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aero

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Watch the experiments and explanation videos developed by Ascher H Shapiro who

was Professor at MIT, USA to explain the many concepts in aerodynamics like forces in

fluids, similarity, boundary layer, flow separation, drag force, etc.

1. How does drag of a sphere change with increasing speed?

3. How does streamlining a body influence fluid drag in a slightly viscous fluid?

4. How does streamlining a body influence fluid drag in a very viscous fluid?

References

1. A H Shapiro. Fluid Dynamics of Drag Part I-IV (video), 1961.

2. A H Shapiro. Shape and flow: The fluid dynamics of drag, Heinemann (1964).

???

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Experiment 1(a):

Study of subsonic wind tunnel and its calibration

Objective

Study the subsonic wind tunnel and its components. Calibrate the subsonic wind tunnel

by measuring the velocity profile in the test-section.

Deliverable

1. Sketch the wind tunnel and its components, and discuss the role of the components.

2. Variation of mean flow speed in the test section with fan speed, along with the

empirical correlation obtained using least square fit on the data.

3. Variation of unit Reynolds number of the wind tunnel with fan speed.

5. Compute the losses (i) section from inlet to wire mesh, and (ii) contraction section

of the wind tunnel. Obtain a rough estimate of power required to run the tunnel at

various speeds.

Equipments

1. The experiments are to be performed in the Flight demonstration wind tunnel. Fur-

ther details of the facility can be found in the wind tunnel handout [1].

Questions

1. Why a diffuser is placed after the test section?

2. Variation of static pressure and total pressure along the length of the wind tunnel

including the fan.

References

1. The flight demonstration wind tunnel, Users Manual.

2. Jewel B. Barlow, William H. Rae, Alan Pope, Low-speed wind tunnel testing, Wiley,

3rd Edition, 1999.

3. http://navier.stanford.edu/bradshaw/tunnel/

???

2

Experiment 1(b):

Sensitivity of pitot-static tube with angle of attack

Objective

To quantify the sensitivity of pitot pressure and static pressure due to inclination of pitot-

static tube with respect to the flow.

Deliverable

1. Variation of pitot pressure (in percentage) with respect to the inclination of flow from

-30 deg to 30 deg.

2. Variation of static pressure (in percentage) with respect to the inclination of flow

from -30 deg to 30 deg.

tube.

Equipments

1. The experiments are to be performed in the Flight demonstration wind tunnel.

Questions

1. What is the minimum velocity can be measured using the manometer available in

the lab?

References

1. B. J McKeon et.al, Velocity, Vorticity, and Mach Number, In: Cameron Tropea,

Alexander L. Yarin, John F. Foss (Eds.) Springer Handbook of Experimental Fluid

Mechanics, Springer, 2007.

2. Jewel B. Barlow, William H. Rae, Alan Pope, Low-speed wind tunnel testing, Wiley,

3rd Edition, 1999.

???

3

Experiment 2:

Pressure distribution over an airfoil

Objective

The objective of this experiments is calculate lift and drag coefficients from the pressure

distribution over an airfoil.

Methodology

1. Measure the static pressure distribution over the airfoil surfaces at a given Reynolds

number for different angles of attack.

Deliverables

1. Derivation of cl and cd from pressure distribution.

2. Variation of (i) lift per span (l) and drag per span (d), (ii) lift (cl ) and drag (cd )

coefficient, (iii) l/d, and (iv) cl /cd with angle of attacks () for different Reynolds

number. Compare the results with literature.

3. Compare the above results with thin airfoil theory, and with xfoil/xflr5 predictions

using invicid and viscous models.

Equipment

1. Flight demonstration wind tunnel.

Questions

1. Why stalling happens in the airfoil?

3. Does the drag calculated from the experimental measurements represent the total

drag on the airfoil?

4. Identify the parameters specified in the NACA nomenclature of the airfoil supplied.

4

References

1. Abbott, I. H., and von Doenhoff, A. E., Theory of wing sections, including a summary

of Airfoil data, McGraw-Hill, 1949.

Education, 2010.

4. http://web.mit.edu/drela/Public/web/xfoil/

5. http://www.xflr5.com/xflr5.htm

???

5

Experiment 3:

Drag of a cylinder using pendulum method

Objective

To determine the drag of a circular cylinder using pendulum method.

Methodology

1. Measure the angular defection of the model for different Reynolds number.

2. Measure the weight of pendulum and cylinder, and lengths of the connecting rods.

Deliverables

1. Draw a free body diagram of the model support with an explanation of drag calcu-

lation.

2. Plot the variation of CD with Re. Compare the results with literature.

Equipment

1. Modular flow apparatus

Questions

1. Explain the observed behavior of drag co-efficient.

???

6

Experiment 4:

Flow through a pipe bend

Objective

To study the effect of streamline curvature on the pressure distribution of constant area

circular bend.

Background

General equations of motion for inviscid incompressible flows can be written in streamline

co-ordinates as

V P

V = (1)

s s

P V 2

= (2)

n r

where, s and n are directions along and normal to the streamline respectively, and r is the

radius of curvature of the stream line. From these equations, it could be seen that, if the

streamlines are curved a pressure gradient is set up normal to flow direction also.

Methodology

1. Measure the static pressure distribution in the wall along the flow direction and

perpendicular to the flow direction.

Deliverables

1. Variation of wall static pressure distribution and wall coefficient of pressure along the

flow direction and perpendicular to the flow direction for a given Reynolds number.

to the flow direction by assuming that the velocity variation with radius is like in

free vortex and compare this with experimental results.

perimposed on the scale drawing of the bend.

Equipment

1. Modular flow apparatus

2. Circular bend

7

Questions

1. Consider the part of the pipe where it transitions for a straight duct to the circular

bend. What is the pressure distribution in this region?

2. Explain how the apparatus can be used as a flow meter. Calculate the discharge

co-efficient for this set-up.

References

1. Bruce R. Munson, Donald F. Young, Theodore H. Okiishi, Fundamentals of Fluid

Mechanics, 6th Edition -Wiley (2009), pp: 93-133.

???

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