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related to Maxwells Equations. The three most common coordinate systems are

rectangular (x, y, z), cylindrical (r, , z), and spherical ( r , , ).

y, and z, where these values are all measured from the

origin (see figure at right). A vector at the point P is

specified in terms of three mutually perpendicular

components with unit vectors i, j, and k (also called

x, y, and z ). The unit vectors i, j, and k form a right-

handed set; that is, if you push i into j with your right

hand, your right thumb will point along k direction.

r, , z, where is measured from the x axis (or x-z

plane) (see figure at right). A vector at the point P

is specified in terms of three mutually perpendicular

components with unit vectors r perpendicular to

the cylinder of radius r, perpendicular to the

plane through the z axis at angle , and z

perpendicular to the x-y plane at distance z. The

unit vectors r , , z form a right-handed set.

In spherical coordinates a point P is specified by

r , , , where r is measured from the origin, is

measured from the z axis, and is measured from

the x axis (or x-z plane) (see figure at right). With

z axis up, is sometimes called the zenith angle

and the azimuth angle. A vector at the point P

is specified in terms of three mutually

perpendicular components with unit vectors r

perpendicular to the sphere of radius r,

perpendicular to the cone of angle , and

perpendicular to the plane through the z axis at

angle . The unit vectors r , , form a right-

handed set.

dL = d x2 + d y2 + d z2 (1)

dv = dx dy dz (2)

dL = d r 2 + r 2 d 2 + d z 2 (3)

and d v = d r r d d z (4)

dL = d r 2 + r 2 d 2 + r 2 sin 2 d 2 (5)

Direction cosines and coordinate-system transformation

projection x of the scalar distance r on the x axis

is given by r cos where is the angle

between r and the x axis. The projection of r on

the y axis is given by r cos , and the

projection on the z axis by r cos . Note that

= so cos = cos .

called the direction cosines. From the theorem

of Pythagoras,

system transforms into rectangular coordinate

distance

y = r cos = r sin sin (9)

z = r cos = r cos (10)

from which

cos = sin cos (11)

cos = sin sin direction cosines (12)

cos = cos (13)

As the converse of (8), (9), and (10), the spherical coordinate values ( r , , ) may be

expressed in terms of rectangular coordinate distances as follows:

r = x2 + y2 + z2 r0 (14)

z

= cos 1 (0 ) (15)

x + y2 + z2

2

y

= tan 1 (16)

x

rectangular to spherical coordinates, we may express a vector A at some point P with

spherical components Ar , A , A as the rectangular components Ax , A y , and Az , where

Ax = Ar sin cos + A cos cos A sin (17)

A y = Ar sin sin + A cos sin + A cos (18)

Az = Ar cos A sin (19)

Note that the direction cosines are simply the dot products of the spherical unit vector r

with the rectangular unit vectors x, y, and z :

r y = sin sin = cos (21)

r z = cos = cos (22)

These and other dot product combinations are listed in the following table:

x y z r z r

x 1 0 0 cos sin 0 sin cos cos cos sin

Rectangular

z 0 0 1 0 0 1 cos sin 0

Cylindrical

sin cos 0 0 1 0 0 0 1

z 0 0 1 0 0 1 cos sin 0

Spherical

sin cos 0 0 1 0 0 0 1

Note that the unit vectors r in the cylindrical and spherical systems are not the same.

For example,

Spherical Cylindrical

r x = sin cos r x = cos

r y = sin sin r y = sin

r z = cos r z = 0

In addition to rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical coordinate systems, there are many

other systems such as the elliptical, spheroidal (both prolate and oblate), and paraboloidal

systems. Although the number of possible systems is infinite, all of them can be treated

in terms of a generalized curvilinear coordinate system.

systems are summarized in the following table:

Coordinates Range

system vectors elements surfaces

x to + x or i dx Plane x=constant

Rectangular

y to + y or j dy Plane y=constant

z to + z or k dz Plane z=constant

r 0 to r dr Cylinder r=constant

Cylindrical 0 to 2 r d Plane =constant

z to + z dz Plane z=constant

r 0 to r dr Sphere r=constant

Spherical 0 to r d Cone =constant

0 to 2 r sin d Plane =constant

The following two tables give the unit vector dot products in rectangular coordinates for

both rectangular-cylindrical and rectangular-spherical coordinates.

x y z

x y

r 0

x2 + y 2 x2 + y2

y x

0

x2 + y 2 x2 + y2

z 0 0 1

x

Example: y = cos =

x2 + y2

x y z

r x y z

x2 + y 2 + z 2 x2 + y 2 + z 2 x2 + y 2 + z 2

xz yz x2 + y 2

x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2 + z 2 x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2 + z 2 x2 + y 2 + z 2

y x

0

x +y

2 2

x + y2

2

x

Example: x r = sin cos =

x + y2 + z2

2

x x

Ar = Ax + Ay Ax = Ar cos A sin

x2 + y 2 x2 + y2

y x

A = Ax + Ay Ay = Ar sin A cos

x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2

Az = Az Az = Az

Rectangular to spherical

x y z

Ar = Ax + Ay + Az

x2 + y 2 + z 2 x2 + y 2 + z 2 x2 + y 2 + z 2

xz yz x2 + y 2

A = Ax + Ay Az

x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2 + z 2 x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2 + z 2 x2 + y 2 + z 2

y x

A = Ax + Ay

x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2

Spherical to rectangular

Ay = Ar sin sin + A cos sin + A cos

Az = Ar cos A sin

And here are expressions for the gradient, divergence, and curl in all three coordinate

systems:

Rectangular coordinates

f f f

f = x + y + z

x y z

A A A

A = x + y + z

x y z

x y z

Az Ay Ax Az Ay Ax

A = x + y + z =

y z z x x y x y z

Ax Ay Az

Cylindrical coordinates

f 1 f f

f = r + + z

r r z

1 1 A Az

A = rAr + +

r r r z

1 1

r z

r r

1 Az A Ar Az 1 Ar

A = r + + z rA =

r z z r r r r z

Ar rA Az

Spherical coordinates

f 1 f 1 f

f = r + +

r r r sin

1 1 1 A

A = 2 r 2 Ar + ( A sin ) +

r r r sin r sin

1 A 1 1 Ar 1 A

A = r ( A sin ) + rA + rA r

r sin r sin r r r

- delta_3-2Uploaded byMax
- US NAVY Antennas and Wave Propagation.pdfUploaded byMax
- PSpice Part ListUploaded bymac
- PSpice SchematicsUploaded byMax
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- MITHFH Lec ImpedancesUploaded byMax
- Matching_Networks.pdfUploaded byMax

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