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You are on page 1of 9

The pictures in this section show solutions to Ay 00 C By 0 C Cy D 0. These are linear

equations with constant coefficients A; B; and C . The graphs show solutions y on the

horizontal axis and their slopes y 0 D dy=dt on the vertical axis. These pairs .y.t/; y 0 .t//

depend on time, but time is not in the pictures. The paths show where the solution goes,

but they dont show when.

Each specific solution starts at a particular point .y.0/; y 0 .0// given by the initial

conditions. The point moves along its path as the time t moves forward from t D 0.

We know that the solutions to Ay 00 C By 0 C Cy D 0 depend on the two solutions to

As 2 C Bs C C D 0 (an ordinary quadratic equation for s). When we find the roots s1 and

s2 , we have found all possible solutions :

y D c1 e s1 t C c2 e s2 t y 0 D c1 s1 e s1 t C c2 s2 e s2 t (1)

The numbers s1 and s2 tell us which picture we are in. Then the numbers c1 and c2 tell us

which path we are on.

Since s1 and s2 determine the picture for each equation, it is essential to see the six

possibilities. We write all six here in one place, to compare them. Later they will appear in

six different places, one with each figure. The first three have real solutions s1 and s2 . The

last three have complex pairs s D a i!.

Sources Sinks Saddles Spiral out Spiral in Center

s1 > s2 > 0 s1 < s2 < 0 s2 < 0 < s1 a D Re s > 0 a D Re s < 0 a D Re s D 0

In addition to those six, there will be limiting cases s D 0 and s1 D s2 (as in resonance).

Stability This word is important for differential equations. Do solutions decay to zero ?

The solutions are controlled by e s1 t and e s2 t (and in Chapter 6 by e 1 t and e 2 t ).

We can identify the two pictures (out of six) that are displaying full stability : the sinks.

A center s D i! is at the edge of stability (e i !t is neither decaying or growing).

5: Spiral sinks are stable Re s1 D Re s2 < 0 Then y.t/ ! 0

Special note. May I mention here that the same six pictures also apply to a system of

two first order equations. Instead of y and y 0 , the equations have unknowns y1 and y2 .

Instead of the constant coefficients A; B; C , the equations will have a 2 by 2 matrix.

Instead of the roots s1 and s2 , that matrix will have eigenvalues 1 and 2 . Those

eigenvalues are the roots of an equation A2 C B C C D 0, just like s1 and s2 .

We will see the same six possibilities for the s, and the same six pictures. The

eigenvalues of the 2 by 2 matrix give the growth rates or decay rates, in place of s1 and s2 .

0

y1 a b y1 y1 .t/ v1

D has solutions D e t :

y20 c d y2 y2 .t/ v2

The eigenvalue is and the eigenvector is v D .v1 ; v2 /. The solution is y.t/ D ve t .

162 Chapter 3. Graphical and Numerical Methods

We are starting with the case of real roots s1 and s2 . In the equation Ay 00 C By 0 C Cy D 0,

this means that B 2 4AC . Then pB is relatively large. The square root in the quadratic

formula produces a real number B 2 4AC . If A; B; C have the same sign, we have

overdamping and negative roots and stability. The solutions decay to .0; 0/ : a sink.

If A and C have opposite sign to B as in y 00 3y 0 C 2y D 0, we have negative damping

and positive roots s1 ; s2 . The solutions grow (this is instability : a source at .0; 0/).

Suppose A and C have different signs, as in y 00 3y 0 2y D 0. Then s1 and s2 also

have different signs and the picture shows a saddle. The moving point .y.t/; y 0 .t// can

start in toward .0; 0/ before it turns out to infinity. The positive s gives e st ! 1.

Second example for a saddle : y 00 4y D 0 leads to s 2 4 D .s 2/.s C 2/ D 0.

The roots s1 D 2 and s2 D 2 have opposite signs. Solutions c1 e 2t C c2 e 2t grow

unless c1 D 0. Only that one line with c1 D 0 has arrows inward.

In every case with B 2 4AC , the roots are real. The solutions y.t/ have growing

exponentials or decaying exponentials. We dont see sines and cosines and oscillation.

The first figure shows growth : 0 < s2 < s1 . Since e s1 t grows faster than e s2 t , the

larger number s1 will dominate. The solution path for .y; y 0 / will approach the straight

line of slope s1 . That is because the ratio of y 0 D c1 s1 e s1 t to y D c1 e s1 t is exactly s1 .

If the initial condition is on the s1 line then the solution (y; y 0 ) stays on that line:

c2 D 0. If the initial condition is exactly on the s2 line then the solution stays on that

secondary line : c1 D 0. You can see that if c1 0, the c1 e s1 t part takes over as t ! 1.

Reverse all

the arrows in

the left figure:

Paths go in

toward .0; 0/

Source : Unstable Sink : Stable Saddle : Unstable

Figure 3.6: Real roots s1 and s2 . The paths of the point .y.t/; y 0 .t// lead out when roots

are positive and lead in when roots are negative. With s2 < 0 < s1 , the s2 -line leads in

but all other paths eventually go out near the s1 -line : The picture shows a saddle point.

3.2. Sources, Sinks, Saddles, and Spirals 163

The roots 1 and 2 are positive. The solutions grow and e 2t dominates.

Example for a sink : y 00 C 3y 0 C 2y D 0 leads to s 2 C 3s C 2 D .s C 2/.s C 1/ D 0.

The roots 2 and 1 are negative. The solutions decay and e t dominates.

We move to the case of complex roots s1 and s2 . In the equation Ay 00 C By 0 C Cy D 0,

this means that B 2 < 4AC . Then A and C have the same signs and B is relatively small

(underdamping). The square root in the quadratic formula (2) is an imaginary number.

The exponents s1 and s2 are now a complex pair a i ! :

p

Complex roots of B B 2 4AC

s1 ; s2 D D a i !: (2)

As2 C Bs C C D 0 2A 2A

The path of .y; y 0 / spirals around the center. Because of e at , the spiral goes out

if a > 0 : spiral source. Solutions spiral in if a < 0 : spiral sink. The frequency !

controls how fast the solutions oscillate and how quickly the spirals go around .0; 0/.

In case a D B=2A is zero (no damping), we have a center at (0, 0). The only terms

left in y are e i !t and e i !t , in other words cos !t and sin !t. Those paths are ellipses in

the last part of Figure 3.7. The solutions y.t/ are periodic, because increasing t by 2=!

will not change cos !t and sin !t. That circling time 2=! is the period.

Reverse all

the arrows in

the left figure:

Paths go in

toward .0; 0/:

a D Re s > 0 a D Re s < 0 a D Re s D 0

Spiral source : Unstable Spiral sink : Stable Center : Neutrally stable

Figure 3.7: Complex roots s1 and s2 . The paths go once around .0; 0/ when t increases

by 2=!. The paths spiral in when A and B have the same signs and a D B=2A is

negative. They spiral out when a is positive. If B D 0 (no damping) and 4AC > 0,

we have a center. The simplest center is y D sin t; y 0 D cos t (circle) from y 00 C y D 0.

164 Chapter 3. Graphical and Numerical Methods

On the first page of this section, a Special Note mentioned another application of the

same pictures. Instead of graphing the path of .y.t/; y 0 .t// for one second order equation,

we could follow the path of .y1 .t/; y2 .t// for two first order equations. The two equations

look like this:

First order system y 0 D Ay (3)

dy2 =dt D cy1 C dy2

The starting values y1 .0/ and y2 .0/ are given. The point .y1 ; y2 / will move along a

path in one of the six figures, depending on the numbers a; b; c; d .

Looking ahead, those four numbers will go into a 2 by 2 matrix A. Equation (3) will

become dy=dt D Ay. The symbol y in boldface stands for the vector y D .y1 ; y2 /.

And most important for the six figures, the exponents s1 and s2 in the solution y.t/

will be the eigenvalues 1 and 2 of the matrix A.

Companion Matrices

Here is the connection between a second order equation and two first order equations. All

equations on this page are linear and all coefficients are constant. I just want you to see the

special companion matrix that appears in the first order equations y 0 D Ay.

Notice that y is printed in boldface type because it is a vector. It has two components

y1 and y2 (those are in lightface type). The first y1 is the same as the unknown y in the

second order equation. The second component y2 is the velocity dy=dt :

y1 D y

y 00 C 4y 0 C 3y D 0 becomes y 2 0 C 4y2 C 3y1 D 0: (4)

y2 D y 0

On the right you see one of the first order equations connecting y1 and y2 . We need

a second equation (two equations for two unknowns). It is hiding at the far left ! There

you see that y 1 0 D y2 . In the original second order problem this is the trivial statement

y 0 D y 0 . In the vector form y 0 D Ay it gives the first equation in our system.

The first row of our matrix is 0 1. When y and y 0 become y1 and y2 ,

y10 D y2 0 1 y1

y 00 C 4y 0 C 3y D 0 becomes D (5)

y 2 0 D 3y1 4y2 3 4 y2

That first row 0 1 makes this a 2 by 2 companion matrix. It is the companion to the

second order equation. The key point is that the first order and second order

problems have the same characteristic equation because they are the same problem.

2

The equation C 4 C 3 D 0 gives the eigenvalues 1 D 3 and 2 D 1

3.2. Sources, Sinks, Saddles, and Spirals 165

The problems are the same, the exponents 3 and 1 are the same, the figures will be

the same. Those figures show a sink because 3 and 1 are real and both negative.

Solutions approach .0; 0/. These equations are stable.

00 0 0 1

The companion matrix for y C By C Cy D 0 is A D :

C B

Row 1 of y 0 D Ay is y10 D y2 . Row 2 is y20 D Cy1 By2 . When you replace y2 by y10 ,

this means that y100 C By10 C Cy1 D 0 : correct.

I can explain when a 2 by 2 system y 0 D Ay is stable. This requires that all solutions

y.t/ D .y1 .t/; y2 .t// approach zero as t ! 1. When the matrix A is a companion

matrix, this 2 by 2 system comes from one second order equation y 00 C By 0 C Cy D 0.

In that case we know that stability depends on the roots of s 2 C Bs C C D 0. Companion

matrices are stable when B > 0 and C > 0.

From the quadratic formula, the roots have s1 C s2 D B and s1 s2 D C .

If s1 and s2 are negative, this means that B > 0 and C > 0.

If s1 D a C i ! and s2 D a i ! and a < 0, this again means B > 0 and C > 0

Those complex roots add to s1 C s2 D 2a. Negative a (stability) means positive B, since

s1 C s2 D B. Those roots multiply to s1 s2 D a2 C ! 2 . This means that C is positive,

since s1 s2 D C .

For companion matrices, stability is decided by B > 0 and C > 0. What is the

stability test for any 2 by 2 matrix ? This is the key question, and Chapter 6 will answer

it properly. We will find the equation for the eigenvalues of any matrix (Section 6.1). We

will test those eigenvalues for stability (Section 6.4). Eigenvalues and eigenvectors are

a major topic, the most important link between differential equations and linear algebra.

Fortunately, the eigenvalues of 2 by 2 matrices are especially simple.

a b

The eigenvalues of the matrix A D have 2 T C D D 0.

c d

The number T is a C d . The number D is ad bc.

Companion matrices have a D 0 and b D 1 and c D C and d D B. Then the

characteristic equation 2 T C D D 0 is exactly s 2 C Bs C C D 0.

0 1

Companion matrices have T D aCd D B and D D ad bc D C:

C B

The stability test B > 0 and C > 0 is turning into the stability test T < 0 and D > 0.

This is the test for any 2 by 2 matrix. Stability requires T < 0 and D > 0. Let me give

four examples and then collect together the main facts about stability.

166 Chapter 3. Graphical and Numerical Methods

0 1

A1 D is unstable because T D 0 C 3 is positive

2 3

0 1

A2 D is unstable because D D .1/.2/ is negative

2 3

0 1

A3 D is stable because T D 3 and D D C2

2 3

1 1

A4 D is stable because T D 1 1 is negative

1 1

and D D 1 C 1 is positive

The eigenvalues always come from 2 T C D D 0. For that last matrix A4 , this eigen-

value equation is 2 C 2 C 2 D 0. The eigenvalues are 1 D 1 C i and

2 D 1 i . They add to T D 2 and they multiply to D D C2. This is a spiral

sink and it is stable.

Stability for a b T Da Cd <0

AD is stable if

2 by 2 matrices c d D D ad bc > 0

The six pictures for .y; y 0 / become six pictures for .y1 ; y2 /. The first three pictures have

real eigenvalues from T 2 4D. The second three pictures have complex eigenvalues

from T 2 < 4D. This corresponds perfectly to the tests for y 00 C By 0 C Cy D 0 and its

companion matrix :

Complex eigenvalues T 2 < 4D B 2 < 4C Underdamping

That gives one picture of eigenvalues : Real or complex. The second picture is different :

Stable or unstable. Both of those splittings are decided by T and D (or B and C ).

2: Sink T < 0; D > 0; T2 4D Stable

3: Saddle D<0 and T2 4D Unstable

4: Spiral source T > 0; D > 0; T2 < 4D Unstable

5: Spiral Sink T < 0; D > 0; T2 < 4D Stable

6: Center T D 0; D > 0; T2 < 4D Neutral

oscillation.

Section 3.3 will use this information to decide the stability of nonlinear equations.

3.2. Sources, Sinks, Saddles, and Spirals 167

Eigenvalues of A come with eigenvectors. If we stay a little longer with a companion

matrix, we can see its eigenvectors. Chapter 6 will develop these ideas for any matrix,

and we need more linear algebra to understand them properly. But our vectors .y1 ; y2 /

come from .y; y 0 / in a differential equation, and that connection makes the eigenvectors

of a companion matrix especially simple.

The fundamental idea for constant coefficient linear equations is always the same :

Look for exponential solutions. For a second order equation those solutions are

y D e st . For a system of two first order equations those solutions are y D ve t . The

vector v D .v1 ; v2 / is the eigenvector that goes with the eigenvalue .

Substitute into the equations and factor out e t :

y2 D v2 e t y20 D cy1 C dy2

Because e t is the same for both y1 and y2 , it will appear in every term. When all factors

e t are removed, we will see the equations for v1 and v2 . That vector v D .v1 ; v2 / will

satisfy the eigenvector equation Av D v. This is the key to Chapter 6.

Here I only look at eigenvectors for companion matrices, because v has a specially nice

form. The equations are y10 D y2 and y20 D Cy1 By2 .

y1 D v1 e t v1 e t D v2 e t

Substitute Then

y2 D v2 e t v2 e t D C v1 e t Bv2 e t :

Cancel every e t . The first equation becomes v1 D v2 . This is our answer :

1

Eigenvectors of companion matrices are multiples of the vector v D :

2. Real solutions to As 2 C Bs C C D 0 lead to sources and sinks and saddles at .0; 0/.

3. Complex roots s D a i ! give spirals around .0; 0/ (or closed loops if a D 0).

0

y 0 1 y

4. Roots s become eigenvalues for D . Same six pictures.

y0 C B y0

168 Chapter 3. Graphical and Numerical Methods

1 Draw Figure 3.6 for a sink (the missing middle figure) with y D c1 e 2t C c2 e t .

Which term dominates as t ! 1 ? The paths approach the dominating line as they

go in toward zero. The slopes of the lines are 2 and 1 (the numbers s1 and s2 ).

2 Draw Figure 3.7 for a spiral sink (the missing middle figure) with roots s D 1 i .

The solutions are y D C1 e t cos t C C2 e t sin t. They approach zero because

of the factor e t . They spiral around the origin because of cos t and sin t.

3 Which path does the solution take in Figure 3.6 if y D e t C e t =2 ? Draw the

curve .y.t/; y 0 .t// more carefully starting at t D 0 where .y; y 0 / D .2; 1:5/.

4 Which path does the solution take around the saddle in Figure 3.6 if y D e t =2 Ce t

?

Draw the curve more carefully starting at t D 0 where .y; y 0 / D .2; 12 /.

5 Redraw the first part of Figure 3.6 when the roots are equal : s1 D s2 D 1 and

y D c1 e t C c2 te t . There is no s2 -line. Sketch the path for y D e t C te t .

6 The solution y D e 2t 4e t gives a source (Figure 3.6), with y 0 D 2e 2t 4e t .

Starting at t D 0 with .y; y 0 / D . 3; 2/, where is .y; y 0 / when e t D 1:1 and

e t D :25 and e t D 2 ?

7 The solution y D e t .cos t C sin t/ has y 0 D 2e t cos t. This spirals out because of

e t . Plot the points .y; y 0 / at t D 0 and t D =2 and t D , and try to connect them

with a spiral. Note that e =2 4:8 and e 23.

8 The roots s1 and s2 are 2i when the differential equation is . Starting from

y.0/ D 1 and y 0 .0/ D 0, draw the path of .y.t/; y 0 .t// around the center. Mark the

points when t D =2, , 3=2, 2. Does the path go clockwise ?

9 The equation y 00 C By 0 C y D 0 leads to s 2 C Bs C 1 D 0. For B D 3, 2, 1,

0, 1, 2, 3 decide which of the six figures is involved. For B D 2 and 2, why do we

not have a perfect match with the source and sink figures ?

10 For y 00 C y 0 C Cy D 0 with damping B D 1, the characteristic equation will be

s 2 C s C C D 0. Which C gives the changeover from a sink (overdamping) to a

spiral sink (underdamping) ? Which figure has C < 0 ?

0 1

Problems 1118 are about dy=dt D Ay with companion matrices .

C B

complex eigenvalues ? Which values of B and C give 1 D 2 ?

3.2. Sources, Sinks, Saddles, and Spirals 169

t ! 1 ? Is this a sink or a saddle?

14 Which second order equations did these matrices come from ?

0 1 0 1

A1 D (saddle) A2 D (center)

1 0 1 0

15 The equation y 00 D 4y produces a saddle point at .0; 0/. Find s1 > 0 and s2 < 0

in the solution y D c1 e s1 t C c2 e s2 t . If c1 c2 0, this solution will be (large) (small)

as t ! 1 and also as t ! 1.

The only way to go toward the saddle .y; y 0 / D .0; 0/ as t ! 1 is c1 D 0.

16 If B D 5 and C D 6 the eigenvalues are 1 D 3 and 2 D 2. The vectors v D .1; 3/

and v D .1; 2/ are eigenvectors of the matrix A : Multiply Av to get 3v and 2v.

Write the complete solution as a combination of those two solutions.

18 The eigenvectors of a companion matrix have the form v D .1; /. Multiply by

A to show that Av D v gives one trivial equation and the characteristic equation

2 C B C C D 0.

0 1 1 1 D

D is

C B C B D 2

3 1

Find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of A D .

1 3

exactly when

.s1 < 0 or s2 < 0/ .s1 < 0 and s2 < 0/ .Re s1 < 0 and Re s2 < 0/

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