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# METHODOLOGY

Circuit Analysis

There are three modes of operation in this converter which is boost mode, buck mode and
rest mode. The buck mode will supply energy from B1 to B2. During this mode, B2 is charged.
Meanwhile, the boost mode, B2 will release an energy to capacitor. The energy that
temporarily stored in capacitor is used to operate any load in left side of the circuit. If B1
located at the left side of the circuit, the capacitor will charged B1.

## a) Boost mode (M1 is OFF and M2 is ON)

During this mode, a momentary discharge current are provides by the converter.
Therefore, the energy is stored in the capacitor. At this mode, M1 is switched OFF and M2
is switched ON and OFF according to the switching frequency.

i) During M2 is HIGH (1), the diode that parallel with M2 is reverse-biased. The current
at the inductor is decreases to zero.

From Figure #,

2 =

= 2

Since,

1
=
1

Therefore,

1
= 2
1

1
1 = 2
(1)

2 1
1 =
(2)
ii) During M2 is LOW (0), the diode that parallel with M1 is forward-biased and
conducts as a free-wheeling diode for the inductor current. At this moment, the
inductor is discharged and the discharge current will start to charge the capacitor.

From Figure #,

1 = + 2

= 1 2

Since,

2
=
2

Therefore,

2
= 1 2
2

1
2 = (3)
1 2

(1 2 )2
2 =
(4)

Since,

|1 | = |2 |

2 1 (1 2 )2
=

2 1 = (1 2 )2

2 (1 + 2 ) = 1 2

2
2 =
1 + 2 1

Let,

1 + 2 =

1
=

Therefore,

(1 )1 = 2 (5)

1 1
+ =
2 1 2

Let,

|1 | = |2 | = 1

1 1
+ =
2 1 2

2 + (1 2 )
1 =
2 (1 2 )

Since,

1
=

(1)(1 2 )
1 =
(6)

## b) Buck mode (M1 is ON and M2 is OFF)

During this mode, B1 is supplying energy to the B2. The inductor charging current will
flow in negative direction.

i) During M1 is HIGH (1), the diode that parallel with M1 is reverse-biased. The
current will charged up the inductor.

From Figure #,

1 = + 2

= 1 2
Since,

3
=
3

Therefore,

3
= 1 2
3

3
3 = (7)
1 2

(1 2 )3
3 = (8)

From Figure #,

= 2

Since,

4
=
4

Therefore,

4
= 2
4

4
4 = 2
(9)

2 4
4 = (10)

Since,

|3 | = |4 |

(1 2 )3 2 4
=

(1 2 )3 = 2 4
2 (3 + 4 ) = 1 3

Let,

3 + 4 =

1 3 = 2

3
2 = 1

Since,

3
=

Therefore,

2 = 1 (11)

## From equation (7) and (9),

3 4
| | + | |=
1 2 2

Let,

|3 | = |4 | = 2

2 2
+ =
1 2 2

2 + (1 2 )
1 =
2 (1 2 )

Since,

1
=

(1 2 )
2 = (12)

c) Rest mode (M1 and M2 are OFF)

During this mode, both M1 and M2 are switched OFF. Therefore, there is no
connection between B1 and B2.

From Figure #,

1 = 1

2 = 2

## The ripple voltage of the capacitor is

=
8
Simulation and Programming Tools.

There are two types of software are used in this project. First, the MATLAB R2014a/Simulink
is used as simulation platform. Simulink library is used to create the schematic diagram and
simulate the virtual circuit. This software is user-friendly and easy to use. The results that
shows by this simulation software may not same as the real operation but it still can be the
guidelines. Figure # shows the example of the circuit that is simulated by this software.

If there is any error or bug in the simulation, a message log will appear and tell the
user where and what the problem is.
Graph of Inductor Current, IL versus Inductor Value, H
0.6

0.5
Inductor Current, IL(A)

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0.0000047 0.000047 0.00047 0.47
Inductor Value, H

## Boost Mode Buck Mode

Figure #: Graph of inductor current, IL versus inductor value for boost mode and
buck mode.

Figure # shows the graph of output inductor current versus inductor value. Based on the
graph, for both boost and buck mode, the larger the inductor value, the lower current draws
from it.