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SEKOLAH TINGGI TEKNOLOGI NASIONAL (STTNAS) YOGYAKARTA.

PENYELIDIKAN GEOTEKNIK

SUPANDI, ST, MT
supandisttnas@gmail.com
GEOTEKNIK TAMBANG
Jurusan : Teknik Geologi
Prodi : Teknik Pertambangan Strata 1.
Kode : AS7446P
Mata Kuliah : Geoteknik Tambang
SKS : 2 SKS
Semester : VII
Waktu Perkuliahan : 2 x 50 menit
Dosen Pengampu : Supandi ST. MT
Sistem Perkuliahan :
Penilaian : a. Tugas, presentasi dan Diskusi, Quiz,
20%
b. Ujian Tengah Semester (UTS) 30%
c. Ujian akhir semester (UAS) 50%
Range Nilai : 0-20,9 = E ; 21-44 = D ; 45-60.9 = C ;
61 80 = B ; 81 100 = A
Contact Person : supandisttnas@gmail.com
STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 2
2011
Textbook
1. John Read and Peter Stacey, 2009, Guidelines fr Open
Pit Slope Design, CRC Press.
2. William A Hustrulid, Michael K.McCarter and Dirk J.A Van
Zyl, 2000, Slope Stability in Surface Mining, Society for
Mining Mettalurgy and Exploration Inc.
3. Ducan C Wyllie & Christopher W Mah, 2007-4th Edition,
Rock Slope Engineering, Spon Press.
4. Charles A Kliche, 1999, Rock Slope Stability, Society for
Mining Mettalurgy and Exploration Inc.
5. E. Hoek & J.W Bray, 1994, Rock Slope Engineering,
Institute of Mining and Metalurgy.
6. Roy E. Hunt, 2007, Geotechnical Investigation
Methods, CRC Press.
7. Roy E Hunt, 2007, Geologic Hazards, CRC Press.
STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 3
2011 26/12/2011
SITE INVESTIGATION
- philosophy

after each stage of site investigation it


should be possible to assess the degree
of uncertainty that remains

Weltman and Head (1983) - CIRIA

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2011
HUB MINE DEVELOPMENT AND GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION
MINE OR PROJECT STATUS

MAIN SOUCRE

OF GEOTCHNICAL
PRELIMINARY PRE-FEASIBILITY FEASIBILITY DESIGN OPERATING

OR GROUNDWATER

KNOWLEDGE

EXPLORATION DATA

GEOTECHNICAL

INVESTIGATION

DRILLING

MAPPING

LABORATORY TESTING

MINE GEOLOGY
STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide
2011 Slide5 5
Oct - 2010
STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide
2011 Slide6 6
Oct - 2010
The general objective of an geotechnical exploration program is to
identify all of the significant features of the geologic environment
that may impact on the proposed construction. Specific objectives
are to:

1. Define the lateral distribution and thickness of soil and rock strata
within the zone of influence of the proposed construction.
2. Define groundwater conditions considering seasonal changes and
the effects of construction or development extraction.
3. Identify geologic hazards, such as unstable slopes, faults, ground
subsidence and collapse, floodplains, regional seismicity, and
lahars.
4. Procure samples of geologic materials for the identification,
classification, and measurement of engineering properties.
5. Perform in situ testing to measure the engineering properties of
the geologic Materials.

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Planning the investigation

Frequency of boreholes or pits


Depth of exploration
At what depths are samples required?
What types of samples?
Equipment required
Ground water monitoring?
Field testing?
Timing of exploration

STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide


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Site investigation includes -

A walk-over of the site


Desktop study
Sampling (pits or boreholes)
Probing, sounding
Testing
Proof-loading

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Measurement of Properties

Objectives
The properties of geologic materials are measured to provide the basis for:
1. Identification and classification.
2. Correlations between properties including measurements made during
other investigations in similar materials.
3. Engineering analysis and evaluations.

Geotechnical Properties
Basic Properties
Basic properties include the fundamental characteristics of the materials
and provide a basis for identification and correlations. Some are used in
engineering calculations.

Index Properties
Index properties define certain physical characteristics used basically for
classifications, and also for correlations with engineering properties.

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Methodology
Three general categories subdivide exploration methodology:
1. Surface mapping of geologic conditions, which requires review
of reports and publications, interpretation of topographic and
geographic maps, remote-sensing imagery, and site
reconnaissance.
2. Subsurface sectioning (Section 1.3), for which data are
obtained by geophysical prospecting, test and core borings,
and excavations and soundings
3. Sampling the geologic materials, utilizing test and core borings
and excavations

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Surface Mapping
General - Objectives
Data Base
For all sites it is important to determine the general geologic conditions and
identify significant development and construction constraints. For large study
areas it is useful to prepare a map illustrating the surficial and shallow
geologic conditions.

Preliminary Site Evaluations


An overview of geologic conditions permits preliminary evaluations regarding
the suitability of the site for development. The first step is the identification of
major geologic hazards and constraints in the study area. Depending upon
the construction or development proposed, constraints could include shallow
rock or water, or thick deposits of weak soils.

Taking into account the hazards and constraints, the optimum location for the
proposed construction is selected, and the planning of the site investigation
then begins.
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Methodology
A geologic reconnaissance study may advance through a number of steps ;

1. Research of reference materials and collection of available data.


2. Terrain analysis based on topographic maps and the interpretation of
remotely sensed imagery.
3. Preparation of a preliminary engineering geology map (large land areas).
4. Site reconnaissance to confirm initial data, and, for large areas,
amplification of the engineering geology map, after which it is prepared in
final form.
5. Preparation of a subsurface exploration program based on the
anticipated conditions.

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Research Data

Basic Objectives
A large amount of information is often available in the literature for a
given location. A search should be made to gather as much data as
possible before initiating any exploration work, particularly when
large sites are to be studied, or when the site is located in a region not
familiar to the design team. Information should be obtained on:

1. Bedrock geology, including major structural features such as faults.


2. Surficial geology in terms of soil types on a regional or, if possible,
local basis.
3. Climatic conditions, which influence soil development, groundwater
occurrence and fluctuations, erosion, flooding, slope failures, etc.
4. Regional seismicity and earthquake history.
5. Geologic hazards, both regional and local, such as ground
subsidence and collapse, slope failures, floods, and lahars.
6. Geologic constraints, both regional and local, such as expansive
soils, weak soils, shallow rock, groundwater, etc.

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Subsurface Exploration
Objectives
1. To confirm or supplement the engineering geology map showing
shallow and surficial distributions of the various formations.
2. To determine the subsurface distribution of the geologic materials
and groundwater conditions.
3. To obtain samples of the geologic materials for identification and
laboratory testing.
4. To obtain in situ measurements of engineering properties

Preparation of Subsurface Exploration Program


Prepare the subsurface exploration program, considering the necessity
of:
1. Confirming the boundaries of the various geologic formations as
mapped.
2. Obtaining data for the preparation of geologic sections.
3. Obtaining samples for identification, classification, and laboratory
testing.
4. Obtaining in situ measurements of the engineering properties of the
materials.
STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 17
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Exploration Method Categories

General Categories
1. Direct methods allow the examination of materials, usually
with the recovery of samples; examples are excavations
and test borings.
2. Indirect methods provide a measure of material properties;
examples are geophysicalmethods and the use of the cone
penetrometer, which through correlations allow an
estimation of material type.

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Recovery of Samples and Cores
Objectives
Samples of geologic materials are recovered to allow detailed examination for
identification and classification, and to provide specimens for laboratory
testing to obtain data on their physical and engineering properties.

Sample Classes Based on Quality


Totally disturbed samples are characterized by the complete destruction of
fabric and structure and the mixing of materials such as that occurring in
wash and auger samples.

Representative samples are partially deformed. The engineering properties


(strength, compressibility, and permeability) are changed, but the original
fabric and structure vary from unchanged to distorted, and are still apparent.
Such distortion occurs with split-barrel samples.

Undisturbed samples may display slight deformations around their


perimeter, but for the most part, the engineering properties are unchanged.
Such results are obtained with tube or block samples.

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Sampler Selection
A number of factors are considered in the selection of samplers,
including:
1. Sample use, which varies from general determination of
material (wash sampler), to examination of material and fabric
and in situ testing (split-barrel sampler), to performing
laboratory index tests (split-barrel sampler), and to carrying out
laboratory engineering-properties tests (UD).
2. Soil type, since some samplers are suited only for particular
conditions, such as soft to firm soils vs. hard soils.
3. Rock conditions, since various combinations of rock bits and
core barrels are used, depending on rock type and quality and
the amount of recovery required.
4. Surface conditions, which vary from land or quiet water to
shallow or deep water with moderate to heavy swells.

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Hydraulic Properties
Hydraulic properties, expressed in terms of permeability, are engineering
properties. They concern the flow of fluids through geologic media.

Mechanical Properties
Rupture strength and deformation characteristics are mechanical
properties. They are also engineering properties, and are grouped as static
or dynamic.

Correlations
Measurements of hydraulic and mechanical properties, which provide the
basis for all engineering analyses, are often costly or difficult to obtain with
reliable accuracy. Correlations based on basic or index properties, with
data obtained from other investigations in which extensive testing was
employed or engineering properties were evaluated by back-analysis of
failures, provide data for preliminary engineering studies as well as a check
on the reasonableness of data obtained during investigation

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Rock masses are usually tested in situ to measure their engineering
properties, as well as their basic properties. In situ tests in rock masses,
their applications, and their limitations are summarized in Table 2.4.

Soils are tested in situ to obtain measures of engineering properties to


supplement laboratory data, and in conditions where undisturbed
sampling is difficult or not practical such as with highly organic
materials, cohesionless granular soils, fissured clays, and cohesive
soils with large granular particles (such as glacial till and residual soils).

In situ soil tests, properties measured, applications, and limitations are


summarized in Table 2.5.

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Drilling and trial pitting are normally carried out for a number of reasons,
such as:
1. to establish the general nature of the strata below a site;
2. to establish the vertical or lateral variability of soil conditions;
3. to verify the interpretation of geophysical surveys;
4. to obtain samples for laboratory testing;
5. to allow in situ tests to be carried out; and
6. to install instruments such as piezometers, or extensometers

Geophysical methods (Chapter 4) may be used for:


1.Geological investigation, for example in determining the thickness of soft,
superficial deposits, and the depth to rock, and in establishing weathering
profiles, usually to provide cross sections;
2.Resource assessment, for example the location of aquifers, the
delineation of saline intrusion,the exploration of the extent of sand and
gravel deposits, and rock for aggregate;
3.Detecting critical buried features, such as voids (mineshafts, natural
cavities, adits, pipelines)and buried artefacts (old foundations, wrecks at
sea, etc.); and
4.Determining engineering parameters, such as dynamic elastic module,
and soil corrosivity.
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Information may be obtained in situ in at least three ways:
1. By using geophysical techniques; in particular, Chapter 4
showed how seismic techniques may be used to obtain
valuable estimates of the stiffness of the ground;
2. By using in situ soil testing techniques, such as those
described in this chapter; and
3. By making measurements using field instrumentation, such
as is described in Chapter 10.

STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 43


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Shelby Tubes
Air
release Disturbance zones

B Tension zone
t
Compression
B zone
B

Twist to shear Little strain if ratio B/t is large


base soil
i.e. 40
STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide
2011 Slide4444
Recommended dimensions

inside clearance1% maximum

Dw - B
inside clearance =
B
t area ratio < 10%
B
net projected area of sampler D 2w D e2
area ratio = =
projected area of sample core D e2
Dw
De

STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide


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STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide


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Sample
liner

Auger

Hollow Flight Augur


Cutter
- better class of sample than Shelby tubes

Sample

STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide


2011 Slide4747

 

    
 

 

STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide


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Oct - 2010
Falling weight

Soil penetration

STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide


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SPT Device
http://www.archway-
engineering.com/products/spt_sampler.html
Automatic trip hammer

soil catchers

Split with sampling tip

Assembled with solid tip

Split spoon sampler

STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide


2011 Slide5050
Oct - 2010
Cone Resistance, qc Friction Resist, fc Friction Ratio, Fr
(MPa) (kPa) (% )
0 2 4 6 8 10 0 100 200 300 400 500 0 10 20
0 0 0

1 1 1

2 2 2
Depth (m)

3 3 3

4 4 4

5 5 5

STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide


2011 Slide5151
100

clayey silts,
sandy silts,
silty sands

silty clays
silts
sands

Cone Resistance, qc MPa


10

CPT & soil type


- one example

clays

Robertson & Campanella 1982


0.1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide
2011 Slide5252
Friction Ratio, Fr %
STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 53
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26/12/2011
OPERASI
MENILAI BAGAIMANA KONDISI GEOTEKNIK
SELAMA PENYELIDIKAN AWAL APAKAH SESUAI
PERANCANGAN PARAMETER KELAYAKAN.
MENYUSUN DAN MELAKSANAKAN SECARA TERUS
MENERUS PENGUMPULAN DATA SEBAGAI BAGIAN
DARI GEOLOGI PERTAMBANGAN DAN GEOTEKNIK.
RANCANGAN DAN MELAKSANAKAN RENCANA
PADA STUDI KELAYAKAN SEPERTI :
- PELEDAKAN AKHIR DAN PENGGALIAN
- PENYANGGA LERENG
- MENGUBAH GEOMETRI LERENG
- DEPRESSURISATION LERENG

STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 54


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MELAKSANAKAN PEMANTAUAN LERENG.
RANCANGAN DAN MELAKSANAKAN RENCANA
HIDROGEOLOGI, MEMANTAU DEBIT ALIRAN AIR
ATAU AIR BAWAH TANAH.
TERUS MENERUS MERUBAH PERANCANGAN
LERENG SELAMA UMUR TAMBANG SEPERTI
PERUBAHAN KONDISI GEOTEKNIS ATAU KARENA
ALASAN EKONOMI.

STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 55


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26/12/2011
HUB MINE DEVELOPMENT AND GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION

MINE OR PROJECT STATUS

MAIN SOUCRE

OF GEOTCHNICAL
PRELIMINARY PRE-FEASIBILITY FEASIBILITY DESIGN OPERATING

OR GROUNDWATER

KNOWLEDGE

EXPLORATION DATA

GEOTECHNICAL

INVESTIGATION

DRILLING

MAPPING

LABORATORY TESTING

STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 56


MINE2011
GEOLOGY 26/12/2011
Open Pit Slope Design - Objectives
The Challenge
Design must ensure that a level of safety is achieved which is
acceptable to the owner and Regulatory bodies.
Design must ensure security of the value embodied in the
orebody.
Design must be economically optimal so that maximum return is
obtained from the investment.

Reduced Waste
$$$$

Orebody

Increased Ore
Extraction $$$$

STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide


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Oct - 2010
STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide
2011 Slide5858
Oct - 2010
The Investigation

STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide


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Oct - 2010
TUJUAN UTAMA PENYELIDIKAN GEOTEKNIK
PADA TAHAP PRELIMINARY :
MENGELOMPOKKAN UNIT-UNIT GEOLOGI DAN
STRUKTUR UNTUK MODEL GEOTEKNIK AWAL

MENGIDENTIFIKASI FAKTOR-FAKTOR GEOTEKNIK


DAN AIR TANAH YANG DAPAT MEMPENGARUHI
RANCANGAN

MENGIDENTIFIKASI GAP ANTARA MODEL


GEOTEKNIK DAN GEOLOGI

STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 60


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PRE-FEASIBILITY
MENGELOMPOKKAN UNIT-UNIT GEOLOGI DAN
STRUKTUR UNTUK MODEL GEOTEKNIK AWAL

MENGIDENTIFIKASI FAKTOR-FAKTOR GEOTEKNIK


DAN AIR TANAH YANG DAPAT MEMPENGARUHI
RANCANGAN

MENGIDENTIFIKASI GAP ANTARA MODEL


GEOTEKNIK DAN GEOLOGI

MENGKONFIRMASI MODEL GEOTEKNIK AWAL


TERMASUK KUANTIFIKASI DASAR PARAMETER
RANCANGAN

MERENCANAKAN DAN MELAKUKAN PENYELIDIKAN


GEOTEKNIK DAN HIDROGEOLOGI
STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 61
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FEASIBILITY

MERENCANAKAN DAN MELAKUKAN


PENYELIDIKAN GEOTEKNIK DAN AIR TANAH

MELENGKAPI MODEL GEOTEKNIK SAMPAI


PADA LEVEL YANG DIPERLUKAN,
TERMASUK SEMUA PARAMETER KUNCI
RANCANGAN

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OPERATING
MENGAWALI PENYELIDIKAN UNTUK
MENGECEK PARAMETER KUNCI YANG
DIGUNAKAN DALAM TAHAP FEASIBILITY

MERENCANAKAN DAN MELAKUKAN


PENYELIDIKAN PARAMETER KUNCI YANG
SEBELUMNYA BELUM DIKUANTIFIKASI

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STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 64
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26/12/2011
STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 65
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26/12/2011
Open Pit Slope Design - Objectives
The Challenge
Design must ensure that a level of safety is achieved which is
acceptable to the owner and Regulatory bodies.
Design must ensure security of the value embodied in the
orebody.
Design must be economically optimal so that maximum return is
obtained from the investment.

Reduced Waste
$$$$

Orebody

Increased Ore
Extraction $$$$

STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 66


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26/12/2011
STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 67
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26/12/2011
MEMBERI PERANCANGAN LERENG MENURUT
FALSAFAH YANG DISETUJUI OLEH PERENCANA
TAMBANG DAN PEMILIK PROYEK. SUDUT
PERANCANGAN LERENG TERGANTUNG PADA
PENGEMBANGAN TAMBANG, DENGAN
TOLERANSI SEBAGAI BERIKUT :

OPEN PIT : SUDUT OVERALL + 1O - 3O


STRIP MINE : SUDUT HIGHWALL + 5O
SUDUT SPOIL PILE + 1O - 3O

OPEN PIT (BATUAN KERAS)

STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 68


2011 26/12/2011
Oct - 2010
68 Commercial in Confidence: Technology and Innovation 26 December 2011
MEMBERI PERANCANGAN LERENG SECARA
DETAIL TERMASUK TINGGI JENJANG, LEBAR
BERM, SUDUT JENJANG, INTERAMP DAN SUDUT
OVERALL PIT SLOPE MAKSIMUM PADA TIAP
BAGIAN PERANCANGAN TAMBANG.
MEMBERI PERANCANGAN DETAIL UNTUK
EXTERNAL WASTE DUMPS.
STRIP MINE (BATUBARA)
MEMBERI PERANCANGAN DETAIL LERENG
TERMASUK: SUDUT HIGHWALL, SUDUT SPOIL
DUMP, PERANCANGAN PIT WASTE DUMP, SUDUT
LOW WALL, PERANCANGAN FOOTWALL, JARAK
DENGAN MESIN.

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MEMPERKIRAKAN PENGERINGAN TAMBANG
TERMASUK DESAIN DETAIL, RANCANGAN,
SPESIFIKASI DAN BIAYA.
BERSAMA DENGAN PERENCANA TAMBANG DAN
PARA AHLI GEOTEKNIK MEMASTIKAN
PERANCANGAN AIR BAWAH TANAH SESUAI DAN
TIDAK AKAN MERUGIKAN OPERASI
PENAMBANGAN.
BERSAMA DENGAN PERENCANA TAMBANG
MERANCANG JALAN MASUK ANGKUTAN DAN
RESIKONYA SECARA EKONOMIS.
STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 70
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26/12/2011
MEMBERI PETUNJUK PADA TEKNIK PELEDAKAN
AKHIR DAN PERALATAN YANG SESUAI.
BERSAMA DENGAN PERENCANA TAMBANG
MEMILIH STAFF UNTUK MASALAH GEOTEKNIK
ATAU AIR BAWAH TANAH.
RANCANGAN DAN BIAYA PROGRAM PEMANTAUAN
AIR BAWAH TANAH.
LAPORAN YANG JELAS MENGENAI KELAYAKAN
PERTAMBANGAN YANG DIRENCANAKAN.
MERANCANG DAN MEMANTAU PERALATAN YANG
DIGUNAKAN PADA OPERASI.

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KELAYAKAN
PENYELIDIKAN GEOTEKNIK DAN HIDROGEOLOGI
DILAKUKAN LEBIH RINCI DAN SPESIFIK YANG
DISESUAIKAN DENGAN ALAT DAN METODA
PERTAMBANGAN.

MEMBERI PENILAIAN STATISTIK PADA SEMUA


PARAMETER TEKNIK PERANCANGAN TERMASUK
RATA-RATA DAN DISTRIBUSI UNTUK SEMUA UNIT
GEOTEKNIK.

BERSAMA DENGAN PERENCANA TAMBANG


MEMASTIKAN FAKTOR-FAKTOR GEOTEKNIK YANG
BERHUBUNGAN DENGAN PERANCANGAN.

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PRA KELAYAKAN
GEOTEKNIK PENDAHULUAN, SAMPLING
HIDROGEOLOGI, DAN UJI.

PENYUSUNAN MODEL DASAR GEOTEKNIK UNTUK


LOKASI TERMASUK PENYELIDIKAN EKSPLORASI
YANG DIDASARKAN PADA DATA GEOTEKNIK DAN
HIDROGEOLOGI UNTUK TIAP MASSA BATUAN DAN
PERKIRAAN AWAL DARI PARAMETER
PERANCANGAN.

MEMPERKIRAKAN PENGARUH AIR BAWAH TANAH


PADA PERANCANGAN LERENG UNTUK PROSES
PENGERINGAN PADA TAMBANG, SKALA
PENGERINGAN YANG POTENSIAL, PELAKSANAAN,
WAKTU DAN BIAYA DALAM BATAS WAKTU YANG
DITENTUKAN.
STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 73
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MEMBERI PERANCANGAN LERENG SECARA
DETAIL :
OPEN PIT : + 5O-10O
STRIP MINE : 10O
BERSAMA-SAMA DENGAN PERENCANAAN
TAMBANG MEMBERI PETUNJUK PEMILIHAN
PERALATAN DAN METODA PERTAMBANGAN.
MENGETAHUI FAKTOR-FAKTOR GEOTEKNIK DAN
HIDROGEOLOGI YANG MEMPENGARUHI
PERANCANGAN TAMBANG DAN YANG BELUM
SESUAI.
RANCANGAN DAN BIAYA DARI AKHIR
PENYELIDIKAN YANG DIPERLUKAN UNTUK
TINGKAT STUDI KELAYAKAN.
STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 74
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GEOTEKNIK TAMBANG

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Urutan Penyelidikan
Relevan dengan upaya memenuhi ketersediaan
data atas tuntutan tadi, diperlukan sederetan
kronologi penyelidikan sbb :

RECONNAISSANCE
PRELIMINARY STUDY
FEASIBILITY STUDY
STUDY DURING CONSTRUCTION
STUDY AFTER CONSTRUCTION (MAINTENANCE)

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MANFAAT

Memperoleh kesimpulan potensi dan kendala


lahan/material
Aspek batuan, struktur geologi
dan morfologi.

Menunjang kebijakan desain fondasi bangunan


termasuk desain galian atau eskavasi, e.g. terowongan.

Antisipasi bencana geologi dan dampaknya terhadap


infrastruktur.

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TAHAP-TAHAP PERTAMBANGAN DAN
SASARAN GEOTEKNIK

TAHAP PENDAHULUAN
GEOLOGI YANG LUAS.
MENGETAHUI GEOTEKNIK DAN AIR BAWAH
TANAH YANG MEMPENGARUHI PERTAMBANGAN.
MENGETAHUI MODEL GEOLOGI.
MEMBERI PETUNJUK PADA PEMAKAIAN SISTEM
PERTAMBANGAN YANG BERBEDA DAN
PERLENGKAPAN PADA SUATU ENDAPAN.

STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 78


2011
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MEMBERI MASUKAN GEOTEKNIK PADA
PROGRAM EKSPLORASI.
MEMBERI PETUNJUK PERANCANGAN LERENG.
MENGETAHUI GEOTEKNIK DAN AIR BAWAH
TANAH YANG MEMPENGARUHI PERTAMBANGAN.
RANCANGAN DAN SUSUNAN SPESIFIK MENGENAI
GEOTEKNIK DAN PROGRAM PENELITIAN AIR
BAWAH TANAH.

STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 79


2011
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OBJECTIVES

Subsurface conditions
Strength of foundation strata
Settlement, deformation
Groundwater level and quality

STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 80


2011 26/12/2011
Oct - 2010
Sampling

Samples must represent the soil wrt:


structure or soil fabric
m.c. & density
Samples relatively undisturbed
large diameter samples?
sampling technique has a large influence
Samples
sealed & stored away from the sun
STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 81
2011
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Class of sample

What you can use the sample for


Class depends on the method chosen,the soil & its
condition
Example:
a) sand from an SPT - classification only (4)
b) silt using Shelby tubes - mc & classification (3)
c) firm to stiff OC clay using Shelby tubes
- anything! (1)

STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 82


2011
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Shelby Tubes
Air
release Disturbance zones

B Tension zone
t
Compression
B zone
B

Twist to shear Little strain if ratio B/t is large


base soil
i.e. 40
STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 83
2011
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Recommended dimensions

inside clearance1% maximum

Dw - B
inside clearance =
B
t area ratio < 10%
B
net projected area of sampler D 2w D e2
area ratio = =
projected area of sample core D e2
Dw
De

STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 84


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STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 85


2011
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Sample
liner

Auger

Hollow Flight Augur


Cutter
- better class of sample than Shelby tubes

Sample

STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 86


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STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 87


2011
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Soil penetration tests

1. DCP = Dynamic cone penetrometer


falling weight hammer driving a graduated rod

2. SPT = Standard penetration test


falling weight hammer driving a thick-walled,
split sampling tube

3. CPT = quasi-static Cone penetration test


solid instrumented cone, pushed at 2 cm/sec
into the ground
STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 88
2011
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Soil penetration tests

DCP One person operation;


Maxm. depth approx. 1 m
SPT Drilling rig required;
Test within boreholes;
Recovers a sample;
Slow testing over soil profile;
Results are operator & equipment dependent
CPT No borehole;
Sufficient dead weight for penetration? Many
Soundings made in a day;
Continuous recording of data;
Soil type from friction ratio and the tip resistance
STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 89
2011
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SPT

A thick split spoon sampler with a driving shoe,


OD 50.8 mm & ID 34.9 mm, is driven into the
soil at the bottom of a borehole
Falling mass of 63.5 kg & fall height = 0.76 m
450 mm of penetration, the resistance to
penetration of last 300 mm is recorded as
number of standard blows or SPT count, N
STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 90
2011
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SPT

A number of corrections are applied to the


recorded blowcount for:
1. Efficiency of driving system
2. Length of driving rods
3. Overburden pressure
(dead weight vertical stress)
4. Water table

STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 91


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Pore water
pressure
sensor

STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 92


2011
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CPT

STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 93


2011
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STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 94
2011
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CPT, Cone Penetration Test

Less robust than SPT, much faster


No soil sample
Much information
penetration resistance, qc & sleeve friction, fs

FR = fs/qc used to distinguish soil types


Direct application to piling
E = fn (qc)
STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 95
2011
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CPT and soil properties

Undrained shear strength


of clays,
qc
su = cu usually su = vo
Nk
Nk = 12 to 15

Correlation improved if
OCR taken into account

Direct application to piling


STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 96
2011
CPT and soil properties

Shear strength of
qc

max = arctan 0.1 + 0.38 log
clean sands vo

= fn (qc/vo)0.5

Kulhawy & Mayne 1990

STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 97


2011
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Other Field Tests

Helical plate (dia. 150 mm) attached to


rods

Screwed below borehole; pushed to fail


soil

Mini-plate loading test

Soil strength and stiffness


STTNAS YOGYAKARTA Slide 98
2011
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