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11.2 Skeletal Muscle

Muscle fibres (myocytes) bound in fascicles

Muscle fibre cell membrane = sarcolemma
Muscle fibres consists of smaller myofibrils
Myofibrils consists of sarcomeres, which have thin actin filaments and thick myosin
A-band full length of thick filament (including overlapping thin filament)
I-band thin filament region
H-zone region of only thick filament

Sliding Filament Model of Contraction

Myosin head binds to myosin binding site on actin cross bridge formation
o Myosin has ADP and P bound
Power stroke, myosin pulls actin towards center of sarcomere, ADP released
Binding of new ATP molecule releases bind between myosin and actin
ATP hydrolysis occurs, myosin head is cocked, readying another cycle

Excitation-Contraction Coupling in Skeletal Muscle

Thin filament contains a troponin-tropomyosin complex in addition to actin
Tropomyosin long fibrous protein that blocks all myosin binding sites
Troponin globular protein bound to tropomyosin
o When Ca binds to troponin, it undergoes a conformational change that moves
tropomyosin, exposing the myosin binding sites so myosin can attach and
filament sliding can occur

Neuromuscular Junction
End plate potential (EPP) depolarization of sarcolemma
Miniature EPP smallest measurable EPP, caused by single ACh vesicle
T-tubules invaginations of sarcolemma, bring wave of depolarization deep to where the
filaments are
Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) releases Ca to where the contractile fibres are

Energy Storage in the Myofiber

ATP provides energy for contraction, but glycolysis and Krebs cycle are not fast enough to
keep up with ATP utilization
Creatine phosphate is the intermediate energy storage molecule that is used
During contraction, creatine phosphate drives the regeneration of ATP from ADP + P

Myoglobin globular protein that provides oxygen reserve by taking O from hemoglobin
and releasing it as needed

Muscle Fibre Types

Slow and fast twitch fibers
Slow twitch fibres take longer to reach maximum tension after stimulation

Type I Slow Twitch

High myoglobin levels, rich blood supply = rich oxygen supply
Many mitochondria
Can maintain contraction for extended periods

Type II Fast Twitch

Type IIA somewhat resistant to fatigue, more mitochondria than type IIB but less than
slow twitch, so far exceed duration of type IIB
o Medium blood supply
Type IIB lack mitochondria, contract quickly with great force, fatigue very quickly
o Low blood supply

11.3 Cardiac Muscle

Similarities of Cardiac and Skeletal Muscle

Both striated because both have thick and thin filaments in sarcomeres
T tubules present in both
Troponin-tropomyosin mechanism in both
Length-tension relationship (preload for cardiac muscle)

Differences of Cardiac and Skeletal Muscle

Cardiac muscle has intercalated discs, is a functional syncytium
Some Ca required for contraction comes from extracellular sources, while in skeletal
muscle, it all comes from SR
Cardiac muscle contraction due to spontaneous depolarization of SA node, not motor
Action potential of cardiac muscles also depends on slow Ca channels to maintain plateau

11.4 Smooth Muscle

Similarities of Smooth and Skeletal Muscle

Both rely on sliding of actin and myosin filaments
Contraction triggered by increase in cytoplasmic Ca

Differences of Smooth and Skeletal Muscle

Smooth muscle cells much narrower and shorter
T tubules absent
Single nucleus

No striations, thin and thick filaments not organized in sarcomeres

Troponin-tropomyosin not present
o Calmodulin binds Ca, activates MCLK
o MCLK phosphorylates myosin molecule, activating its enzymatic/mechanical
Smooth muscle AP much slower because theres no fast Na channels
Some smooth muscle must sustain contractions
Smooth muscle has constantly fluctuating resting potential
Innervated by ANS
o ACh increases SM activity
o NE decreases SM activity

11.6 Connective Tissue

All connective tissue cells derived from fibroblasts
Mostly made of extracellular matrix
Loose connective tissue packing tissues
Dense connective tissue tendons, ligaments, cartilage, bone

11.7 Bone Structure

Main shaft of bone diaphysis

Flared ends epiphysis
Bone may be compact or spongy
o Diaphysis of long bones composed of only compact bone
Diaphysis filled with yellow marrow fatty, inactive
Pores of spongy bone in epiphysis filled with red marrow site of hematopoiesis

Microscopic Structure
Bone composed mainly of collagen and hydroxyapatite
During bone synthesis, collagen layed down in highly ordered manner, hydroxyapatite
crystals form around it
Spongy bone has many spikes called spicules or trabeculae
Compact bone
o Basic unit osteon
o Central canal at center of osteon containing vessels and nerves

11.8 Tissue Found at Joints

Secreted by chondrocytes
Hyaline cartilage strong, somewhat flexible
Elastic cartilage more flexible
Fibrous cartilage very rigid

Ligaments, Tendons, Joints

Ligaments and tendons dense CT
Ligaments bone to bone
Tendons muscle to bone
Synarthroses immovable joints skull
Amphiarthroses slightly movable joints vertebrae
Diarthroses freely movable joints

Moveable joints lubricated by synovial fluid, kept within joint by synovial capsule
Articular cartilage corrects for shape mismatch between two joints

11.9 Bone Growth and Remodelling

Epiphyseal plate disc of hyaline cartilage actively produced by chondrocytes, pulls
epiphysis and diaphysis apart
o Fuses into epiphyseal line

Osteoblasts lay down collagen and hydroxyapatite, surrounds itself with bone, becomes
an osteocyte
Osteoclasts continually degrade bone by destroying hydroxyapatite crystals
Parathyroid hormone stimulates osteoclast activity, promotes renal and intestinal Ca
Calcitriol somewhat stimulates osteoclast activity
Calcitonin inhibit osteoclast activity, decreases renal reabsorption of Ca