic-\ nl th "" .... "'
ttic..c- 1n1..-rc: 1cd u1 bcw1nn1ng h1 P(:C ~11J 111J~ C.1111e, gulls. Bef0te ..i:anmi;. rcm,m"a 1h;at rn.>ull can bc cornrlc1< (all lcth\:r rle tips"' the longest sapUl~n. (c'"'" 1u 1hc: 1cru01h) The- (<Ml)k.11 nik ~the angle shown on th< lowu nli11 .. t1lol I ;;rict
n-rU...:JI ur p.anr.11Cbtgcly t>.Mly l..,it>c~ R"rla~. oo .,.ing and wl rc:nh.."rI ed !Wis tend 10 d10w a n<>C~<able gunyool angle. "hilc lhmhtll..~I cull1 du OOI.
\dull gulls h."c: cumplctc moult .. ftcr l..-ccJ1n,. anJ
pani;al nwuh hclorc "'""'""' lbc birJ on lhc left fli&YR" 111 TERNS
ha Ctlnlllll'll\Cll II< rrc-b;a.ic (complc1e1 mouh The llnl = sm:illei: sluntnef'nd u>Ulll) ll'flo.t.t1lcd rcl311\~ or i;ull lh~ull lh~y arc more cl~ and us~ll~ fo>1.1 '(' hy h1 n
fcallw:h h h.- ~fllJ<.-J re 1hc m~-Jian coen 1nnrr ivc~l"f 1mo lhc '"ates- for pre). They do nor <cngc h~c eull~ 1'01.1~mi ''""h""I'"-" 'ary bet,.een spca<"S. "llb son,._,, hL< ''" 1<111
cocrh and 1n11.-r l'fl"'~"'" ("111...n 1n bled:) ScctJ41ll.i11'' ulkl l.:1ng mon: gull-liJ..-c 1n then feeding bcbvmur.
lall 3n: "h..n lhc arc h.Jlf.c>mplccc Muitl! Tern mouhs arc n<>t as "'c:ll undcNood a\ tho"' of rull~ 1..11 c lldrlul a. 1acih in idennf=tton A< the "'""' '"''' ""
L~ aomrlc1c1I ....h lhe '"''< rnmanc. inner, lhid !iil>tne's Gull su~ moult,. .a .triable llJ1J Oc\ll>lc ccnl th.II .k1"nJ' '"' "IK'fl!} tfood suppl) I and c.tnn<!C "'crl~1 l'" II)
sub~rut.r 1.,11 I"""'" llx'h,,.. ""'nlnslln,oh.-.. o"h 1bc ~ other high CRCTg) demand "'-ha.\ bttc:J1ni anJ m1irl101> h '' lo ""I a cbu1cc: fcalhs wear and mu>I bt rq>l.i;; l w
hoJ a"'l lt'lll!""' .:JI bas IC> b:Jf'PCJI sometime The rrcci\C rn;anncr 111 "'"' h ll>Ote '""fltV ,,..,.J> rt mcl. and ..-bco anJ ho\lt R\itll) fcalhC-n lllC
f 1lll<' ibl 1~ J i;iJll Pl II liN rlun~gc alter l"''"I Iii d<l"'u "' ltccf \-arics bctv.ttn >pU:. Of l";pullllllln.. X.<\fJ1nt1lO1hlltl.'lll '"'''l!l-:1f >lluallORS.
Th"'' rhe fU\c111lc 1111111 J!C Th.'. f,"lllhtrs a1c II Ilic s.amc lit" As 10 Olher btrds. the: com.('llt'lc nwul11,.(uh ~tkr llft,,lrn~ 111 u.lull II hlf'll~ing lS good, die~ fcalbcr>. rru) i,., m..ultr1I
l<h.,...-n 'll""Cl,.,,'""> ~"c"' \lmuluincooly "h1lc in 11& t ants the end ofbrccdin1 A p11113l 11x11h 111~1nh ""'lud1111t llK1llt'.1J1-ul ol"' tbt 1JU1 =mcrs. occur.. btlorc lhc 1>r,cJ1111
lie!;! Tiii' 111111111~ '' IN\IUlllllV "CU. lhU\)U\cnrle fc.11hc ....,.,,..n. and resuh.s in brccdinj! plum3j:C: I her ,, 0111d1 ""'''""' 111 llK rl<nl <I 1l11s prc-311trn31e (prc-bttcdm&) rn<1uh, nJ 11
,...,., .md 1.,.i. 1d 111\d\ 11111<kh. ct1mrarc<1 U> aduh 1ta1hc111 11,.,ludes some prim:u-ic tn <cv(ntl f!C<rr'
In l'Ull lht 11111uh Jr11m)uc111lc plumn11c (pmlJ1t\cnll1 The conlrastlllg oork wedge th.ii ll<CUr. when lhcr<: J"' 1l.1t~\'I HlllCI flllll~lflCS and
moull 111 ""'I'' I''"' 11111111! ) h1M~n lo11~11111c,.1ftcn in10 1l11 10.1kr inner primaries I< nn c0cct 11f lll\lUh I rch 11nr1111 11~"' Ill~ 1li11k llll') Wllh 11 flll"Ucry
li ~I 'fl"lll(, 111111 h 1111111111 111p4'arnoce;a.~ Lhcy wcur 1hc fcuthcrs h1illl lhc1r ll'"Y 111111 hccu111c h1111;k1<h. l'n11111ry wedge~
Fi1;11rl' kl 1~ 11 l11 lw i11111tm<I.11 I~ UJ1JVc11ile 1111he e11rl> II< in foci older, n:lui uclj prilllunc~ th:1I Ctt111f,,.I wllh llCWCI /llCY 111lll llllll'\, I he llanl 011
1>111111l 1hu llr~I pl c l>.1wi~ (pusl JllVcnil~) 1110 1111 11110 lii Hl lmsit
11h11m1gl'. Noic 1hul 1h.: hu1:k u111I cup11li1N h11vo been moul 1~11
lhc right shows a primury wedge '"""'!I Ill newly 1 ~11lucc1f 11111~r r111m11rlc 1~hown 1n hluck).
'1 111 ,c a ll primaries arc mnul1cd durl11g the co111plc1c (prc-huslc) 111111111, 1l1c 11uw 11111cr
( c) fh sl winlcr (slwwrl 111 hluc~J l w11111.,1 wi lh 1hc udul1 poninl 1110111! wllklr plllllllnes are due 10 a !.CCOlld rcpla<COIClll OI lhc'c fC~lhcr~ llW l)olfl 11 f lhc 11.ifliirl pre
plumage hc~ul\ Mlh 1hc 111cd1.111 c11wr'h, lhcn 1hc ,cnriular, I , ding tpre-allcmare) moult Ycl 'l<llllc tern hke Arcuc, Sou1h Amcncun 11111) Sm1wy-
''ll"'~ (111"11lurJ11111\ liN rnn1: 11 h~ complc1cJ lhc " nedTems do nol show a dark "cdyc, lhl\ h c11ht:r due t111ht f!r111Utn1.-. hem)( rerla~cd
par11.1l lir 11~ "'"" '"'"' 1ucnrlcJ mouh The h('~d Jnd ti. , 11 ooce or pc:rb3p> the sc:cond rc(ll.i.:cmcnr t>l thc pnmanc' ,. al~ c"mplc1c In Arcuc
l"e11hc~ h.icbl:cn rcplcJ(mcJ1um 'fi!)')and lhe ...cond r~ rll(IC ts onl~ one R"plx~-men1. 1n lhc other 1... 0 \f'tt!C\. lhc n1<1uh f'CllU~' lud}. lmmalun:o.
b;b1c f114'lUll 1' untna lhlJckJ. with new m.:.!1..,1 cu\cns, inn 1 , I these terns may repl11cc some rnncr rnmanc" dunna a panial mouh. anJ th<relure
J!R=U~t CO\CfU lnJ '"net 'lol'-' th.ii rNlfer Ull1 1Q10' adarlt (lllmat) \ltcd&c. Thc ~or .."-cncc of the dMl \lUlcr JlflllWlC> can be
I oru... n-boodc:J, Andun CIC I ha~ pani~I bt.Jy f114>Ull '" fill fidd mart. paru.:ul31'1)' foe 111< ulcnhfic.at1on of the Cmn1<n Ar.t~l)pr terns
1i1'st basic ptumaac I lifllc-w1nt<t birJ 1.uid tbc:n a
moult llllO fir.t aht"m.Jtc rlunwgc tli~l-summcr h1nl>), uohl
-'IOJ pMtw fems moult after brcahnr.. nut dunng m11r.111on l.0011dMan,-c m1pnt (borc31
I ,:c-Jas) show a 'CIY d1tTCl'l.'nl ,.,..uh p;illern fn>m fl'Jcnl\ f u~tl), ''""c the maior pan
&be ~ingle protr.Ktcd n1.,uh or laflcr 11ult. T,.C) p.11nb houlJ 1hc:ircompll'lcmoult 00.:1.'\l~ 1n the 1W>nl'fecd1ngam1,, Lh") '"'"'h 1n Ille C h1lnn spnng
he mentioned one'' 1h.11 a\1'11.ablccudcn..-., ho"'' 1h.11 dunl1J 11l 1umme.-. Auroal bcccd.:~ :1tt btttdrna at 1l11s tune. and .. 111 R\11 m<lUlt unlrl lhc Chil.:an.
prolr3Cll"d mooll rce1hc" of1hc .11nc acncrahon moulted l~l<'t wnn and winter. Nole that 1mrru11urc a11>1ral br~cd.."' be111n mouluna hcft>1c 3dul1,. Arctic Tern is the cxln:mc .amo1~ l>otcal
in rhc: sea.'" arc ottcn 1t1<>rc d1fTcrcn1 and morc ilduhhl c 1haii t, Jng terns: it has 1 \et)' lunt m11111111\ln fn"n 1hc Arel~ 10 '"" ice red. of \nuucuca and a ~ shon brcc:d1n~ pcnnJ. "' lllC'
~ mouhcd carhcr m 1hc ~""-'" Tbu.. the eatfy.mouhcd A .;ummcr is short. Then: j, lmlc t!M""lunrty for Arc.II' !cm tu 1M.111n 11 mouh before migration. as that lime ~ ~fk!nl 1rv111~
i.pp<:r..:apubn mav be 11ru... nl.\h. more hlc JU\cn1lc fcal~ Ii flcJge young before lhc uru.ct of c11J ,.cethcr "'mc Tern Jela) 11> ll'l(>Uh unul ti rea~~ On 1'8S'llS" lhr'_"'&h
but Wetmoultcd lo,.,cr Jcai" uc llfC)'-Ctntrcd, and t!IUff l h 1 thev arc 10 "om t>rccdlna (ihcmlc:I rlum3gc "'"b only 1 hint uf bud) muulr. Smtilarly, Jucsulcs moult hill~ l>o:hr<!
adulr-hkc Also. the ... hI'-' headed ll~.'11110.:C or lifll-)CAl'> ID 1! ~th. Smee the ADW~tll stnruncr Ill ali.o ~n. 1hc) ('ll...-fonn 1 Cf)' quid. complete moult '" !he loodrn:h 'OOlll('m
their fin1 spnna IPf>"M'o 10 be due 10 rc:uuncd and bla.I~ -before momg nonh 1pin A.a1labk dtta ~~ 1ha1 they 1mly moult ooce ptr year. from one breeding flltu>a&e '"
ju\'Cifllc futho:" ra1hcr llw1 llCW "h1tc rt.llhcn bcin1 moullal r This rcqoin:s further siud~. 11 I rm>rC hkcly IMI the NO moulh ocrlap such Umt it is difficuh co 1di:nufv lhc:m ~
in. The head fcialhcn Arc -.>me uf1hc la>t JUcn1lc fce1hcnt 1 .u:. Commun Trm nc..b f.inhcr Mllllh than A~1c. and an cummeni:e l>ody and inner primary moult before mrgtalll'R I hn
be replaced ,, 1 the complC'le ID()Uh '" 1he early ~uuvncr 111 Chile, enil 1hcn rcplacco lhe inner pnmarics ~before mo"'"1' 1111nh 11.. \
(d) firsl-spnng plumage folio" in& 1h~ ,.,.,, mouh cycle (one )'car) 1hc 1mma1urc I panial bn::,-ding plum~c. and lin9'h 1h1s mouh "":tr 1he breeding arou111l11. Elegant Tern 1.s s1m1lat. bu1U11 ht~<J l.11i;tl\
moult malchc> ll131 of aduh), lllcrc " a cornplclc mouh rn 111< 1 110
'" '' otico it has a much gr<'a1cr per uld to mooh b<'forc lea"nll for Chile 1n 0.:1 Nov. The ros1-juvenilc mouh of1c1t>\ ncftl 11111t
11 1111111 .i111111n11 und .1 p.irrrnl rnouh 1n la1c winter. However, rhe compleic mouh of unmnturc\ occur~ carhcr tha n 111 udulu.. ,, ,11 11 may 00 1ha1 they ore really prulrnclcd complete moult$ whrch 11n: \U>pcndcd during m1grn1ion. rather 1h,1n 11.u11.1l 111..11!1
'"'II' n q1111 111 muI be 11111cd M111rt11ann, r arncularly loog-dislance migtuliou, can huvc u Mgnr fkunl elTccr on 1ho 1 1111111~
111111 'h 111 11 l 1w111 ll I 1111glll~IRnc~ m111rnnl$ expend a grea t deal of energy rnigrullng 111111 nccd to dclny moull 11111 il 1hoy c<uuplth
tlt111 11111111111111 11 o1f l~n.i 11111s1 ~11s11c11d 11101111 during migralion. Also, long migru11on~ mc1111 111111 1h<:y hnvc 1wu sum111urN lo" "KUAS AND JAEGERS
w 111 lw11 1w111ol nl ""''II\~ n11l11;1 hl 11ml.lu11g 1lays, subjecting their fc<rthcrs 10 o rc111~r dcgr~c ofwc;1rins nml lildhljC. 1'h11 o I I; .11 nc austrnl brcec.icr vcr811' i111111ul~1011cc borcol brccdc1 pu11c111 occ11ro; in jaegcr and skuas. The rwo ~pcuu:H 11 l11o h Willi 1
I 1ou1~ 1111 .11111 """" "' I 11111~ h,, ... cx1~nK1 vt p11~1-juveoi le moults wb.ich arc llcHl'ly c11111plc1~ ir1 Mime coses. You1111 l'mnklrn , 111 t 11 1hcsr south, l'nrnsit1c und 1.1>1111111i lcd Jucgcrs, lend 10 delay 1n<1~t wing inoult u11\il they arc in Chi!<- llu1 lv J1 1111ll '"" '
Int'"'' lo r """1111111111 11111111\' 1111J -i1111~ fca1bering while in North America, su>~11ds lco1hcr rcpl11ccrnc 11 1durrni:111 1 ~ 1 ,11 1., 11 uwicucc iu lhc bn:cding und tuying lift.a> l'omunne Jnc11cr. bcg1111irrmury moult while on North Amcrk.1, 11hh1111vh lh" Iii 11
01111111111 h llu 0 11h 110~ "'" In I l11lr ll.1b111c'' (iulls migrate to Chik in fufl1uvcn1lc plumage ond c111111ncncc [!O~lJUen!lc m1111lt "" le Ill Chile may ~how II pallcrn more like lhJI or l'anLlllc lhcrc I~ n ran1al pre-breeding mouh rhnl '"'""I
111 .. 1 .... 11 ....1.
111 111, '""' 1,,. t1111 t 111 '1111tl 11h 1d11h I rankhn~ Gulls begin mo11hing their b.'11) Md wme inner pnrMnc' whrlt 111 !11 '' ~ ,.,,11 as the ccnlral rcctncc' Juveniles do not mouh before reaching Chile. Post-JUVcnrk m11111i 1 "'"l'I ' ""'
I ut 11111 la"" "1111 111uul1 in ( h1lc. Sabines Gulls amvc in Chrle largcl)' 1n breeding plumJi)C:, ~nd ,,.:rf,.1111 t.fCtt

,, I0\11110 1111.. ltll'pl\Cf'-' Mnttr. \1uch rttent cbnftc:il>Oll ofaufl moult- IS due lo tht..,.,,,.. .,, SIC\, l,.,., re not -.ell undcn.IU<'<I 1n 1cmu of moulr. but Ilic C(lmplctc mouh l><<UI"\ l.1q;cl)I m the .... urh "' u1111 ..11 '' 1 "' r
t111 111W1Af) 01 h1>. "'lh rcfc1enccs tu lhcirother pubhclln ,. SICC! N (i """'<'II :?001 \.....,.. , an(" 'l'""" "1hc lonit dM<ll1".C! mrgr~ol. lioulh Pol~r .,hich ddo1y>11,. ...npktc n><1ull u11hlil ' 111 it. '""'' 1(1 I
ti 1hc.1u hI ""'''"'' itnJ rc-rffn\\ll >cf')' 'l""'l mol(llllh"R' h '' un.;kir 1l all 11CtC1I~ luu11Jl\lo~ l"''"J!" 111 I II "I ' I
- ---- =

PLATE 49: Larger gulls

Kelp Cull

2nd illternale
Kel p Gull Gaviota do minicana Juv;ftr.;1.ycar al"ll)~ wparabk fr.>m )>Uni Atlp /., bi< "'"'""''
Larus dommianus ANT, FLK, SC bill ands1rongli /iooJ('(/ apJ"aTl11k t'. ~l;COND- Yl>\R Montie
I ~lhmr.B"I\\ 128 142cm(S0. ""' entirely blJdtish, mcd1aa cO\cr\ IUcl) blad1,h ar>d
\:triable number of oihtt blacl.'1h co1cn; !loll ycllo" "b "'olh
~" I 11'c lfllmone>1. most '"'de- bl.aclu>h h.>nJ PCJU' llp. parta:&ll) concahnr red lip In
IJIRM i;ull 1n Chile \'cm~ ,...
brecdirig rtutnat;c o~ confu.cJ w1tli Mlp Gull <1( "m1Lv
LmJ f'Jn1<ul.arly 111 fora&e 10 urban
Baod-wkd ha r.-d iM1 lip of t-111, llOI j...a lhc COCI) a The bla,l (clllfttP-, ,.,...,., ourOr
t~nd ul BanJ-1<11lcd 1> rieain, nor bowing an) d<arL in1rv-
ct.: l ll'1"C\cr,pttfoi.nxkycoasll>.
""' ot~llMWlyocm
u1l lwc.mJ 1bt' b&nd al")'comrlcrc !UnJ
uaileJ tu.. brif1}11 )dlt>w lcii!S b) 1h1> age. dull arc)'1'11 th1r 10
lo l11n1 port> 0 -800 m IOI:: 'iTl-
1 IC-\ TIO\ \ Ihm: four")ear Kelp. Fiully. 111.1lk1 -.zc and rrop.>111on.a1cly l1>n11cr, ""'"'
paralkl-~1JcJ bill nf&nd-1111kJ u..:ful . ore 1tu1-Qnd 11<"1-
gull S1ru'1unslly, I titc unJ t>ullr.y w11h Iona~ lcp. and a woog
btll wnh a "ell m.uLeJ snn><kal angle. AD White head, neck. bn:edmg plum.1.;c ~unilar bul h.u darl hood and 1n:)'1<h H:L
1:11141\d unJ<"rrn< llppcl'J'.ln bl3ck1sh wuh -.hue teltdl and
'ta('Ul~cnh L)e colex1r \&r1Jbk. )ellow tu hro,vn, bill
Do lphin Gull Gaviota austra l
hrl~lif ll //m >111/1 ~J "nt 1 ''"'' r1rb11u/ rl~ ~. utr<I legs Larus s coresb ii FLK
grnnH/1 '"'""' ll'""ncrrhan boll, In nunbrccchng <casrm, bill I 41 1<1 cm (17 18") W HM cm (41"1
w11l ltf Olo111 duller, lcll!I m:a) appc;ar ohvo:glT)' In 01gbt. Uncommon 11ull of chc extreme ~ciu th
one: morrnr un tllllcr pnmory. JUV. Drown throughout. pales "
( 'na,lal, COlllCfCgllC$ at COIOn1Co o( lllJtll\C
011 thnldl Fo~e cnu~ly dark, 1111pcan. ma~ked llill black. legs
i!dult breeding
m111nrn"ls. 01herwi~c rtomgc~ for mollu~c
dul l pill~. Tnil c111ircly dark, ~none pule morki1111' on ourcr on n111ddy unJ undy coa~u I D~: 11~ I
n:c1rix Back. $COpulo~.$ nnd covens dork brown with CA I ION J\ mcdh1111sl1cd bu1"111c/t111111/
crisp burTfrinscs. HRST Vl'AR S11nilnr1ojuvcoilc, bu1 whitish 11<111r:r11lr/.1 t/t1rk-b1/led s:11/I I\ 1hrcC-)C1ll
on rump and 111l-co1 en' Undcrpnn~ whore wuh m11rk111gs on i,;ull J\I) S1rlkln11: dla.~110flldrlgh1 f't'd hill
brcas1-sides and flunks; head ln1gcl) wh11c with dar~ lnpc at1d h's:. "hll<' er' anti l't'I/ orbual ""ii
lbrou&h C)'t Obraons blnck1(h-bro" n 1cnpulnrs and cnve11s llead Md body llrcy. Mth bl3ck uppcrparu and ,. inp Nun
from lir.i prmg (0.:t on"arcls) "b1ch " pan of mouh m10 t>rcedt'f d.irl-honckd JUV 1f1RST\ (AR 8111 ha~ Ocsh 111
>econd-ba.-ic Sl.:('ONO Yr AR Montie n1>w cn11rcly blad.1~h. pmkuJi ba'IC anJ dorfu.e d3rl. tip, C)Cdatl, kg.. f'IUllh-all '<
median co1cn~ lai-cly hlack1Ji anJ 1 Miabk number of <'thcr l f!'CTl'31b bro"n anJ palcfnngcJ tnJUI., bl.1ck1h when older
blackish COIC~ 0111 )Clltl\\o<h w11h blackuh band nc;,r UJ'. l>atk hood. Neel. and brc1>1 ho-. a bro"ni'h "uh. 1i.u,
paniall) con.:caltnJ red fOft) ~ J'UI Often conflUCd,. llh BJnJ. looking 'dimer' lhan grey belly and IU\\Cf bl'C<l>I 1)111 WhOI<'
tailed Gull l\\h1ch ") TlllRD-YI AR Ltlc ad . bu1 181'' '* .. itb blad. ta.ii-band that doca nor rncli outer rcctncc~ ~stbasic
tmmaiuniy sud!"' Wirt.""' Utl anJ bl\,.n \la.Ji h urrnJM11 ECOl\1). VEAR Like ad bul hlh pa1112I or full <brl hood 1a

Band-tailed (Bekher's) Gull Gaviota peruana

Larus belcheri TX# 39
1.11DJDC1: V.-mgs may \bov. br"O,.sh "ash

Grey Gull Caviota garuma

Larus modestus
lstbasic _ k
l SI cm (20 ) W 1:?4 cm (49 ) Common L4b cm (111"1 C:harattcn\19' t>iru """
coo<Ull 111111 of 1bc ounh Doo not 'cnture of l'Clrtbcm cOlsti.. lci.s commt>11

inland Forages nn rocky and ~dy beaches. ' fanllcr<tOOth 'lc<l 1adcl"ft.,.cll
u ,.ell as around pon Cnlocuc> south al a"ayfromcout! C:ndcm1cbrcc:J
lea~ tn soulhcm I Rcaoon IOt!'ITIFICA- e.-0 1500m IOE\llfl C \ 00'
T 10 \ Srtu1llcr. lonacr nd ~trnmcr than Kelp A ~lom, luna--.ongcd, lon11leiwt d
Crull. In pamculnr, bill Iona and hnllowcr at gullwirhalona.1h1nb1ll Ath~
ba-e. ahbough 11 doc 1111 ~.. a gonydcal )'CM aull AO [)o~unc1 .. c, "'"''"''
nn11lc. A 1hrcc-ycar 11ull, perhaps four-year; gn-1 ,..Ith "'"'" ht'ad 111 hrrt'dmr
th11J b.i.o. ~h,ma1~ hmlJ '"'nearly rndi<hnguoilhablc from ads. plumage. Ht!tld tlusky 1,, nt111brtretli11g. Black bl// ltgs 11nt/ 111
Altru11 1lmA 1'111/ 1\1) Breeder ~imilor to Kelp. wilh while Contrastingly blacker pt'1m11ric~ and secondanc with cnp Grey Gull
hc111l .011d "'"" ,. .,,,,,,.~10011 w11h black11h upr crpnr1$. However, white trailing edge 1osccondnrit~. Tail 11rcy with broad blnckl\h
w/;u. 1111/ 11111 l>twul b/ul'A 11011/11111 ba111I The brighter 1ellow subtem1ioal band nnd whilo lip. JUV.IHRS1-VPAR llrowno~h
/>Ill '"" ,,,, 1H11,.l1 ''.I llp I.I'~ lirlg/11 bonona yr/low, not throughout Juv. has brown bnck wilh paler frini;c . Older blrll
~rrco11 h 111 lliMhl Iii 11olm1r., und lln ~ruund lacks white ups h11vc grcybro\\n back. Lack$ 11111hng cd11.c 10 wing~. nnd hnl
10 rnm.m1" N111t """ 1l11111 diffc1s rnriioly In blackish brownish lncking subto:nnlnal h~nd SF('ONl>-Yl!AR Slmlldl
hum/ Mllll p.1lr 11"' n I, u1 11rll 1hrk band on bill JUV 10 ad., buc usually shows some bro"ni~h l'd~cs 111 sccond11ric~
Bn1"1mh w11h .l111A1, "'""' 1111tl "'"'"' 111113y look 'frosty' on or some covens. Even on breed Inti sc.1 n. ha dus~) "a.<h '"
uppcrp1n>d11 to 1"le lrrnttg lloll 1"11"" ''"an:yw1th crisply head.
demarcatt>d bl.1< Luh 11111~"1111l111ko1rJ 11 C\tmnc llpJ. flRST
YLAR L l'f'CIJWll llOI lhl.11)' Ill I'" due '" "car Clf pale
fnrigcs. Win~, llld) 11111"' 1 11111r.11o..1101u1 lh hN rnng
<lbcams ..mic cr<>-l>r"" 11 u1~1'llll I then l"l i!C< 11d-"'1,1c)
PLATE 50: Smaller gulls _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Sec imroduc11on 10 gull on pni:t 124. t lrc:)-hoodcd Gull (lams clrrocepliolus). recently confirmed fr<>m nonhc:mm<>I Ch ile
noc included or 1llU511"2led

Laughing Cull Gaviota reidora Sabine's Cull Gaviota de Sabine

l a ughing Gull...........iiiA
11110 breeding
breeding _.._
non breeding adult
Swallow-tailed Cull

Larus a tricilla Xemasabini

L3S-43cm(I\ 17 )\\ 'l'I I07cm1W t2") Bo1calbrttdcr l 33-36 cm (1314 .S") \\- 8~ ~I cm (}4 Jfi)

\~t m An.a. >t'\c:11I ro<J DL' r111c \nO' Onl} Bore31 brttdcr. pclas1c 1n C'holc 'iomcllnte'J
ads. b3-r been ot>i.cnal 1n C'h1lc OOlh 111 bttc.11111 anJ n.>n- Ul!>h<ltt.~atlarl a111ulllo,.,ofli<hpro<; 111

b recdU1g plum.a1c:' MoI "m1lar hi Franlhn , Gull planh IOE:i.'TIFICAT IO' 01,11nc11c. an Q
Strucru,.lly l.1f11cr, l1n11.r lc:"cd and longer "mgtJ llwl plum.ages bu blad outu ,.r,/11~ n11 ""'" 1/m
fnmli;lin' \\1lh .a Ju11n..ll\c /0111:. ""~'l"'J l:>fll lippnpartS
shi;baly d.ui.n \~1ng ~llmt d1flm lauah1n1 bas a/1-NocA
pr11ean<> /ii, l1,,g larg<" ,. lttl<' 11ps or Mtrn>n. Funhcrrnlltt.
<.cuttr,111' ..1rongl "'"" .,.,,,,._ '""'"'""''_. o" ""'""
oad Sttandann Tiu, pi111ern t) ""blc
from dhl;incc 1m1w onl; 10 S"allo\\IJ1 franklin's Gull
ou1er"" hlJ<l l\l 1hc b.1-c,, I'll I rankhn \black c. rC<>lncl Gull (\\hach ~) Ad arcy on 11wn1lc and 11inc,
CJ 10 lhe llJllUl<l -Cp3r:llcd from arey hJ~S by a \\hllC: !land. In "'"!!- "hi1e l3il ~ull greyish-blacl hood and 1r//oH1p,..I
non-bre.:Jang plum.igc, L:1u1hon ~ho"' dusly ma,i. and blucl hJI '" brr.,/mg plwrrug.- (from Apt') Juv imal.&r bul
~me hc.ul Unlong, no lht hooded look of franklin'~ bro,. n"h abuc and "" mnCT ,. mi. and ha. .brk 1111
b.ind Moulrs oul of 1lus plumne on Chok, auonong '1n
Swallow-tailed Cull Gaviota de los Gal~pagos uppcrpJrls bu1 rcrn1111ns browno~h 1cniBls nnol ~oonc covcm breeding
Creagrus furcatus
Andean Cull Gaviota andina
L.SS--60 cm (21 2) .~") W 124 139 c:m (49-
SS"), Orc:ed~ on lhc Cinl6flil~Os. 01hcrwu.c
Larus serranus
pelagic. Feeds 111noghl,011 squid. D1suibu1io11 L 48 cm (I~"), Andenn hrccdcr, fouuu 1111
In Chile lllil u11de1src)od, prnbobly nnnun l, bul lnkcs, bogs ond other wc1l11nd. In wl11tu1
larger number In wnnn-"otcr lHI Nlilo) 'omc remain 111 h ighland~, 01hcr~ dc~ccntl 111
period> IOEN1 I FI CA I ION Mcd1um1l1cd co1 IOE l'ffl CA1 ION l.el)tc '",ye
pelagic 11ull 1hut can be: ~<>nfused only wnh gull, l;ugcr lhan nny Chilean 'boo.led' 41ulh
Sabine's Gull l hey tihnre .flrtktttJ: /Kl/ll'nt 11( AD Pale grey nbovc and .,.hnc on neck. hlll
"''"'" 011 11111J11 Swalluw-11ilcd 1~ much and undcf'Jlarl~ Arceder hn Murk houd 11n.I
ll\rgtt, w11h lflng dcninttl /111/ Then: I a b<>fd l>fu<! f'<Jt,h Jmofl whitt <"re t'ITUnts Non-brttdet h
arowul ')." uttd a ).,.,11,.,
car pult'h Olf n<>lll'l'rt'Ju HrccJong "hue head with du<Ly wa.h l>n cro1<n,\
ad. has blacl.1h hood. ircy neck nd rrJ ur/"1al nn>: T11I before: C)c aDd dad ear spoc. \\ana pancm di>llncll\t, '"" Andean Gull
longer and more: dcq>I) forlcd on S" 1110" lllcd I unhcmurc, ,..,,h" 11hilewetlgron outu / ,Janda lorgt po11J111r<1rtl11 tip
"hitc wmg po1ch less dearly ckfinal on $1<:lllo-.-uulcd an <1Ta1.:d by tlrrtt larg.- mirrors 0111/tnttl in blar4. Undcnodc<o uf 1st alternate
p;arucular lhc blAd. oa the llUttt w1n1 'blcc:J ~ 110 tbc: whtle. pntn311es ~ $0hdly blacl lhan uppcn~-. dearly dchn
Imm. basbro-.ncr Uf'PCt'PIR "Cl 1n11cn1n1h blad; ual b.and.. Qllllg the "-bite pnmary p:ucb \1 ml,, JWlln.lflG al
black. FIRST-YEAR wb non-brttdang ad, but~ oran~
Franklin's Cull Gaviota de Franklin red base 10 bill. redd1$h legs. and brown on cocn nd 1er1t,1lt.
In fl1gl11, dadt SCCl>llCbries, d3t\. l.lilband and tl.ui. 1r11h~ e.lgt
Larus pipixan tO IJlllCT pomaries,
I LJtt...c)an(I' 1s1w86 9-&cm
' ().. 311 Oorcal lwttckr, winters
on large Oocks 1hrouahou1 C and
Brown-hooded Cull Gaviota cahuil
Larus maculipennis FlK
N Chile I arvcly tOISllll, but also L 30-)8 cm ( 14 IS") Comn1L111
nccurt on larser inland la.kc nd an C and S Chile C'ua.ul \b)
rctc:r\Oln., ... \\Cll a> nearby farm for:tlC On mudfl~ta an C$1Uafl0
land Also ;u aca. 11 least 10 30 OlhCrwtsc ICndj 111 JllCk food fr"lll
moles ou1. 0 500 m. IOEN rt~'J. surface ofwn1cr IOl~NTll'I(' \
C T I ON Asmnll~r.compuc1au11
Brown-hooded Gull
TIO Asmallgull.muchsrm111,,
...11h 1h,11 nhny hai. n hood AO. 01~tmctlvc wi"i paucm, thnnAndl:'.U1.A1Woyeargull All
wh<'tc Mm4 t1n 11mg ttp If gnmly rrJtr/t l<'d, anti t1tpumt<'tl 1st alternate
Grey abnve, "''" whuc tu1I 111111
/111111 >11 '"""' /H a 11h/1~ IHmtl. 0 1hcrw1)e grey above. wh11e body. llro w11 /11111</ 111 hri'1tl11111
1111 ll('f.k and 11n1h'r11nn~. rond showR pnn il1I hood nnd bold while
~yr tl<W111 Jllll ol~rk with red tip in nOnbn;cding, but red in
pl11111oge, and white eye cresc1:11tr. Dill ond lc1:1g red. No11brced,1
has dark ea.r and eye patches. Upp1m<'l11.r1 1llt//11c11w:. Ql'l'l ol//
hrc:r1h11~ 1h1111111 In ht(cd111J plumage (from Apr) hasfil11klfJ1 glT)' txupt white wl'tlge on ower 111111:. ct"ntrt1l prl1tume.r hlit A
//mlt1.111nol1 ''""' .1111hk"11 hl3ck hood I IRSTY"'AR Wings hpprt/. outer ont!S wltite to ttp Untltn1-in111t10>1 ' f(lrgr/1 hit I I II
''""'"' h "''h "''''k 11111111111~, llood well developed ni arc primaries, 11'i1h large 11hite parrh 111 tip <>.f11111rr 1mmartr1 \1 lrn 11l1r1g
\\hll r~ 11< 111 V"'\, 111n1m,11n 111111 browncrw111gs. rest, white is ob1'iou1 on prl111urll'1. f'IRST-YHAR S11n1la1 h
fml 11 hit 1111/1 " 1 11 /' /tli11 A 111/.t1 rin/lt11/ l~md thal t/IJ('< not Andean. bw much snulla:r T)JIK~lly '>hO"'S bn1l11er red boll h
'""It ulir ~1 c llNll \I \I{ I 1~r J, """c n1en,l\c bl11cl and legs. In nlOll! c,1,-nw c black on 1nllC1' pnni"
on f'llr11t1r' 101th re.tu t'd "'1111~ ~la) l>< ,11nfucd "'llh aod more cxtcnmc ,.hncoo rnnur),.CO\erts and bend or"' Ulf
l;.u~h1n, lt\,11 not,,-: ~to1 lllff n.I h1k~t l'Allfln
J breeding
Unck't'tl-ing mnror f'\lth le" c\lrol\c on 1mm Bmwn hc>t><l<'I.!
PLATE 51 : Terns I
See page 125 rnr 1nuoducll11n to ICrD
non-breeding adult /-;
South Amer ica n Te rn
wo rn 1s l basic

Sout h American Tern Ga11iol 1n sudam erica no

Sterna hirundinacea FLK
Ant&rc11ea IDF" I IFI CA I 10' ......, ~

A smaller cm S11>dy and shnn
I 40 44rm(ll> 11"1\\ ti.I S6cm \l.llh sh.>n. >n\111 bill ~n.I
03 14"1 The comlll(>n. "'de long \all , lt"glllhWlL\ Mii
"J"'C...I tcm on C'111lc: Stncdv C<11151 s1a11d1111 R..,,.,gn "'""' ir.uu
~I. rarely far out al -ca -f'orm' l11cf'nl tht111 on 0111 ntlur sm11l"r 1st b;uic
Ond> Moolt \l~ !\Uf ID E.' \ tern Lons ~1m 1ngs afl'onl 11
graceful lool. \outllbounJ ad
rmc T lo' 1" " " 111an uchcr ($cp->\o' J wll 'ho" brccJ1ng
"molar tern\ , dcerer cbe Led
like plum.>~'C but !lf-') or undcrp3n\ mottled .ind rorch~aJ
rpcarancc Rill 10111: ""'' tout.
Lend.. IO lool la11c-l..:adcd I~ 'JICCl..lcd h1t<' Bill ~II n:d. Scpara1cd from !>.>11th Amcmotnl
sbon rclame IO body Sl7i~. lhboup rh)tcally loottt. the) i\nt.ircll< T<"m> b) lao:L n( full br~:hng rlunul!c tn 111...,1:;1
Antarctic Tern
appc3 ~boner llun those ofC-ommoo 1ern AD (11ey abo\e. ummcr. ~nd '\lru.:tural d1fTcreoccs Alw "'"" ""''"-'
/of,, A
<:tlge to tut/ of Art:111-, J1ffl'r<'11cn 111 111011/1 11111111g I-rum
paler juYenile
paler below, crisp black cap and "'"bill onJ lf'gJ Undcrp:tn~ non-breeding
gn:y1sh. but pale, oppcarma wh11c on mo,1 h&h" All p11mary ton1mo11 fern by reiuinc-<I brecdmll l1kl' plr1mo11 lud uftlarA adult
fcalhea same 11e. no daR "'cd&c on "''"ti Tra11tn1 alge 10 cmpul t>.1r thmner hlad 1rmli11g ttdge to pr1m"n"~ sh1H10
11eck. <11wlln hill etc. Ju, from similar lib.t>ic Commcn
pnm~rics thin and ensp, but brooder 1tian on An:llc 'fem T:ul
streamers not ll1ng, reach LO end of (11r ~ltgh1ly beyond) pri- lly la~t.. or darl.. carv-al, and 11 h11c serond11r1"'
maries on perched bi rds. Yer; ll111/11d t/1114 ""tu/I, 11 1111rrow
Common Tern Gaviotin boreal
tlark gll)' fin" 011 ou1<r t'd~e nj Oul4!1 tull fl'othtr, dtf/kult to
Sl!I! In thefiell.I No11hrtt1l111/l ml. rctutnt rr:1I bill. <.in1n' wh11e
forehead and lores. Tail loe~ .ircamcrs, b111 ls ~ ill woll forked.
Sterna hirundo
L 32'-38 cm (12.S 15") W 7<1 ~ I breeding ~dult
-" -----
outer edge becomes darker. llocs not 1111111 o black ish corpal cm (3 1 12"). Oorcol brccdc1'. An
bar. See olbcr species for llepnra11on JlJV llcttv/11 burf't'd " uncommon coos1ul 1crn or 1hr
(:ig::oggcd) on buck u11d tmiu/.\, ltke juv An1arct1c Tcm I lc-Jd
p;iucm like non-breedini:; ud., but dartt nwre c~1cns1vc.~1n:.,kcd
from forehead 10 c.rown. Dill blnck. leg~ block1sh or 11!11k red
White below S1m1lart0An1arc11c, cxccp1 s1ructurc and 1111411/
north . Moult~ Oct Apr, mo.-1
primaries moulted 1wice. 1on.i.
T IF'ICA1'10 Ul\:erand lon1wr
necked lhan Arctic Tern with
\ moulting
non-breeding l
4 Arctic Te rn

.bloc-tish brttut SJ1fll", bmh may ho,., dusl.) "'a'h 11.:tt
.Aficrfirsi moult Uir'1-ba>1e) MS an:y Uf!pcrpani. fc10cr m~l1o.-
1ng.~ on wings, bu1 baned tcn1.1I~. \l.h1ch M:pMt"' f"im )'Oung
An:11c.Common Pale eaJl'.ll bar Olde~ 1mm (fiN ummcr,
longer bill and lc&l Compared t"
South American 11 1~ ~m~llc1
shorter legged and billed Howc\cr, boll may appc:;ir ltrn~c
diu: to thinner b:isc. Brcedmg plumage unhJ.ely to be ob...,,.,,J

">ond-}car) cry wrular tO ll<'O-bn:cd1n1 Common, Ibo.., 1n Chileoebcrlhanin latuunmm 1'c:>n-bfcicd1nsad <im1lu lu
bltcl btU and all grey tcrtuil '-otc 14 vfu ,,,.,,,, tlurt c:orpal firslswnmer South i\mencan. but Common ttlHi), Juli
'"' >UUCrutal d1fTcrcnees and d11Tcrcncc' 1n moult 11m1n1- bluclcish carpal bar, ~trongcr blact.. cdl(cs 10 1111, and al""' 1st basic
bas black btll (may be reddish in some )OClnl South \mm~
- -<
<\ntarctic Tern Gaviotfn ant.artico Olrr10.0 1nr:"""'1I m Dtt-Feb - Comm1111 JIJ\.\
Clrpll. evca cbrka- ~I md dantt scconcbncs than you11gn Commo n Te rn
Sterna vittata ANT, SG
South American. Common never hu Strongly barred tcnoI \ breeding adult 1
11 m ( 16") W 79 cm (31"). Drccdl on Anllrct1c rcrunsula
11~1 wlt.1111arc111; ttlands. Appcan to ,.inter la'lcl) m Atbnttc:
1... ~ hn111"~ ~ ror Clulcan nwnlaml. Moult Mu Apt-
\ 10~ 11.TIFICATIO' Small Stocky Inn, b\it ~ltll alt&blly
llcad p;iucrn differs. with Common '11ow1na mnrc MDU<'ln
lo10cr cdJC to cap. droppmg down on car tO cre1.1e bo.-:id--
pbone$" patkm, and less black arounJ eye. Sec Arc11c Tcm
__,,. early wing moult
_ I

"l'"f thJn C'11mmon/Arct1c. not as lar&o a South Amcncan. Snowy-crowned (Trudeau's) Tern non -breeding adult
i1111tlr m Arcllc 1n Structure but bult..1cr ""th thicker, longer Gaviotrn piquerito
111 I <K> f An1arc11c shgl11ly longer and no11Cc."1bly thicker.
\111 u. t" on l>n-c:Jin.g plumage ,.,hen Arctic" in no11-brccd1ng.
Stema trudeaui 1st basic
i11i. h'lil 1n1t111t tm111g and Mruc1urc. Scrmrntcd from South L 28 -JS cm ( 11 14") W 76 79 cm (10
\111111 ..111 "' \llHillur ~i1.e, ~mnller bill , ahoMcr leas, lock of 31 "). Uncommon, both cooLol und "" -~
I,,,. Ii: '" 1111/. .turA<'r 11111/crpurt.1, am.I ;lightly flntr black inland lakes and marshes. I O:N I It I

1 '"'" .,fr, ''' l"l~111r1r.1. Juv nho similnrio South American, CAT ION t:.ariic and stocky, lung thId lotll leg colour variation Snowy-crowned Tern
-111<1111, 11nd 11w1111t1 rij 1f11rk l11wt.\'1 -'f/111' on A11wrc1ic and long legs bu1n ~hon 1ni l. All /Jlll,,l/IJ!t non-breeding
1 111~l111l11 1y 11~~ 1l111 k "'' 11111 Furthcrmur~. In Olgh1 1cnd$ to musked, never ~hows full cap. 11111 f lit/I 1~ adult
I ' ''"'"' c11111 11~0 1\-11111 pru1em, w11h whll<r .\"f'r'Ontlarics w1ric:J, hut olwuys pnlt-tipf)('J. On ad , htll
....... ' ,., .,, "It ' lhun \.mth fn1t._r1('U11 bla<:k wilh orongc ha.s11011d)C/1011 llfl I'" t
body, including underpans, whiter hr111I
I 111 ' " ' 11 <.n11lo t111 .lrtlco Legs orange. Broad trailing edge to primaric~. but ull \l.lllh
r. 1 11111~1.11/1,.1,..1 AN T, rLK, SG \hon tad Non-breeder similar bu1 "'bite below and "- hi I
bill base Young b"'kc oon-brced1n1 ad b\11 1t'f11I id
II ti I "' I II I ' I fl.,tc lltrcJcr, rnmn~md black:i<h ICJ!' In li"'t \f!nnJ! hnw lllu1 l ln ll
I ml uul 111 rm ott t ('' rnh tllfl th~ ,111111 ft\'""'-' w11h )'Cllow 11p, some grey on undrf)tan' 11nol tlarl \loCjlt nn
1 ' tHltt .. ut t lult ~1 ... ,fh ftu ~' "'' "' r11110.rt~ lrtlmcd olckr t'Ut~r lulh< t I
l'I I 1 111\ II

111< tt 11 11 c..1vlu l111 rnunj.1 Elegant Tern Caviotin elegante

' It ,,.,,,,, /rl(.J Sterna elegans
I II <Ill 11 h) ~.'1.1>WI du..cly lb!'UUcd L-t()-43crn(16" 11)W92 >6un(1h t
"'11h Ill nd1 ~rwclhn11 uf 1he ll umboldt Borcal breeder Cu:i.s1al. lorug1n11111 1..
breeding adult
( urrrn1 l'rdCJ'\ m r<>O'.\I on I~ rocks ur bays or beyond ~urr >one: on o.;c1111 I "''
"'"" nuuk ~lrUCIUrc~. nm sand. IOE TIFl - Oock~ often rooSl1ng on '\Andy 1>c.1tl
c \ fl0' A 'llX'~>). (lUllh~e tern witJi broad rocks wnb frankliu~ or ocher gull, I 1111
"'"'I:' U1ll di,cinlle, bemJi 1l11ck al !use. pnm~nes mouh Jul No,, inner pn111111
raruculnrly on upper rnandrble. Culmen m11ull Dec Apr 10t:NT I F'IC'A1 11>"1
~ur>~ down on 0\111:1" I fl 10 blunt lip (foT a largc.shm lcm w11h a loug nnd dron1H11
1enr). Relamtly short-1a1lcd. foil has shallow bJll In flrght appNJrs lint ontl /orig
1..11. nMt.- f!ull-hl.c cb~n tern-Ir kc Ad. gorgeous and dr:stloclJe. hut .<lwrttailcd. l(l11g lwggy crt'SI riouce:iblc <.-vcn 1n ""
11.,/1 1/111111111.I! /l/11<'M1/1-i;1t:1w11/i a Juri<t' ea1>. ltiglllfgll1d by breeding plum.age. All ag<!'l ba~c) dlo>< 10 f't'tf ht/I Bn!(h"
"'"' fa1< -rmpe 1hu1 eontln11r. m a ta~n .I plumt'. "'hich
""'""' Urh down bul wluch may turl out or C\en up"~rds.
depends on age and indI\ id1111I vuriulion.. M1>'1I cor1111~11 I 111
colour is bright rcdd1sh-0111ngc '"'" 11 yellow llp. A ''""" 1~ 111Yian Tern
II.JI 1111il 111:.< lmght r.:tl. Ounng brcedon{I. >C3,on, 1hcr<; is a Jlropnnion (<1 %) 'hows J:lrl< ~I ripe nc~r boll ~ Sin11b1 I 1st alte.rnate

Hh> \cll1l\\ p:uch on 1he gape. In nigh1. appears dark with leg colour is notoriously vnnablc.1he most common bconN hi"'~
Jolu~~n 1mmnrics and $Ccundu11cs, tho loller <huw111g a white with reddish 'knees'. ho\\ ever amount of rtd vnnc:< und ~.... adult
It 11h11 eJttc. In Oighl. can be confu>ed with Grey Gull, but
f,,.,k for lno11Tor11's Miffcr wing uc1ion arid mon: crr.nic f11gh1;
lu~rnl unJ bill differences di3i,:no~11c if seen. Juv. overall
some en1irc leg 1s red. AJ. pale grey nbovc and on nunp. whil
below and on tail. Non-breeding ud. lms n while for~hcnil.11111
eye patch and trc~L Orccdcl'!I (from Fcb/Mnr) hove c1111trlt
breeding adull
hr'"' nr<h wi1h jllllc lips 10 covert> nnd back feathers. Nape and black caps. At/. oflc11 hm " row blu~h 011 h1Jt{11. p1111icultlrl1111
ll~ci.. ri:1lcr, ~ ITording n capped 01>peani11co. Bluel< bill and legs. 11ed and brea.vt, most c.~1en8ivc in breeding plumnge. Mllul
In nli:l11, rump 11nd uppcr1:1il pale l!rown , con1m111ing wi1h in Chile, rhose in Scp- Oco (111 least) lcrld Ill be in w111g uU>11ll
1lurkcr rail. Older birds (tirst-bu>ic) ~how ttreyi~h bm.:lc, start of nnd bavc con1nmlog blucl.ish llutcr primar1c$. Bi1ds tn J.,11
tu~.: plume and n:dd1sh llp 10 bill Nc~1 pl111nni;c sequence Mar 11robably loQk 1'1 cs her, evenly gtey above, lacking bfnck.-h
(sccoml-basic/allcrnotc) like ad but b<>d) ll.~le1 bro" nrsh-grcy, outer pnnunC!>. f lJ'lot-b..,.1c omm. similnr to non-brccdmg ~,I
"'me- hat monlcd, nnd hill may hnve some dnrl.. marlcnig;,. but ltns gJ"Cyish carpal br. dnrkcr sccond:1ry bar and du'h fresh (Jan-Feb}
end of moult/
llJ'."l IU uil Al rcsi ~how~ d31kcr tcrtial cc111res. nm clllom I lgant Tern (Nov-Dec)
Peruvian Tern Caviotin chico averages more vclluw. Moolb latcT 11\an :Id, , ~nin11 rn Jn
Sterna lorata foo1hcr re11lncemen1 reaches PS by lime must dcpan 11Qr 1h r rom
Sou1h American Tern by larger Sl7c. >hJgg)' cres1 11.nd mu.. h
L 23 cm (9"). A rare tern oflbc north Apparcllll)
:l form.,rly more common, ollltough t c<J11~en1ru11on
f!lnj,!cr. drooped bill Nori-breeding Common rem ho~ bl.o..~
non -breeding

bill ltr>d d.ulc carpal bar. Sec $Jlnd\\1cll l<'.m ror :.cparu11on
of7() rcttnlly obsef'cd nlT An1ofo1p-i.t N('" 011
brOGd. long '4ndy beachc-. Jis1urh3nw al tliex
Sile) may be amsmg decline. I ori111e~ m hr<;ikc"'
Sandwich Te m Gaviotin de Sandwich
') and beyond. <>IT h~llo" bc:~d!C>
are pelagic 1n non-breed1ngsca,on Ne:or fhrc~1en
(<U all?I Sterna sandvicensis
L40-45cm(IC>. 18")W91- 94 ('Jll()6" n> \ 'agno1.<ccvcrul

t'd. IOENTIFICA1 ION fi111, lh< unulln1 U11t.-w1
1er11. Oill 1hin, >hBl'fllY porntcd nnd hing n... II 'i"'"
11/1011 u1th a darl n1/mm anJ lip. I 11..c 1>1her ,rnall ttml/>, tail
~igh11ngs 1n Chile. rnainly Ill north but o fut wuth u.s Corond
(VU I Region). Borcal brdet', Jlt'f'h#JlS more fn:qucn1 m Ch1k
1han rcoords suggc~1. sh()uld be 'carchcJ ror in large con
J bill variation

rorkcd bur l11cks long too l ~rc:unen.. Br<drn11 uJ ha Maet

r up 1"'1t!nillng Ill hm//netk. 1111h a 11h11r fi1rtf1 ,atl 1111<'ll 1hn1
rc:1cbcs ju.\l eye Piumagc grey. pal <In nrck Jnd undt'rp.m.'>,
lmmodia1cly below cari face 1s while. Legs d111l yellow. In llog.hl.
ccotn11ioosoflcms. IO ' flf 'ICA'OON A>hm. rncdrum~i1N
1em. slightly smalfer lhan Elegant Tent. haw ere SI C<'O In
non-breeding plumage. bu1shorter11111.11 l'legnnt Lm1g s1rn1(1111
bill. honer lhnn Elcgnm. ond l11cks droop. 811/ blad ,.fi}1 1<-lla..
leg variation
Ihm blck wedge on outer wing, rtca1ed hy r.:lunt'J older 1ip, all black in non-brced~rnnd imon.: le11- bluck. Nonbrccdin11 fresh Oan -Feb)
prrmunes. Rump and 13il a rcy, <'-Oncolo11rou> wi1h h;i<k. buJ race pattern qui1ed11Teren1 from thal ort:.legant. n1c 'mask' .. ~a ndwich Tem end of moult/,
11111 ~hows wh110 sides. NonbrcedmJ:I ~d. Mmolnr 111 hrccdmi; narrow; bemg 11nrrowes101 kvel of eye. Mask rcmnin$ narrow (Nov-Dec)
behind eye, bu widens towards nUJlC. Rye arcs bold uncl oflon
bu1 locks dear-cul forcbc11d pMch, and whnc nn crn11n more
c1(1cn~ivc. reaching 10 1111d crown, 13111 durker. llndl:1pnr1s break ' mask' behind eye. Wh ile fon:h~ad c~endve, on mosl b reeding
lrtri;cJy white wllh g.reycr brcnMh.~nd. Juv. l!l.:Y above, wuh
~~<1ly np11c11rnnce du~ IQwhile u11d darker grey cd11os 111 fcJlhcl'l!.
llcad ond hrca51 ~uffuscd huff. Noclearcap. Mh"1'n dnikcyc
reaching well behind eye. 11lving it 11 'b1.1/rf, /11'/lfllftl ' /uu4.
Compare wid1 Elcg11111. which b~~ whole l'Clllricted l~rscly 10
forehead and forecrowu. First-b3llic i111111. like 11011-breeding
p.nch und some s1rcaking on crown. Underpan, Whrlc. In t11i;lll. ad_ with dar.k secondaries. !!WY wrpal bar nnd dark on 1011
~hi1"11 trianglc ofinnCt"primnncs and sccondnnc~. wnttilSlini:: l1111n. from young Common Tern by larger ;lie. shaggy crest. _,
I\ llh iircr c!)vCrb and darker uuter primlrics .orne grey P ' bald-beitded' nppc:amncc and f)3kr cn1pal.
10 tuol F1r:.1-yeur greyioh wuh durkcr mn~k uml dnrker ~urpnl
rur Sr~ alone., sufficient to j)Cpanllc this spc,;u:r. from n1hor
l h1lca11 terns.
~pale lores. and dusky ,1rcakin11 <in en'"" unJ n.11
snnibt to JU\ BndkJ. ul1hou11lt melt<' .nlcJ I 11tct
ikr backgrounJ colour ulull
111117 1~1 1A li6 lllnn1J.1 Jr1 Brcc.honEa,tcr
I) I H"1\e/ tonJ In fk\entLIOkJ.a IJ'UUI' OIMnolSC pelagic juvenile
HI ..n1cr 1tllhore from llumht>IJt ( wn:nt. 1'e>b Dec
BridJed Tern Gaviolin de bridas
\ilp 1 <~ lnn ..,. 1. rcrhP m1>-I hlcly after Stema anaethetus
nful I '"""IJ ti.: W.....ed for rn mlel', rather L 35-38 cm (14- IS"l IA 7t cm (10"1 V1;nm1 ,\n nnu
record of one collected bn"n (.ape lfom anJ I u' 1
1 11 1il1111 " lllt" II IC \HO' A tock~ tern. larger 1han
1h "'' lcrn I 01 1ra1!(hl our l>l1d. bill anJ Ram:trcz.. Regular in 1ror1cal off~ ""c" ..uuth 10 I fW
.Jnli;ill t>Lo<:~ kp Ad smk1nt1I)' and "lure. Blad. An) fututt OCC1'1T'CO<C 1n C1uk ,.111 hlcly II< 1n the 11<..'f
n 111td lt11.- ""'"" Blad cap dt>C nor conrra.;1 "ilb IDE.'\TfflC \.T 10~ Suuc1wc 'Cl) \tm1lar 1n <ire tiad
Mi< I.ti.II Ni: l 1111111 f,.,.-lt.-aJ f'Ul Ir ,...a, 1i<s to Inv:/ of<')'<'. Tern. Like Gn:y-backcJ """ J11rl.n t:'i1p than Ila. 4. " .rn"' 11
\"'It nrul u11><rt>Jth un1fonn br..<l1'11 Ta1l lar~cly bl.aclc \\irh collar and l\lritt' fm<'liruJ flatrli tliut cxtr11d1 />.-1.. ~J
..1111 0111n cd" I ndcn-m11 h" h11e "inv hning< con1J'a51mg Ho><ner, Jar!crabu<'. fU1' 111 /111fo ct>11tr.1Jt 111/lt prmw
;;. th hl1rl1 It pumanc and ondaric In nun-breeding In plwna1c lone. somc"'bal mtnmcJ1a1e lic!\>ccn St~> wn
1l1J1111 ~ h~nk '' rccUcd and an md .. unct "l1111sh collar Grey-backed. Sec Sooty for ~rara11on Juv \Cf'Y mu.:h Ill
mY 1lrH tor In udd11mn. "h11c forcfi.,ad par~h no1 a~ crisply Grey-backed. but durkt'r and lc<S .coled above
I 1111 11 Wh11, undcq1am ;cpanue from only darl coastal rem.
rt. llh n km . Bh1ckn11d-wh11c: plumug;: shared by Bind Grey Noddy (Ternlet)
"~111111u1 l~1l h111-.: nidtc~ll) d1fforcn1, nnd skimmer hn~ ornnge Gaviotfn de San Ambrosio
h ' tn 111111111" hill M1i.1 in11lnr 1. (vngrnnl) Bridled Tern. Procelstema caerulea
\\hf lit 1H p11l~1 011 hu~k. contru,tin11 with black Clip. Narro"
,, 1111, <llll11rn111y he p1 csont on llridkJ Also latter shows longer L 25-30 cm (I 0 12") \\ 46 61 cm (IS 24 "). Ortcdrnn P.1" t"
" 1u11 hdurul C)C 1u forehead pn1ch Similorly (lreybncked
l. Salo y G6met and Dc:svcnlurnd arouri llns \'l>ltCd J111111
Fero.~odet. Nest~ Jul Oct, rcmoimna nco1 brccdlnt: 11t011nJ
I 111.;l11,hu\crlJp<l'1dcly w11h So<!ly inf! Polyncsion wn1er-
1 lok" llttdlcd ~h""' in11 pmlcr bc~ 11uln black cap, th1 year-round. No reco1J lrom C'h1 lcon m1inlund IOf N 11
Jllh 11 '" ~ t' c\ctt 1111>rc marked in Circ)'b3ckcd. Gtc)bxked
PICATIO:-i ;\ m~ll pale arty 1cm w11h a 101111 nulchcd 1011
I 1111('111 bln~"h on UPJ'Cl'pJI'\.\ Juv. 'iool) Tern blad.1<11,
Head. neck and unJcrpart. \\h1u.h-11rcy. con1n1M111a moJcrud)
"tlh ,.. ,,,, h<llv ~nd Hnl. lf~d nnd bte.HI unmnrlccd sooty "11h dnrler l!l"C)' wings and tnatllk grey rcm1i;I:!> and
aail. Mo:.1 charuc1cri111c "blud:t"'trlr 11n111nJ n<', ,.h1,h II\
lI~ :\1 .. 1ule "PJ'C'l'" and "ID'> )how d1s11nc1 "hitc
it br8"-<>ed. almost sadappcanuKc. D.ut <'l't' !"'l<lr /.>..rd ....J
"l'I"" 11'"" 11 111icdkJa~c OlJcrftN)Cilrl'lamon: c,1ey-backed
hJl)'hl lt h !>;id A1a1n.juv 5.>ol) i,.~rablc from Inca postniorit b} a lr1t1.1lr ' "'""'' adJ1n111<> d1~11nc1 r~cc Jlkrn
I m I 11 ,.h11c bell) and "'"ll hninar> S....:ondycar rnun Bill aoJ I~ blacl... the bill thin and '" 'l'l) potnled. and Juli l l"fO
I l ad but hu 1muJo srcy blot.;hmg un unckrpJrts and shon of bud length In 011bt appcan "'hlll h ""h "'>
uppetparu. and tail and 01ah1 re11hen Undcr11>1np
I "I\( i"'"' r
"'bite Ollcn con~rdcml polymorphic""" d.arli. anJ p.alc
morpbs. Thu is m crTOr. Jar\; JIOIMlllllOllt (ea.-rulta llfOUJ>
C1.-y backed Tern Gaviotrn pascuense Blue Noddyl arc uopial. ,.hJlc ~ rorul.i1on (11/bn111"
1cm.1 11111.i til g;oup-Grc) Noddy) uc subtropical or 1empcr1c Rcccndy k
I J bas bc:en 511UC$1ed 1ha11hc '"o populahon< 1tc bc.i ua1cd u
separaR~ ckae 10 COftSl\ICOI d10crct1CCJ>'" \llC, coloral10<1.
breeding biology. and waler temperature prcremicc In Chilean
offsborc Wands, the olb1111111poop1~ ri-n1 C;ui he conflf)ed
w11b White Tcm. but note grey w1n!IJ of Orey Noddy Ju hLc
ad., but bro"lle1' on upperparts und has darker pnmancs 1111d
1:111. "'hich contr.m well in 01&h1 Bridled Tern

Grey Noddy
I 1wn Noddy
~Miil ICtlll
lli.;L !Olo 1e1 .,..,...,~ l<a famol) ofth=~,C'\IRh}nhopulacl All ba\-C3 c:ll3ra.1Cft
"11h oh '""c' m~n.hhk l<n r tlwl the urrcr INJ1Jlbk. Tk1r bolk arc lato:nll) fl.intned artd long. Thi; aJ.lpwu
lo l) dut111un~ .,,., th\ IUJlfd<c ,,, quiet w:Uct" ""h the lo"cr nunJohlc ,...noall) ~When 111\- It
j , ""' 1 111 , or 11u LI> '" captlll'c the pre)'
(lru ... 11 Nuddy Cav1olin d~ Fc!lix Black Tern Gaviotrn Negro
A11111n \lulidus Chifodonias niger
I I 111 f I 'I WM.! <'Ill (32") '\ tru1licul. wunn-wu1cr ;p..._:1~. L 23 cm 19"1 W 1>6 cm (26") Vagrant. one specimen """
llo I 1111 I "'''I, Suh1 y<iomc?. u11d the Oc>VC1tl11rud11 g1<1up. environs of S11111 i111111 llWNTl ~'ICATION A small wn11>1I
N 1 11,. i\l 11 One coa~ul ~1gh11ng fmm l'un11 Ctnc6n I\' ccm. Small-b1llcd and ~lmn wiled. Nlllc 1ha1 the w// /w1 ,, ,,
f '"''' ''"''II'' !luring fCSI of year fOt NTll'I C!\1 10 ' """'k 1101ch. Nnn-hrccJcr d,uk Iii'') abo1 e lllC!uding" '"!!' '" I 1\1,,. k Noddy
IJo aro lo no "11h a pccuhar <hapc, rathct th.m o forked while he low. Ilead ha.1 bl3Cl.t>h ~"I' <l001rasliag "nh "bate 1
I ll 110 )' '"''' long. bn>ad tails that an: doutolc rounJ.:J ~I me, head C~p C~lcnd' "' ~ black Car 'pol, and immedt31cf) t>,:1111
1 fl hm "Uh rcf~mdy ~hon rountlcJ "lnll f<>r a 1cm Boll !he ,.hnc 11cd, 111'lldn th<' po-.tcn caT-CO\'CT1$. Thu hd"'
d llkl llf'rCIO. _,, c:nd) th1d< to Up 811J1 .JI/ hfflH 11 11/t u
I ""' car. v. hue uf forche:IJ b.-cWQ r.ik ~ on
lite cap '''"I'<'I\ Jntlll '"~ Then:,. a neaU i./arl; t:tn ~
rhr iw'm>t-ilfc I CJ!' dull darl.. pink.. Win~ sho..., 'hhtl
1 1n; onto brown nape. Lure\ h114k, and h:u narro" datL:t earp:il bu nJ pnnunc- Tail gn>). like UJ'PCfl\.IR. I
= ""'
f) the lo,.cr one being clcarl~ \t1blc. iM brecchnl! plum:i~c. blad. Ofl baod and undcrpan,., conlnnllllf
t lol tulonlJ ullu the pale c;ip LC)l> and 11111 bl...:I. la 01ght ..,,,.lb "b11e 'cnt \ () IC" f A 'h.irr keep.
l'Pf 11 111tl) includ111g undcrnonii. loghll) pJlcr
11-11111 ncrt <onlra,.t with bbd. prinunc' nd ..ccnndarn:s. White (Fairy) Tern Gaviotfn blanco
1,,, '""""''"with a ~mall p~le pa1ch on forchc:td Pale rnn11es
Cygis alba
"' "111r.1 Jf1J1<'~ru111 browner and snlcd con11111red co ad. Uuck
11 .. 11 11ul~ t1p11111g <>n fn-sh juv Older 1111111 ( ror~c-bai.icl L 30 cm ( 12") W 71! cm (31 " ), Ncsl~ !or historically dtd s1I 1111
Hll 111o11c1 111111 grca1~r cxtenc of whi1c on cr11M1 1111d allcn Easier I., lllSl ob.crvcd at s.1a y G6mc7 buc nOI confirmed'"
r I 1111 '"'"' Ider covens, which look pale l>r<l"" co111ra,11nl! breed. 'ctSJul Occ . Noclln1111l records IDE NTIFICATIO'
1111h ,f 111 er '""r Bro"n Nad) IS ~111r.i1nc "1th '!ool) Tern. T1tr11n~t 1111-><hllc lorn. c'rq>11 blad, pa1ch around C)C -.lud o
,.1.. h ,,., "'"'' unckrpans. llO"CICf, JUI' '><><I) I\ brtcl) crea1c5 ll):c-<'ycJ l'f'<'rn..-c Small mUJ rclah\CI) 1.,
aid ITlllY l'<' <.doru.ed "ilh the n.>dd) '-otc lhJtJUI l>Nll) head. <lkn r<>undcd "mg' ~nd 'hon tail. which tS fair!~ well
''"" bro,.u a""""' llOf..:hOO. 81.a.:l bell, hon and ~mc"hal sptle-hlc. 1h1d. at

llD let r.uhcr lhan llUI aJJ11100. 1t ha
I II nd enc 11..J the "ing shape 1> lon~<r .tnd rtlOf<' pom1,-J. b1-c and f111e-11pprci I '"') lion md blxli<h.. JU\ '!mobr
I l'!Jagl~ foded. \\~111~ lining, m Urol\11 ~<1or.J1 J.iri.. but -pecU.-d bru .. nhh "'><In Uf'PCTP&l'IS :md CO\Cfb. SCi:
in .tll 11 "'' orSooc). See Bla.;k 'l;oJJ) '"' ~p;or.t11on Grey '-.Jci) l"r w:,...,a \ OIC A r.1tpinggn111d1 grwrtlr White Tern
~all. all gruntm~ or mu~h. e<in1111,1nl) u 11nmd1

Black Skimmer Rayado r

111.11 k Noddy Gaviotin de corona blanca Rhynchops niger TX# 40
\ 11um mi11ui us L 4(1 c111 ( 18") W 112 cm (41")
Widc1111:ad m coasta l buy. Chi
" u:incs anJ n-cr mou1h .. Doe~ 11111
breed in Cbolc. Usu:illy found m
tOOlmg flock.s >1ith 01hcr iufl, or
IC111 IDE:'\ Of'J C.~TIO' 81 lo;
1001 c anc:t.. hrre bdo\< Bt...."L.:. p
ilnd nape. contra>ting "1th 11 hole rntercedens
forcbcad and face Puw/1arlr
rlta~ bill. amn11<" ut l>.uc' 111/lt u lo/ad.. lip. Btll size and ""'1gth
lugbly '""able and ~\-ckpcmkn1. UgJ MOng,. to ,.,J MtI
Blac.k Skimmer m Chile lu<t cbd grey un~m~. a 1h1n
\\-hi1e u:uhng edge lo the ~ccondancs and mncr primar1cs.11nd Black Skimmer
while OD taifSIJc\ hmllcd 10 edge or OUtr rL'ClOCC, fc:dlllfC\
typicul of 1hc Amo1011 'ubspccit~ t'ineruscl!11.~. Reccn1ly. a
whiter form ho~ bcc11 1le1cc1cd. showing whilish undcrw11111i!. o
moscly white 1111 with tbrk ccncn:. and n hroad "hott 11111hn11
edge to chc w111g;,. I hc'c rare 'i~11or. ari-r 10 be or 1hc form
in1aud~nr from Arecnllna Al n."t. cc 10, 1mpoi,.1blc 10 scparacc
thetv.o form" \'OI C"t A <.Ull h.,rt.11\1' .:u/f !bu.all) beard"hcn
Ood taks oil
Hu k Dove

Ml "'11i'"'"" Kt>.l l~IChJ'\h.1r\111cuf1hcbcs1-kno"nbirdsmthc\\orld \ll.ire.1otl.\ ""h 11141!

II'" Ii~ tull ... lu:nu111I truunJ M1t1d11n~\\11hacom1cllpump1ogor1hchcad1nbca1 w11h1he,1cr1 11
I ...1 h.n't! I"' "1-Cf 1o11I I\ 1111~ olo\CS Drl' smallttand ba\e IIlOfC pomled lat15hapes GrounJ.dtl\o n: 1111\, ""' '
f ucloi Po~c- (re1a l P1gc.-on) Paloma Eared Dove T6rtola
1l11mli.1 /,..,,.., Zenaida auriruuta
l ~ 't>cm(12-14"1 Ub111u1tous L 23-21 cm (9 ll"J \ o
lft WbaJi a~,, <OftJttg.lllUIJ ID arul wodcsprc&d ""'" found
Lute numbcn m patb aod pLuti. ~-.ncty or hab11.11~ Url>.in
Seh.lllm found a\\&) from urban psn1cular1)' put.' and pr Jrn
ocnkmcsil. The Rock Oo'-c 11cll fote>t cdi;c, agmull
bRc:d, 1n Europan chffi. bric .irea.<1. de.en o:i 1on und "'"' 1 ""'""~ tenJ 10 nc~I on o..~ 1101 nod, bul mJ\' .....
buolthna Due 10 d-Omc,11cu11on ptc 1n l'OUI" a1 food &our
and \Clc(1.-c brccd1n11. m.iny 2soo rn 1ot::o. 111 1c n 10'
"'""" und p.mcm' Mc ob'ICf\CU ma boa noel. of Roel. ()o,~ slim. mcdium~ozcd du\c wnh a lung"h 1.111 V1111d1 /,,,.
'I\ 11h11u1 hmher n:len..c' .ind rn1roduc11011,, populnuons tend abo1-e, l\illr large II/ad S/l<lb "'' rnnt 1 m1J111n 0111/ W 111
h """" I<> lhc no1ur:il fonn lnmxlu~cll 10 I nMcr I. nnd 1hc co~erts. mod tertials. Face and neck warm buff. wnh rr
Juan Pcrn~ndC'r 11roup. 0-4000 m IOt:'lll IFI CA ll O i\ A cro\\o, >mall blackt'ar marJ.. nnd ondcccru pa1ch on h111dn ~
'hlC'I.). mcd11.1moi1cd p111co11 w11h o dccp-ohelcd. relatively Male has stronger grey crown. wanner neck colour nnd lror
h11H31lcd arpcarancc. H1gh1 .irong un p111 111cd whig.~. fukon iridescent JX1tcb. Undcrraru bulT, l.>ccomln1111re)' on belly .111tl
111.c Olien di~pluys. glidina " ith win11~ rn 11 dcc1> V, Natural venl. Flight fast, s\roni; 1111tl dircc1, while tip 10 tail fc~lh"
pl11mugc W<~. witlo white 111111p m1</ dark /)llr.f "" g'1!mcr rowru onen visible. Toil groyi.1/t, wltlt h1Y1uwe1 r111111wl i>Ctl'/ci:.v. " "'' '
wul "'N>11dcme~. llcntl clurkcr 1hr1n body, wi1h 11rccni~h/vlolc1 five pain whiu-rippt.J ><'llh hlud wli1rm111wl har. VOi ('~ .\
ondc;cencc on h1ndnccl. (~1rongcr m male). D1Mmct1vc white melancholy. low cooin~. flfHHm /11>110 lt0<>0 h11111111
c.-rc und urungc eye, leg, 11mn11c-rcd (ircy tail "olh broad
bl1tkish 1erm1nnl band W111g lon11111' whill~h. con1ras1tn Pacific (West Peruvia n) Dove
lrongly "nh dnrl. uaolmg edge Wide variety or plumage Paloma de alas blancas
rattcntJ. a111<ng dooncstoc to>c:I.. 1ndudong ho rd ,. ,,h "hnc
Zenaida me/oda TX#42
rinmanc" rctk!Cd Wiii~ J'llllCm\, dVI. b..Jy r1Ulll4g<> ltf Rock Dove colour variations from do me1lK stock
c'~"crurou,onbod) \ O IC l. i\n:pc.1tcdlo\\ 11u1~1pumng
r L31 cmll2"l.Acomnt>nd<l,coftbenonh,v.ho<h
"111pidly c:>.pandmg ..outh. Urb3n :uc.u, C>J!C.:t>ll)'
"""'""'"' """'"'""' pul..'- a:. .. en as desert o.t~ and ancuhural itrcu
~ ll<I( tcnd 10 nock, but f!OUI' cOl'lffC~lC on
Pacific Dove
Chilean Pigeon Torcaza <Wtablc habnn 0 1500 m ID~'\ ll flCA llO ' Eared Dove
Paugioenas (Columba) araucan.J TX # 41 A stocl.'). laigc: Joc lli~ly bro"'"''harcy. "'th
l lS 17 cm ( 14 I S"I I ore I rmn1r1I~ a ,.'UIDCf, bufficr IOllC lo the ncd. Pale bro" n ra.:c

:-- "'
'"'""f"'"" rrefcmni; "''""''"'~ ll"'"th
<&11J edge ~umbn> phunmctcJ m 1941>,
coalnlSU with /MIJ blw"""' o,...,,.,J n'<' llftd <riV'
blart errr mart; male hb an 1tidc..:cnt pat(h on
' II/SO.. dU< Ill dlSCa.\o:, bul h.i\e oncrc:ncd back ofncclt. 8<:11}. ~'ftll, rump and k>,.cr ba<l. tpc:y, contrL~llj;
>llkC U>ually Ill mall 0Cl\l.ctl lc\\cl lhan With brOWllC'f body ID noghl 1\1...i DO(i.;ta!-J<, Ill n111b1 IUC the
o OllcD rcrche 11u1c1ly 1n foloatrc. large "hire ,.;ngpa1cha. conltll...trn& 111th mner 111ng
rcciihn111hc1n-clt' onl~ ,..,. ncrln.Ju1r 3nJ renuges. Tao I &RY "nh blacl. suh1cm11nal ollll
onto n1&Ji1 0 ISOOm IOI/\ 1111( ' \ 110 '\ "'hitc terminal bancb. \losi ~im1lar 10 Earell Do'e m acncml
The l11rs:t pOJ:t-011 in Ch1/1 \lul.y. tkcp plumage p:mem and $U\ICIUl'C, bu1 '"hue 111nr pel,he\ and blu<
che\ICd ~nd lon11ta1lcd In n1~ht app..-a" bfo.ouo:r "'"'~cJ than eye patch ~cparatc\ from ~11 01her Ch1lc~n ducs/p111con'
Rock Dove, w11h h11ht1y le'' pointed win111ip l'l11m.11ic d.1rl;. VO IC E A rcpca1cd llaoahomluu1//1 llooop.Jmoodoodl"
l.ugcly 1<in~rolnurul \\olh rltir4 Wt'.! 1Vrt111 rnnw' '""II llooop-hooodoodlt'
hn1111r$, ven1. lo11cr bacl.. ''nd rump. f hght rcnthcr' bind. liul
xrey wltlt hroail hf(I('/. rnh1a111111ul hm1d 11111/ 1,.1/1 1, nnlnul Ruddy Ground- Dove Tortolita roj iza
/>11n// GI\ en n good look who I~ perched, u crlv1 whuc l1r1111/ 1111 Columbina talpacoti
1/11 1111pe I d/11gaM1tc, 11 bordcr11 hc lop uf nn ur~11 11 1 wc1111sh Ruddy Gro und-Dove
l 16 cm (6"). Vngrum. Two sci. of records 111t'holc,111 Angol
111tlc~cc11cc. Oill block eye 11nd legs red Ono ~ f1lu11111jl.C irnJ
ond Rruicagua. The i\ngoi occurrence'"' 11lcd i.ccrnl hint~.
l11rgc si1c scpnrulc lr(!fn 01h~1 C:l11lc1111 dove>, bul da1k culnur
suggesting an invasion from Ar11en1in n. which cou ld be
l~J't"' of Roel:. Oove my .111pcnr Ml mo lnr 111 no~lot ('lu icun fe male
n:pcatcd. IDENTIF IC ATIO A,,.,, dt11t'. mlll~ 111(1111.v 11'//lt 11
l'ogtun ha-clurl. undcrwrnjlb. and o 1a1l 11411cm of d.11~ .111J ralc
ro111ros1i11g grry head. and fem3lc '1m1lar In ocrall p.mcm,
h~11Ji.. no1;u..i u dark b;md 11.'1 on R111:k l}u\c Whn,
but duller brown on body and duller ~rcy con head Onl) likely
rurc I-and ofC:lulc~n d1~~ncN1c. \IO IC'E /\deep duubk-d l1<1<ro 10 be confused \\;th srm1lar-~1ucl l'rc111 (omundDoc. Ulack
110<>0<1 h..w./10()()() ,,,,...,.110000 u~ually bcjlm\\..lh
'potting on scapulars and -.'t-' al>..-111 m P1tu1, 1he rufous or
1 ""'rolling l'llRRRRRRRRRRR souaJ
brownish body contrasting .. 11h ~ !::"'> IK'9d ~ 11>0 dist1n.:11'c
or Ruddy_ YO IC A rcpca1cd, P'>i'P'"I: rtM'(l()lll p111 ...<>001
G; Ground -doves
~ amall ll'l<'mb.:nc>fthc ~ fllDUI) (( Ohabidac) T"'ogncraoc.urmCh1lc.1he1)t'"';ll io..~nJ{
anl lhc \nJ~ 111 l' 1111 1fo'trlu1~ /,., I he laftff arc stn.:11} An<kan. Clflcn fovoJ C high cic-allOClc\, 111.>Le
)'DOI"' holomd I ... home>. ("~aa pouad-do\c:iUC \O..~l and hu1ld l.llkbrd '"'L "'""-'I
" l'l.11c ~s

P 1 u1 Ground-Dove Tortolita c.uyana tJRJ di.<Ull< lllr /IQft! '1""llgf111g 011 b.1<l .naptdars tJi
,,/11111bmJ picui WinJ:i . wry:. "'""C...>~""" (culaur oj pn)("r d' h
pol<h aruunJ ,furA. n..-. In 1l1gh1, p:tlc up~n r
L l~nn(7"1 km:AAl .-nn1mon in di). open
noocc:3blc. "cb1l tail "'"h "'hnc up~ IO ou1~r " 11
nt.'11.,rraJ attJ a n.:uhural am, Oliaa 1n rural \ 'OICf Stlcnl. Wh1mng \\1n~bc2c- 'I> hen 11 ta~C$ olf
,,,..n_, and r-rt. ~1~) ronn \mall floe!.' 0-
1SOO m IOL'Tlll C \1'10' .\ un~ '1iin
Golde.nspotted Ground-Dove
croaking Ground '"
i;rooad-<lo"C ~UC "'""') 1....g 1a1I Sl!on
lcu.,d. '"IL .. 11h a ~h1h1 ,... JJlc anJ Tortolita de la puna
~I bobbing ot lht b:ad Gttnib""""'w Metriopelia aymara
ah.1'<! """ 11eo1r/I "'"''" 1mJcrptr1" B.1cl. l I an 11 ... rlumr d.l\c of dr). ur--n ru
broool>Ct lhu i;rcy cro""' nape an.i nl. S.>mctu~ nc3r l\Cltlcucuh. "'bcrc II nuy
r 111l<l 1a1I \I.ii.: bngh1crand more c\lcn.,"cl) gr<:> an bead all bul ullcn In bl\..... !J"UJ" ID 11~1. dr) JI
l Sm.ill l>l.>cl. bill and "hat.: c,c ll11tg J"l'l"1t tliag Lind ~tu~h more clo-cl)' "-OC1aicJ 111
f1i1l1 ""' "11h,, "ht111h 11tn.-I "" ll'~111e1 ,.,,, "''-' und hJb1t01IS than 1lher \f11r1np.-11u 1 lod, rna\ ""
ilflftl tm h/a, 4 rrm1~t:' '4 ""-i; l11t tHt Ir' ,. 01 "rb u number hundred, ll)f,n r 1c \I 10' \ 11
I nl 111.I Mw tn ju1m1rohlt light ( 1t1ll'rll'lt1fi-' hl(lrk. rn1und 11nd 'hMl4tlcd tp'OUnd-dmc On L'"""''
111111.1 "'"l hllli 1u/1 11111/~rp.Jrt \ OIC I \ quu;l, hooting lcr' uu3ll) mv1>1blc. often hohh tnal dcprc'" .11 Bare-faced Ground 0011
1 -oar ,,...,,,,,,oor ,,....YKlf)()OT ...
,. , ,,"'',,.... qu~1 l-lik~ po~lure R.111111J-hmlttI. le1tlt1' '~"
I\ 1lh l"Clll IOW<trJ> """or C3Ch yliJl:>i~ "'''',hart 1<1i/ 1/1111,,. Ill'<' Pal.- "'3ndy brown. C\Cll Jl'>lcr hdui.
l\o bare fMc p.uch In r<IOCI h~1. lnC'rcv1~rt '""" m~
<:ro,.k1ng Ground -Dove Tortolita qulguagua g.1/d f'OI' (p:ltlicularly male) l~l:icl '""on t<'ft11h 111>1 P" 1
ulumbmd cruziana in 01hc:r ~(, lrlt>f'< lw In ll1gh1 arreaR r0111nJ.. ""h bbd.1
outer ,.1n,: lilc lllad.ingcJ (1rovnJ0.1'c bu1 ll<t.: ('Al
I 1~ Cl'"' I~" i 1 Cm")tml, fC'Sln< led LO oaia
and oa,;i" alk), of t:.r nonh ( omnwn 1n ;agn- 1.111 ..m.l) "'''"" hod' col<'lll, nifucn f.u.,,., '" ruukr.W
pnAJrio ldallkuh 10 JttlanJ bo;I. of..,lutc: 1..,..11tch1 On
,..,11ural ~a_, n,..,....n r " ind urbaa pad>
and ...-dcir-- ( 0 ...- "111111 lluch 0- gnlllnd ~d lr\Jftl Rla.:1."'n~ by '"' n>1u:id
\ <h<>rt 1.111 auJ IKL of otangeyclloY. fa..'C 1>3l<h. b ,.di a' p~I 1
1~oo m Ill!:.' 111JC A110' \ un~ ~ound-
hod)~ c;.-1.:1""' OllCV\"Ctl'~"' \Oln: c;.i.-nt
clo\c on .a I .Jc ~ildc.T

I 'I 23 cm (II Cl"I The m1 t

"'"le prcad of thc lfrmo~l1a.
OC<UP~ lflg unct~ 11f 1"'htlll1$
C>ry pvn.a in nunh. \n
J=n ~-nil> Ill ccntral """'. imJ C\cD
open !Mlo< 1n "'m1cr, !ohivN!)
htghbnd. in curcmc >OUlh. \lun-
'' I OllO ~000 m. but "1nw:1uncs
h .ca lt"d '"''nlcr) ~hl.v) '"
ID >mall flock~ IOt-' UH(" \TIO' 4 /tJf'J:<. II>< A1 gm11nJ
dou \\tth rda11dy Ion ~ii nd "''"'' On>"'" pJlcr on
und.:rp:1rh fl'htl< ,.,.. u111f />n1:h1 nr<1ng,-1cllm1 (<-11/1111r "'
/N'O<"el><~I druuJ l>urr p;lltlt h.(011 eh In 01ti111. "'""* ""'"
wi11g ro11/ru11> It'll/I '"'"'nu. /lttltor 1n111:r 111111:. m111;1/n11/
tt>Tr1$ ...1111t 11pJ1<'t1r111xm 11111 "'""(h 'lwJJdl1,el11 '"' ltud111,..
Dove Tortolrta boliviana edge uj 11 l11Jt On 11round. Cp;trnlcd frum C11hlcn,r1.111cd
Ground-Oo'c: b1> lar!'cr '11<-, lon~cr 1ru.:111n: unJ, 111 pan1cular.
long lllll and darlcr bru ... n rlunlllt:< G..ldcn- f"'llC-J b<l> lilCC
J"<llch \"OICf '>tlcnL
11 All Austral Parakeet

,. 1 1 I ,..,1.,urful but largd} g = srec1c v.11h charactcn<11c f\;11 hill ~re'

')fl' I ot p;ir.U.Cd.S. Captl\c spec~ of pam>h otlcn ~"K~pc. and mav l1m1
""' 1.. n~llltkd bmb ,.hid! may compn1e more 1han OM UIJIJI~ .

tM 11W<lr shortu /011,r 111<1ntlthf Pfumaac "m1far to \u

Scp:ir.uro by bill hapc, laq?cr '"" />r1gh1..r g1H11 p/11111
/es nntiC'..abl.- Jttr/.. 'ua/1111011 l>od1 /Uf'll.<'' re J /"'Ir
patclr. Jorlcor1t1g<'<'.I'~. J11/Ipln4 orhit<J/ nng. a111l <1#u/I,-,,
Im clMrlr d..,nnrc <lft'1l h.-l/1/'<Jt1lr \ O I C SUllrlar tu ,\11 I
Panikct. but foodcr ond more rc..c>TtJttng

Mountain Parakeet Perico cordillerano

Psilopsiagon aurifro ns TX # 43
Ll7 1'1cm(7 l\"I HraJ!inAmlCf oil.
chll I 1>r8"' 1n -hrub 1nl .. 1
Pv/1/qt rn n<>nh. 2000-J8()(l m ID ' 11
1 II"'"' ,..,,,, Jl''l l>,mJ Chilean ub,pec1~ n c rio' ~ ""' ,..,,.,.,,.,, '"' " , ,
"' ) C"ntk1111,, 1>nly fonn chat ha> complete grey H11J~~fll{1Jr \f,lt1p>lll1Jno u11d11/u111> . Ur1
11 aJ u111fot111 tlrc "'''h "hue tc.ird,.>p-,hapcd 111ecn uboc and ycllo"' be lo". "'"h blue ri
II 1111l "l11t c-. lutllong nd t>lrc. hkc had. Sue. manes 811/ hrtl{hl 1tllt111 1ir 11ran1:<'1dl"
""' '"' "" hcll>.11nd hluc w11111s .cparutc from 111c<>- Sub)ptc~ '" 'inntragQ /\ndc..' du ller. 1111>1
lr1 1 "'~' 1 \ OIC" ~ Luud. 11rnttnl1 .1t.1'ttt11111 grot1up bluc-ttrccn Ind h~' greener undcrpnn. '111
1111 1 1'<' 11 with 'hnrpcr /..11e11 notes. and habrtat alone diu11110Rt ic '" C'hllc. VO IC t.: Culls luFh'
pitched nnd more plean1111hn11 1ho>O ol'other C'llilcan par11l c.:1
Amt 1nl 1 1.~ 1.~kf'ct Cachai\a Call is a rolling "'h1~1lc pr1et'I or prr/111,
I 11 11[flllll l111\ fl'f rugine us
Monk Parakeet Cotorra
Myiopsitta monachus
L 33 cm I 13") C'agcbtrJ ""'"!' tluJ " qurcl..I> (ohm11m
Santiago. BuilJ, la'ic colt>n1JI <trcl not,.. often 111 <f) J'<llb
IDE'll lTIC \TI O' "o other J"lralcc1ltl.cly1n wb:tn arc.i
\fo>tsimiW'IO 'founr.un P.irale.:t ti..! brgcrand h:lstl1111tn<""'
gr<'). (OIY!r<:ad tlrrt'<JI ulld Mart \ O ICf /\ gnuns, rol'ns
lcrrr1aoal:. pitch 3nd 'trcnsth v1n"' dcpcndJn.@. on Ute e>I
cxcrlcmcnL Flock'"''>'

GJ'oove-billed Ani Matacaballos

Crotophaga sulcirostris
L 32 cm (13 ") fl>unJ 1n ~griculnmtl area.-.
111 I luta Valle) Arm M~) '11111)' 10 other~ ro
dc<en nt>nh Mo-t do..,ly aswc~tcd wnh arC11 of
~.c ro er adJ~<cnl to h\~locl. pascurc> Perch<:'
on ll\Noct.. 0 \00 m. IOE,'TIFl C \TIO' ' ''
ocher an1 occun 1n (hale Chun..y wuh a lour
Oared. l'Otlndltppcd wl. -.l11rlr aet. u if ..u..Jy
prnneJto tlrt l>od1 u11J hit a lt/t'o/11 o"n Rather
_.,___ la111c hca.J "'1th n.u crown and 1lr11k olmm1 purmt
like bill. Gl\'en clo..c: 'rcw. 8""''."' ""bill obvious, but .ib,cnt
on younger birds. Sh111y Cowbml i~ \lnly ~11-blacl J"Mcrinc m
range, bu1 is much mnll~r wrth slJlncLird songhird Mrucwn:
VOrCt:: A hollow, "l11~llccl l'C<'tlllllll'Ul'I'.

Dark-billed Cuckoo Cuclillo de pico Negro

Coccyzus melacoryphus
L. 26 cm ( 10") Vagnin1. r<irdt"J fn>m :illey$ rn .'\nca. Shy
.1nJ ~ctrnn~. IOt~ '1 IPICA l'IO'I No ulhcr rlcbrcastcd
cucl i.a, occum:d 1n Chtlc I .OOIJ tlrm ~pc. with IOJli "bite
111'1'... J t..I, i;n:y CltJ'. tbn. mal. l>ufT underpart> and blacl bill
<'llld ulltcc lor kl<utrfic.t11on In Oaghl. long pointed win.,..
1114 1!1111 l~allcc h~c INeturc V01Cf A throat) G""" C11110
'- ai bw A'"''' /;.,1 4,,r"rrlU !\ho a mclmcbol). usaJ $C'OCS

n '" i.1100.. ''"""" G"'"'"g-.'""'8'"""'

I lj 1 llotn lC
11 1111 , 141 O wl
I 111 0.11 l 11 .111111 1111,...1.... 11..11 1... mr ,, \\<\\n group. Tbq 3tc nocturMI prcda1on; w11h "~l l Jcvch11><'1I t
111 11 lulh 11 Jl1111it. l1111 l.otl(d\ h11lol. 11 h\ 3pp<!at small and pusbcd-in o .. I> arc l3ri;c-c)cd hull.) lunl
I I, t:tl oc 111,.1.,1111,111) ''~' 1 11\.111 nuln ooJ avcracc darker in plumage. Barn (l\\f\ tT)IOfll(UCI arc "11111.11 lo I 1
l11111h ''" l>C".11'1 h 1p.:1l l~ aal J1"~"htrcn0<.o 1n tbear s\.clctons and hne mnertoc<1ha1 arc equal m lt>n111h 111 the no lo
1 "".ore'""""' 1h.111 the 11111.l<lle h~ on l)pal Ol'IS..
M 1g t' ll.rn1 c Horned Owl Tucuquere Bubo '~pale. md facial dose ahu) "h1tc. Paler n~tlc lri;d 111
1t1.J(;rll.m1cus TX # 44 bcl-Ow itb fmc 'JIC'CUroi. -..1\1lc Jarkn female nu~ be'" '""' l
buff on andctpa.ns. pan1cul.trl) on braM l'pr<rJWU I
I <lhm!lll I A\\.uksprcadl.:irgc
and uey ...-.1b fine 1'hll'-' <pkhng In 01gh1. unckl'\\on~
-or l'foad habit.II ch<llCC "n
,.hnish. ..,th ooly moderate clarl.n11n M rnnur1.:s \ h.i
Jc~n M!rubl..nd ll!.ll'l<T'al. Jc.<-n
bufT and gi:ey ..ub-<wu12Jly paler 1m1l.u- 11cJ ""'"
<M'<'<. u~ntuhwal I.and. open for
Clute. Funhcrmorc. lad.s ob'iou~ d.>rk morkong "'bend 1
e,1 and r~1gon1an ""l'f>C
flu \\hen,..,,

wmg. In 01glu ofir-n ibng~ leg, leg,' ire hct.l lljl.
owl rc11uarc <'pen count!') for
hunrrn11 and >hchcr for roo 11nv
they protrude beyond tat I The pale anJ unl>Jrm! lln-tmi\
underp:ins are d1agnos11c. Ne'er ha, 'c.1r\ and "h11c llrlllt
(II" hruh . d10<J dunng day.
:.hapd focial d1>c I\ not shared b)' an)' other C h1le1111 ""'
h J.,,_._ a\l"J,.. closed f~-
VO ICE Aloud htssongand p1crc1ng \llnt>l lh.11ha.the111111111
r 1 J..-.1111111111 for.:,1 edge or very 111xn. hl\\ lore'! Noetumal
oflhc sound ofescaping prcs.,un1cd \!Com. ;h/i/1/i/1h/rh/1AAAA.
o llMlll no IOI ' 11 H ( A 11 01" The 1111'111!111111'1 in Cltd<', and
Abo a single kii4 note whe11 foru11ma.
111 ,.,,1~ uuc that h:b /11111o1 'ttrr1 Bult..y onJ bm:ld-chc,1cJ.
11 1111 l.trf)'. H ry b111nd win11s. o lar11c hcud und , 1rong mlon.'
I' "II'" '11rroundcll by i;rey1sh browo fncrnl d" c. F'11dal
Short-eared Owl Nuco
o/111 u11tlt111d 1/,p/1 111 hluc,, 1111/1 h/11r~ 11npe1 [mm <;rt! IQ Asio flammeus
1111 lll11<k 111111 krng' hl11hllghl t't1cc, d1m11111nnc111lon 10 eye~ I.. 311 cm (14"), Op~n c<111111 ry. I 111
mil "' 11ec1c ,, i;Mcrnlly 111J111cSH1vc 111mcar:1 ncc. I hin
hill h 111><'1<1 lia 11nd large wlutc: 1"111 hon nccl. unmcd1111cly .. 11ely crcpusculor but 111~.Y fotJ~t
In day. p,1rticulorly m cl.irk, uwr
Barn Owl
h1l1111 hluck fucrn l <ll'c uut linc Un1krpar" lonely barred caM ~1 1uu1 ron>. lnhubll$ i:nt"lu111l
,,,.,,.,,._., 11c) on bully\\hllc: 1l.1rki,:rnund, however, brcasl maf'llc<, Pat.1g(ln11n 'teppc, P."
.1 " h tl.,td1ed .brL Belly cJn ~ 11nl1.1rrcd, 1tnd there ofkn rnrcs and land Nr I
1 1 lu ll1 t1 .in11.1mun wa.1h on -cn1 ond unckl'Ul1l-co1cru on prountl, docs not rc<1uirc 1rcn
\\h "l"''hrd. <l'p~rutcd liom Rulnu1 lc~cd Owl by lllrgc II ~m IOI' 11,.1(. AllO ' \
I\ Olhna: hlJ,l1'11>U1l1n< h l '"' tit)<., )CllO\\ C)C, Jod ~.hum1<1'-"1tC<>,.luf1l(ICl1il/\"~
\ 1111u1l 11r1I 1 otli.:r b~rrcJ un<lc(Jl;llts. I rom Shm and long"~ngl'J: ul ,..,, pr1tt1urtn '"'""'/ '"'"'"'""'"'
holl<hI 0.,1 b) ''"'II 'raN'. hlacL outline 10 facial dose bn"Ond tutJiJhand protrwd 1in.,,.J 1u1/, unhkt 1n Ma11cll.;n1,
"'h11r rlir.ut J'.l1'h, hmd rather thn <1rongly 11reJl..ed O"L Ofu:nd1um3lorcrc~ul.v. ob>cr\tJ n>'"ll pm:bcd '
111h.~I , I mu. h i.h<>rt1'f pnmanl' In l11~hl. ~ broad- on posh ground.At rcq,yi:llo" ..,,.. allll crc)"ldurrfa,ial
11111 tu I \\11h a l.11.:dll!;1d <tc, ""'"orpnmori< m.Jy be' di.~ tha1 cbrl<en.10 bla.k1sla around C)ci> NI I~ ,,..1.,
1 lii1ll lout la< h 111mg c1nn.m..>n "'"ll patch~ ol Shon- eyes and on <upemlaa. g.-1ng 111 surpmcd arpnrancc F:o.;1"1
11l'd ' """ l\\11111 Rul<ouI~. k~r21cd I>) blJC' \Ile, dL'iC bcl..s blac}. f>otJcr nm UIN not USU;lll~ "htble. but
I lt~htl) p;ikr rnmary pc11d1. d.uler pnm.&t) diagoostJC 1n snWI "21: and rtxr-n1ct1t !ugh on top of hr;:iJ
n lllk1 il.ltl i.n-.." ""''r.i.;.11ng" 11h paler bell) If O~f\rd Underp:uts Rrtlllgl) ~led. 111>1 baned; trcal.in11 dc:n.c 1111
11111 hi ntlv lure n1hue d1flct('Q<;eiarc JJ'P<'l'C'lll \ O ICE bf= bm more JLlfusc on buny belly Often obKn cd 1n 01gh1
I 1 m 1 "' 'r 1111,h fr~n'IJtcs 10 11 lkcp. 11<1110,. ho.>11nf hen nano...-. long and ttl;:itl\cl)' po1n1cd "'"II
urc d1arJC
l L""'"", 1h, hn.11 nnte bcin3 j!ullurul Jnd '1bra1mg. tcnSlic. F/1gl11 lo" tmJ bii11n-jl1 /1A1 "''" J,,p mgl>td1>. Short-eared Owl
11..1 li'f 1h.i1 II hr 11..,1 not shallo" ones typ1c:1I of oihcr owl W~nn c1n1wm.n ba-.....
10 rnmanc; contr1,.1 "'nh bla~i.. promnry coHrt pa11 b
II 11 11 Owl Ll'C hul il Undcrwingi. "hllisb. wnh d1.ionc1 d;arl con1m~ on 11rc.11cr
undcrw1ng-covens. Subspecies in Chile ,. 1111n1/11 "'h1ch I
' '" 1/11.1 I Xll <1 S
"1 ~ni ( 13 l .. "1 A w1dc-
~umopolnan species but
ISOl3ted from other populo11ons nonh or the c11un1or Rccr11t
nbservurions in Anca mvnlH rather d~rl. lnrd,, n "unclcM 1r
l'eruvinn populations arc uloo darl VO ICh Alnmt tall a hAl'\h,
'"'' t.1M111111111c nolc, A~ 11nmc his.ins. two-syllable s/1kU-.1/1hltlo/1h/
111111hc. r1>n,IHIn hums, churchc~
11111 ohl hui ltlin11s. nnd ib therefore
, 01111tuHI 11c111 'cttlcmculs. May
I Pt I ol llt lktt1,\ 1ft'~''- "IUCh l\S lll 11"<)
.tu~ tti \untfr" I or.eye,,!\ m open
111111111 \ 111 hi ,,,1,IUH"\, n:Hiv~
II llMI II I IHI 111 1111 N I II I<' \I IO N
I 'ilOK'-
,1 111 , lrgged Owl

1iuf cll lno .. n l"flt"~ "'""h bl\.' nlkn with "ell.Jc.doped ialot\, anJ laia;e h>N111J IKI
I mnl C l>Slnh~ll.) "' "' lllAn m.ilo. and ha-' plumage on acragc. Py11ny-t111>h llr~ lrn), ,.,.1, 1 Li
id 11i.I 1111111..11 11111111s11, I~)' ur.. lowlc an O.i:ht,,. itb qui(k himng " l~ are often diurnal,,,.'" 1 u
.:>tn.'1 bo r lum~I

Rutuu\ legged Owl Concon rufous.. Rufous mOTflh'> ("' h1ch ~re rare) m.I) hnc 11111 1
111~ tufipN TX#46 &ails. Pale tall ban.ds/4'1rJ ,,,,,,..~,<JI ~h.ift tfe.i11i .- flnf
pygmy-owl m Oulc '" PCN\ UUI, which IS ~~led"' lfl(
I B J~ cm ( 1.\ l:'"I f\ no.;1umal forcM
TJM, pn:c1sc nonhem range lm111 of &he Austral " un~'"'
owl In~ urrange occun. rn taller, clO\C\I
but~ some arc migratory the t"o ma) be ymplllrt 111 i.11
unopy No1hojugu.r forct llu" in
S..-cPcnivianfoncparation VOICE Amoooconou....:t1 I
north of111ngc, 11 UM:\ lallcr are.uor,hrub-
by (~1 in coolcf\~11~ In add1t1011, may
tcxn tool took ... g1cn a1 m1c of2 per,
o.:cur 1n old pmc rbniatnru. 0 I 1100 m.
IOf"T IFI CA110' \ tneJ1um tu Luse
Peruvian Pygmy-Owl Chuncho del norte
ov.l ,.1th Lugc. MJndcd head DuU..y bod). Glaucidium peruanum TX#48
short t1ul and btooJ. n>undcd w1ng' LIS 17.:m(I> 7") Rc<tn,~IOOA>1Hllf
1'1111111 ~ vimahlc, d.1ri.CM m arcu ofh11h rainfall Mu<h W\ ill I and /\n<kan .alley\ 11f nortlt Mo:.1 cut11111t
I l3fo....I f'lum3J!C \""DllOO. pale (cmalC m:irkcdJy dttfCR'.01 from 1n a1ncuhural area.. wnh l.ugcr '"'"' 1
.t 1l m.JI \II h.1c dm eye~. grey foc11I dAC~ and white l:ttgcr v~llC), of An and o;ov1h. 0 '~IMI 1
,,,.,,.._ Miid mou<tachQ. Dark C)Clo J"C 1t a &cntlc c\pn:,sion. 10J'j fl ~ ICATION lwcmclys11n1bt10.\
I 11111 '""'' nnly modert11cly ou11incd dukcr No1c 1hu1 1nif Pygmy.Owl. In Chile nll 11ppcnr 111 h.11
'"'"" .11.11111' ut1111ntl t')'l', j11ri<ll dl,w: If r11j1111 11r 1'11111t11111111 11rcy plumage C11mpnm11vcly. a mnllc1 1111 I
11.-111\\ fldk huO wi1h coor.<' d11rlc htlrn1111 tf111ntll'rt11/l-t111e11,1. w11h )urger eyes. shorter lnil. nnd ;.honer. rounded Wtnf' lh11
""'" \ 1h11l hrnwn wl1h p:ilc lipping. n11g/,, r1!};111J ...,,,, m(t1u Austral. Crown s11oucll r111hcr 1hu11 lrcukcd. In udditlon. 1111
,, ,,, I 11tf11111lo1c1111111 ,11nw rwltr 11/n/1 In OiJl)t1, o dark. p11/e tail bars al'f.' broad om/ fe11r (urnal/\ sl,;), hu1 '""' Austral Pygmy-Owl
,.,.,.,1 \\ 111~cJ owl In duy. ma) be diflcr~n11n1cd fro111 overlnp w11b grey-morph Au.lral llu1<i:wr 11t.. pul<' lm ,/,
'1 J1clf.1111o 01111 hy uniform bac. le> pr1mar1c \ OIC.E nCJl lend to mt:el 011 t/11 f/wfl. u 111 All\lnal f\n o>cnagc 1hllrr
Mu111 ..1. "'"'~11111 hoo1~. grrr 11roo-0 /Jf'(J<}(J GROOO AOOO cnee v.ltich ma) be u..cful 1n &he field i~ 1hn1 1hctt " n 1h1n
l.lHHJ \\....,,, c\<llcd lengthened lo l()Ogcr .en~ of raucou' ochre band on Lil<' hmJncd. 1mrocJ1~1cly bclOll- 1hc fal,c cyl'.
lu lung h11oM on 1hc bac~ of !he head /\ 1i\&r.1I uncr< a quick !oCl"ln of 1n1I
.. hisalcs at a iucc "'hch '' ca\11) 1m1Utkd, Song of Pcru".ui
A1ntral Pygmy-Owl Chuncho much qu1cler, running 1nl0 tnll, and not e:t<ily 1m11~1,'d
Cl.we 1d1um nanum TX# 47 \ OIC Quick tnlhJli sen.:.. 11f I t notes. J-1 per
L 17 21 cm(6 S ~1 A common rufous morph
Burrowing Owl Pequen
cr<alllc hulc .,,. I, bul more often
hon! 1han ..ccn I l~b11au nnttc Athene cunicularia
from a1y SXtlb In d.:nc. e>IJ V()(ht~ L I t< 26cm(7 10") A l\l~Pft'adbu1 sonic
(agus fon:t Prefer cd11c or more wb:n w1common ~mall owl uf open area.'
open(<>~. bu11l'iQ u,eo, rn3Lc>I" Found on beath tnand. y.a>.>l~nd dry ile...n
nal, whurban area. and 1111~...1 alk")~. ~rc3,, airpo~ and i:Tfl.")
1ural areas with '>Omc lal')tcr &recs clcanna~ w11h1n ma1orral II nc'b under
or>hrub>.O 2000m 10:\TIFI- 11ruunJ m old ro.lcnl bum>"' anJ 1hc hk.:
' \I 111\ l)1ic~I PY&Jll)'-OWI, ,m:aJJ ...,h ~ llQJ anJ lon11 Highly 1~=1nal IOE,T ltlC TIO' In
I ( !ft m.l lu l'cru\lan l')'emyOwl. rclallcly Mfl.lllleycd, r.png"11~rc h1111t "'"l(fe,:g.:J o" 1 ..uh n:/u-
I :r ..,,lcJ
anJ IQ, lon11tt. more po1n1cJ "mgs. Van- twd_; ,,...,JJ t)"' U<JCI) b"""" <pCCllcd
" I' II he tCl'.'""'"J mW lhrcc buic """""".. each with ,.!Ute abo c. wnh a bni"n l>ul "'h11r-,pcd<led breast - i bilncd
,.,, '~''""'~ 1111l 11u,m1cd1atcs: a com11mn bro"'n morph a ll:tnks and bc<lly. Long "h11c 1h1ph;. Face d"11nct1vc IJJf'l.'t
n Ill sn lll1ttph ind rare rufous inorph All ha\.C "'hile !Wp<n::ilia and /urgt nliil<" tltff~ll ef'lrnlltJ ".1 u """''" Burrowi ng OWi
llnw \ u )tll11"1 hll'""" bill and line ~lte'!h on the hmstrap. Juv. similar bu& brcust oohd lm>wn nnJ unJcTr,1rt
''" 11 \\ 11111 h 1~1111 """ clark hN."I and streaked belly, the unbaned. Shan:s hnbnul wnh l11rgc1 Shon.cared Owl "ltich ~
I I 11111111r,1 ..,1111111111tl11111f hnc' 011 undcrpan~. As names a bu.lkier. ibort-lc&&cd ""I w11h a very d11Tcrcn1 li1cc pnncrn
I 111'1' 1 111 uf lru\\11 111oq1h uro 1ufous1irown, rhosc In nigh&. Burrowing h11s quick snnppy wmgbcats, 100 fnM 10
I 111 ~" v 11111111h ~ lo11111.md1hc rufou~ motJ>h 111 n nch(r count . VOI CE I hir~h. ~colillr1g t ll/111t111A "'''"' 1t'j11 ll'Ci!I
1111 11 111111 Ill '''""'" 11111t~h I he w11l1h nnd number tlf 1a1I R=ly heard $Ong con>1M~ of slow cvom11 110111.
l'I Al I hO I \WI Nighthttwk, Band-winged Nightjar and swifts
Lesser Nighthawk
llltnAl lll HCI'" "'" ...... 1110..~. \\)11.:h capture 1he1r pn:y '" n1i;hL They .ire 'lrong llycr-, l>ul "h.:n , ... I
i:tollnh Ibey ftU) r'f'Cll let(') ~.J lethargic. Generali) vocal. 1hc1r .. UUJll)' n:>t11<:J '" tht
~... 1l1ll1u11> 1'111 111 1ho llbe'CU\~ bul SUOOj!I) J1um."1I. 1nd ma) be nlU\I dtt\CI) n:l.11.,11
l:---4''"""'"'! I hey i>CTIl m"' "' ''" 11 lrlu11hvm~. "idan:oJ\enconfu><"d w11h>..,all<"'>f Put~ Kl li21 S,.1f\o~ho"' rd.itt
"h1d1 ar-r llrre n 1111 o.:b.irue1I manner. On a'eta!!C. sw1n. fora11c btllhcr than~ ,,.-aJlm,

Andean Swift Vencejo chico

Aeronautes andecolus
111 (7 S >'1 Kurdol ltec, nc-ar Ana and
Iii Ill Kcg1on1 llndc;ar 1f11 i> rq:lll&nn Ch1lco..,ft11s
ii M ugr nt lnh.1ln1, Jc n <>.ltc: "'rth 1.tlln tren. and
Ill I
l. 14 cm <S S"I Rntnct<J tu An.k' <>I t
nonh Mo>t comm11n '"er h1J!hlanJ dull
,tont: UlfC) , bot Pill) J.~cnJ In Ul'~r J~I(
11 11hut11l arcu ""', for11(111 (rcpu,.;ul.r and or 1>3->C allc) .... tthrn the dc-.crt \lm(>M
tu rnl "'~uno Ilic, an J.i) ll>E' TIHC' \TIO:'\ TyplClll 11\\Jys in nud., of2 J rndl\1Ju;al' tn \If
ii /1 mt;l11h1< ~ ..ulr ''"" uttJ pmnuJ 1u/.,,," f.Ucnrr- Sometrrnc'J"'"' fora11rn11 Oc><;h .if'"""'"' Band-winged Nightjar
1 w 11 U11J u ln11g. ""'' lrc-J '"'' \\hue '""II band of m:ile un:I) dni,.11 by e<>-..J fora~rna Afll'l~ntl
nests in hole> and crach rn difl, vr road cut SOO ~OINI rq
ill In rttn;ilc t 1' n.UTO,. .1nJ panilkf -'\idcJ \1oh: ha; "'htIC
1111 11 1 1h h, nJ "lute ubtcnn1n1I w1lb.tnd female Jtlfers IO EN TIFI C/\1 10 ' rhl' 1111/1 Ch1lt11n HH/1 11/1/r /'''
1111 1 r tr" tI "h11c 1hr11at nnd bull uh1en111nal uul-band. undt!rparu. Struc1urall). i.ltm .. uh lt>nR. 1t<:1 1/11n lllnJI. ,,,.,/ bifasdat11s ''"' rn 111~1,1 111 '"uthcrn form of I c"cr Nighthawk, the " long tail 1/1111" mweratt'll ji>rA.-1/ U uolly Lb~ tJtl t~ lqw
lit q 11. I 111 hJr <an ol~n ppc3r "htllh ""' t) prcal of the closed. appearing somewhat JK111Hcd Uprcrparl\ lmmn. 11t1h
I '"' 1111 11111f111111rti "''' e"'11w/1 />11riv1I In Oigh1. pointed pale rump bJnd nnd \\hrtc neck tollnr llclow ll1r&ely whit
~'" 11111 u.1tr1111 t11tl ol11nc scp11ru1c from Oand -winged with darker Oaoi.., and ollen ad.irk b.1nd immcdtRlcly nh111.
i'll l11hJ~ ~ \t cI I C'-Cf ha '"''n11ly b.1m:d undcrpan~. long vent, Bmwn cap. i~oli1tcJ by while ncci.. b.rnd nnd un1l~'Jl11rt
"1111 lh 11 '"'" h to 1111 of ltlil, 11nd lack~ cinnamon neck collar. VOIC E A_ thrn, huny. lugh p1tohcd 111 sc~1llkc trill Ol\~11
\I lit I \ 11111!11n11cd, wml-lrl.c Hill Song bou~ muy last from scuuercd and may become (a,lcr nnd louder; 11:;::1:;;:,
u t 111 n11nutc "'"hft 'hnn p;111;,c between, RRRRRRR== :z:; U'uJlly more 1han Mc bird~ callrnp,.
wunding like a cncorhony ofb1111cs u111J trill" varyln11 rn prt.h
n.iml Winged Nightjar Gallina ciega (Plasta) \lttd speccl.
C111111111111/g11s longirostris
Chimney Swift Vencejo de ~him enea
I 'O l7tm(7.~ IOfl"I Tb.:onl)
rcEular n1ghl).ir rn C'lule. Vaned Chaetura pelagica
"4hrtal chor~c. but n:.iutr"" x'lfT\C L 12 14 cm C4 ~ S ~) "h.>real br,'C<k:r, 11
tlJICR llCh t.r for~grn~ l}cjcrt ~ prc<1~C
,. rntellnJt ransc I\ unclcu, hul
O<he,, ,\ndcan 'hrub 1one. 11W11bcr- ml oat nllcy.of d.....:t1 Peru nd
"' torral fore'!edge and northcmmo,1 C"hrle /\m'll bci;1"' tD 1'o lllld
a~r1<uhu,.1l one 31<00 111
ti ,omc Sll} un11ht ka,11 ch lJMJJlly ub<cr.<J
IOl.' ru I( ATIO' A long- alono: bo >Oll'Cl1mc up kt 20. oh<n wtth """
"'" cJ n11lllJM '"''h m< centratlon' 1f ~'IUllo" 0 1000 C41()111 m
,. '''" td a loos. MflU<eltf'PCJ ~11 11.mJ.,..,~eJ IDE:\TIF'ICATIO' n,, 11n/1 ollJ.,r! .,.,,, 1n ( Jr1/ 't""
b.Jrd t Jf rlr, ''"''""'~ "'"''' 111 tltr-lr altJ bull 111 wrally. ., bulk) Clwc ,,.,..,, rd.atndy laric anJ hroall"'nt<d
Andean Swift
I lta l<lrt'i ">r11. ''P' to ''"'"' tluw P"',... nf tail fon~ J!lOlll' A is 1ypu:al '''tho' gcllCb. lhc 1.111" 'hort ""h
I ,..,,.,l/rl /i/,;i/ MhJtt' """" '"""rds ltasniftail. small protruding 5pine~ lrllm t"a.:h rc.:1n' 11<..Jy cn11n:I\ "10IY
I "" h I< lu.:cJ or ah~nt rn fc:malc. At n"'l. !he long brov-11. :tllhoogh thmat nottl<4hly p.1kr Rump ~1r111t1ly p.1lcr
f II'" II hurt I 1hc l.11l 11r \1alc ho"' a ,.bll.: neck than back. but no1 ti pale"-' thro..t At~ !.11~t.111<:c ta, Ab.1.-~lr1
I n11 I >co 1,.,ff "' <1n11.1mon h1ndncd' collar Much silhouene. scp3m1cd from Andean "'n by hulL1cr 1ru.;u~
I rcla11,ely shoncr wings und, n111\I 1111port~ntly. by 1h.: hrt
tail. \ndcan has a long. fl>r1<l'J 1.ul 1h.1t 11 "'unlly hold'
into a long pom1- \ OtCr Uu~ll) 1kn1 111 n11n-brccd111g
season. Call& arc A'cric~ nf,h1p no1e 1h.11 run mlo chJncr
chip chip chip 1h1p t hip1rlol1Jldot11 t'lup t'/1/11 Single hi/
notes aN gi-.~o at tunes.

I Ito 111 ,rlo 1111' lh<' whtlc throat

U1hf ltkc J
li:t 1111 il111n,t I 1
Wlul sided Hillstar

1111 1111! '"', ltn1l) tnikm1. to he !'\c.. World. They tend 10 be 'mall bird~ 1'hoch J'(U.oh'IC' 111 l!I
11~11 ll1l\\t'" "' hntong I hr11 111<1..tiht) rapid wmgbeals an: aruquc to the group. and allc'" 1hem hi J'<'I form trud
0 I <LV. 1hh ll1lbl.11 11< h111t1m111gb1rd\ associated ,...;di the high Andc-s, thc) >oho\\ ~h&hll)' CUl\Cd hill\ nil I
I "h11, m llK' tiul rhc') o!lcn ld h\ dinging to Bowers. atbttthan ho.-cnnl'. ft~n~ U1Cl11Jr ,,,.,, 11Co
I cro"t11WdL (;1;ao1 llU11U11mgl:>lnl" apt I} named; n 1s huge compared 10 all other mcmbcn of 1hc fdnul
1111 hml 111 p>ll<nH ~ <1111""11 1 1 nl 1A 1dcnuf1ca11oa. :and 1ha1 the) only ha\c tm 1a1I fcatMI'\

White ~ided Hillstar P1caOor cordillerano Green-backed Firecrown Picaflor ch1co

()11wt10chilus leucopleurus Sephanoides sephi1noides
fJ l I' 1'4 cm IS 5.S"). Andean k L9 11 cmlH l"I TJuo,
hunumngbird of<.' and !> Cbile. 'mall hum1n1ngb1rJ 1n c
lnluh1t.dry, rocky >allc)sanda- Clul.,, anJ he only <lllJll
"1""aho>cim:hni: Wrntertt\.-onh hkd> in the l111'l~nd' f o I
fmm C.. '141 rug-fed desert scrub. m<>1>1 a.nyv.h"''"' lnm pul
""' I prt..>l>.lbl) V.Jnln' ID Argrn- utbtan ~a 10 okl&r""'h ll
I SOO 1000 m. to SOO m m cun1111un in hrul> hlrct PJ' t
winier IOt: TIFI C" \TIO"I Th~ ni:r1cul1urdl 1onc~. untl 111.1..., 11
w1dc~rrcnd C.h1lcon l11llS1ar 1'1n1cr lldo" cre<h11c.O '~~"
t.I 1111... 1 nl hun11nin11h1nl w11h 1hin, cu!"'ed l111l 11nd largely Also Ju3n Fcmandet Is ID~ 'Ii I IFIC \I IOI\ Sm.di. h1111
" "II 1.111 ~I 1lc ltJ' 1m..rol1/ lf'"''"
K<lf/(~t 111th Jorie lower gr<:en hummingbird whh a 11rcc111h tn1l nnd obv1uu 11/o111 1
'"""'' t 1111' 'I'""" dull. grce11 1~h-llrown Otlow ,now whnc. bi-hinJ ~-e. Pcnkcd crown heh1111l eye. 0111 11ui1c ,h1111 ,
'"I" lor11l ol11rA 1111pr (111//1 ll/111! iridtCl'll<'<') 1m 111itlll1t1! c>f straight. Undcrpnns pale grcyi:.h. 1'11shcd llrc~n Qll 111111~. 1111 l
/, //1 1.11/ 1 11111 w11/1 Jurk wet m11rr 1vctr/1 1111<1 dork pair of fioely speckled from 1hroa1 10 l>llll)'. 1/(111' /io,1lrid11r""' '"'''
1111,1111111'/1'1'1 h-malc t!ullcr, lack~ 1101gc1 but ~hows chin crown patch that is 01111 vl<lhlt 11 /um .\f'111 hr111l11n, IC111.1I
"' 1i1na.i 1111 lhl<!al O~h>w pale 11n:ybr''"" lackmll belly lacks 1his pntch. In 1hc field. urpcnr~ mull nnd ra1hcr d.11~
11 If! I 11l h11 -.l111c bu,c und lll otherwise iritlc-<ecnt green. VO ICE A piercing. very h111h-p11chcd, quuvcrl1111 inll
111 v. 11 1 1 111. ''"' h1lbrur" may r1ccur 1011c1hcr. Nole structural
1111 111<H 111 111.: tall WhilC'1dcd hn a 1~n n11rrou omor Juan Fernande? Firecrown
(111 1HfJ th II h 1wrm" h> the h<IS< '\nd~n ha~ I broader Green-backed
PicaOor de Juan Fernandez
u 1 1 11 I "h1ch l'<"<"(ln\C~ d1 11nc1lv IN"UJJer1o"anb 11S 1'asc f1recrovm
11,1 I uf, 1h,. .hlTcrcn<c" le" rrarcn1. hut 1hc outu .-a11r
Sephanoides fernandensis
II on 111! '"'\I 11, <II anJf'<Jt'Ol/d 111 th<" b.1<1'. "bile on viduaM IOEl\l IFI CAT10' '01c th.: female and malt' 11
11 ....,, met bro~Jcr at the: buc \1alc \\l11tc-<1t!cd 110 d1fTercnt. bo1h in MIC and "olora11;n, 1h11 tbc> v.
J till I b the t>ro;ar bell\ In~. "hich "bl.a d..1s.b "'''b a onginally dc\cnbcd ~ ~ra1e \pt<:1e' i\ IAl'ft' humm;n hn ~
nJ KC'nCc I< males ~rhaf>1 no1 ,;afcl~ separable 111 the ... uh a rounckd head prl\lik and rclall\cl~ Iona brNd tul
I """" '""" 1ni.:tuf'll Jitkren.:c ol the outer l.ltl feather. Strong feet. 1'bich 11 UV 10 clu'S to in ind \(,1/
1 1 th u1l fathcn u era~c mnrc: "hnc al their base. 01 rich """""""t """ Moel.1th >11g ' " ' ' ~
1 ho 1 s,rc:rn mid 111011' arc lllOrC ttduccd. such that muuldns. Tail chc>tnUI Crottn pcllclt ni'1J rrJ, univ ~Wblc
1l l>.!r I '"' h ouier 1a1I as nano,. tr on \\ b11c-s1dcd. liad-OD. Female has srttn Ul'PCfP3"' 1'llh blue"' mc>llCS, and
I{\' rhe v.1ute 1n11udc 11110 lhc hallt.. bttatmg the an irtdesartJ blue ''""pat<"li Tail ,..ttnl\hbluc \\h11
I "b k hp llC: le'; '4jUlltt.:UI from the cbrk b:!Dd. uodetpalu "'llh nea1 darl. Pfto 'Pol' on 1hrooa1 ~nd 0.inb
It i)Uter "11 hand le' 1:mp apJ)C'arancc than \ OICE Undcscnbc:d
1 \nu I '""'' h .\n<lcan lhll,,iar
Giant Hummingbird PicaOor gigante
P1caOor de la puna Patagonas gigas Juan Fernandez
If llfl t>I 111/11\ t'\t~/111 \ , L 21 24 cm (R 9") II 11thly 111111ratc>t~ Firecrown
hummmgbirJ ofanJ \II.:$, from beach s1mntl
IQ and Andean foothill\ and shrub
7QllC. AOCltllCd wilh CClllUI)' planl' Aguc
ond ocher "n11 lnr. mll bloomh111 nower. O
38110 111. I Df. II fl CA 110111 llt1f!.1!, 1/w
larger/ J111n11n/11ghlrtl. l"ltnl11 1/1.11i11Nl1
1111tl11la1/11g 011 ''"'' "l11gl11<JI, may uri>ear
swiOlikc. Robul.l, "ilh a moderately long
bill and 11 long. and hrond, m>lchcd 11111 lJpf)cr11,or11 11rcc1mh.
including 1ail. semntt-otT 1111111 "'"'f'
111m-/1 Below wann
brownish on male. flrey on fc111.1ll' d.trl. f>cdlcd on 1hroa1
f'"' t oJthrt'I
Resident northern peru111111c1 ( Pult<' rci;ionl b1t1 brillhlcr
~ "'11rm cinnamon \OJ( I ' I\ loud ''"JllC chip 001c
11,1.i\ Hummingbird

111..U.:1 1 ~I 11111 llll<111k "' ''"' '"" W<1rlll Thq icnJ 10 be .,,.iall btl'lb "bu;b >rc~wliw m c\lt.1<lmi,
'"'I I 1o, 111t!l '"'''''> 1111>l l\111ti..-.11,""' unique tu the group, and allo" 1hcm 10p:rfonn1ru.i h"C,., .uul
11 t ~ """'" I ..11111 '"'""m' .ire olt.:n 1mporumt in 1den11ficat1on. and that they onl~ h:&\c ten 1.111 i

U ul' I lu111m1ngberd Ptc.10or del norte ~II""' humnun birJ 1n C'hrlc. '"'" "1<1"
I l1mlo111 H' ~P"' Qi <h head l~thl Bill may be hthtl) I
than Pmt\l&n \l\.,..na1l r~1l hcld <ideJ 111
I ll S m I\ 1I \\ 1.Jc:..r"~ 1n rhc nQl'th. found fongmg. oaDd DOI pumr--J f,/
11ruu11J ~h.'ttk"tlh anJ 3JP'i<uhural .Jra> 1n o.t>o
,,,n,) ,., 1.111>Jru "'h~t' (} I S00 m IDC:.' frfl- lu "'"ll ''"' ,.,,,. "'"'' ""'' ,,,.,.,,J ...
/qtf ft'"lltr:r. "lttcfl llf/\"11 (/tl\1 m I
1 \110' M.-.hum 11(\) hummmgbml. "'th a fong
<n\.Wnl "~""'"'""""' Ta1l bt.a.k ;and IM
"'"' f, "''> .t..01n,v lo11/ \1.Jk 11.ll lcHtJC. fort....! than body. \boH' ~en, e>ff-,.hnc !>cl,.,. "''h 1r111J'1 I
lull ,.,,,,.,. 1 ofln hdJ in u pmnl ur "irh ltf
andamldi~iplcg<>rgc1-.11hhluc11dc- \\hole btca 1 I
cros.'IC'J s.1<>..r-l1lc (1ITCl'I <>n bad, ~nJ head, \\llh
sep:i.ralo gotgd from }lTCC1I fl.anL All fcn12k srn
"11111 a'long <innm<>n Nlllf' and 'mall I\ hHc >p<ll and \cry pale: bufTbclo" Thn1<111<h1tf'11>1J l>t-111 />11//lcr T
l><lunJ C")C (Ull\lCI "''Jlbcrtyl'<I. \\ 11h blue "de' only moJcratcl) ttraJua1.:d. RJ Ix-mg lhc lnni:c'I rcw1' I
m 1., mil d111c l"""11:11lar tnf'C lklov. \\h111~h \\11h inner rcctri.\ (R 11 i< 11=n anJ bt1Md. ,..,,, 'ho" rulous N
I 11 .1.1 h 111 l111nh I cnrnlc 'ln11lur, l>cnll g1rcn aboc .,.,,h but can be: d1fficult tu sec R2 Sore 111hcrn1c hlnd1,h i.
"1 "'''"'"'II"'"'""'"" rlllllf' b111 13th i;orgc1 nn1f loni; ta1I l'rruvian
v.h11c ups. b111 R.2 h:I a llun arccnlhh hdnd 1>1:1.. ccn th~ mlu;
Su 111 "'"" l""h><:Ular pol "h1<hJ11on' pale Jlll>IOC11l11r lmc and bluck, :md u (or ab-cntl \\hhc l1J1 S<'p;tnlllM "" Shea rtail
""I 11 ''I'' 1uo1111d tor of llrcul llndcrp3rl P"lc buff or i:rey female Peruvian Shc~11arl d11licu l1 Fc111olc wovdrn1 '""'''
hull "''"~"''on Onnb nnd hell) fJ1l 1i.111cc1111n ccntmf p.iir. whiter or paler on undcrpn. "nh tilt d111~e" hull nc.11 lh
It ' 'It I\< vrcco ba~' und urc n1hrrwiM! hind, c~cc1>11111s \>f thighs. belly and. to n lcss1r extent . brca~1: the 1h11.11 1
fl I \ \\h1ch .1tc white. T111t 'tln ly 1lnuflh: n111111fcd. I0-4 being consistently whiter L"hilcn Wo111lm1 1c11cl1> 111 Oy with 1111
lutt ., 1th.111lhc111hcf1' Imm. mnlc ,., female h111 hu' sonic indcs- <lil!hly coc~cd nnd 1.1\)e~ 1101 purnri 1he 1ml conMlclllh 11101
11111 'I"''' 11111hroa1 '>uh,pcc1c\ "'""'"'"'"' rn ""'' h of mngc vigorQusly, unhkl! the >he.,rrn1I. 'I he w11Ud,rnr~ tuil 1, h1111 1
111111.11, h11l <011>1len1ly "'" 11'h1111cr 11111. VOl <.:t: Mclodiou\ with smalh.'f \\hn.: lip<: when ""'"II Jp11eu111only 111uder.111 h
.. "' tit t Md l:t'I' ""'"' ~t'en ... ~1111ohlc 'JICCd~ nnd t\>flC gradua1.:d. 1hu~ llbplay>n~ n ~mallcr Jrca of" hue If
,1icuna1L Buffy or rufou~ ba'"' tlhffituh 111 .;eel of \\lllhht
f>1ruvian Sheartail PicaOor de Cora dial!Uosllc. R2 ha' J sm.111 or no "hue 11p Imm 111,1lc h~
TlrJumJsturJ cora fcuuk but 1>lder bird. nu~ f>"'>C'' >hon 'lrc.uMr- I hq ~'
l 11 Ill cm I~ 6", 111Jk> tnduJmg 1a1l1. monfed gofiC~ nnd white brc.i,1-1>.11111' -cr.11a11ni.: 1ti.01 lr1 immature
., l;nlnu"n 1n <.h1le befon: 1971, nu" one of the grcyl5h-.,.h1lt' undcrp;art \ 01(. ~ \l.1fc J;l\C' ~ h1Gh m.ile
\ 1hc conunun hurnrntnfhirJ, rn 1hc l\npa and pi1chcd ::rrrrrrr dunni: d1,plav
Llula 1dlc) " .. "" rrden.' and llgn<"Ul- Sparkling Violetear PicaOor azul
lur.ll arc.I\ rn 1hoe ""'" allt)' (J 4110 m
ID' 1111( \ l 10 ' -I //In ltu111m1nghmhn1h Colibri corruscans
" ~ "'' t 1111 hn.11 IWll "'"c-- lli.:l tatl L 13-14 cm (S-5.5"> Onf m;cnlh <cmlimll'J io be rcs11i..,.1
<Ill bn!) ,.hen forni;rng. Ii/ nutlc lkl l'.llrr,,..-11 l<Hfl: tutl inChtk. Kno"'n l'rolTI the '.'-oror-aanJ Putrc area II l<~1un)
In ITramns Ult R: tJrr /r>n!(cT llw4 "'"'' ,,.,d h> dart Apparent!) -.i~rcad "her< .unJ., <I I ..,..,/,, " "'" 111
I 1 t1nd nut.'r nii: Strelllll<'n brokc:n .\bu\C' 3nJ \Jkl<:an \lll~g~ J000-3500 1n Ill~ VllH C 110 ' I\ LlfC
"" 01nh srcen. l>lhcr.... lC "h1llh l>ch.. GOl'l!CI <c.IJhh- hummingbird llh rn.>Jcn1 -It. 1shtl~ dru..reJ bill
rw1lc blue oo ,,Jes All femak crct"11 abo\(' anJ hully helu" Sl11moggrecn, \\llh rnll=~nt Muc "~'land C11tral i..,11), 'Clll
!hlll ' ' I <>!I llm..U nnJ p.1kro11 bdl) l1f lkUcnhl) Jlr.klu.w.-d. grt:)~sh Onl) C:h1k.ln hurnnuni;bnd wnh Jarl. undcq1ilfh
H lxrng 1h~ h>na~ rec"" RI i!"'cn, rc,1 hlack"h "nh IJl"!lc \ O IC I U'uall) founll llltng h1llh ur "n lrtt, 'IOlJtni;, 1
"hire hp!>.\\ hen folded 1a1I al'f><.r' f'\)m1eJ 01 tr<)\\rl-,h.1p.-d nnj!ing, ~'J>Clll1~e :J1np :/1c1p :hnp :/11'"1' :111'1'/I ' Chilean
a11f '"'" 10 Urln1111n "h11< "I" 11rf1C0&h lllri;cl) "h1tc ""
'""' 1 1tk I emlc c\lremcly "n11lttr m fomole l 111k:111 W1>0tl
111 111, -hc.1n1I furagn \\tlh 141111111n1cd do"n and pum1xt.1
""""'""''' II 11r11cu1 ~ I011Cr 1uu.I" 111orc c~1cn,l\cl) "h""
'"' th< 11111kr,.11k, 111111 f111 1hr11nurc " \ll"llllf\IY r:tdu111cd 011
/'t'f, /1,./ /t/1,/ lllllt l/1t buff 1111J1t /lllll\ Ult! \lfflt1g111 011 lltt'
flr1T1111, 1111 //w 111//I. 1111111. nrulc fuck~ 11111 sttcamws and i
""'' 11111 kmnk llowc1c1, 11 hn' Mltnl' mo11 li n11on1he g11rgc1.
"'""' h ""'''"th~ bre1hl 1111d a lon11cr 1111t the femJ le
\ <Ill I \..1111111' " n11lcvll11hlc, hljlh flltehed 1m1c,

<lul1.rn Wood sta r Picaflor de Arica

I 11/1t/1.1 y.irr~llil
I 1 111 r1..u ,,..., Im<'. JI lea around /\rica G3nle1L'

Sparkling Violetear
l'LAI r 1:\: Woodpeckers andk_i_n.x
sh_e_rs_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _____
J llPC"J.lltoC' m chm n lrw anJ btaneh1:1> of trees. and dnllmg m10 hart.; for looJ Amo1amt<.<1I
I und cl.a" ,,. "di A\ lJQf; 1.1111 c~ ~Ip tbil:In aWnlaiJI lheiT hold on II"'> Tiie) nca\atc lhcu
t k .:d od.K)1f~btnnm;imddl.-.qintochewaterforfood. Tbeyttndh>nncanhok 1nbanl
I' 011i~ !mve 1111y 1'1).. IM I r c bc~.k anJ long bills.
J lfl "ct Krngfi1her Marlin pesudor Oagbt. s1rongl)" undulaung .. nd rvundedwnt'Cd ,.
"'fk torquat.J ..1irus11 ramp p;ikb.. 'orn: " lood p11.r111:1" ,
SC\cnl tin= Abo a la11Jhtn1 ~of~ .. ,,...
I I 40~ cm 11 \ j I r ) TW C<J111mon ChiJ.
~in "ol .llDC and IC'I" I~
C21lltngfashcr. fmmd brscfy U1 tlac (~
zone akang tarscr "'c" or lake. Usually
obscn-N pcn'hed quietlv bnidc '<
Andean Flicker Pitio del norte
cdi:c or l1<,.cnn11 a, II forngc' 0 IOOO m Colaptes rupicol.J
IUI ).; rlFIC HIO' T1>c on!} large~
IL.3?-33.:m 112 S ll"I TcfTC\lnal, r

h her an <.hale SC<JCl~ MCh a long. ~harply ~
rot!UN "'Ii ..,,J""' ' "",.,,. ,_ ..,..,,
tufll wha'h make the head pr<:ar $haggy
IO hit!h clev11loru m the 1'\ A11J..'1 I 141
pana. boll> 11 ofJC o(1ru,L1111:b or bnt
N'~b an hole. an chm or rood cu .. ~rul Iii
'"' """" ,.,,}, ""''" prrontl.i""'" w h1/dlun.J/ l6N/ are ~1..i for rhc pn:i.cnce of tha'I >flCt 1r
, ' ~p;1ns 11nJ "ans blu... with >mall whal~ ~pots on nc 1m colonies or Qt lca,t IO<l6C llJl:r<
~ n I ""' blue 1.111 wnh narro" p.ilc ~ lklo rufous. Somcum~ an town, JSOO 500CI m IOI '11
ol /1~11111 "''' '"'~'' N11<J br..-.111-1"1n.t. In flight, ru(ou~ wing f1CATION A bulky larae "'oodpccler" nh a >en /m1t.1 p.
1111111 1111l .1n 111.1a,11n.-c p.ilc pui.:h ul l>a'-C n(pnrnanC' VOICE bJk biU ..itlt a f/1gl11 d,..,,,p. Bill ~hortcr an fcmal; 11
f. ud r umnrring 1,;h11Uct
butfy wilh a grey crown nnd nnf)<', m11fll hac n rc1I m11/u1 11
UpperpartS and 11'ings dnrk bro"'n wnh bully h.1nh
M1t"ll.micWoodpecker Carpinlero (negro) Below imnn buff. sparsely fPOlleJ 011hrnJtt,01hcrw1~ u11111 I
C.m11pt'phllus masellanicus cd oo underparts. Female Jimilar bur lacb malar ..1rcak. In lh I~
strongly andulaung and rounded-winged w11h bright "1..11
I "' 45 cm (15 ll!"j. Old-gruW1h or old
rump patch.. V01C A loud Ji00rl. at.., a Iona cha111 r
\'o1lrr/u~ 11r 4'""' mtJ fott<t. requires
rsc ""'" c tree Oncn m paar> 01 tn1~ of
1 " ""*le' and <> < female 0 -2000 m
Striped Woodpecker Carpinterito
IOI' llflC \TIO' \<ptacular.unmH Picoid~ lignarius
Ill 1>11' ,. ~ ,,,. ' ,. Doth lalEc aad LIS llant6 i"I \\1~hu1UM\ll!l
re -"nt. "'1th a propont0n.1tcl) loog mon "'oodpe.;.Lcr ol . - h>reil and dm
1 11 'itra h.ch1scl-t1~ bladuJ1 bill ma&onaJ ~I~ 111 10, Tlfl C \TIO'll
J "iitgJ blocJ. .,.,,. co11Tr<Dt1n,: A sm1ll c:hunl.) oodpccLrr ~ .a
rwin < u,.,/ 11 " " " " "Pi"'"'ittg SI~ Of bau of chisckblptdi-11 ~l.1 l>li;u,,./M/Ul
nJ ~ ......tano \1 mt .:00.. 5 trite upso IO semal looforg NTrtd oho1"t' o,,./ <tnpN ~
ond.mcs. form ma "hue ~pcs on uppapartJ.
ml ""24 and loon pollrtftl nrst,j<'941t o rwl fou
\Wr b.u ml"" It .... ...,,,.. .. h1d1 fcnult
lac~ Face >tnpcd, c:ro n bl.Ida~ ti~
t/trnd It UtM'lft(Jllr.,.,...HI\ 1'>tfXC'VT/1 Ctn""hicll loc~ and ma l, conua.11111 ,.,ch "b1cc
I fonunl. 10 tho Mk badr. dcra>dm, oa postllrC supcrcifimn WI SUITOUJlds car-co nu. - i ,. h11e face tnpf
Ch I n \\<>L>Jplcn. arc smaller llOd bamd \ OICE aa cbttks. Aho cbrt bleat mala- ~ lippapan. and "mp
1 i. ldwig. d1<l .,hid Also a load. <t1ICIC2JDg bbd.isb wuh dense nano"' ,.hale barring Belo.. ,.hale,
II II AtUFliJO beccming buff on bell) at>d undena1l-coctU, Ilea' aly craped
&om dlroat ID belly. andaull<O\Clb marked wath J.vk c~ua
VOIC Call a sharp pit>J. also a c~nenna tnll

10 H ~rn (12 13"). The mosc

Green Kingfisher Martrn pescador chico
"11k r~oll "oodpcc\.cr 1n C and Chloroceryle americana
-; I h1lc L1~c ull flickers h may L 2~21 cm(7..S-8"). RMc in Chlk. pcrhapsflnlyan mfrequclll
1..rr ''" the around for onb or visitor ro riparian areas or oosis vallc)'$ an the c~cn:mc nonh
111 1111 111~1~. hut I$ cqu11lly com (mainly Arica). Inhabits slowmovaog stream" a~ wcll 11s pond$
to" ohl 111 Ir- hlcC)11"':11 "'ood with adjacent dense vegctauon If) n 1FIC/\T IO /\ uny,
1111 ~11 Mor~ cipco N<illwfogus largchtadcd kingfllhcr wath a long, ~h3rply p<1ln1cd bill and
f1Ht I '" '"" ~ J :\' "<I al!ricul short CJCSt on "'3f' crown. Grttn n11 laroJ "f'J'I (/~1rt1 am/ k /"l/J.
lithl wuh 111hu~c111 trees. ns the lo.lier marked with 'l<hilt' 11att. '" alltrg a barr~d
Ml I Ill '1111( \I IO' \!>ult.;"} Q/fPttlTOllCr on the lllrllgt'<, A \\ hllc r.1mat collar CJ<ICnds 10
I 1111 ~ lull 1111/1 a lbebindnedc, sep:uating green of ht.iJ twm th.ii of back Thro.u
... ""'~ / . t and undcrpans hitc, adot'MJ b) a l,,.,'44 ch(-)111U1 brustbar'IJ
In male or IWO green breast lunJ an fcnt.tlc, atnd &rttn barri11&
l1ah ofbadunes In Oagln lln) " ' ' " .,.h11e ,.,"' hnaap
:mJ ...-bnc outer edges to an u1I '" 01ber J.;anafbhcT an 11>
r8ftCC' \ OICl, Lil e th<- lllJ'Pftt ol ~
Common Mine
1'1 A11 o'1 : Miners desertico/or - coastal desert

" I 11c ll1JI lu1111m1I, ,.,,11,.1 ... ~ hk 11w111rc Hnd bchn- 1our. lltcy 111"1mhole'1n lxm~ '" 1111<1 rr.11111~1 "'"
\If 11 11<11111 [,I Ohl!, 111~1 h"ulJ he." \>.1-eJ On wmg length subtle plum.1gc reulU"'' ""' Hiid I Ill\~

111111non Miner Minero ph phet<u phce" pl1<c 11 phc.-11 plct't" , 1111llljI1

10\1tl<1 runicularia TX#49 Call a sharp PEE() II '
I I' 11> ,m (1>"1 Wide<Jl"C:ld Ill
Greyish Miner Minero t hico
upc11 .and~ I our porula-
"""" 1rca1<J .cp.u~tcly \II ha~c Ceositta maritima
tlro<pff& />1/J. J.irA ''"'ounJ to ~~ . l 1.J5 cm<S.S"I Unrommo~nun...,.,,,......,,
tur-c mrrtJ '""'' P'an nten often 1n arc3> nnrly dc\01d of cw.:w1 1
HM (\lm1I~ lo b11l lcnglhl. C"mna ?800m IDf\TIOC \TIO\ \ ,,..,11,,,,.
"'"" 11t ''"I" unJ ln:uJ.ini: on o $hOrt lad uroJ 1/1111 lci;htl Jrv.1'<--ri fl
/.rnnt ( C lllLt Uiwvtru and grr1uh. 1N1th no 11b~1ous held"'~' "' \\h
h..Jfmo1 rtl 0 IOOU m Uncom 1 below wnh hulf ""'h '" jlunlt....11111J>.1/1 I 11
""'' 1>-,,1,... or n1cr mouth' ;1ho1c 1.ith ~1ro11gly loo and '"Ill& '"''" rm113ry c'1cn"on
111 "~rJ I " 4nJ thin l<lceral 1h1v;i1 tnP<' 11...-4\lly .in:akcd Bl3ckcr pnn1a11c~ und tail ct101r:i,1 >lrlfl I)
111 ''' \V111p,1nrc t1"11nc1 tu1I dark \\1th p~lc 'Ide>. and pale grey Uf)perp;J.n. 1';11 obv111u' '"''"i:'ltof
r llh l ,1 h.1w. l'A I \ ( ,() IA (n1111r11/ur111) 0 500 m block" iJh flJUTO" 1t hmsh uuta t'dJ11, d1a11no11c lloh1 I
~lo 1.1i... , h1cc1h 1n OJ1Cf1 P~1.1gon1a11 ''cripc. Sumlar 111
/I''""''"' hul lc" \lrc~~c.I bd11w '"'"" rt\lfrctcd lateral 1hroa1
'"'", 1'1011 rtllm N /\ LI 11'1.i\ O (1111c1w11e) Rare, high
''"'' I l.11. i..111tly, Jry nrc'" 111 p11n11 (JSOO 4500 m). rn le.
10 euggeralcd manner VO ICF Song a At' !r At k A, I
raspmg 1d1-1rrr

Creamy-rumped Miner Minero g rande

\ \.
Vh > h1uw1111ho11~.1.1lc l'\Jlllf)CJ wuh C(lc11~1vecrcnm 1n1I base. Ceositta isabellina
'"'' l l.11111ly Nllcukcd brcu,1 l>Mk ~tripe oil <;econdnric. (in
L 17- 1'1 cm(?"), l11 l11gh ''"
lh~ltt) I,,, f!IUllllUnccd thllll On Mllllhcrn forms NO R'ntll:HN
or c ( ho le. loo north Dry. I~'
Short. billed Miner
111 ' l II I f1/n..r11r11/or) Rare 111 coa,tol dc,en Snndy, open Puna Miner
slop<:s lllEN I IH A I ION I\ /111~" 111111/1
trCI "'mch111c,ulmm1 dcvoidorcge1n11on 0 SOOm PAie:.
.1111h I''<\ .1hmc Reduced h1ca.i srr~ak111g. Tail ~le at base
colo11rc1/ m1111r Kl/h 11 thrtA. 1/111/11/1 J,,,.,,,.
bill. I 00 f)Oontld wing. lt>n1
111 ult lI .,,Jgc'hJJ)Cd tcrnunul b.ind, hkc 1111c11"1w Winj!
e.tten11on (2'- boll) /)111/ /<ttt' p11111r11 11.J~
l' Iii"' I' 1kr than mh r '""'" \ O tC. Song a lnw. challcnng
11111 ! '"'111.111h1c <Mruuon p<krly unik"i.M.ld ('all ,h;itppllp alulo cuntru<1' "uh pnlt "rngt, v1"hk II
rcL Unllcrpirb pale buff)'. INllh 1hrlt1
brcastband ( onnJmnn "'"" J'-lllCrn Ju I
\hort billed Miner Minero austral lxking >1n>ng b~r Cream rump Jnd tail ha"' l.1ttn
(,ttH1tlcr 11nt crrctic w11h cbrkcr lennllllll "'edge VOl (' I A lont1-<nn uf nngi"'
l 1Scml6"1 (ummon1nl' f1c1T11dtl cltcet no~. higher p11e:hcd. more mc1.alh< ~nJ lt1'tt thaa
I 1~go ....., "'...., nu1nl:ond ll1~hl) 1111gra- Rufoa:s-bandcd ~11n.-r. I l<b a sk111Jms. tuuamg 1h~lhm l.IK~
1ory. llrt('th '" 011 ...indy. orcn ~ttaS lD mlls inlerspencd tn so<'l!l
ICJ'l'C' 0 ~00 m tot ' flfl C'A rtO' A
"'""' n miner nh Iv t "'"?' uf" 1ltor1
/111/ I'""'"" ~"'"'"'"" l.i<' ltng1 ofl>dl
11111 ,1r3111h1, oo droor f3CC" jl<lttcm dull.
L II> 17 cm Cl>.5"1 t'o111Jl1{111 An
I l urru1UIJ tu c<C"crh U ndur~n "'h111sh, hrra~t
dean m111tt m and. trcc"l~' arc<1 Greyish Miner
lh.11 1111 1/1 /I .,4, 1/ lnd,.llncl "''"l'lripc, brov.nih not
111th bouklen.. d1 If, vr 1.i1,c banb
1 1111 11 " " ""'"~I~ rrc, bcl11w, hl.c Comm<ln M111cr
IOf: I IM CAl 101\ l...llJC nt1ncr
r '""''', '''""''"'lt"rf, 'tputnu:., "''"'''Common.also "uh horl p11mary c\lcn111011
11 "111 I' 11m1 hon 1>111 \ OICt' 'i<lllfl (2 8 I a ~ated
'>inc .t\. <lum111 1111d JkllI>< 1/11,f; hill
h I IA I h1 tIA 11 /11 /ltA p1111A
<hllfl 11111/ ttrmght lltll-11.-(tnr.J
p11/e '"''"" 11/11111, cc:ont ro\111111 with
1'1111.1 Mh111 M11lt'IO de la puna JJrkcr cyclln~. ( rn111y below.
I t'llt/l/,t //lllll'IHi\ whicish 011 throul and 001kcubly mor.- r/1mom1111 1111 /11111~
I I I \ 1111 ~ \") <0111111011111 alhrilano. prcferrrng (ollen hidden by wmg). 811/d r11fimr "''"11-"''IJI' 1\111 rufuus
11 hi 111 """ l1tll11k~ 111111~ho ubby 1.()11c~. also dusty with black subtcnninal band and ccn1111I rectr1ccN ( 1nvcl1c<I I
If , t 111111lt1l11l,1l1... \~IHI 5000 111, IDEl'l'l'IF' l pallern). Fonn lrarr/.<mrl from r apot> (II Rc~111n) mmh smaller
I \ 1111'11 \ t1Hll t1111\\t \\llh ,1rik111i;ly white and whner below. lockmg rufous flunb VO IC I: I\ lung \cric'
11111 q111 I 111111 liotl'hl hlll no l11ter-.1I throat or ta$plllg OO!Cj, llllCl'lif)CrM:d II llh ohOl i irtfls: dlll'lfl l'irll'l/I
"""" 1111111111y cxtcos1on chwif>- chwif>- ch.,eep- """""I,. c '"" 11 1 /11 .-<'pprrfl rr111p
chw;p. chwtp. ; call a oft C"h .... up
1 ~ 1il 1errr~111.1l l1111111111I """ 111h1.1,hcrhkc (Jlhnudac) appcaran<c due to thcir lontt. cul'\cJ bill' .11ul l111g 1
lh I;; IJ ,,~c.J I ht'~ n 11n '"'k 111 hJn~' hk<" mU1crs. to "hicb they arc clo\Cly rcl11cd Th1> pb1c tr~'' 11., I 1
h 1th rn.-1>C"CJ 11111 ~e Jl'<"<C <I n1111c1 that slulres lbc long, cuncd bill Ellnhcrccpcl'\ m.I) be d1ffi<ulr "' kki
htlrtul "' "''" 1.111 r '""' ..... col- and p;attcm or the bead~ bfc~;i
Wt.11... throated Earthcreepcr bn:<Ht Inman> "ayi;hLct"ommoo \11nnv.11ba11c

U n1lu11ll de Arru bill. but 3.l;o n<>1e d1ffcrcn.:cs in ta1l .anJ v.1n11 ro11cm ~r
U1111urt h1J J/bigulil from c:mhcreepen by obon 1a1I. \\ brca_<I ''""L
wing.tu!~ \OICl. .\lung""""" l\lln3bkb11111
I IQ~ '2 m 17 S 11~1 R~ncud-rangc many s) ofPilf nO(cs. r\ cnly ;pa.:~ - i rt.licd. anJ Jdl\
\ l"-"<1..-S "hi<h 1teomrnoo tn ~and ~1D11lar sufficiently slo" ly to be easily c>untcd Call a li;alf'
IH'3rllv JrcJ' lnh.ib11sdr) n&\IOCS.adJattntlo
'tl<.llltural (i.:ld or Mll\c <mib 'OClG-3800 Scale- throated Earthcreeper Bandunlla
"' IOt' 111 IC '\TIO' Standard l,put.-mh1a,
"'"h J.1,.n.:uncJ bill ero.. n1.h .abo\c .. nb Upucerthia dumetaria TX#52
Plain-breasted Earthcreeper
l111i:dr r1t{01J "tnfll u11d 11111 &io... buff "''lb I 21 cm (8"> 111< c1111111
.I, /nli 1h,.iu1, "'hen lrc'h II.~ {111111 ;rn/1111( on bTt'tul Fau unh.rccrcr 111 ( 11nJ ~ t '"'
I 11. n ""'"" with grcyl\hbr.1wn crtm n, prunuw1te,J .. llab11111 va11oblc \ I'
II fl l/1111H nd J.uLcr m~L llra1l 1/ur4'.-r .,,,,/ JP'l!)'l'r than uln11on' occupy 1hrubby .11
/11 A I '"""'ly -.m1lur to Plaml>n:J'llCd l:.unhrn:qicr, \\h1ch u"1a lly 11n dry ro.:~) ~lope \I
1 ) 11111,1111< Wf111ethroutcd bCp.irbk by i~ Slt<'ngrr face w1111er m dc~cn 01111~ vnlk>
I' Ill 111 wllh ~"Y wash 10 uown, ex1cns1vc rurous wings. dry ;hrubby nrcns Souht.-1111.I
11111111 tMI l.11i:..iy n1lm1' tcnml, 11Cahng on brcMt, co111ras11ng pe>pulalton breed' 111 open. -.11 I
11 hih' llllWll lllld VOIQC, VOIC~' A Slullcnng $enCS \\( 4- 10 0111.l shnibby shell 1111 cQ;m. "lul
lt11 I~ 1l1llvcr.u (luw cnou11h h> coun t) harp ch// nolC$. Patagonian populmion oecurs 111 ~hnibby ~tcppcs. () 1. 0110 111
CDEN'rrFICATl ON Q,crall, 1hc hrowncM of ('hllc'M c1111h
Philo breasted Earthcreeper creepers und the only one "i1h 1111/1 up1 111 tlrr mlll'r '''''
feather$. evident us pule 1ail con1cr~ In lli11h1 All fl<"flul.u ....,
II Hldunlla de la Puna
ofScale-1hroa1cd li.1nhcrccpcr po>M'~ a 11/~1/11~1/1'tlltrn11/ J,11f
I''"""' th/a je/skii TX# 51 Kull'> 1111 tlie l>r>'O>t th<mglt tltt mtrll\lf\ wtrt< 'Jlrllj/111/)hic .i//1
I 141 'm (7.S"> n,.. common canhcrccpcr tn Brown alx>c. \\llh ~li11h1ty darker or more airey~h hc10
th\' lllpbnu. mtncted 10 tbc north lnhabus Supnr:ilium "r// markJ nd often the'""'"' m ,ru u~ J/YMr J
\nous ~11ua11ons from dry ra\"lncs m lhe shrub urappNirstf'l!akeJ, A rclatl\'l"ly lon_g-\llo1n11Cd eanh.:rccpcr, 111!
1one to 1od.y sh.1pc' abu\ e runa or a loogcrpnlJ\81') cx1en"11n th3n ns nonhcm rclall\c, , In 01s;hl
l><>tcdatr,. lSOO ~000 m 11>1' rl FICA- ~amoderalcamoun1ofru(ou>1n1hc "'"II> Toil ~'~u
110' i.ndard lpuunlr111. brownish. lacks central rcctrices., m<>$1 of the ouicr or>c> a bl1el.nh
""'"'' rcatwu Bru1<n al>o\e and on 1n11gs. brown. wnh buff or rufow lll"> to th< outer 3 m:tncc... cw-
u1 ,....,. tnl lul'J{d1 to bout:> o/folJ~pnlfumo. Tad tinurng 3S a pale outer cd11c to 1~ C>lllcr l'Ctn,, C~h1Call)
MW " ' &quo