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Power System Protection

Typical Protection Schemes

Application Circuit Circuit equipment Page

1 group number protected

Cables and 1 Radial feeder circuit 6/43

overhead lines
2 Ring main circuit 6/43
3 Distribution feeder with reclosers 6/44
4 Parallel feeder circuit 6/44
5 Cable or short overhead line with infeed 6/45
from both ends
6 Overhead lines or longer cables with infeed 6/45
from both ends
7 Subtransmission line 6/46
8 Transmission line with reactor 6/48
9 Transmission line or cable 6/49
(with wide band communication)
10 Transmission line, breaker-and-a-half terminal 6/49

5 Transformers 11 Small transformer infeed 6/51

12 Large or important transformer infeed 6/51
13 Dual infeed with single transformer 6/52
14 Parallel incoming transformer feeder 6/52
15 Parallel incoming transformer feeder with bus tie 6/53
16 Three-winding transformer 6/53
17 Autotransformer 6/54
7 18 Large autotransformer bank 6/54

Motors 19 Small and medium-sized motors 6/55

20 Large HV motors 6/55

8 Smallest generator < 500 kW 6/56

Generators 21
22 Small generator, around 1 MW 6/56
23 Large generator > 1 MW 6/57

9 24 Large generator >1 MW feeding into a network 6/57

with isolated neutral
25 Generator-transformer unit 6/59

Busbars 26 Busbar protection by o/c relays with 6/60

10 reverse interlocking
27 High-impedance differential busbar protection 6/61
28 Low-impedance differential busbar protection 6/61

Fig. 82

6/42 Siemens Power Engineering Guide Transmission and Distribution 4th Edition
Power System Protection
Typical Protection Schemes

1. Radial feeder circuit

Notes: 1
1) Autoreclosure 79 only with O.H. lines. Transformer
2) Negative sequence o/c protection 46 as protection,
sensitive backup protection against un- see Fig. 94
symmetrical faults.
General hints:
The relay at the far end (D) gets the B I>, t IE>, t I2>, t ARC
shortest operating time. Further 51 51N 46 79 7SJ60
Relays further upstream have to be feeders
time-graded against the next down- 2) 1)
stream relay in steps of about 0.3 3
C I>, t IE>, t I2>, t
Inverse-time curves can be selected
according to the following criteria: 51 51N 46 7SJ60
Definite time:
source impedance large compared to 4
the line impedance, i.e. small current
variation between near and far end Load
D I>, t IE>, t I2>, t
Inverse time:
Longer lines, where the fault current is 51 51N 46 7SJ60
much less at the end of the line than at 5
the local end.
Very or extremely inverse time:
Load Load
Lines where the line impedance is large
compared to the source impedance
(high difference for close-in and remote Fig. 83 6
faults) or lines, where coordination with
fuses or reclosers is necessary.
Steeper characteristics provide also
higher stability on service restoration Infeed
(cold load pick-up and transformer in Transformer
rush currents) protection, 7
see Fig. 97

2. Ring main circuit 52 52

General hints:
7SJ60 7SJ60
Operating time of overcurrent relays to 8
52 I>, t IE>, t I2>, t > 52 I>, t IE>, t I2>, t >
be coordinated with downstream fuses
of load transformers. 51 51N 46 49 51 51N 46 49
(Preferably very inverse time characteris-
tic with about 0.2 s grading-time delay
Thermal overload protection for the 9
cables (option)
Negative sequence o/c protection 46 as
sensitive protection against unsymmetri-
cal faults (option)

Fig. 84

Siemens Power Engineering Guide Transmission and Distribution 4th Edition 6/43
Power System Protection
Typical Protection Schemes

3. Distribution feeder with

Infeed reclosers
General hints:
The feeder relay operating characteris-
tics, delay times and autoreclosure
cycles must be carefully coordinated
2 with downstream reclosers, sectionaliz-
ers and fuses.
52 I>>, IE>>, I2>, t 52 The instantaneous zone 50/50N is nor-
I>, t IE>, t mally set to reach out to the first main
50/ 50N/ 7SJ60 feeder sectionalizing point. It has to en-
51 51N sure fast clearing of close-in faults and
3 prevent blowing of fuses in this area
79 Auto- (fuse saving). Fast autoreclosure is
reclose initiated in this case.
feeders Further time delayed tripping and reclo-
sure steps (normally 2 or 3) have to be
graded against the recloser.
4 The o/c relay should automatically
switch over to less sensitive characteris-
Sectionalizers tics after longer breaker interruption
times to enable overriding of subse-
quent cold load pick-up and transformer
5 Fuses
inrush currents.

6 Fig. 85

4. Parallel feeder circuit

General hints:
7 This circuit is preferably used for the
52 interruption-free supply of important
consumers without significant backfeed.
52 I>, t IE>, t > I2>, t 52 The directional o/c protection 67/67N
trips instantaneously for faults on the
51 51N 49 46 7SJ60
8 protected line. This allows the saving
of one time-grading interval for the o/c-
O H line or Protection relays at the infeed.
O H line or
cable 1 cable 2 same as The o/c relay functions 51/51N have
line or cable 1 each to be time-graded against the
relays located upstream.
9 51 51N 7SJ62
67 67N


10 52

52 52

Load Load

Fig. 86

6/44 Siemens Power Engineering Guide Transmission and Distribution 4th Edition
Power System Protection
Typical Protection Schemes

5. Cables or short overhead lines with

infeed from both ends Infeed
Notes: 52
1) Autoreclosure only with overhead lines 52
2) Overload protection only with cables
52 7SJ60 1) 52
3) Differential protection options: 79
Type 7SD511/12 with direct fiber-optic 2) 2
connection up to about 20 km or via a 51N/ 87L 49 7SD600 or 4)
64 kbit/s channel of a general purpose 51N 7SD5**
PCM connection (optical fiber, micro- Same
wave) Line or protection
7SJ60 3)
Type 7SD600 with 2-wire pilot cables cable for parallel line,
up to about 10 km if applicable
7SD600 or
Type 7SD502 with 2-wire pilot cables 51N/ 87L 49 7SD5**
51N 4)
up to about 20 km
Type 7SD503 with 3-wire pilot cables
up to about 10 km. 52 79 52
1) 4
4) Functions 49 and 79 only with relays
7SD5**. 7SD600 is a cost-effective solu- 52
tion where only the function 87L is
required (external current summation 52 52 52 52
transformer 4AM4930 to be ordered
Load Backfeed 5

Fig. 87

6. Overhead lines or longer cables with 6

infeed from both ends Infeed

1) Teleprotection logic 85 for transfer trip 52
or blocking schemes. Signal transmis- 7
sion via pilot wire, power-line carrier,
microwave or optical fiber (to be pro- 52 52
vided separately). The teleprotection
supplement is only necessary if fast 21/ 2)
fault clearance on 100% line length is 21N
required, i.e. second zone tripping 3) 8
(about 0.3 s delay) cannot be accepted 85 79 4) Same
for far end faults. Line or protection
2) Directional ground-fault protection 67N cable for parallel line,
1) if applicable
with inverse-time delay against high-
resistance faults
3) Single or multishot autoreclosure 79 85 79
3) 9
only with overhead lines 7SA511
4) Reduced version 7SA510 may be used 21/
where no, or only 3-pole autoreclosure 21N 67N 4)
is required.
52 52 10


52 52 52 52

Load Backfeed

Fig. 88

Siemens Power Engineering Guide Transmission and Distribution 4th Edition 6/45
Power System Protection
Typical Protection Schemes

7. Subtransmission line

1 Note:
1) Connection to open delta winding if
available. Relays 7SA511 and 7SJ512
can, however, also be set to calculate
the zero-sequence voltage internally.
2 General hints:
Distance teleprotection is proposed as
main, and time graded directional O/C as
backup protection.
1) The 67N function of 7SA511 provides
3 additional high-resistance ground fault
protection. It can be used in a directional
comparison scheme in parallel with the
21 67 21/21N-function, but only in POTT mode.
25 79 21N 67N If the distance protection scheme ope-
4 rates in PUTT mode, 67N is only availa-
68 51 ble as time-delayed function.
78 67N 51N Recommended schemes:
PUTT on medium and long lines with
phase shift carrier or other secure com-
BF 7SJ62 munication channel.
5 POTT on short lines.
BLOCKING with On/Off carrier (all line
S lengths).
85 CH To remote
R line end

6 7SA511
Signal transmission

Fig. 89


6/46 Siemens Power Engineering Guide Transmission and Distribution 4th Edition
Power System Protection
Typical Protection Schemes

Application criteria for frequently used teleprotection schemes

Permissive under- Permissive over- Blocking Unblocking 1

reaching transferred reaching transferred
tripping (PUTT) tripping (POTT)
Preferred Signal trans- Secure and dependable channel: Dependable chan- Applicable only with
application mission: Frequency shift power line carrier (phase-to- nel (only with ex- Frequency shift
phase HF coupling to the protected line, better ternal faults) power line carrier 2
HF coupling to a parallel running line to avoid Amplitude modu-
sending through the fault) lated ON/OFF
Microwave, in particular digital (PCM) power line carrier
Fiber optic cables (same frequency
can be used at all 3

Line con- Normally used with Short lines in particu- All kinds of line EHV lines
figuration: medium and long lines lar when high fault re- (Preferred US
sistance coverage is practice)
required 4
(7SA511/513 relays al- Multi-terminal and
low use also with short tapped lines with in-
lines due to their inde- termediate infeed ef-
pendent X and R setting fects
of all distance zones).
Advantages: Simple method No distance zone
Tripping of underrea- overreaching pro-
ching zone does not blems, when applied
depend on the chan- with CCVTs on short
nel (release signal lines
from the remote line Applicable to extreme
end not necessary). short lines below the same as same as
No distance zone or minimum zone setting for POTT for POTT
time coordination be- limit
tween line ends ne- No problems with the
cessary, i.e. this mode impact of parallel line 7
can easily be used coupling.
with different relay

Drawbacks: Parallel, teed and Distance zone and Same as for POTT,
tapped lines may time coordination with same as however, loss of re- 8
cause underreach remote line end relays for POTT mote end signal
problems. Careful necessary does not completely
consideration of zero- Tripping depends on Except that a weak block the protection
sequence coupling receipt of remote end infeed supplement scheme. Tripping is
and intermediate in- signal (additional inde- is not necessary in this case released 9
feed effects is neces- pendent underrea- with a short time
sary. ching zone of 7SA511/ No continuous on- delay of about
Not applicable with 513 relays avoids this line supervision of 20 ms (unblocking
weak infeed termi- problem). the channel possi- logic).
nals. Weak infeed supple- ble!
ment necessary 10
Fig. 90

Siemens Power Engineering Guide Transmission and Distribution 4th Edition 6/47
Power System Protection
Typical Protection Schemes

8. Transmission line with reactor Operating time of the 7SA513 relay is in Both 7SA513 and 7SA511 can practise
the range of 15 to 25 ms dependent on selective single-pole and/or three-pole
1 Note: the particular fault condition, while the tripping and autoreclosure.
1) 51G only applicable with grounded reac- operating time of the 7SA511 is 25 to The ground current directional compari-
tor neutral. 35 ms respectively. son protection 67N of the 7SA513 relay
These tripping times are valid for faults uses phase selectors based on symmet-
2) If phase CTs at the low-voltage reactor in the underreaching distance zone rical components. Thus, single pole au-
side are not available, the high-voltage (80 to 85% of the line length). Remote toreclosure can also be practised with
2 phase CTs and the CT in the neutral can end faults must be cleared by the super- high-resistance faults.
be connected to a restricted ground fault imposed teleprotection scheme. Its The 67N function of the 7SA511 relay
protection using one 7VH80 high-imped- overall operating time depends on the should be used as time delayed direc-
ance relay. signal transmission time of the channel tional O/C backup in this case.
(typically 15 to 20 ms for frequency shift The 67N functions are provided as high-
3 General hints: audio-tone PLC or Microwave channels, impendance fault protection. 67N of the
and lower than 10 ms for ON/OFF PLC 7SA513 relay is normally used with an
Distance relays are proposed as main 1 or digital PCM signalling via optical additional channel as separate carrier
and main 2 protection. Duplicated 7SA513 fibres). scheme. Use of a common channel with
is recommended for long (>100 km) and
Teleprotection schemes based on distance protection is only possible in
heavily loaded lines or series-compensat-
7SA513 and 7SA511 have therefore ope- the POTT mode. The 67N function in the
4 ed lines and in all cases where extreme
rating times in the order of 40 ms and 7SA511 is blocked when function 21/
short operating times are required due
50 ms each. With state-of-the-art two- 21N picks up. It can therefore only be
to system stability problems.
cycle circuit breakers, fault clearing used in parallel with the distance direc-
7SA513 as main 1 and 7SA511 as main times well below 100 ms (4 to 5 cycles) tional comparison scheme POTT using
2 can be used in the normal case. can normally be achived. one common channel. Alternatively, it can
Dissimilar carrier schemes are recom- be used as time-delayed backup protec-
5 mended for main 1 and main 2 protec- tion.
tion, for example PUTT, and POTT or

51N BF

8 Reactor 87R 7VH83

21 21
25 59 21N 25 21N 2)

79 67N 79 67N
9 51G 7SJ600

68 68 7SA522 or
BF 85 7SA511 BF
79 79 BF, 59
S Direct Trip
85 7SA513 R Channel
10 52L
S Channel To remote
R 2 line end

S Channel
R 3

Fig. 91

6/48 Siemens Power Engineering Guide Transmission and Distribution 4th Edition
Power System Protection
Typical Protection Schemes

9. Transmission line or cable

(with wide band communication)
Note: 52L
1) Overvoltage protection only with
General hints:
Digital PCM coded communication (with
n x 64 kBit/s channels) between line
ends is now getting more and more fre- 1)
quently available, either directly by opti- 21
79 97L 25 59 21N
cal or microwave point-to-point links, or
via a general purpose digital communica- 3
tion network. BF 79 67N
In both cases, the unit-type current com-
parison protection 7SD511/12 can be
applied. It provides absolute phase and-
zone selectivity by phase-segregated
measurement, and is not affected by 68
85 BF
7SA522 or 4
power swing or parallel line zero-se- 79 7SA511
quence coupling effects. It is further a
current-only protection that does not 7SD512 S Channel
need VT connection. For this reason, the R 1
adverse effects of CVT transients are
To remote
not applicable. optial fiber FO S
This makes it in particular suitable for X.21 PCM line end
Wire R
double and multicircuit lines where com-
plex fault situations can occur. Direct connection with dedicated
Pilot wire protection can only be applied fibers up to about 20 km
to short lines or cables due to the inher- 6
ent limitation of the applied measuring
Fig. 92
principle. The 7SD511/12 can be applied
to lines up to about 20 km in direct re-
lay-to-relay connection via dedicated op- 10. Transmission line, breaker-and-a-half
tical fiber cores (see also application 5), terminal
and also to much longer distances up to
about 100 km by using separate PCM Notes:
devices for optical fiber or microwave
1) When the line is switched off and the
line isolator is open, high through-fault-
The 7SD511/512 then uses only a small
currents in the diameter may cause mal-
part (64 kBit/s) of the total transmission
operation of the distance relay due to 8
capacity being in the order of Mbits/s.
unequal CT errors (saturation).
The unit protection 7SD511 can be com- Normal practice is therefore to block the
bined with the distance relay 7SA513 or distance protection (21/21N) and the di-
7SA511 to form a redundant protection rectional ground fault protection (67N)
system with dissimilar measuring princi- under this condition via an auxiliary con-
ples complementing each other. This tact of the line isolator. Instead, a stand-
provides the highest degree of availabili- by overcurrent function (50/50N, 51/51N)
ty. Also, separate signal transmission is released to protect the remaining stub
ways should be used for main 1 and between the breakers (stubprotection).
main 2 protection, e.g. optical fiber or
2) Overvoltage protection only with
micro-wave, and power line carrier 10
1. The criteria for selection of 7SA513 or General hints:
7SA511 are the same as discussed in
The protection functions of one diame-
application 8.
ter of a breaker-and-a-half arrangement
The current comparison protection
are shown.
has a typical operating time of 25 ms
for faults on 100% line length includ- The currents of two CTs have each to be
ing signalling time. summed up to get the relevant line
current as input for main 1 and 2 line

Siemens Power Engineering Guide Transmission and Distribution 4th Edition 6/49
Power System Protection
Typical Protection Schemes

The location of the CTs on both sides of For the selection of the main 1 and main one breaker and the manual closure of
the circuit-breakers is typical for substa- 2 line protection schemes, the com- the other breaker, may be made selecta-
1 tions with dead-tank breakers. Live-tank ments of application examples 8 and 9 ble by a control switch.
breakers may have CTs only on one side apply. A coordinated scheme of control circuits
to reduce cost. A Fault between circuit Autoreclosure (79) and synchrocheck is necessary to ensure selective tripping,
breakers and CT (end fault) may then function (25) are each assigned directly interlocking and reclosing of the two
still be fed from one side even when the to the circuit breakers and controlled by breakers of one line (or transformer
breaker has opened. Consequently, final main 1 and 2 line protection in parallel. feeder).
2 fault clearing by cascaded tripping has to In case of a line fault, both adjacent The voltages for synchrochecking have
be accepted in this case. breakers have to be tripped by the line to be selected according to the breaker
The 7SV512 relay provides the neces- protection. The sequence of automatic and isolator positions by a voltage repli-
sary end fault protection function and reclosure of both breakers or, alterna- ca circuit.
trips the breakers of the remaining in- tively, the automatic reclosure of only
3 feeding circuits.

4 87 7SS5. or
BB1 7VH83

7SV512 or
7VK512 7SV600
BF 85
5 UBB1 7SA522 or
1) 1) 2) 7SA511
79 21 50 51
21N 67N 50N 51N 59
6 UL1 or UL2
or UBB2 UL1

Line 1

7 7VK512 87L 7SD511/12

UL1 or UBB1
8 25
UL2 or UBB2
7SV512 or
Line 2
9 7VK512 UL2

Main 1
UL2 or 52 Protection of Line 2
UL1 or UBB1 (or transformer,
10 25
Main 2 if applicable)
7SV512 or

87 7SS5. or
BB2 7VH83

Fig. 93

6/50 Siemens Power Engineering Guide Transmission and Distribution 4th Edition
Power System Protection
Typical Protection Schemes

11. Small transformer infeed

HV infeed
General hints: 1
Ground-faults on the secondary side are 52 I>> I>, t IE> > I2>, t
detected by current relay 51G which,
however, has to be time-graded against 50 51 50N 49 46 7SJ60
downstream feeder protection relays.
The restricted ground-fault relay 87N can 2
optionally be provided to achieve fast Optional resistor or
clearance of ground faults in the trans- 63 reactor
former secondary winding.
Relay 7VH80 is of the high-impedance
type and requires class X CTs with equal
transformation ratio. I>> 3
Primary breaker and relay may be re- 87N
placed by fuses.
52 7VH80 7SJ60
Distribution bus

o/c- Fuse
Load Load

Fig. 94

12. Large or important transformer 6

HV infeed High voltage, e.g. 115 kV
1) Three winding transformer relay 52 I>> I>, t IE> > I2>, t
type 7UT513 may be replaced by two-
winding type 7UT512 plus high-imped- 50 51 51N 49 46 7SJ60 or 7
ance-type restricted ground-fault relay
7VH80. However, class X CT cores
would additionally be necessary in this
case. (See small transformer protection) 7SJ60
2) 51G may additionally be provided, 63 8
in particular for the protection of the
neutral resistance, if provided.
3) Relays 7UT512/513 provide numerical 1)
ratio and vector group adaption.
Matching transformers as used with 87N 87T 7UT513
traditional relays are therefore no longer
applicable. I>, t IE>, t

51 51N

52 7SJ60
Load bus, e.g. 13.8 kV

52 52

Load Load

Fig. 95

Siemens Power Engineering Guide Transmission and Distribution 4th Edition 6/51
Power System Protection
Typical Protection Schemes

13. Dual-infeed with single transformer

1 Protection line 1 Protection line 2 Notes:

same as line 2 21/21N or 87L + 51 + optionally 67/67N
1) Line CTs are to be connected to sepa-
52 52 rate stabilizing inputs of the differential
relay 87T in order to assure stability in
7SJ60 or case of line through-fault currents.
2 I>> I>, t IE>, t
2) Relay 7UT513 provides numerical ratio
and vector group adaption. Matching
transformers, as used with traditional
50 51 51N
relays, are therefore no longer applica-
46 49
I2> >
63 87N 87T 7UT513

4 7SJ60 51G

I>> IE>
51 51N
5 52
52 52 52
Fig. 96

14. Parallel incoming transformer

7SJ60 or feeders
7 HV infeed 1 7SJ61 HV infeed 2
52 52 Note:
I>> I>, t IE>, t > I2>, t
1) The directional functions 67 and 67N
50 51 51N 49 46 do not apply for cases where the trans-
formers are equipped with transformer
8 differential relays 87T.

same as
63 infeed 1
9 51G IE>, t I>, t IE>, t I> IE>
51 51N 67 67N

10 1)
52 52
52 52 52

Load Load Load

Fig. 97

6/52 Siemens Power Engineering Guide Transmission and Distribution 4th Edition
Power System Protection
Typical Protection Schemes

15. Parallel incoming transformer

feeders with bus tie
Infeed 1 7SJ60 Infeed 2 1
1) Overcurrent relays 51, 51N each con- I>> I>, t IE>, t > I2>, t
nected as a partial differential scheme. 50 51 51N 49 46
This provides simple and fast busbar
protection and saves one time-grading Protection
same as
63 63 infeed 1

7SJ60 7SJ60

51G I>, t IE>, t IE>, t I>, t 3

51 51N 51N 51

16. Three-winding transformer

52 52
Notes: 52
1) The zero-sequence current must be
blocked from entering the differential 52 52
relay by a delta winding in the CT con- 5
nection on the transformer sides with Load Load
grounded winding neutral. This is to avoid
false operation with external ground
faults (numerical relays provide this func- Fig. 98
tion by calculation). About 30% sensitivi- 6
ty, however, is then lost in case of inter-
nal faults.
Optionally, the zero-sequence current HV Infeed
can be regained by introducing the wind-
ing neutral current in the differential re- 52 I>> I>, t > I2>, t
lay (87T). Relay type 7UT513 provides
50 51 49 46
7SJ60 or 7
two current inputs for this purpose. 7SJ61
By using this feature, the ground fault
sensitivity can be upgraded again to its
original value.
2) Restricted ground fault protection (87T)
is optional. It provides back-up protec- 51G 7SJ60 51G 7SJ60
tion for ground faults and increased
ground fault sensitivity (about 10%IN, 87T 7UT513
compared to about 20 to 30%IN of the 1)
transformer differential relay). 87N 7VH80 87N 7VH80
Separate class X CT-cores with equal 9
transmission ratio are additionally re-
quired for this protection.
General hint: I>,t IE>, t I>,t IE>, t

In this example, the transformer feeds 51 51N 51 51N

two different distribution networks with 7SJ60 7SJ60 10
cogeneration. Restraining differential re-
lay inputs are therefore provided at each M.V. M.V.
transformer side. 52 52 52 52
If both distribution networks only con-
sume load and no through-feed is possi-
ble from one MV network to the other,
parallel connection of the CTs of the two Load Backfeed Load Backfeed
MV transformer windings is admissible
allowing the use of a two-winding differ-
ential relay (7UT512). Fig. 99

Siemens Power Engineering Guide Transmission and Distribution 4th Edition 6/53
Power System Protection
Typical Protection Schemes

17. Autotransformer
7SJ60 or
1 7SJ61 52
1) 87N high-impedance protection requires
51N 50 46 50 87N 7VH80 special class X current transformer cores
BF 51 2)
with equal transmission ratio.
2) The 7SJ60 relay can alternatively be
2 connected in series with the 7UT513 re-
lay to save this CT core.
General hint:
7UT513 87T 49
63 Two different protection schemes are
3 87T is chosen as low-impedance three-
52 52 winding version (7UT513). 87N is a sin-
1) gle-phase high-impedance relay (7VH80)
51 connected as restricted ground fault pro-
51 tection. (In this example, it is assumed
4 46 that the phaseends of the transformer
winding are not accessible on the neu-
50 tral side, i.e. there exists a CT only in the
59N BF 1) 50
BF neutral grounding connection.)
7RW60 7SJ60

Fig. 100
18. Large autotransformer bank
21 21N 78 7SA513 General hints:
7SV600 7SV600
The transformer bank is connected in a
7 50 50 11/2 breaker arrangement.
BF BF Duplicated differential protection is pro-
EHV 52 52 posed:
Main 1: Low-impedance differential pro-
tection 87TL (7UT513) connected to the
transformer bushing CTs.
8 HV
Main 2: High-impedance overall differen-
tial protection 87TH (7VH83). Separate
87 50 class X cores and equal CT ratios are re-
7VH83 TH BF 7SV600 quired for this type of protection.
52 Back-up protection is provided by dis-
9 tance relays (7SA513 and 7SA511), each
7SA511 looking with an instantaneous first
7UT513 87 49 zone about 80% into the transformer
TL 21 and with a time-delayed zone beyond
63 the transformer.
The tertiary winding is assumed to feed
10 21N a small station supply network with iso-
52 lated neutral.

BF 50
BF 7SV600
59N 51G

7RW60 7SJ60 7SJ60

Fig. 101

6/54 Siemens Power Engineering Guide Transmission and Distribution 4th Edition
Power System Protection
Typical Protection Schemes

19. Small and medium-sized motors

< about 1 MW
a) With effective or low-resistance 52 I>> I E> > Locked I 2> 1
grounded infeed (IE IN Motor) rotor
49 7SJ60
General hint: 50 51N 49 CR 46
Applicable to low-voltage motors and
high-voltage motors with low-resistance 2
grounded infeed (IE IN Motor). M
Fig. 102a

b) With high-resistance grounded infeed
(IE IN Motor)
Notes: 52 I>> > Locked I 2> I<
1) Window-type zero sequence CT. 49 7SJ62 or
2) Sensitive directional ground-fault protec-
50 49
CR 46 37
7SJ551 4
tion 67N only applicable with infeed 3)
from isolated or Peterson-coil-grounded I E> 2)
network. 7XR96
(For dimensioning of the sensitive direc- 1) 51G 67G
tional ground fault protection, see also 60/1A
application circuit No. 24)
3) If 67G ist not applicable, relay 7SJ602
can be applied.
Fig. 102b 6
20. Large HV motors > about 1 MW

7SJ62 or
1) Window-type zero sequence CT. 7SJ551 7
2) Sensitive directional ground-fault protec-
tion 67N only applicable with infeed 52 I>> > Locked I2> U<
from isolated or Peterson-coil-grounded rotor
network. 50 49 49 46 27
3) This function is only needed for motors CR
where the runup time is longer than the
safe stall time tE. IE> 2) I< 37
According to IEC 79-7, the tE-time is the 7XR96
1) 51G 67G
time needed to heat up AC windings, 60/1A
when carrying the starting current IA,
from the temperature reached in rated Startup 9
service and at maximum ambient tem- super- 49T 87M 7UT512
perature to the limiting temperature. visior 3) 5) 6)
A separate speed switch is used to
supervise actual starting of the motor. 3)
The motor breaker is tripped if the motor Speed RTD's 4)
does not reach speed in the preset time. switch M 10
The speed switch is part of the motor
delivery itself.
4) Pt100, Ni100, Ni120
5) 49T only available with relay type 7SJ5
6) High impedance relay 7VH83 may be
used instead of 7UT12 if separate
class x CTs. are provided at the terminal
and star-point side of the motor winding. Fig. 103

Siemens Power Engineering Guide Transmission and Distribution 4th Edition 6/55
Power System Protection
Typical Protection Schemes

21. Smallest generators < 500 kW


G I>, IE>, t I2> >

2 51 7SJ60
51N 46 49

3 Fig. 104a: With solidly grounded neutral

MV 1) If a window-type zero-sequence CT is
4 provided for sensitive ground fault pro-
tection, relay 7SJ602 with separate
G1 I>, IE>, t I2> > ground current input can be used
(similar to Fig. 102b of application exam-
Generator 2 51
46 49 7SJ60 ple 19b).
RN =
3 (0.5 to 1) Irated

Fig. 104b: With resistance grounded neutral

22. Small generator, typically 1 MW

7 Note:
52 1) Two CTs in V connection also sufficient.


9 G 64R

I>, t P I2 > L.O.F

51 32 46 40 7UM511
IE>, t


Fig. 105

6/56 Siemens Power Engineering Guide Transmission and Distribution 4th Edition
Power System Protection
Typical Protection Schemes

23. Smallest generators > 1 MW

Notes: MV
1) Functions 81 und 59 only required
where prime mover can assume excess 3)
speed and voltage regulator may permit
rise of output voltage above upper limit. O/C 7SJ60
2) 51 v.c.
2) Differential relaying options:
7UT512: Low-impedance differential
protection 87 87
7UT513: Low-impedance differen-
27 U<
tial 87 with integral restricted ground- 87G
fault protection 87G
7VH83: High-impedance differential 81 f> 3
protection 87 (requires class X CTs)
3) 7SJ60 used as voltage-controlled o/c RE Field< 1)
protection. G 64R 59 U>
Function 27 of 7UM511 is used to
switch over to a second, more sensitive Field I>, t P I2> L.O.F. > 4
setting group.
51 32 46 40 49

IE>, t 7UM511

Fig. 106

24. Large generator > 1 MW feeding into

a network with isolated neutral Relay ground current input Minimum relay setting: Comments:
connected to: 7
General hints:
The setting range of the directional Core-balance c.t. 60/1 A:
ground fault protection 67G in the 1 single CT 2 mA
7UM511 relay is 2 100 mA. 2 parallel CTs 5 mA
Dependent on the current transformer 3 parallel CTs 8 mA
accuracy, a certain minimum setting is 4 parallel CTs 12 mA
required to avoid false operation on load
or transient rush currents:
Three-phase-CTs in 1A CT: ca. 50 mA In general not suitable for
residual (Holmgreen) 5A CT: ca. 200 mA sensitive earth fault
connection protection 9
Three-phase-CTs in 2 3 of secondary 1A CTs are not
residual (Holmgreen) rated CT current In SEC: recommented in
connection with special this case
factory calibration to 10 15 mA with 5A CTs
minimum residual false
current ( 2 mA)

Fig. 107

Siemens Power Engineering Guide Transmission and Distribution 4th Edition 6/57
Power System Protection
Typical Protection Schemes

In practice, efforts are generally made to

protect about 90% of the machine wind-
Small grid with isolated neutral
1 ing, measured from the machine termi-
nals. The full ground current for a termi- 3)
nal fault must then be ten times the 52
setting value which corresponds to the transformer
fault current of a fault at 10% distance 7XR96 1)
60/1A UN 100 500
from the machine neutral. V 59
2 For the most sensitive setting of 2 mA, 3 3 3 G
we need therefore 20 mA secondary
ground current, corresponding to (60/1) x
20 mA = 1.2 A primary. 52 62
This current may be delivered by the
network ground capacitances if enough RB
3 cables are contained. In this case, the 87
directional ground fault protection (67G)
has to be set to reactive power mea- 7UT512 Field U< U> f
surement (U x I x sin w).
64 67
If sufficient capacitive ground current is
not available, a grounding transformer
27 59 81

with resistive zero-sequence load can be Uo >

installed as ground current source at the 7UM512
station busbar. The 67G function has in G
this case to be set to active (wattmetric) 4)
power measurement (U x I x cosw). I>,t I2> P L.O.F
5 The smallest standard grounding trans-
51 46 32 40
former TGAG 3541 has a 20 s short time
rating of PG = 27 kVA.

In a 5kV network, it would deliver:

6 2)
A 3 x PG A 3 x 27,000VA Single-phase VT
IG 20s = - = = 9.4 A
UN 5000V

7 corresponding to a relay input current of Fig. 108

9.4 A x 1/60 = 156 mA. This would pro-
vide a 90% protection range with a set-
ting of about 15 mA, allowing the use of Notes:
4 parallel connected core balance CTs.
8 The resistance at the 500V open-delta 1) The standard core-balance CT 7XR96
winding of the grounding transformer has a transformation ratio of 60/1 A.
would then have to be designed for 2) Instead of an open delta winding at the
RG = USEC2 / PG = 500 V2 / 27,000 VA = terminal VT, a single-phase VT at the
9.26 Ohm (27 KW, 20 s). machine neutral could be used as zero-
For a 5 MVA machine and 600/5 A CTs sequence polarizing voltage.
9 with special calibration for minimum re- 3) The grounding transformer is designed
sidual false current, we would get a sec- for a short-time rating of 20 seconds. To
ondary current of IG SEC = 9.4 A /(600/5) = prevent overloading, the load resistor is
78 mA. automatically switched off by a time-de-
With a relay setting of 12 mA, the pro- layed zero-sequence voltage relay (59G
tection range would in this case be + 62) and a contactor (52).
10 12
100 (1- ) = 85%.
78 4) During the startup time of the generator
with open breaker, the grounding source
is not available. To ensure ground fault
protection during this time interval, an
auxilliary contact of the breaker can be
used to change over the directional
ground fault relay function (67G) to a
zero-sequence voltage detection func-
tion (59G) via a contact converter input.

6/58 Siemens Power Engineering Guide Transmission and Distribution 4th Edition
Power System Protection
Typical Protection Schemes

25. Generator-transformer unit

Notes: 1
1) 100% stator ground-fault protection
based on 20 Hz voltage injection
52 2) Sensitive field ground-fault protection
63 Transf. fault press based on 1 Hz voltage injection
3) Only used functions shown, further 2
71 Oil low integrated functions available in each re-
87 lay type (see Relay Selection Guide,
Fig. 43).

51 3
Transf. neut. OC Unit aux.
Unit diff.
Oil low
fault press 71

Overvolt. 59 aux.

51 6
Overfreq. TN
Loss of 24 neut.
sync. OC
40 87T
Stator A 7
O.L. Loss of Trans.
field diff.
49S 32
Reverse 8
G 87G power Relay
Functions 3) Number
of relays
Gen. required
2) diff.
R2 64R
7UM511 40 46 59 81N 49 64R 1 9
Field Field 46 21
grd. grd. 59
Neg. Sys. 7UM516 32 21 78 1
seq. backup GN

1) 2)
7UM515 24 51 64
1 10
59 GN
Gen. 7UT512 87G 87T and optionally 87 optionally
neut. OV TU 3
51 1)
7UT513 87U 1

7SJ60 51N 51 3
Fig. 109

Siemens Power Engineering Guide Transmission and Distribution 4th Edition 6/59
Power System Protection
Typical Protection Schemes

26. Busbar protection by O/C relays

with reverse interlocking
Infeed General hint:
Applicable to distribution busbars without
substantial (< 0.25 x IN) backfeed from the
outgoing feeders

Reverse interlocking

3 I>, t0 I>, t
50 51 7SJ60
50N 51N

4 t0 = 50 ms

52 52 52
I> I>, t I> I>, t I> I>, t
6 50 51 50 51 50 51
50N 51N 50N 51N 50N 51N

7SJ60 7SJ60 7SJ60


8 Fig. 110


6/60 Siemens Power Engineering Guide Transmission and Distribution 4th Edition
Power System Protection
Typical Protection Schemes

27. High impedance busbar

General hints: Transformer
Normally used with single busbar
and 1 1/2 breaker schemes
Requires separate class X current trans-
former cores. All CTs must have the 51 2
same transformation ratio 7VH83
87 87
1) A varistor is normally applied accross BB S.V.
the relay input terminals to limit the volt-
age to a value safety below the insula- 1) 3
tion voltage of the secondary circuits
(see page 6/70). 86
52 52 52

Feeder Feeder Feeder

protection protection protection
G Load
Fig. 111
28. Low-impedance busbar protection
General hints:
Preferably used for multiple bus-
Transformer protection
barschemes where an isolator replica is 7
The numerical busbar protection 7SS5
provides additional breaker failure pro- 50N
CT transformation ratios can be differ- 52
ent, e.g. 600/1 A in the feeders and
2000/1 at the bus tie
The protection system and the isolator
replica are continuously self-monitored
by the 7SS5
Feeder protection can be connected to 9
the same CT core. Isolator
52 replica 7SS5

Bus tie 87
protection BB 10
52 52
Feeder Feeder
protection protection

Load Back-feed

Fig. 112

Siemens Power Engineering Guide Transmission and Distribution 4th Edition 6/61