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Teachers Edition

Teachers Edition Level D

Language Arts
Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics

Perfection Learning
CONTENTS
Little Journeys in Language Arts

Introduction to the Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ix


Scope and Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xi
PART ONE NOUNS
Lesson 1 Common and Proper Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1A
Teaching Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1A4
Assessment/Assessment Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4A4B

Lesson 2 Singular and Plural Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5A


Teaching Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5A8
Assessment/Assessment Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8A8B

Lesson 3 Irregular Plural Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9A


Teaching Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9A12
Assessment/Assessment Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12A12B

Lesson 4 Possessive Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13A


Teaching Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13A16
Assessment/Assessment Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16A16B
Review 1 Lessons 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

PART TWO PRONOUNS


Lesson 5 Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21A
Teaching Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21A24
Assessment/Assessment Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24A24B

Lesson 6 Subject Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25A


Teaching Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25A28
Assessment/Assessment Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28A28B

Lesson 7 Object Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29A


Teaching Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29A32
Assessment/Assessment Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32A32B

Lesson 8 Possessive Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33A


Teaching Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33A36
Assessment/Assessment Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36A36B

Contents iii
MECHANICS
C D E
Capitalization
nFirst Word of a Sentence
Proper Nouns nNames and Titles of People
nWith Place Names
nDates
nHolidays
nTimes
nIn Titles of Works
Spelling nNoun Plurals
nPossessive Nouns
nVerb Endings
nComparative Forms
nSpecial Spelling Rules
Punctuation
Periods nEnd of Declarative and Imperative Sentences
nWith Abbreviations
Exclamation Point n
Question Mark n
Commas nWith City and State
nIn Series
nWith Names
nWith Dates
nWith Addresses
nIn Compound Sentences
nWith Direct Address
nWith Introducing Words, Phrases, Clauses
nWith Quotation Marks
nIn Parts of a Letter
Apostrophes nContractions
nPossessive Nouns
Quotation Marks nIn Titles of Works
nDirect Quotation
Colons nWith Time
Underlining/Italics nIn Titles of Works

Scope and Sequence xiii


LESSON 1
COMMON AND PROPER NOUNS
TEACHING PLAN
LESSON OBJECTIVES ASSIGNMENT GUIDE CULMINATING ACTIVITIES
Identify nouns. BASIC Items 16, 716, CHAIN OF NOUNS

3235, 3640
Identify common and Student pairs play a game in
proper nouns. AVERAGE Items 716, 1726, which they provide examples
Proofread sentences for 2731, 3235, 3640 of common and proper
errors in the use of com- CHALLENGING Items 1726, nouns.
mon and proper nouns. 2731, 3235, 3640 WINNING ENTRIES
Write sentences that con- CURRICULUM Students invent ten raffle
tain common and proper CONNECTIONS prizes, using common and
nouns.
LANGUAGE ARTS Reading, proper nouns to specifically
Grammar, Spelling, Writing describe each prize.
SOCIAL STUDIES The Stars
and Stripes

K E Y PO I N T S
E A noun is a word that names a person, place, or thing.
E A common noun names any member of a group of
persons, places, or things. Always use a lowercase letter
to begin a common noun.
Person: child, friend, uncle
Place: state, city, country
Thing: month, holiday, park
E A proper noun names a special person, place, or thing.
Always use a capital letter to begin all important words in
a proper noun.
Person: Liz, Mr. Arisa, Uncle Bob
Place: Ohio, Akron, Peoples Republic of China
Thing: June, Labor Day, Central Park

Common and Proper Nouns Lesson 1 1A


CHALKBOARD WARM-UP
My aunt came by train from Philadelphia.
1. Which word names a person?
2. Which word names a thing?
3. Which word names a specific place?

CHALKBOARD WARM-UP ANSWERS


1. aunt 2. train 3. Philadelphia

1 INTRODUCE
BUILD BACKGROUND Then ask: Why is the word Philadelphia
Review the concept of a noun. Be sure capitalized? (Nouns that name a specific
that students understand that a noun is a person, place, or thing are capitalized.)
word that names a person, place, or thing. Ask: How many nouns are in this sen-
Remind students that there are two kinds tence? (three)
of nouns: nouns that name any person,
place, or thing; and nouns that name a SET LESSON FOCUS
specific person, place, or thing. Ask: Use these points to set the lesson focus:
Does the noun aunt name any person or Explain to the class that in this lesson
a specific one? (any person) they will learn how to identify nouns.
Does the noun Philadelphia name any Explain that a noun that names any per-
place or a specific one? (a specific one) son, place, or thing is a common noun.
A noun that names a specific person,
DEVELOP LESSON FOCUS place, or thing is a proper noun.
Have a volunteer read the model sentence Point out that the first and all important
in the Chalkboard Warm-Up to the class. words in a proper noun begin with a
Discuss the answers to the questions. capital letter. A common noun does not
Next, use the following discussion points begin with a capital letter unless it is the
to develop the lesson focus: first word in a sentence.
Point to the word train and ask: Does Point out how nouns can appear in any
this noun name a general thing or a spe- part of a sentence.
cific one? (a general one)
Repeat this with the word Philadelphia.
1B Common and Proper Nouns Lesson 1
Name Class/Date 2 TEACH
LESSON 1 KEY POINTS:
COMMON AND PROPER
COMMON AND PROPER NOUNS NOUNS Have students
 A noun is a word that names a person, place, or thing.
read the key points and
discuss the examples.
 A common noun names any member of a group of persons, places, or Invite a volunteer to
things. Always use a lowercase letter to begin a common noun.
read aloud each defini-
Person: child, friend, uncle tion and example.
Place: state, city, country
Invite students to
Thing: month, holiday, park
brainstorm other com-
 A proper noun names a special person, place, or thing. Always use a mon nouns for each
capital letter to begin all important words in a proper noun. category, such as sister
Person: Liz, Mr. Arisa, Uncle Bob (person); town (place);
Place: Ohio, Akron, Peoples Republic of China and calendar (thing).
Thing: June, Labor Day, Central Park Continue the activity
by having students
supply proper nouns
for each category, such
READING CONNECTION SOCIAL STUDIES as Pete (person); Texas
Read the passage. Then complete the Checkpoint.
(place); and Worlds
THE STARS AND STRIPES Fair (thing).
In 1777, the United States of America adopted a new flag. Point out that a sen-
Level D

It had thirteen stripes and thirteen stars. Each star and stripe tence can contain both
represented one of the first colonies. There is a story that common and proper
nouns.
No reproduction permitted.

Betsy Ross sewed the first flag in Philadelphia. That story


may not be true. An artist named Francis Hopkinson READING CONNECTION
probably helped, too.
Ask students to describe
the flag of the United
Why do you think a flag States. Then tell students
CHECKPOINT Complete the chart below might inspire people? that they will read about
Perfection Learning

with underlined nouns from the passage. the first U.S. flag. Have a
volunteer read aloud the
passage The Stars and
Stripes. Then ask these
questions:
flag Betsy Ross What two kinds of
stripes United States of America nouns are underlined?
(common nouns and
story Philadelphia proper nouns)
How are proper nouns
different from common
Common and Proper Nouns Lesson 1 1 nouns? (Proper nouns
name a specific per-
son, place, or thing
rather than a general
one; for this reason,
proper nouns are
capitalized.)
VISUAL LITERACY
CHECKPOINT Have stu-
OBSERVING / INFERRING Point to the sporting events. Guide stu- dents complete the
picture of the person saluting the dents to infer that these activity.
U.S. flag. Have a volunteer read moments inspire national pride Have students write
the question. as people feel a group identity
their answers on the
Ask students to imagine how as members of a nation.
blanks.
people feel when they see their Call on students to
flag at the Olympic games or at
share their responses
with the class.

Common and Proper Nouns Lesson 1 1


2 TEACH Name Class/Date

Common and Proper Nouns


IDENTIFYING NOUNS Have
a volunteer read aloud
the directions for the P IDENTIFYING NOUNS
Underline the nouns in each sentence. Above each noun, write CN if it is a
activity. R common noun. Write PN if it is a proper noun.
Explain to students CN CN
that they should A 7. Every country has a unique flag.
underline the nouns CN CN
C 8. A banner is usually made of cloth.
directly on the page. PN CN CN
Model the activity by T 9. The Aztecs made banners with feathers.
completing the first CN CN
I 10. Most flags are rectangles.
item with the class. CN CN PN PN
Show students how to C 11. Flags of the world fly at the United Nations in New York City.
identify the nouns E CN CN CN PN
12. A moon and four stars decorate the flag of Turkey.
country and flag. Invite
PN CN
volunteers to identify 13. In 1965, Canada decided on a new design.
both nouns as com- CN CN PN
mon nouns, and to 14. First, politicians met in the city of Ottawa.
write CN above each CN CN CN PN
15. That meeting was the longest debate in the history of Canada.
one on the page. CN CN CN
16. The new flag shows a red maple leaf on a white square.
WRITING PROPER NOUNS
Read the directions for
the activity to the class. WRITING PROPER NOUNS

Level D
Invite volunteers to para- On the line following each common noun, write a proper noun that names a
phrase the directions to specific example

No reproduction permitted.
make sure everyone Answers will vary. Samples: Japan
understands what to do. 17. country
Explain to students 18. state
Vermont
that they should write Rio Grande
a proper noun that is a 19. river
specific example of 20. ocean
Atlantic

Perfection Learning
each common noun in
the exercise. 21. author
Laura Ingalls Wilder
Remind students to
22. president
George Washington
capitalize all the impor-
23. teacher
Mr. Ramirez
tant words in a proper
noun.
24. story
The Three Little Pigs
Complete the first item
25. song
Mary Had a Little Lamb
with the class, calling
on students for exam- 26. pet
Champ
ples of different coun-
tries. Write one or two
of the students exam- 2 Common and Proper Nouns Lesson 1
ples and ask: Why is
the first letter of each
word capitalized?
(Each specific
example of a
country is a proper
noun and proper
MEETING INDIVIDUAL NEEDS
nouns are
capitalized.) LOGICAL / MATHEMATICAL LEARNERS Nations. Have students chart these
Have these students identify the nouns and add others in the cate-
nouns in items 716 that name gener- gories people, places, things.
al people, places, or things, such as
Display students chart and have
politicians, moon, and banner. Then
the class identify the common and
have students identify nouns that
proper nouns and give other
name specific people, places, or
examples.
things, such as Canada and United

2 Common and Proper Nouns Lesson 1


Name Class/Date 2 TEACH
Common and Proper Nouns
PROOFREADING FOR
ERRORS Review the
PROOFREADING FOR ERRORS P proofreading marks.
Correct all errors in the capitalization of common and proper nouns. Add Explain to students that
end punctuation to each sentence. R the questions in the
A Proofreading Checklist
will help them focus on
(27) The Flag of the united states C the types of errors to
look for.
of america changed as the Countr y T Have students work in
grew
.
(28) New States joined the I pairs or small groups to
compare errors.
Nation. (29) In 1791, vermont C Remind students to
became a state
.
(30) One year later, E check for capitalization
Kentucky joined, too and punctuation errors.
. Did I follow rules abo
ut
(31) Each State is represented with writing common and WRITING SENTENCES
proper nouns correctly? Point out that each sen-
a white Star
. tence must match the
Did I end sentences wit description in the direc-
h
the correct punctuation tions. Read the directions
mark? to make sure students
know what they must
Level D

write.
Have students draft
WRITING SENTENCES
No reproduction permitted.

Use each description to write a sentence that contains examples of common


their sentences on sep-
and proper nouns. Above each noun you use, write CN or PN to identify it arate sheets of paper.
as a common or proper noun. Then direct students to
revise and proofread
32. Write a sentence about the state where you live. Sample answers are given. their sentences for pos-
PN
I live in California. sible errors. Students
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should be sure they


33. Write a sentence about a historical event. have identified their
PN CN nouns by writing CN
Betsy Ross sewed an American flag. or PN above each one.
Be sure that students
34. Write a sentence about a person you would like to meet.
PN capitalize the first word
I would like to meet Michael Jordan. in each sentence and
end the sentence with
35. Write a sentence about a movie you like. a period.
CN PN
Have students copy
My favorite movie is The Wizard of Oz.
their revised sentences
Common and Proper Nouns Lesson 1 3 onto the lines provided.

CURRICULUM CONNECTION
LEARNING LINKS
SOCIAL STUDIES Have students READ ON! Students can further
find a picture of their state flag. explore the theme of this lesson Students can use the
Ask them to research what the using the following resource: Internet to find informa-
different parts of the flag repre- Betsy Ross: Designer of Our tion about the U.S. flag.
sent and to write a paragraph Flag by Ann Weil (Simon and The following site con-
that summarizes what they Schuster, 1983). tains photos, the Pledge
learned. of Allegiance in several
languages, and other
related information:
http://www.usflag.org/

Common and Proper Nouns Lesson 1 3


3 CLOSE Name

Common and proper nouns


Class/Date

SUM UP WHAT YOUVE


LEARNED Review stu-
dents definitions to make SUM UP WHAT YOU VE LEARNED
sure they are complete Complete each sentence based on what you have learned from the lesson.
R a word that names a person, place, or thing.
and accurate. Encourage 36. A noun is
students to proofread e
their sentences before
they hand in their papers. v
37. A common noun names any member of a group of persons,
CHAIN OF NOUNS i
Materials: none e places, or things.
Review the directions to w 38. A proper noun names a special person, place, or thing.
the game with the class.
Invite a volunteer to
demonstrate by playing Examples include fish,
a few rounds with you. 39. Two examples of common nouns are
Have students choose dog, tree, state, day, and teacher.
partners and play qui-
etly so they dont dis- 40. Two examples of proper nouns are Examples include Ohio,
turb other pairs. Mrs. Jordan, Chile, and the Golden Gate Bridge.
After some time, stop
the players and invite

Level D
volunteers to come to
the board and write
examples of common WINNING ENTRIES
CHAIN NOUNS

No reproduction permitted.
and proper nouns. OF Write a prize list for an
LANGUAGE ACTIVITY Try this game amazing raffle. Will you include trips
Regroup students and
with a partner. First, choose a to exotic places? What about dinner
have them continue common noun category, like animal,
the game with their with someone famous? List ten great
country, or movie. Then, one player raffle prizes. Invent prizes that different
new partners. says a proper noun that fits the kinds of people will enjoy. Use

Perfection Learning
WINNING ENTRIES category. The other player says a common and proper nouns to make
Materials: paper, pencils, proper noun that begins with the your prize descriptions vivid.
or pens final letter of the first proper noun.
Keep adding proper nouns to the
Before students work chain. When a player cant add
individually, ask them to another noun, the other player wins
think of game shows the round. Choose a new category
theyve seen and to share and play again.
examples of the kinds of
prizes that were awarded.
Tell students their raffle
ideas should include
specific persons, 4 Common and Proper Nouns Lesson 1

places, and things.


Remind students to
use capital letters for
proper nouns.
Students can exchange
their work for peer ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS
review before they TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE Pair The second student has to
revise, edit, and proof- ELL students and those whose guess the noun and tell
read. English-speaking skills are whether it is a common noun
Invite volunteers to more proficient. Have the first or a proper noun. Then part-
share their raffle ideas student name a category (per- ners switch roles and continue
with the class. son, place, or thing) and then the game for five rounds.
Use the Writing Scoring
pantomime a noun example.
Rubric on page 4A to
evaluate student writing.

4 Common and Proper Nouns Lesson 1


ASSESSMENT MASTER 1
ASSESSMENT Name

Assessment 1
COMMON AND PROPER NOUNS
CLASSROOM QUIZ Write the following sen-
Choose the letter of the word or group of
tences on the chalkboard. Have students For each item, fill in the correct space in
the Answer Grid below. words that correctly completes the sentence.
7. I would like to climb the ...... in Paris.
Choose the letter of the underlined part that
copy the sentences and identify each under- is a noun.
A Eiffel Tower
B Eiffel tower
C eiffel tower
D eiffel Tower
1. Some think that Betsy Rosstsewed the
lined noun as a common noun or a proper A
first flag.
B C 8. London is famous for the .......
F tower of London H Tower of London

noun. D G Tower Of London J Tower of london

2. At the time, theretwere 13 colonies. 9. In Boston, people visit the .......


F G H J A Museum Of Fine Arts
1. Canada is one of our neighbors. (proper Choose the letter of the underlined part that
B museum of Fine Arts
C Museum of fine arts
is a common noun.
D Museum of Fine Arts
noun) 3. I visited the countries of France and
A B C
10. In New York, tourists flock to the .......
England.
F Metropolitan Museum of Art
D
2. It is directly north of the United States. 4. There were beautifultcathedrals in France.
G metropolitan Museum of Art
H Metropolitan Museum Of Art
J Metropolitan museum of art
F G H J
(proper noun)

Level D
Choose the letter of the underlined part that
is a proper noun.

Perfection Learning Corporation Reproduction Permitted


5. Montmartre is the most beautiful cathedral
3. Many comedians and performers come A
in the wholetcountry.
B

C D
from Canada. (common noun) 6. Mr. Rabon, our tour guide, was proud of it.
F G H J

4. Michael J. Fox is from Canada. (proper


noun) 4B Common and Proper Nouns Lesson 1

5. Someday, I hope to visit the old city of ANSWER KEY


1. B 2. J 3. B 4. H 5. A
Quebec. (common noun) 6. F 7. A 8. H 9. D 10. F

SCORING RUBRIC WINNING ENTRIES


4 EXCELLENT 2 AVERAGE
The writer: The writer:
lists ten original raffle-prize ideas lists ideas for raffle prizes
writes vivid descriptions of the prizes writes satisfactory descriptions of the prizes
uses a variety of common and proper uses common and proper nouns in descrip-
nouns in the descriptions tions
capitalizes all proper nouns makes several mistakes in capitalization of
proper nouns
3 ABOVE AVERAGE
The writer: 1 UNACCEPTABLE
lists ten raffle-prize ideas The writer:
writes good descriptions of the prizes lists a few ideas for raffle prizes
uses both common and proper nouns in the does not write adequate descriptions of the
descriptions prizes
capitalizes most proper nouns does not include enough nouns
makes numerous mistakes in capitalization
of proper nouns

Common and Proper Nouns Lesson 1 4A


Name

Assessment 1
COMMON AND PROPER NOUNS
For each item, fill in the correct space in Choose the letter of the word or group of
the Answer Grid below. words that correctly completes the sentence.
7. I would like to climb the ...... in Paris.
Choose the letter of the underlined part that
A Eiffel Tower C eiffel tower
is a noun.
B Eiffel tower D eiffel Tower
1. Some think that Betsy Rosstsewed the
A B C 8. London is famous for the .......
first flag. F tower of London H Tower of London
D G Tower Of London J Tower of london

2. At the time, theretwere 13 colonies. 9. In Boston, people visit the .......


F G H J A Museum Of Fine Arts
B museum of Fine Arts
Choose the letter of the underlined part that
is a common noun. C Museum of fine arts
D Museum of Fine Arts
3. I visited the countries of France and
A B C
10. In New York, tourists flock to the .......
England.
F Metropolitan Museum of Art
D
G metropolitan Museum of Art
H Metropolitan Museum Of Art
4. There were beautifultcathedrals in France.
J Metropolitan museum of art
F G H J

Level D
Choose the letter of the underlined part that
is a proper noun.
Perfection Learning Corporation Reproduction Permitted
5. Montmartre is the most beautiful cathedral
A B
in the wholetcountry.
C D

6. Mr. Rabon, our tour guide, was proud of it.


F G H J

4B Common and Proper Nouns Lesson 1


Name Class/Date

Assessment 15
SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT
For each item, fill in the correct space in 8. My brother and sister watches TV when I
the Answer Grid below. finish.
F brother and sister be watching
Choose the letter of the word that best
G brother and sister watch
describes the subject of each sentence.
H brother and sister watching
1. Marie and Tony take clarinet lessons.
J correct as is
A singular C compound
B plural D pronoun 9. Sometimes my father be playing piano
with me.
2. Toby wants to play bassoon.
A father play C father playing
F singular H compound
B father plays D correct as is
G plural J pronoun
10. My family and friends enjoys music.
3. I hope to play viola one day.
F family and friends be enjoying
A singular C compound
G family and friends enjoying
B plural D pronoun
H family and friends enjoy
4. Next year, my brothers begin violin J correct as is
lessons.
F singular H compound
G plural J pronoun

Choose the letter of the correct form for the


underlined part of each sentence.

Level D
5. My teacher say that violas are harder
than violins to play. Perfection Learning Corporation Reproduction Permitted
A teacher tell me C teacher says
B teacher saying D correct as is

6. I practices an hour every day.


F I practicing H I practice
G I is practicing J correct as is

7. Toby sets a timer when he practices.


A Toby setted C Toby setting
B Toby set D correct as is

72B Subject-Verb Agreement Lesson 15