reduced order bdd

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reduced order bdd

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You are on page 1of 49

Manas Thakur

Motivating Example

Motivating Example

Motivating Example

Motivating Example

Motivating Example

Motivating Example

Motivating Example

Motivating Example

We got an ROBDD!!

Introduction

Overview

1 Motivating Example

2 Introduction

3 Constructing ROBDDs

4 Applications

5 Conclusion

Introduction

Definition

A Binary Decision Diagram is a rooted DAG with

One or two terminal nodes of out-degree zero labeled 0 or 1

A set of variable nodes of out-degree two

Introduction

respect a given linear order.

b1 < b2 < ... < bn

Introduction

respect a given linear order.

b1 < b2 < ... < bn

An unordered BDD

Introduction

NP-Complete

Introduction

Definition

An OBDD is reduced if it satisfies the following properties:

Uniqueness

low (u) = low (v ) and high(u) = high(v ) implies u = v

Non-redundant tests

low (u) 6= high(u)

Introduction

Properties of ROBDDs

Insight: As the relation gets larger, the number of dont-care bits

increases, leading to fewer necessary nodes (usually)

representing it

Hence, satisfiability, tautology-check, and equivalence can be tested in

deterministic time

For Boolean expressions, this problem is NP-Complete

Constructing ROBDDs

(a1 a2 ... an ) ... (a1 a2 ... an )

Satisfiability: easy; Tautology check: hard

Constructing ROBDDs

(a1 a2 ... an ) ... (a1 a2 ... an )

Satisfiability: easy; Tautology check: hard

(a1 a2 ... an ) ... (a1 a2 ... an )

Tautology check: easy; Satisfiability: hard

Constructing ROBDDs

(a1 a2 ... an ) ... (a1 a2 ... an )

Satisfiability: easy; Tautology check: hard

(a1 a2 ... an ) ... (a1 a2 ... an )

Tautology check: easy; Satisfiability: hard

Reduction?

Constructing ROBDDs

(a1 a2 ... an ) ... (a1 a2 ... an )

Satisfiability: easy; Tautology check: hard

(a1 a2 ... an ) ... (a1 a2 ... an )

Tautology check: easy; Satisfiability: hard

Reduction?

No hopes since conversion between CNF and DNF is exponential

Constructing ROBDDs

the if-then-else operator and the constants 0 and 1, such that all tests

are performed only on variables.

x y0 , y1 = (x y0 ) (x y1 )

Constructing ROBDDs

the if-then-else operator and the constants 0 and 1, such that all tests

are performed only on variables.

x y0 , y1 = (x y0 ) (x y1 )

More examples

x = x (1, 0)

Constructing ROBDDs

the if-then-else operator and the constants 0 and 1, such that all tests

are performed only on variables.

x y0 , y1 = (x y0 ) (x y1 )

More examples

x = x (1, 0)

x = (x 0, 1)

Constructing ROBDDs

the if-then-else operator and the constants 0 and 1, such that all tests

are performed only on variables.

x y0 , y1 = (x y0 ) (x y1 )

More examples

x = x (1, 0)

x = (x 0, 1)

x y = (x 1, y )

Constructing ROBDDs

the if-then-else operator and the constants 0 and 1, such that all tests

are performed only on variables.

x y0 , y1 = (x y0 ) (x y1 )

More examples

x = x (1, 0)

x = (x 0, 1)

x y = (x 1, y )

x y = (x y , 1)

Constructing ROBDDs

the if-then-else operator and the constants 0 and 1, such that all tests

are performed only on variables.

x y0 , y1 = (x y0 ) (x y1 )

More examples

x = x (1, 0)

x = (x 0, 1)

x y = (x 1, y )

x y = (x y , 1)

x y = x (y 1, 0), (y 0, 1)

Constructing ROBDDs

t = x1 t1 , t0

Constructing ROBDDs

t = x1 t1 , t0

t0 = y1 0, t00

Constructing ROBDDs

t = x1 t1 , t0

t0 = y1 0, t00

t1 = y1 t11 , 0

Constructing ROBDDs

t = x1 t1 , t0

t0 = y1 0, t00

t1 = y1 t11 , 0

t00 = x2 t001 , t000

Constructing ROBDDs

t = x1 t1 , t0

t0 = y1 0, t00

t1 = y1 t11 , 0

t00 = x2 t001 , t000

t11 = x2 t111 , t110

Constructing ROBDDs

t = x1 t1 , t0

t0 = y1 0, t00

t1 = y1 t11 , 0

t00 = x2 t001 , t000

t11 = x2 t111 , t110

t000 = y2 0, 1

Constructing ROBDDs

t = x1 t1 , t0

t0 = y1 0, t00

t1 = y1 t11 , 0

t00 = x2 t001 , t000

t11 = x2 t111 , t110

t000 = y2 0, 1

t001 = y2 1, 0

Constructing ROBDDs

t = x1 t1 , t0

t0 = y1 0, t00

t1 = y1 t11 , 0

t00 = x2 t001 , t000

t11 = x2 t111 , t110

t000 = y2 0, 1

t001 = y2 1, 0

t110 = y2 0, 1

Constructing ROBDDs

t = x1 t1 , t0

t0 = y1 0, t00

t1 = y1 t11 , 0

t00 = x2 t001 , t000

t11 = x2 t111 , t110

t000 = y2 0, 1

t001 = y2 1, 0

t110 = y2 0, 1

t111 = y2 1, 0

Constructing ROBDDs

t = x1 t1 , t0

t0 = y1 0, t00

t1 = y1 t11 , 0

t00 = x2 t001 , t000

t11 = x2 t111 , t110

t000 = y2 0, 1

t001 = y2 1, 0

t110 = y2 0, 1

t111 = y2 1, 0

Constructing ROBDDs

t = x1 t1 , t0

t0 = y1 0, t00

t1 = y1 t11 , 0

t00 = x2 t001 , t000

t11 = x2 t111 , t110

t000 = y2 0, 1

t001 = y2 1, 0

t110 = y2 0, 1

t111 = y2 1, 0

Constructing ROBDDs

t = x1 t1 , t0

t0 = y1 0, t00

t = x1 t1 , t0

t1 = y1 t11 , 0

t0 = y1 0, t00

t00 = x2 t001 , t000

t1 = y1 t00 , 0

t11 = x2 t111 , t110

t00 = x2 t001 , t000

t000 = y2 0, 1

t000 = y2 0, 1

t001 = y2 1, 0

t001 = y2 1, 0

t110 = y2 0, 1

t111 = y2 1, 0

Applications

1 Motivating Example

2 Introduction

3 Constructing ROBDDs

4 Applications

5 Conclusion

Applications

Applications of BDDs

Model Checking

Applications

Let a,b,c be reference variables and A,B,C be object references.

The points-to relation (a,A),(a,B),(b,A),(b,B),(c,A),(c,B),(c,C) is

represented as:

Applications

Let a,b,c be reference variables and A,B,C be object references.

The points-to relation (a,A),(a,B),(b,A),(b,B),(c,A),(c,B),(c,C) is

represented as:

On the board.

Applications

bddbddb

Decision Diagrams. John Whaley and Monica S. Lam. PLDI04.

Applications

bddbddb

Decision Diagrams. John Whaley and Monica S. Lam. PLDI04.

On the Board

1 Represent program information using relations

Express relations as BDDs

Applications

bddbddb

Decision Diagrams. John Whaley and Monica S. Lam. PLDI04.

On the Board

1 Represent program information using relations

Express relations as BDDs

2 Write program analyses as Datalog queries

Express queries as BDD operations

Applications

bddbddb

Decision Diagrams. John Whaley and Monica S. Lam. PLDI04.

On the Board

1 Represent program information using relations

Express relations as BDDs

2 Write program analyses as Datalog queries

Express queries as BDD operations

3 Get solutions!

Perform operations on BDDs

Applications

Andersen.

PhD Thesis (2006).

John Whaleys PhD Thesis (2007).

Conclusion

Conclusion

Conclusion

Conclusion

useful!

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