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The Relationship between Social Media and Perspectives of

Humanities and Social Sciences Students on Governance

Nouran Hisham Mohammed Nagiub

Chloie Nicole Javier

Gemwel Mariel J. Jumalon

Mary Verg E. Mabida

Deanne Jel M. Martel

Alessandro Kennz Nioda

Jamal B. Sani

Xavier University Ateneo de Cagayan

We have adhered to University policy regarding academic

honesty in completing this assignment.

Submitted to Abdul Hatta B. Derico on behalf of the faculty of Senior High School in

partial fulfillment of the requirements for Grade 12, 1st Semester, S.Y. 20172018.
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Table of Contents

Page

Introduction1

Background of the Study.....1

Statement of the Problem4

Research Questions.5

Research Hypothesis...6

Theoretical Framework6

Significance of the Study.7

Scope and Delimitation...8

Definition of Key Terms.9

References..11
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Introduction

Background of the Study

Prior to Spanish colonization, there has existed a play of power among peoples of

the seven thousand island archipelago which, in the present, form the Republic of the

Philippines. Diverse and heterogeneous societies were once established, with culture and

tradition as a factor of such variation. The influence brought by traders and settlers like

the Muslims and Indians, as well as essentials of the community, shaped pre-colonial

politics (Scott, 1979).

Today, the play of power has been more localized and more prioritized than ever

with information and communication technologies, especially the Internet, entering the

State for the past decades. With the development of businesses, organizations,

institutions, and separate homes, the government would have to give in to occurring

trends and adapt with the current environment, because as societal standards gradually

increase, so are demands and pressure from the masses. They want complementary

information on agencies and their officials for instances of decision making. At the same

time, the government seeks feedback with improvement of citizens trust through online

and digital means of accountability and transparency in spite of mired contemporary

problems (Song & Lee, 2015).

Among trends, also strategies, brought by technology incorporated into the

Philippines are e-Governance and e-Government, also known as e-Gov, utilized by other

countries as well. It is the use of information and communications technology (ICT) and

other web-based technologies to enhance access of information and improve delivery,

efficiency and effectiveness of service to the public (Department of Information and


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Communications Technology, n.d.). As public service is broad and extensive for the

citizens, so is e-Government. It can take on abundant forms, but they have a unifying

purpose: it, however complicated, is simply to revolutionize the public domain and

facilitate e-democracyto move towards decentralized and participatory systems and to

distance from traditional, top-down politics and approaches (Siar, 2005).

Graham and Avery (2013) assert that communication with constituents can be

more frequent, open, and targeted. To show frequency, openness, and targets in e-

Governance, Siar (2005) formulated a table serving as an outcome for her study. It shows

six different categories of an e-Government based on functions, with its respective

relevant resources that are technology-based. A function integrated into the table is to

provide linkage and interaction between government and citizens and other groups in

society: both vertical communicationand horizontal communication (Siar, 2005). She

has elaborated that both kinds are different, such that the former exists between the

government and its constituents belonging to different groups in society, and the latter

among citizens from said groups. Resources for this function are separated too, also

based on vertical communication (in the form of contact numbers, emails, polls, and

feedback pages) and horizontal communication (in the form of discussion fora, chat, and

the like).

e-Governances capabilities extend much of our State, for it brings outcomes

affecting the political atmosphere, one of which is satisfaction ratings released by the

Social Weather Stations as a public service. Out of 1,200 adults from various parts of the

Philippines through face-to-face interviews conducted from June 23-26, 2017, 78% and

60% of them are satisfied with the performance of President Rodrigo R. Duterte and Vice
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President Leni Robredo, respectively (Social Weather Stations, 2017a, 2017b). Given the

preceding information, it can be posited that Filipinos believe that the current

administration as of submission time possesses good governance with its characteristics:

participation, orientation with consensus, accountability, transparency, responsiveness,

effectiveness and efficiency, equity and inclusivity, and adherence to the rule of law

Furthermore, they put their trust in the executives in sustaining human development.

(United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, n.d.). Another

outcome from the bounds of e-Governance is the existence of public opinion and

discourse, more importantly in social media. In every proposition or issue, there are those

who are for and against. Some belong either in the middle or beyond the spectrum. These

make up the collective views of people in a society (Anonymous, 2016). Through

cognizance from the impact of newswhether factual or fabricatedand influence from

columnists, account users, and even the elite, points of view and takes in politics and

governance are thought of, considering that certain freedoms are not suspended and

democracy is primary in the State. Hand and Ching (2011) points out that through social

media, citizens can receive information based on their inputs gathered by practitioners of

public relations in the government.

As e-Governance and e-Government have been prevalent for the past years, they

still have its drawbacks and gaps on the way to being developed. Pertierra (2012) argued

that government agencies practicing the trends are not utilizing them well to the point of

governmentality significantly improved, and online services are either less than frequently

or never used at all. Moreover, there is lack of literature and studies that may analyze and

address issues surrounding these foci and Senior High School students, especially on
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the fact that SHS, executed by the government, particularly the Department of Education,

is newly implemented in the State. A research example in line with the gap is from Olao

(2014), in which she examines the manifestation of e-Governance in selected government

agencies with their websites and social media sites with data from respondents in Metro

Manila. With Senior High School in its infancy, more knowledge is yet to be discovered

by the studentry and the academe alike.

With our focus on social media, public opinion, and discourse in relation to

Philippine politics and governance, being part of the pioneering class of SHS lets the

researchers of this study to fill the gaps through conducting it with profound analysis,

references, and findings, leading to new information from the angle on Humanities and

Social Sciences students.

Statement of the Problem

The study would like to find out the relationship of social media and the

perspectives of the Humanities and Social Sciences students of Xavier University Senior

High School with regards to the Philippine government.

This is in association with gaps in research, as presented in the background of the

study. One gap is that government agencies are not utilizing ICT well through their own

websites, as pointed out by Pertierra (2012). Another is the lack of literature and studies

concerning Senior High School, as this level of basic education is only in its second year

of implementation.

Ones opinion may be formed through its surroundings and personal stands.

However, its perspective may also be affected through social influence, in which it

includes social media. Lately, it has become extremely mainstream and well known
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especially to millennials of this age. Lenhart (2015) reports that 91% of teenagers go

online from mobile devices at irregular intervals, and among them, 94% go online

everyday or more frequently. This signifies that many teenagers are possibly media

literate, and they consume social media content on a daily basis. With this finding can the

researchers argue that the paper, with its young participants, is relevant in todays world

in the 21st century, as information and communications technologies are widespread and

online discourse develops.

Research Questions

In accordance with the problem statement, the paper sought to find the answer to

the general research question:

Is there a relationship between social media and the perspectives of the

Humanities and Social Sciences students of Xavier University Senior High School with

regards to governance in the Philippines?

Specifically, the paper also sought to answer the following specific research

questions:

1. What is the relationship between social media and the perspectives of the

Humanities and Social Sciences students of Xavier University Senior High

School with regards to governance in the Philippines?

2. Is there a relationship between the number of hours students spend in social

media and their perspectives on governance in the Philippines?

3. Is there a relationship between social media and the students critical thinking

skills with regards to governance in the Philippines?


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Research Hypothesis

The researchers have formulated two hypotheses for this correlational research.

They are both non-directional, which means that a particular direction is not specified.

H0 = There is no relationship between social media and the perspectives of the

Humanities and Social Sciences students of Xavier University Senior High School with

regards to governance in the Philippines.

HA = There is a relationship between social media and the perspectives of the

Humanities and Social Sciences students of Xavier University Senior High School with

regards to governance in the Philippines.

Theoretical Framework

The theoretical framework that serves as a guide in realizing the study is anchored

on the systems theory created by biologist Ludwig von Bertalanffy (1968). It is meant to

explain interrelationships and overlaps of disciplines. He argued that for a problem to be

solved, its different parts should be integrated and not isolated.

University of Twente (n.d.) defines a system as a set of things that affect one

another within an environment and form a larger pattern that is different from any of the

parts. It is goal-seeking. Four elements form a system. The first is objectsparts or

variables within the system. Depending on its nature, it can either be physical or abstract.

The second is attributesthe systems and its objects properties. The third is internal

relationships within it, and the fourth is its home: the environment.
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Figure 1. Simple system model (Littlejohn, 1999).

As shown by a model by Littlejohn (1999), it resembles communication. In an

environment is a system, with inputs that are processed in transformation into results or

outcomes. Communication will not be complete without feedback to the input.

The systems theory is appropriate to the study because if one takes into account

e-Government and e-Governance, this is how these concepts work on the relationship

between agencies and citizens, whether informational, transactional, or through means

of social media. It would be easy for the researchers to put it into practical use.

Significance of the Study

The study will give benefit to the following groups or individuals:

The Philippine government. After appreciating the importance of e-Governance

and e-Government in delivering service to the citizens, officials, from national to local,

shall have a basis for enhance their online and digital platforms in which their constituents

will also improve regardless of traits and characteristics. Moreover, through findings from

the responses of participants comprised of teenagers and young adults, agencies can

bring appeal to the youth whom they can motivate to be more involved in public affairs.
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The Humanities and Social Sciences students. After active participation in the

study through the researchers methodology, they shall discover, comprehend, and

strengthen their skills in critical thinking and media literacy while facing challenges in the

present, utilizing ICT and social media in everyday life, and being democratic citizens

within the State bearing a sense of pride and confidence.

The future researchers. After coming into conclusions done by the paper, the

researchers shall fill in research gaps and make way for students and scholars to continue

developing the work done and ideas thought of.

Scope and Delimitation

The study focuses on the relationship between social media and the perspectives

of students from the Humanities and Social Sciences students strand on the Philippine

government. This focus is also the objective of the researchers. Social media shall be

delimited to social networking sites only. It shall also focus on the length of time spent

and critical thinking skills, for they also influence such perspectives. The study shall

address issues concerning the gaps in research, namely the governments utilization of

ICT and the lack of literature and studies with Senior High School as a focus.

The study is to be conducted at Xavier University Ateneo de Cagayan. The

researchers have chosen this institution, as it is also where they are currently studying

and is of closest proximity in contrast to the other schools in Cagayan de Oro City wherein

they will have to undergo paperwork and anonymity.

The study shall be carried out within the Academic Year 20172018, as per verbal

statements from persons of authority like the faculty, it is required for the students to direct

a study for both first and second semesters.


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The participants are the students of Humanities and Social Sciences students

(HUMSS) who enrolled last 2016 in Xavier University Senior High School (XUSHS) and

are expected to graduate by 2018. They are part of the first batch of Senior High School

students from the Philippines, educated under the bounds of Republic Act 10533. The

researchers have decided to delimit the whole XUSHS community to a particular strand

due to its large number of enrollees. No restrictions are enforced in this study on the basis

of sex, age, and economic status, but they should have firsthand, personal experience

prior to writing this paper in using ICT, particularly the Internet, as websites of the

government and social network are found there.

The participants responses will be received from a survey-questionnaire that will

be given to them for the sole purpose of research. To minimize the threat to validity, the

means shall be analyzed and verified by the researchers adviser.

Definition of Key Terms

The following terms, arranged in alphabetical order, are defined by the Collins

Dictionary, unless stated otherwise through citation.

e-Government: the use of information and communications technology (ICT) and

other web-based technologies to enhance access of information and improve delivery,

efficiency and effectiveness of service to the public (Department of Information and

Communications Technology, n.d.).

Government: activities, methods, and principles involved in governing a country

or other political unit.

Humanities and Social Sciences: a strand of the Academic Track in Senior High

School; also known as HUMSS; a variety of subjects are taught, directed towards the
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development of critical thinking while looking at the world, its people from various points

of view, and ideas and beliefs that have guided human beings and shaped civilizations

(Mapa University, n.d.).

Senior High School (SHS): the last two years of the K to 12 program and includes

Grades 11 and 12. In SHS, students will go through a core curriculum and subjects under

a track of their choice (Department of Education, n.d.).

Social media: websites and computer programs that make communication

possible with the use of computers or mobile phones.


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References

Anonymous. (2016). American government and politics in the information age. Minnesota:

University of Minnesota Libraries Publishing.

Department of Information and Communications Technology. (n.d.). E-government.

Retrieved from http://www.dict.gov.ph/egovernment/

Department of Education. (n.d.). Senior high school. Retrieved from

http://www.deped.gov.ph/k-to-12/faq/senior-high-school

Graham, M., & Avery, E.J. (2013). Government public relations and social media: An

analysis of the perceptions and trends of social media use at the local government

level. Public Relations Journal, 7(4).

Hand, L.C., & Ching, B.D. (2011). You have one friend request: An exploration of power

and citizen engagement in local governments use of social media. Administrative

Theory and Praxis, 33, 362382.

Littlejohn, S.W. (1999). Theories of human communication. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth

Publishing Company, Inc.

Lenhart, A. (2015). Teens, social media & technology overview 2015. Retrieved from

http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/04/09/teens-social-media-technology-2015/

Mapa University. (n.d.). Humanities and Social Sciences students. Retrieved from

http://www.mapua.edu.ph/Academics/SeniorHS/HUMSS.aspx

Olao, K.M.N. (2014). e-Gov.ph: Examining e-governance in the Philippines through the

websites and social media sites of selected national government agencies

(Undergraduate thesis). University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City,

Philippines.
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Pertierra, R. (2012). The new media, society & politics in the Philippines. Berlin: fesmedia

Asia.

Scott, W.H. (1979). Class structure in the unhispanized Philippines. Philippine Studies,

27(2), 137159.

Siar, S.V. (2005). E-governance at the local government level in the Philippines: An

assessment of city government websites. Philippine Journal of Development,

32(2), 135168.

Social Weather Stations. (2017a). Second quarter 2017 social weather survey: Pres.

Duterte's net satisfaction rating a new personal record-high of "very good" +66.

Retrieved from

https://www.sws.org.ph/downloads/media_release/pr20170710%20-

%20Satisfaction%20with%20the%20President%20(media%20release).pdf

Social Weather Stations. (2017b). Second quarter 2017 social weather survey: Net

satisfaction ratings for vice-president Robredo a good +36, senate president

Pimentel a good +33, and speaker Alvarez a Moderate +16; chief justice Sereno

a moderate +21. Retrieved from

https://www.sws.org.ph/downloads/media_release/pr20170721%20-

%20Satisfaction%20with%20Top%20Officials%20(media%20release).pdf

Song, C., & Lee, J. (2016). Citizens use of social media in government, perceived

transparency, and trust in government. Public Performance & Management

Review, 39(2), 430453.


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United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. (n.d.). What is

good governance? Retrieved from

http://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/good-governance.pdf

University of Twente. (n.d.). System theory. Retrieved from

https://www.utwente.nl/en/bms/communication-theories/sorted-by-

cluster/Communication%20Processes/System_Theory/

von Bertalanffy, L. (1968). General systems theory. New York: Braziller.