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# CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In a conventional traffic light controller, the lights change at constant cycle time, which

is clearly not the optimal solution. It would be more feasible to pass more cars at the green

interval if there are fewer cars waiting behind the red lights. Obviously, a mathematical model

for this decision is enormously difficult to find, however, with fuzzy logic, it is relatively much

easier. The monitoring and controlling of city traffic is becoming a major problem in many

countries. With the over- increasing number of vehicles on the road, the traffic monitoring

authority or the transport ministry as the authority is known in some cities has to find new ways

or measures for overcoming such problems. The taken measures are development of new roads

and flyovers in the middle of the cities building of several rings such as the inner ring road,

middle ring road and outer ring road, introduction of city trains such as the light rapid transit,

## and also development of sophisticated traffic monitoring and control system.

Each year, the registration of new vehicles is increased by about twenty percent. This

increment is rather alarming and even with the development of the light rapid transit and new

## roads, other measures have to be stepped up and be introduced as quickly as possible. It is

understandable that automatic control system should relieve human from manual control,

however, such automatic system does not work well in many circumstance especially during

oversaturated or unusual load conditions which could be due to limitations of the algorithm or

sensing devices. In this respect, we will discuss the implementation of an intelligent traffic lights

control system using fuzzy logic technology, which has the capability of mimicking human

intelligence for controlling traffic lights. Software based on visual basic has been developed to

## Intelligent control in road traffic intersections can be alternative to a conventional

control where duration of each signal phase is predetermined. In this article fuzzy logic
approach for traffic signals control is considered and applied for an isolated intersection.

Number of vehicles in each lane is measured with loop detectors. At the end of each phase these

numbers are used as inputs to fuzzy controller. Fuzzy controller calculates the next signal phase

duration. A case study conducted on a typical traffic density in an isolated intersection shows

significant improvements in traffic flow, decreasing the total waiting time of vehicles.

Analysis of the traffic lights simulation such as: waiting time, density, cost etc can also

be made using the software. The software can also be used as an exercise for undergraduate and

graduate students to understand the concept of fuzzy logic and its application to real

environment. The rules and membership functions of the fuzzy logic controller can be selected

and be changed and their outputs can be compared in terms of several different representations.

The software is graphical in nature and runs under the windows environment.

Fuzzy logic technology allows the implementation of real-life rules similar to the way

humans would think. For example, humans would think in the following way to control traffic

situation at a certain junction if the traffic is heavier on the north or south lanes and the traffic

on the east or west lanes is less, the he traffic light should stay green longer for the north and

south lanes . Such rules can now be easily accommodated in the fuzzy logic controller. The

beauty of fuzzy logic is that it allows fuzzy terms and conditions such as heavy less and

## longer to be quantized and understood by the computer.

This paper has been organized as follows: First, a brief overview on traffic lights control

system is presented. Then, the development of the software and its usage is next discussed. A

comparison between performance of the fuzzy traffic lights controller and the conventional

## fixed-time controller is attempted and discussed in the section that follows.

This part of the report describes the design procedures of real life application of fuzzy

logic: A smart traffic light controller. The controller is supposed to change the cycle time

depending upon the densities of cars behind green and red lights and the current cycle time.
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

AIM

This project aims at developing a 4junction fuzzy traffic control system and other objectives

are as follows:

## i. To carry out feasibility study on intelligent traffic control

ii. To provide better services to the public and users making the highway safe for motorists

## 1.3 STATEMENT OF THE STUDY

Due to the ever increasing traffic problems such as congestion, road accident and the

growing number of vehicles on our road coupled with the fact our current infrastructure only

provides limited resources which cannot handle our current traffic problems. This has called for

urgent attentions to more efficient techniques to solve traffic problems. There is a need for

strategy with great accuracy to provide lasting solution to the traffic problem, so the need for an

## 1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The benefits of having fuzzy traffic light control system will free the users of the road

from problems such as congestions and accidents on our highways imposed by older hardwire

type of controllers. It will help to improve the traffic congestions in urban areas and reduce the

## stress due to improvement in transportation system.

1.5 JUSTIFICATION

Since this work is indigenous, it can serve to replace the imported ones, it can also

reduce the cost of design and implementation since addition of fewinstruction line to the control

systemfunction at any type of road intersection. The software program for this system can be

modified to incorporate more functionality. This system/trainer also serve as a learning aid.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE WORK

This fuzzy traffic light control is to control a wide range of 4-junction and cross-road

intersections. This work will be limited to the control of the following types of traffic junctions:

## iii. Automobile 4-junction using the three traffic colour

This project work is flexible in that the control program can be modified to incorporate other

CHAPTER TWO

## 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 PRINCIPLES

Traffic lights, which may also be known as stoplights, traffic lamps, traffic signals, stop-

and-go lights, robots or semaphore, are signaling devices positioned at road intersections,

pedestrian crossings and other locations to control competing flows of traffic. Traffic lights have

been installed in most cities around the world, they assign the right of way to road users by the

use of lights in standard colours (red-amber-green), using a universal colour code (and a precise

sequence, for those who are colour blind). The most common traffic light consists of a set of

three lights: red, amber and green when illuminated, the red light indicates for vehicles facing

the light to stop, the amber light indicates caution either because lights are about to turn to green

## or to red and the green light to proceed (if it is safe to do so).

Engineer J.P. (1868), the first traffic lights were installed outside British houses of

parliament in London. They resembled railway signals of the time, with semaphore arms and red

and green gas lamps for night use. The gas lantern was turned with a lever at its base so that the

appropriate light faced traffic. Unfortunately, it exploded on the 2nd of January, 1869 which

## injure the policeman operating it.

The modern traffic light is an American invention which was later invented in 1912 in

Salt Lake City, Utah by James Hoge et al which now allowed the police and fire stations to

control the signals in case of emergency. Therefore the first interconnected traffic signal system

was installed in Salt Lake City 1917 with six connected intersections controlled simultaneously

from a manual Switch. Automatic control of interconnected traffic lights was introduced in

March 1922. The colour of the traffic lights representing stop and go might be derived from

those used to identify port (red) and starboard (green) in maritime rules governing right of way

where the vessel on the left must stop for one crossing on the right.
2.2 TRAFFIC LIGHT TECHNOLOGIES

There are several technologies associated with traffic light control systems. Two thing

will be considered which are optics and lighting and the control module technologies.

## i. Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDS)

In the mid-1990s, cost effective traffic light lamps using light-emitting diodes (LEDS) were

developed, prior to this date, traffic lights were designed using incandescent or halogen bulbs

unlike the incandescent based lamps, which use a single large bulb, the led-based lamps consist

of an array of led elements arranged in various patterns. When viewed from a distance, the array

appears as a continuous light source. Led-based lamps have numerous advantages over

## i. Much greater energy efficiency (can be solar-powered)

ii. Much longer lifetime between replacements, measured in years rather than months

iii. Brighter illumination and less phantom light resulting from reflection of direct sunlight

iv. The ability to display multiple patterns from the same lamps

## ii. Programmable Visibility Signals

Signals such as the3m high visibility signal and McCain Programmable Visibility signal

utilize light diffusing optics and a powerful Fresnel lens to create the signal indication. Lit via a

powerful 150w par46 sealed-beam lamp, the light from the lamp in this Programmable Visibility

signal passes through a set of two glass lenses at the back of the signal. The first lens, a frosted

glass diffusing lens diffuses the light into a uniform ball of light around five inches in a

diameter. The light then passes through a nearly identical lens known as an optical limiter (3ms

definition of the lens itself), also known as a programmable lens also a five inches diameter.

Using a special aluminum foil-based adhesive tape, these signals are masked or programmed via

the programming lens so that only certain lanes of traffic will view he indication. At the front of
this Programmable Visibility signals is a Fresnel lens, each lens tinted to meet United States

institute of transport engineers (ITE) chromatic and luminance standards. The federal lens (3m

utilized a square lens masked to create a ball indication, McCain used a circular lens itself)

amplifies the light output created by the lamp, and creates a uniform display of light for the lane

in which it is intended. These signals were first developed by the 3mm company in the late

1960s, and were wildly popular in the late 1970s as traffic density increased. In addition to

being positioned and mounted for desired visibility for their respective traffics, some traffic

lights are also aimed, louvered, or shaded to minimize miss-interpretation from other lanes. For

example, a Fresnel lens on an adjacent through lane signal may be aimed to prevent left turning

traffic form anticipating its own green arrow. One example of the Fresnel lens application

common in the USA is the 3m model 131 traffic signal (dubbed the programmed visibility

signal). Today, McCain traffic system (a traffic signal manufacturing company based in Vista,

California) is the only us based manufacturer producing true Programmable Visibility traffic

signals. In addition to aiming, Fresnel lenses, and louvers, visors and back panels are also useful

in areas where sunlight would diminish the contrasts and visibility of a signal face.

Typical applications for this signal were skewed intersections, specific multi-control, left-turn

## iii. Conventional Lighting System

Conventional traffic signal lighting, still common in some areas, utilizes a standard light

bulb. Typically, a 67watt or 115 watt medium base (household lamp in the US) light bulb

## provides the illumination.

Light then bounces off a mirrored glass or polished aluminum reflector bowl, and out

through a polycarbonate plastic or glass signal lens. In some signals, these lenses were cut to

## include a specific refracting pattern.

Crouse-hind is one notable company for this practice. In the 1930s throughout the 1950s,

they utilized a boarded prismatic lens with a smiley pattern embossed into the bottom of each

lens.

## 2.2.2 Light Design

In the United States, traffic lights are currently designed with lights approximately 12

inches (300 m) in diameter. Previously the standard had been 8 inches (200 mm) however, these

are slowly being phased out in favour of the larger and more visible 12 inch lights. Variations

used have also included by a hybrid design which had one or more 12 inch lights along with one

or more lights of 8 inches (200 mm) on the same light. For example, these 12-8-8 (along with

8-8-8) lights are standard in most jurisdiction in Ontario, Maitoba, and British Columbia (that

is, the red light is 12 and others 8, making the red more prominent).

In the United Kingdom, 12 inch lights were implemented only with Mellor design

signals heads designed by David Mellor, these were designed for symbolic optics to compensate

for the light loss caused by the symbol. With the invention of anti-phantom, highly visible SIRA

## lenses, so a larger surface area was unnecessary.

Consequently, lights of 12 inches are no longer approved for use in the uk and all lights installed

on new installations have to be 200 millimeters (8 inch) in accordance with TSRGD (traffic

signs regulations and general directions). Exemptions are made for temporary or replacement

signals.

## 2.2.3. Control Module

There are several technologies that can be used to process Boolean algebra which is the brain

behind the control logic which now in turn controls the sequencing operation of the lighting

## 2.2.3.1. Standard cell

Numerous chips are available that realize some commonly used logic circuits, this

standard chips will be referred to because they usually conform to an agreed-upon standard in
terms of functionality and physical configuration. Each standard chip contains a small amount of

circuitry (usually involving fewer than 100 transistors) and performs a simple function. To build

a logic circuit, the designer chooses the chips that perform whatever functions are needed and

then defines how these chips should be interconnected to realize a larger logic circuit.

## 2.2.3.2 Programmable Logic Devices

In contrast to standard chips that have fixed functionality, it is possible to construct chips

that contain circuitry that can be configured by the user to implement wide range of different

logic circuits. These chips have a very general structure and include a collection of

programmable switches that allow the internal circuitry in the chip to be configured in many

different ways. The designer can implement whatever functions are needed for aparticular

## application by choosing an appropriate configuration of the switches. The switches are

programmed by end user rather than when the chip is manufactured. Such chips are known as

programmable logic devices (PLDs). Most types of PLDs can be programmed multiple times,

## this capability is advantageous because a designer who is developing a prototype of a product

can program a PLD to perform some function, but later, when the prototype hardware is being

## Reprogramming might be necessary, for instance, if a designed function is not quite as

intended or if new functions are needed that were not contemplated in the original design.

PLDs are available in a wide range of sizes. They can be used to realize much larger logic

circuits than a typical standard chip can realize because of their size and the fact thatthey can be

tailored to meet the requirements of a specific application, PLDs are widely used today.

Many types of programmable logic devices are available, ranging from small devices that can

replace a few fixed-function devices to complex high-density devices that can replace thousands

of fixed-function devices.
Examples of programmable logic devices are simple programmable logic devices

(SPLDs), complex programmable logic devices (CPLDs), and field programmable gate arrays

(FPGAs).

## 2.2.3 Micro-Code Rom-Based Devices

Another set of devices in use are the micro-instruction coded rom-based microprocessor

devices. The microprocessor is a digital integrated circuit that can be programmed with a series

## of instructions to perform various operations on data. A microprocessor serves as the central

processing unit (CPU) of many devices such as the computer. It can do arithmetic operations,

move data from one place to another, and make decisions based on certain conditions. The

microprocessor and its derivatives are highly used in embedded systems. Basically, a

microprocessor consists of an arithmetic logic unit (ALU), instruction decoder, a register array,

## purchased from different suppliers.

Because they are programmable, they can be used to implement most logic circuits

found in digital hardware. However, in some cases PLDs and microprocessors may not meet the

desired performance or cost objectives. In such situations it is possible to design a chip from the

scratch that is, the logic circuitry that must be included on the chip is designed first and then an

appropriate technology is chosen to implement the chip. This approach is known as custom or

## semi-custom chip making.

Such chips are intended for use in specific applications and are sometimes called

## APPLICATION OF FUZZY TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM

The intelligent traffic light control system has the following applications:
i. It can be configured to serve ate the following types of traffic intersection: 4-junction

with left turn, automobile pedestrian crossing, 4-junction with LED display and 4-

junction with lamps (when interfaced). Just by selecting the right control input, the

control system is meant to behave as a control for the selected road intersection.

ii. This control system/training kit can serve as training equipment for all types road users.

It can be used in schools, driving schools and even at home to educate road users on

traffic behavior and rules governing traffic flow at road intersections and pedestrian

crossing.

iii. It is intelligent enough to count and recognize the number of vehicles on each lane.

## iv. It can provide job opportunities when mass produced.

v. It is meant to replace the imported traffic light heads this being indigenous.

## 2.4 New Trends

Traffic control has advanced technologically, ranging from auto-sensing and control to

dynamic time slot allotment. Traditionally, traffic light timings are fixed in nature, this can

cause a lot of time waste and delay making some busy lanes wait almost indefinitely while the

less busy lanes enjoy free flow since all lanes are assigned equal time intervals both for wait-

and-go phases. A lot of mathematical models and simulations are being formulated to solve

problems of traffic congestions at road intersections using intelligent traffic light system. An

intelligent traffic system detects traffic in many ways. Current traffic systems react to motion to

## The functions of the commission generally relates to:

i. Making the highway safe for motorists and other road users

ii. Recommending works and devices designed to eliminate or minimize accidents on the

highways and advising the Federal and State Governments including the federal capital
territory administration and relevant governmental agencies on the localities where such

## works and devices are required.

iii. Educating motorists and members of the public on the importance of discipline on the

highway
CHAPTER THREE

## SYSTEM INVESTIGATION, ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

3.0 INTRODUCTION

In any software development project, it is imperative to carry out the system study or

system survey of what is obtained. This will enable the system developer to have a good

understanding of the working system. As stated in the introduction, the methodology to be used

for the development of the proposed system follows strictly on object-oriented methodology.

The process model to be used for the project is the Booth, Jacobson and Rumbasugh, which is

known as Rational Objectory process. This is a process model that is structured along

## dimensions, e.g. time Dimension and process Dimension.

The time dimension Structure would be used to model what exist in the convectional or

way of traffic light and this would serve as a foundation to determine the problem statement

which will be examined in greater depth at the elaborating phase. All of these would be

## diagrammatically shown by using unified modeling language (UML).

The dimension would help us to determine the scope and rational for the project and this

would lead us to the process Dimension, which would analyze how the process System would be

built. The deliverables from the time dimension will result in the construction phase, which will

involve series of iterations that build the system. The process dimension explicitly shows how

the system developer/analyst have been able to understand and interpret the requirement of the

## 3.1 OVERVIEW OF OLD TRAFFIC LIGHT SYSTEM

During this course of project, Observation and investigation was made about the

traditional attendance register taken during lecture in order to elicit needed and relevant

information. This input and output of the traditional attendance register are also noted.
In a typical attendance register for student, the student attends lectures, put down or

writes down his or her signature to indicate that the student is present during the lecture. The

lecturer may enter the information into a file based system on the computer. The inefficiency of

the file based system cannot be overemphasized; its major problem is redundancy and can easily

The output is the eligibility of the student to write exam and the continuous assessment

score generated based on the input supplied. Another peculiar problem that may result with this

procedure is the problem of missing attendance list as a result of the sheer volume of data that

processed, a summary of the activities performed a typical learning environment is stated below,

## This would be translated into the modelling diagrams.

Identified Activities

## g. Lecturer Computes Continuous assessment Score

MODELING DIAGRAMS

The unified modeling language, which is the modeling language of choice, would be

used to assist in diagrammatically analyzing the process that are involved as well as exposed

## limitations that may exist in the typical traffic light system.

BLOCK DIAGRAM OVERVIEW

## INPUT CONTROL OUTPUT

SUBSYSTEM SUBSYSTEM SUBSYTEM

CONTROL
ALGORITHM
(IN MEMORY)

## FIG. 1: BLOCK DIAGRAM OVERVIEW

As indicated in Fig. 1 above, the input subsystem comprises a switch panel that passes

input signals to the control system which in turn invokes control algorithm from the systems

## memory for its control operations.

The input signal is used to configure the system to behave as a particular type of traffic junction

controller. The user can select one out of the four types of junction controls at the time of

configuration prior to installation of the panel. When used as a trainer, selection is also made in

a similar manner.

The timing signals are used to control the sequencing of light. The light change cycles through

GREEN, AMBER and RED in response to the timing requirements of the system.

## 3.5 RECOMMENDED ACTIONS

The only way out of the ineffectiveness and inefficiency and inaccuracy identified is to

employ the use of biometrics system with the computer; the problem-solving tool as an

appropriate information system management tools. The world of computing has been endowed

with such vast tools database management software to handle large volume of data as well as aid

in the manipulating of data. The use of the biometric device will identify an individual based on

the unique attributes of the person and verifies that person, the problems identify or in-

## personification is overcome by this system.

With all these, the setback that may be associated with recruitment is displaced. Records

are easily stored, referenced, sorted, accessed and queried. In addition, virtually appealing

informed and detailed reports would be generated to meet the users of the system.

## 3.6 OVERVIEW OF THE PROPOSED SYSTEM

As a result of the traditional system evaluation and the recommendation given above, it

has become really imperative for us to design a system that would not entirely replace the new

system but rather incorporate newer functionalities to the system in a bid to improve on the

## activities of typical attendance list.

The proposed system aims at eliminating the manual procedures used in attendance

registers. The proposed system which is a time end attendance biometric system makes use of a

biometric device, precisely the fingerprint scanner to capture the fingerprint of each student. The

time and attendance software stores the captured fingerprint and records the attendance and time

## 3.6.4 SYSTEM FLOWCHART

This is a design tool used in describing the system in a diagrammatic form by showing

the sequence of steps in the system and the relationship between them. It shows how procedure

## Figure 1: General Outlook of Project

IMAGE PROCESSING

The inputs regarding the number of vehicles at each participating signal are obtained

through vision sensors. Coloured vision provides maximum amount of information regarding

the subject which proves to be quite beneficial most of the times. The same goes in the current

set up in which each vehicle is detected regardless of its colour, shape and location within the

## work space of the vision camera.

The logic uses the background estimation for filtering each vehicle from the background

along with its recognition as an independent variable. The initiation of the system is

accompanied by acquisition of the base frame which is then compared with all the preceding

frames. To be more precise, the base frame pixel values are compared with all the following

frames. Pixel values of base frame are compared with all the following frames and difference in

pixel values form the basis of vehicle recognition. Areas with different pixel values are

## FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER

The number of detected vehicles is sent to the controller which acts as the brain of the

system. The capability of the system to cater inexact data and produce a unique output for each

scenario forms the basis of operation. In order to maximize the depth of input acquisition, six

fuzzy membership functions have been incorporated. Their relationships have been defined in
the form of if else statements in the fuzzy inference system. A total number of 30 rules have

been defined which include all possible scenarios for each traffic signal.

## Figure 5: Output Fuzzy Membership Functions

The concept of extension of signal operation time provides longer green light intervals

for routes with a greater amount of traffic. The testing and functioning of the system has been

carried out on a scaled down version of the whole set up, therefore, overall number of the

Number
Output
S/No. of
Time (s)
Vehicles
1 1-3 5
2 4-5 10
3 6 15
4 7 20

## Table 1: Projected Resultant Output Time according to Different Inputs

PIC16F877A MICROCONTROLLER

The fuzzy logic controller is then followed by the PIC 16F877A microcontroller which

manages the traffic lights according to the data it receives from the controller. The main role of
the microcontroller is to serially receive and manipulate the data from the controller and carry

out particular actions. For instance, when the input to the microcontroller denotes that there are

six vehicles, the output from the microcontroller is 15 seconds. Moreover, the microcontroller

also ensures that the green light of the traffic signals operates in alternate manner. Real-time

functioning of the set up takes into account the traffic conditions only when the microcontroller

## is held at its default state which is during no operation of any signal.

The logic used in programming of the microcontroller and the overall set up has been

## Figure 8: Flowchart of Overall System Working

Figure 9 shows the overall logic used for the whole system where two main stages of

## Simulink and microcontroller are involved.

Figure 9: Traffic Signal Operation

CHAPTER FOUR

## 4.0 SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

4.1 INTRODUCTION

The system implementation phase of a software system entails all procedures that are

carried out to put the computerized system into use. It is the process of describing component,

service and technology of the solution from the perspective of developments required. There are

## It could be a total changeover or parallel implementation. The method adopted is

determined by the nature of the system, the cost that will be involved in changeover, time

## iii. System testing

The user interface is the link between the human user and the computer system. It

includes screens, reports and documentation. Simply, the user interface in any part of the system

the user comes in contact with. The solution must have attractive and user friendly.

## 4.2.1 THE USERS OF THE SYSTEM

The users of this system are the motorist, road users and the database administrator.

## 4.3 REPORT DESIGN

The report generated from this system result generated from the traffic control system

## a. The motor report

b. T-junction delay report.

## 4.4 SCREEN DESIGN

The screen design of this system has been putting into consideration all design

techniques and programming application. The screen is restful to at without dramatic colour

combination or large number of flashing signals. The screen design is consistent and contains

## user interface technology. It is complemented with error-handling mechanisms which handles

errors perfectly. The screen layout is made up of menus to facilitate easy usage of the

application and to access the command and tool contained in the application, control, from,

## 4.5 INTERACTION STYLE

The interaction style used in this new application in user-friendly involves direct

manipulation where the user performs action on the screen corresponding to the tasks to be

carried.

## i. Computer: memory processor pc with 66mttzz or higher, Pentium or higher processor

required.

ii. Memory: 16MB of REM from windows 200 or later (at least 32MB recommended)

information.

## a. Windows Xp operating system

b. Internet explorers or any other browser

c. The system must have email to specified and be configured to send report via email to

specified location. The can be sent monthly or at the end of the semester.

## ii. All passwords template stored in the database must be hashed.

iii. The timer (clock) used by the solution must be secured and not be adjustable by

unauthorized individuals.

i. User manual

## iii. Online tutorials

The user interface of the system is a web user interface. A proficient user of the internet will

## find the user interface self-explanatory.

4.10 TRAINING

The development software application has been done using design principle of software

development. It is design a consistent manner and users if the system can easily identify with

## the functionalities of the system.

4.11 REVIEW AND MAINTENANCE

## ensure that the software still meet its initial objectives.

The system would also need to be reviewed and maintained periodically for the

following reason:

1. To ascertain that the system is able to cope with changing requirement of the system as

## well as the user

2. To ensure that the requirement are met and to ensure that there is enough capacity to

## Maintenance activities of a software system would be divided into:

i. Corrective Maintenance

## iii. Perfective Maintenance

The corrective Maintenance for the project would require running the codes and locating

errors that may result well as correcting the errors. Adaptive maintenance would ensure that the

accommodate changes in software and hardware requirement. The system developed would run

on any windows operating hardware platform with the software requirements stated above.

The preventive maintenance on this system includes proper documentation of all stages

involved as well as the component. The documentation includes the comments in the program

codes as the user guide. Other forms of maintenance are handling of the system component

which include the power supply, memory, hard drive and input devices.

system. A backup of the database should be carried out by the database administrator.
CHAPTER FIVE

## CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Conclusions

In this paper an architecture for creating intelligent systems for controlling road traffic is

proposed. The system is based on simple principle of RFID tracking of vehicles, can operate in

real-time, improve traffic flow and safety, and fully automated saving costly constant human

involvement. The advantages ITCS can provide were demonstrated in detail which vouches for

its effectiveness in traffic management systems. However, it is a debatable issue that to monitor

every vehicle is morally acceptable or, not and whether it is against one of the basic civil rights,

privacy.

5.2 Recommendation

The following are the recommendation required in order to effectively use the new design are:

## The hardware and software requirement should be as specified.

Staff should have basic knowledge of computer operation, the Federal Government should

budget funds for adequate training of all personnels and the staff of Commission should be paid

well in order for them to work effectively and yield maximum results.

The Federal Road Safety on their own part should employ well educated graduates with the right

discipline and qualifications to occupy right positions to function effectively and improve their

REFERENCES