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Principles of Teaching and

Learning and Additional


Language
PRINCIPLE #1:

Students benefit from seeing their own history,


literature, and culture reflected in their school
experiences.
Background Information
The closer the students home culture is to the culture on which
the school system is based, the greater the potential for successful
learning. Teachers and students who understand the learning
styles and belief systems of more than one culture can facilitate
the cultural adjustment process so that the perspectives of
everyone are expanded. The school culture should reflect and
accommodate the needs of its culturally diverse population.

Resource: English as a Second Language Learners: A Guide for ESL Specialists. Ministry of Education: Special Programs Branch. 1999.
Page 33.
http://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/education/administration/kindergarten-to-grade-12/english-language-learners/special.pdf
Reasons why educators should be aware of
the principle
Integration and success in a classroom is not always based on how
long a student has lived in the new culture or school. Many factors
can increase or delay understanding and achievement.

Given the opportunity to make connections to their pervious


experiences and knowledge will create connections for students, at
any age or language level.

Resource: English as a Second Language Learners: A Guide for ESL Specialists. Ministry of Education: Special Programs Branch.
1999. Page 33.
http://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/education/administration/kindergarten-to-grade-12/english-language-
learners/special.pdf
Practical Strategies that align with principle
Art and music chosen from their culture or language creates comfort
and familiarity.

Individualized or inquiry projects allow students to use their previous


knowledge and experience. They have their first language vocabulary
and the work is using their new language skills.

Recognition of special holidays and cultural celebrations, such as Eid,


Ramadan, Chinese New Year, Vaisahki, Day of the Dead, Three Kings
Day, etc.
PRINCIPLE #2:

English language learners who also have special


needs may need services to address both their
language proficiency and their special needs.
Background Information

The factors need to be taken into consideration when evaluating what


strategies and approaches to use with special needs students that are
ELL learners include visual impairment, hearing deficiency, lack of
psychomotor skills, or my be gifted.

Resource: English Language Learner: A Guide for Classroom Teachers. Canadian Cataloguing in Publication Data, 1999.
Page 20. http://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/education/administration/kindergarten-to-grade-12/english-language-
learners/classroom.pdf
Reasons why educators should be aware of
the principle
ELL teams should take into consideration:
- The family situation, extent of support, and goals for the student
- The languages used at home
- The students ability to use their first-language and their to use a
second-language
- The students health records
- The students pervious educational experience
- The students preferred learning style
- The culturally based behaviours in the classroom

Resource: English Language Learner: A Guide for Classroom Teachers. Canadian Cataloguing in Publication Data, 1999. Page
20. http://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/education/administration/kindergarten-to-grade-12/english-language-
learners/classroom.pdf
Practical Strategies that align with principle:
Family Liaison Contact as an initial and ongoing point of contact for
the ESL students family, the ESL specialist can:
ensure a warm welcome to new ESL students and their families
facilitate communication with parents through interpreters and
translations
facilitate the involvement of ESL parents in school activities
help interpret cultural and educational practices and
expectations for parents and students (and reciprocally for
school personnel, as needed)
Resource: English as a Second Language Learners: A Guide for ESL Specialists. Ministry of Education: Special Programs Branch. 1999. Page 35.
http://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/education/administration/kindergarten-to-grade-12/english-language-learners/special.pdf
PRINCIPLE #3:

Educational, social, emotional, and economic


benefits can occur when students maintain their
first language(s) or dialect(s).
Background Information
Teachers, students, and families all bring their personal and cultural
beliefs, expectations, and practices to the education process.

It may be important to explore the students cultural experiences,


values and attitudes in order to effectively assess the students learning
needs.

Knowing some of the key characteristics in the traditional cultures


among us may help to improve mutual understanding and ability to
work effectively with students from different cultures.

Resource: English Language Learner: A Guide for Classroom Teachers. Canadian Cataloguing in Publication
Data, 1999. http://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/education/administration/kindergarten-to-grade-12/english-
language-learners/classroom.pdf
Reasons why educators should be aware of
the principle
When we use resources that they have background knowledge
of, they will build on their learning and understanding. By
introducing something new, it can be a step backward.
Example: A traditional fairy-tale story that is popular in one society or
culture may be unknown to another. A student may already understand
a moral, but not with that particular story.
It is important to make yourself relatable to the students and
understand where they are coming from.
There is the is familiarity and comfort in leaning something in a
first language that may give confidence to share in a second
language.
Reasons why educators should be aware of
the principle
If you or some of your students speak some of the native languages of
your ELL students, use the first language to clarify instructions,
provide translations of key words that are difficult to explain in
English, and find out what the students know but cannot express in
English.
Most ELL students will only need this additional support for a limited time or
in rare situations.
Research indicates that the more highly developed a students first language,
the more successful they will be in acquiring a second.

Resource: English Language Learner: A Guide for Classroom Teachers. 1999. Page 18.
http://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/education/administration/kindergarten-to-grade-12/english-language-
learners/classroom.pdf
Practical Strategies that align with principle
- Use the students native languages to check comprehension and
clarify problems
- Communicate interest in students linguistic development and set
expectations
- A possible resource that would be helpful for this principle is though
Global Affairs Canada: Country Insights:
http://www.international.gc.ca/cil-cai/country_insights-
apercus_pays/countryinsights-apercuspays.aspx?lang=eng

Resource: English Language Learner: A Guide for Classroom Teachers. 1999. Page 18.
http://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/education/administration/kindergarten-to-grade-12/english-language-
learners/classroom.pdf
Resources Used:
English as a Second Language Learners: A Guide for ESL Specialists. Ministry of Education: Special Programs Branch. 1999.
http://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/education/administration/kindergarten-to-grade-12/english-language-learners/special.pdf

English Language Learner: A Guide for Classroom Teachers. Canadian Cataloguing in Publication Data, 1999.
http://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/education/administration/kindergarten-to-grade-12/english-language-learners/classroom.pdf

English Language Learning And Apprentissage de la langue anglaise in the Consil scolaire franophone de la Colombie-Britannique.
Updated December 2011. http://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/education/administration/kindergarten-to-grade-12/english-language-
learners/guidelines.pdf

English Language Learning Standards. National Library of Canada Cataloguing in Publication Data, 2001.
http://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/education/administration/kindergarten-to-grade-12/english-language-learners/standards.pdf

Primary Program: A Framework for Teaching. British Columbia Ministry of Education, 1990.
http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/primary_program/primary_prog.pdf

Students from Refugee Background - A Guide for Teachers and Schools. British Columbia Ministry of Education. Revised December 2015.
http://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/education/administration/kindergarten-to-grade-12/diverse-student-needs/students-from-refugee-
backgrounds-guide.pdf