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ASME Boiler and

Pressure Vessel Code


Basic Training Course
Section IX
Section IX Welding & Brazing - Forewords

Addenda
Addenda are changes to the Code and are issued annually. They may be used
upon issuance but are not mandatory for six months. It is strongly recommended
that you do not discard pages of the Code that are replaced by Addenda. For
example, if you have a procedure qualified to a previous Addenda, and it is being
reviewed, you must have access to the Code to which the procedure or welder was
qualified.

Reference Code
It is important to remember that Section IX is a reference Code. This means that it
is only used when it is referenced and as it is referenced.
Section IX Welding & Brazing - Forewords

WPS/WPQ Qualifications
Article 1, paragraph QW-100.2 discusses old procedures and welders
qualifications. It requires that for qualification prior t 1962, you must either
update to a later addenda or discard it as invalid. Procedures qualified after
1962, however, are good forever. Welders qualifications are valid as long as
their continuity is maintained.
Note: If you attempt to qualify procedures or welders to an earlier addenda,
they will most likely not meet the requirements of the latest addenda. They will
be valid only for fabrication being done to that earlier addenda.
Organisation, Content and Structure of Section IX

Structured in 2 Parts - Welding ( QW ) and Brazing ( QB )

Both identical subdivided in 4 articles


General requirements
Procedure qualifications
Performance qualifications
Welding resp. brazing data

Additionally
Article V Standard Welding Procedure Specifications
( SWPSs )

and

Appendices : Mandatory and nonmandatory requirements


Organisation, Content and Structure of Section IX

Article I: Welding General Requirements


QW-100: General
QW-110: Weld Orientation
QW-120: Test positions for groove welds
QW-130: Test positions for groove welds
QW-140: Types and purposes of tests and examinations
QW-150: Tension tests
QW-160: Guided-bend tests
QW-170: Notch-toughness tests
QW-180: Fillet-Weld Tests
QW-190: Other tests and examinations
Appendix I: Rounded indication charts
Organisation, Content and Structure of Section IX

Article II: Welding Procedure Qualifications


QW-200: General
QW-210: Preparation of test coupons
QW-250: Welding variables
Article III: Welding Performance Qualifications
QW-300: General
QW-310: Qualification test coupon
QW-320: Retests and renewal of qualification
QW-350: Welding variables for welders
QW-360: Welding variables for welding operations
QW-380: Special processes
Organisation, Content and Structure of Section IX

Article IV: Welding Data


QW-400: Variables
QW-410: Techniques
QW-420: P-Numbers
QW-430: F-Numbers
QW-440: Weld metal chemical composition
QW-450: Specimens
QW-460: Graphics
QW-470: Etching-process and reagents
QW-490: Definitions
Appendix A (nonmandatory): Suggested welding forms
Appendix B (mandatory): Preparation of technical inquires to the Boiler and
pressure Vessel Committee.
Welding
Definitions (QW/QB-492)

Definitions of common terms relating to welding/brazing

Backgouging The removal of weld metal and base metal from the
weld root side of a welded joint to facilitate complete fusion and
complete joint preparation upon subsequent welding from that side.
Backing A material placed at the root of a weld joint for the purpose
of supporting molten weld metal so as to facilitate complete joint
preparation. The material may or may not fuse into the joint.
Retainer Nonconsumable material, metallic or nonmetallic, which is
used to contain or shape molten weld metal.
Backing Gas A gas, such as argon, helium, nitrogen, or reactive gas,
which is employed to exclude oxygen from the root side (opposite
from the welding side) of weld joints.
Base metal The metal or alloy that is welded, brazed, or cut.
Definitions (QW/QB-492)

Definitions of common terms relating to welding/brazing

Build-up of base metal This is the application of a weld material to a


base metal so as to restore the design thickness and/or structural
integrity. Also may be called base metal repair or buildup.
Butt joint A joint between two member aligned approximately in the
same plane.
Buttering The addition of material, by welding, on one or both faces
of a joint, prior to the preparation of the joint for final welding, for the
purpose of providing a suitable transition weld deposit for the
subsequent completion of the joint.
Consumable insert Filler metal that is placed at the joint root before
welding, and is intended to be completely fused into the root to
become part of the weld.
Definitions (QW/QB-492)

Definitions of common terms relating to welding/brazing

Corner joint A joint between two members located approximately at


right angles to each other in the form of an L.
Direct current electrode negative (DCEN) The arrangement of direct
current arc welding leads in which the electrode is the negative pole
and the workpiece is the positive pole of the welding arc (straight
polarity).
Direct current electrode positive (DCEP) The arrangement of direct
current arc welding leads in which the electrode is the positive pole
and the workpiece is the negative pole of the welding arc (reverse
polarity).
Definitions (QW/QB-492)

Definitions of common terms relating to welding/brazing


Definitions (QW/QB-492)

Definitions of common terms relating to welding/brazing


Definitions (QW/QB-492)

Definitions of common terms relating to welding/brazing


(Tip : DCEN (DCSP) for E-7016 is wrong)
Definitions (QW/QB-492)

Definitions of common terms relating to welding/brazing


Double-welded joint A joint that is welded from both sides.
Filler metal The metal or alloy to be added in making a welded,
brazed, or soldered joint.
Fillet weld A weld of approximately triangular cross section joining
two surfaces approximately at right angles to each other in a lap joint,
tee joint, or corner joint.
Groove weld A weld made in a groove formed within a single
member or in the groove between two members to be joined.
Heat affected zone That portion of the base metal which has not
been melted, but whose mechanical properties or microstructures
have been altered by the heat of welding or cutting.
Definitions (QW/QB-492)

Definitions of common terms relating to welding/brazing


Interpass temperature The highest temperature in the weld joint
immediately prior to welding, or in the case of multiple pass welds,
the highest temperature in the section of the previously deposited
weld metal, immediately before the next pass is started.
Oscillation For a machine or automatic process, an alternating
motion relative to the direction of travel of welding.
Overlay, corrosion resistance weld metal Deposition of one or more
layers of weld metal to the surface of a base material in an effort to
improve the corrosion resistance properties of the surface. This
would be applied at a level above the minimum design thickness as a
nonstructural component of the overall wall thickness.
Definitions (QW/QB-492)

Definitions of common terms relating to welding/brazing


Overlay, hard facing weld metal Deposition of one or more layers of
weld metal to the surface of a base material in an effort to improve
the wear resistance properties of the surface. This would be applied
at a level above the minimum design thickness as a nonstructural
component of the overall wall thickness.
Peening The mechanical working of metals using impact blows.
Preheat Maintenance Practice of maintaining the minimum specified
preheat temperature, or some specified higher temperature for some
required time interval after welding or thermal spraying is finished or
until post weld heat treatment is initiated.
Preheating The application of heat to the base metal immediately
before a welding or cutting operation to achieve a specified minimum
preheat temperature.
Definitions (QW/QB-492)

Definitions of common terms relating to welding/brazing


Stringer bead A weld bead formed without appreciable weaving.
Weave bead For a manual or semiautomatic process, a weld bead
formed using weaving.
Weaving A welding technique in which the energy source is
oscillated transversely as it progresses along the weld path.
Welding, automatic Welding with equipment which performs the
welding operation without adjustment of the controls by a welding
operator. The equipment may or may not perform the loading and
unloading of the work.
Welding, machine Welding with equipment that has controls that
are manually adjusted by the welding operator in response to visual
observation of the welding, with the torch, gun, or electrode holder
held by a mechanical device.
Definitions (QW/QB-492)

Definitions of common terms relating to welding/brazing


Welding, manual Welding wherein the entire welding operation is
performed and controlled by hand.
Welding, semiautomatic arc Arc welding with equipment which
controls only the filler metal feed. The advance of the welding is
manually controlled.
Definitions (QW/QB-492)

Definitions of common terms relating to welding/brazing


Definitions (QW/QB-492)

Definitions of common terms relating to welding/brazing


Definitions (QW/QB-492)

Definitions of common terms relating to welding/brazing


Weld types addressed by Section IX

Three Types of Welds Addressed by Section IX


Groove Welds
U Groove
J Groove
V Groove
Partial Penetration; Etc.
Fillet Welds
Stud Welds
Weld types addressed by Section IX
Weld types addressed by Section IX
Weld types addressed by Section IX
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX

GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding)


GTAW is a welding process wherein coalescence is produced by
heating with an arc between a tungsten electrode and the work.

GTAW Advantages
Works well with thin metals
Welds have very few discontinuities

GTAW Disadvantages
Poor Speed and high cost
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX

GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding)


Welding Processes addressed by Section IX

SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding)


SMAW is a manual welding process in which the heat for welding is
generated by an arc established between a coated consumable
electrode and the work.

The shielding can be obtained from combustion and decomposition


of the flux covering.

Additional shielding is supplied for the molten metal in the weld


puddle by a covering of molten flux called slag.
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX

SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding)

SMAW Advantages
Portable equipment (No facilities to supply shielding gas is
required)
Works well in difficult positions
Usable on a wide variety of materials

SMAW Disadvantages
Fixed lengths on electrode
Additional cleaning for slag removal
Slower than other processes
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX

SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding)


Welding Processes addressed by Section IX

GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding, MIG Welding) / FCAW (Flux Cored
Arc Welding)

GMAW is a arc welding process which produces coalescence metals


by heating them with an arc between a continuous filler metal
(Consumable) electrode and the work. Shielding is obtained entirely
from an externally supplied gas or gas mixture.

FCAW is a arc welding process which produces coalescence metals


by heating them with an arc between a continuous filler metal
(Consumable) electrode and the work. Shielding is supplied by a flux
contained within a tubular electrode. Additional shielding may be
provided from an externally supplied gas or gas mixture.
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX

GMAW/FCAW

Advantages
Continuous feed of filler metal (high speed welding)

Disadvantages
Welding equipment in so complex
Electrode holder should be close to the work
More susceptible to cracking in hardenable steels
Poor impact value
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX
Typical Metal Transfer Mode

Spray Arc Mode


The metal is transferred from the end of the electrode wire to the
puddle in an axial stream of fine droplets.
The sizes of droplets vary, but the maximum diameter is less
than the electrode diameter.
Argon or Argon rich gas are generally used for shielding gas.

Globular Arc Mode


Formation of a relatively large drop of molten metal at the end of
the tapered electrode wire.
The drop forms at the end of the electrode wire until the force of
gravity overcomes the surface tension of the molten drop, at
which time the drop falls into the weld puddle.
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX

Typical Metal Transfer Mode

Globular Arc Mode contd


All types of shielding gases may be used.
If overhead welding were attempted using globular transfer, the
molten electrode metal would fall down into the electrode holder
nozzle.

Short-circuiting Transfer
Metal transfer is which molten metal from a consumable
electrode is deposited during repeated short circuits.
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX

GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding)


Welding Processes addressed by Section IX

FCAW (Flux Cored Arc Welding)


Welding Processes addressed by Section IX

Parts of A Weld
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX

Parts of A Weld
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX
Weld Size
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX
Weld Size
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX
Penetration
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX
Penetration
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX
Fusion
Complete Fusion
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX
Fusion
Incomplete Fusion
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX
Weld Flaws
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX
Weld Flaws
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX
Weld Flaws
Article I Welding General Requirements

QW-100.3
WPS, PQR, W(O)PQ made in accordance with the requirements of the
1962 Edition or any later Edition of Section IX may be used in any
construction built to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code or
the ASME B31 Code for Pressure Piping.

QW-103.2
Each manufacturer or contractor shall maintain a record of the results
obtained in welding procedure and welder and welding operator
performance qualifications. These records shall be certified by the
manufacturer or contractor and shall be accessible to the AI.
Article I Welding General Requirements

QW-120 Test Positions for Groove Welds


Article I Welding General Requirements
QW-153 Acceptance Criteria Tension Test
Minimum values for procedure qualification are provided under the
column heading Minimum Specified Tensile of table QW/QB-422.
In order to pass the tension test, the specimen shall have a tensile
strength that is not less than :
(a) the minimum specified tensile strength of the base metal; or
(b) the minimum specified tensile strength of the weaker of the two;
or
(c) if the specimen breaks in the base metal outside of the weld or
weld interface, the test shall be accepted as meeting the
requirements, provided the strength is not more than 5% below the
minimum specified tensile strength of the base metal

In case of material of SA-516 Gr.70 and if the specimen was broken


in the base metal, the ultimate unit stress calculated by area and
ultimate total load shall be over 70,000psi 0.95 = 66,500psi, if the
specimen was broken in the weld, the ultimate unit stress shall be
over 70,000psi.
Article I Welding General Requirements

QW-163 Acceptance Criteria Bend test


The guided-bend test specimens shall have no open discontinuity in
the weld or HAZ exceeding 1/8 inch, measured in any direction on the
convex surface of the specimen after bending.

For corrosion-resistant weld overlay cladding, no open discontinuity


exceeding 1/16 inch, measured in any direction, shall be permitted in
the cladding, and no open discontinuity exceeding 1/8 inch shall be
permitted along the approximate weld interface.
Tip : Responsibilities

Authorized Inspector

Before Fabrication
WPS/PQR comply with ASME Sec. IX.
Welders and Welding Operators are properly qualified.

During Fabrication
All welding is done within the parameters of the WPS.
Welder qualification limits are not exceeded or have not expired.
Tip : Responsibilities

Manufacturers Responsibility for Records


The manufacturer has specific responsibilities regarding the preparation and qualification of
procedures. Among the manufacturers responsibilities are the following:
1. To prepare and qualify the WPS
2. To directly supervise and control the welder during the welding of the test coupons.
3. To maintain the WPS and then PQR while welding is being performed.
4. To certify the PQR.
5. To compile and certify a list of all qualified procedures for use on Code jobs.

Record Retention
There are no requirements in the non-nuclear Codes to maintain welding procedures once
a job is finished these requirements are normally found in a QC manual. But since
procedure qualifications do not expire, they are normally maintained as standard company
procedures. The nuclear codes, however, require retention for the life of the plant. In any
case, the procedures must be available during construction.
Tip : Responsibilities

Manufacturer

Qualification of Procedures
Establish a QC Program to control qualifications.
Prepare the written WPS addressing all required variables for
each process.
Assure metallurgical compatibility of the filler metal and the base
metal.
Prepare and certify a PQR based on data recorded during the
welding and testing of the coupon.
Tip : Responsibilities

Manufacturer contd

Qualification of Welders
Establish a QC Program to control welders qualification.
Qualify each welder with each process that welder is to use.
Weld the test coupon in accordance with a WPS.
Control and supervise welding of the coupon.
Maintain identification of welders.
Document Welders qualifications such as WPQ, table of certified
welder list.
Article II - Welding Procedure Specifications - WPS

A WPS is a written qualified welding procedure prepared to provide direction for making
production welds.

Completed WPS shall describe all of the essential, nonessential, and, when required,
supplementary essential variables.

Essential variables are those in which a change, as described in the specific


variables, is considered to affect the mechanical properties of weldment, and shall
require requalification of the WPS.

Supplemental essential variables for a process are those conditions which, when
changed, will affect the impact properties of the weld.
(If impact test is not required, supplementary essential variables are not be
considered as a nonessential variables. In this case this supplementary essential
variables are not needed to be recorded in WPS)
Acceptable (i.e. qualified) ranges
Other information desired for additional control.
Article II - Welding Procedure Specifications - WPS

Non-Essential Variables
Non-essential variables for a process are those conditions which, when
changed, do not have a major impact on the weld. They must, however, be
considered and addressed on the WPS.
A change of nonessential variables will requires a change in WPS but not
require a re-qualification.
The special process essential variables for corrosion-resistant and hard-
surfacing weld metal overlays are as indicated in the tables for the specified
process.
(It means that separate PQR/WPS in accordance with QW-252.1/253.1..
264.1 plus QW-453 for overlay shall be prepared. The PQR/WPS which
were prepared in accordance with QW-252/253.264 shall not be used
for overlay process)
Welding Steps of Preparing PQR/WPS
Welding
<Sec.IX, QW-201, Sec VIII-1, UW-28>
Draft WPS
parameters

Preparation of
QW-463
Test Coupon

Full supervision Welding Welding Data

Preparation of
QW-463
Test Specimen

Mechanical Test Legends


Test Test Result
(Tension, Bend etc.)
: May use subcontractor
Record on PQR : Must be done by Manufacturer

Certification Acceptance Criteria (QW-


Of PQR 150,160,170,180)

Essential Variables
Qualification Supplement Essential Variables
Of WPS Non-essential variables other
information
Welding Steps of Preparing PQR/WPS
<Sec.IX, QW-201, Sec VIII-1, UW-28>

Things to Consider When Preparing a WPS.


1. Compatibility of the weld metal and base metal
2. Metallurgical properties
3. Heat treatment requirements
4. Design of joints and loadings
5. Desired mechanical properties
6. Service requirements
7. Welders ability
8. Equipment available
9. Location of welds
10. Economy
Welding Steps of Preparing PQR/WPS
<Sec.IX, QW-201, Sec VIII-1, UW-28>

Writing a WPS
When writing a WPS, you should first determine what the intended usage
will be, the welding equipment available, and the ability of the welders using
the procedure. There are four general considerations:
What base materials will be welded?
What filler metals will be used?
What welding processes will be used?
What service or production restrictions are required?
Welding Steps of Preparing PQR/WPS
<Sec.IX, QW-201, Sec VIII-1, UW-28>

Writing a WPS
Once you have identified the base metals you intend to weld and identified their P-Nos. per
QW-422, you should then select the most economical base metal from QW-424 to use
for the test coupon.
Next, the appropriate filler materials are selected and their A-Nos. determined from QW-
432 and QW-442. You may also need to consider shielding gas or flux and any
position restrictions that may apply.
Welding processes to be used should be determined and the required variables of QW-
250 addressed. It is also necessary to consider the types of production joints, welder
techniques, and available equipment.
Finally, you need to consider the service or production restrictions. These include such
things as Code / customer requirements, preheat / PWHT, corrosion, and notch
toughness.
Welding Steps of Preparing PQR/WPS
<Sec.IX, QW-201, Sec VIII-1, UW-28>

Qualifying the WPS


The basic steps for qualifying a WPS are (using the parameters of the unqualified WPS):
Establish the test coupon size (QW-451, 462, 463).
Weld the test coupon following the parameters of the WPS (QW-210, 250, 260) :
Monitor and document the specifics of the essential variables and, when
applicable, the supplemental essential variables (QW-200.2). It is recommended
that all other specifics be measured, documented, and maintained on file.
Cut the coupon into the required test specimens (QW-462, 463). This may be
performed by the testing laboratory.
Evaluate the test results per QW-150 to 180. This is the responsibility of the
manufacturer.
If the results are acceptable, document them on the PQR and certify.
Compare the PQR with the parameters listed the WPS (essential and supplemental
variables) to assure that the full range is supported by the PQR. If not, it may be
necessary to supplement the ranges with an additional PQR, or reuse the ranges
to within that which is supported.
The WPS may now be added to the certified list of qualified procedures required by
QW-201.
Welding Steps of Preparing PQR/WPS
<Sec.IX, QW-201, Sec VIII-1, UW-28>

Permitted changes to a WPS


A WPS may be revised for several reasons. Among these reasons are:
A change in a non-essential variable. This would require revision but no
requalification.
A change in an essential or supplementary essential and requalification.
Corrections or updates due to inadvertent errors or to Code Addenda.

A WPS may be revised by:


Writing a new WPS, including revision number.
Adding an amendment. This would also require a revision number.
Article II - Welding Procedure Specifications - WPS

If x is located only in the supplementary essential variables, when impact test


is not required, these variables are not considered as nonessential variables.
Article II - Welding Procedure Specifications - WPS

Manufacturers or Contractors Responsibility


Each manufacturer and contractor shall qualify the WPS by the
welding of test coupons and the testing of specimens, and the
recording of the welding data and test results in PQR.
The weldments to be tested for qualification of procedures shall be
welded either by direct employees or by individuals engaged by
contract for their services as welders under the full supervision and
control of the manufacturer or contractor.
Supervision and control of welding of the test weldments performed
by another organization is not permitted.
If in an organization effective operational control of welding procedure
qualification for two or more companies of different names exists, the
companies involved shall describe in their Quality Control
System/Quality Assurance Program. In this case separate welding
procedure qualifications are not required.
Article II - Welding Procedure Specifications - WPS

Manufacturers or Contractors Responsibility


If in an organization effective operational control of welding procedure
qualification for two or more companies of different names exists, the
companies involved shall describe in their Quality Control
System/Quality Assurance Program. In this case separate welding
procedure qualifications are not required.
When a manufacturer is acquired by a new owner, the PQRs and
WPSs may be used by the new owner without requalification, provided
all of the following are met :
(1) the new owner takes responsibility for the WPSs and PQRs.
(2) the WPSs reflect the name of the new owner.
(3) the Quality Control System/Quality Assurance Program reflects the
source of the PQRs as being from the former manufacturer or
contractor.
Article II - Welding Procedure Specifications - WPS

Variables are defined for each process in QW-250 through QW-280


Each variable shall be addressed, do not state N/A but facts, yes, no,
none or any other meaningful definition.

Changes to WPSs are allowed, however


Changes in essential and supplementary essential variables require
requalification and a new WPS.
Changes in nonessential variables can be made without
requalification, need to be documented and the WPS to be revised.

A WPS is a written qualified welding procedure prepared to provide


direction for making production welds.
A WPS used for Code production welding shall be available for reference
and review by the AI at the fabrication site.
Article II - Welding Procedure Specifications - WPS

Completion of a WPS

All variables to be addressed.

Do not state single figures but always ranges.

Ranges should be as broad as possible but adequate for the process.

Joint design (nonessential) : do not show only one joint design but
either make reference to joints as shown on workshop drawings or
attach a separate sheet showing a variety of joints which can be used
for the process.

QW 424 : Base metal used for procedure qualification test coupon


versus range of base metals qualified.
Article II - Welding Procedure Specifications - WPS
Article II - Welding Procedure Specifications - WPS
Contd completion of a WPS
No limitation in positions : qualification in one position qualifies the
procedure ( but not the welder !! ) for all (meaningful) positions,

QW-461 Positions of groove (G) and fillet (F) welds in plate and pipe
1G, 2G, 3G, 4G for plate groove welds
flat - horizontal - vertical - overhead

1G, 2G, 5G, 6G for pipe groove welds


flat - horizontal - multiple

1F, 2F, 3F, 4F for plate fillet welds


flat - horizontal - vertical - overhead

1F, 2F, 2FR, 4F, 5F for pipe fillet welds


flat -- horizontal - horizontal rotated - overhead - multiple
Article II - Welding Procedure Specifications - WPS

Contd completion of a WPS

Thickness ranges : T for base metal, t for deposited weld metal


Thickness ranges to be carefully considered when GMAW short
circuiting arc welding is employed (GMAW, short circuiting arc
welding, t<13mm => T qualified shall be below 1.1 times of test
coupon thickness.

Preheat and postweld heat treatment temperatures to be considered.


Preheat decrease of 55 C become an essential variable.
The meaning of preheat maintenance is maintenance preheat
upon completion of welding prior to any required postweld heat
treatment.

Electrical characteristics and Technique


Applicable variables for the process to be considered
Article II - Welding Procedure Specifications - WPS

Subcontracted Welding Procedures (Section I)


Section I allows a unique method for subcontracting welding procedures for
use on PP stamped pipe. The National Certified Pipe Welders Bureau
(NCPWB), a national organization made up of member companies, provides
prequalified welding procedures to its members. These procedures can be
used for PP stamped pipe by member companies without requalification. The
member company must sign each WPS and PQR and accept responsibility for
its use and compliance to Code requirements. Remember, these are permitted
only for PP stamped boiler external piping
Article II - Welding Procedure Specifications - WPS

Combination of WPSs
More than one WPS having different variables may be used in a single
production joint.
Each WPS may include one or a combination of processes, filler metals or
other variables.
Range of the deposited weld metal thickness qualified for each process to
be considered.

More than one process may be recorded in one WPS


All variables associated with each process to be applied and addressed.
Base metal and deposited weld metal thickness limits for each process to
be applied.

Format of the WPS : can be any format, as long as any variable for the process
is included or referenced.
Form QW-482 has been provided as a guide for the WPS .
Article II - Procedure Qualification Record - PQR

The PQR is a document that supports the WPS by documenting the results of the
welding and testing of a test coupon.
It is a record of variables recorded during the welding of the test coupons.
PQR shall document all essential and, when required, all supplementary essential
variables for each welding process.
Nonessential variables may be recorded (option).
All variables are actual values used during welding of the test coupon.
Changes to a PQR are not permitted as it is a record of what happened during a
particular welding test, except for editorial corrections and addenda.
All changes require re-qualification (except editorial and addenda) and recertification.
As a minimum, a PQR must address the essential variables for the process(ES) and
supplemental essential variables when impacts are required.
In any event, it is recommended that all details relative to the qualification be
documented and maintained in a quality control type file to support any future
corrections or changes that may become necessary.
Article II - Procedure Qualification Record - PQR

Qualification
One thing to keep in mind is that you dont requalify a procedure, you qualify a new
PQR to address the new or different variables.
When a WPS is Requalified
A WPS must be requalified when an essential variable is changed from what was
originally qualified or when there is reason to question its ability to make acceptable
welds.
Permitted Changes to the PQR
Since a PQR is a record documenting the details of welding a test coupon, it
essentially cannot be revised. Some changes, however, are permitted when they
are to correct obvious errors, and some additional changes may be made when
supported by data recorded during the welding of the test coupons.
Furthermore, there are times when it may be desirable to completely rewrite a PQR.
Even if you do rewrite the PQR, you should always maintain the original: never
pencil in, or write out an original PQR.
Article II - Procedure Qualification Record - PQR

Example of a Revised PQR


A valid reason to revise a PQR is a change in material classification by the Code. If,
at the time of the original qualification, the material had not been assigned a P-No., it
would have been qualified by specification and therefore good for use only when
welding that specification. But if at a later date Section IX assigned a P-No. to that
material, the PQR could be revised to indicate the P-No. making that procedure
acceptable for use with any material in that P-No. grouping.
Combination of Welding Procedures : It is considered a combination of welding
procedures whenever more than one WPS is used to complete a weld or when
using only one process from a WPS that was qualified with multi-processes.
Article II - Procedure Qualification Record - PQR

Thickness ranges of test coupons and number of test specimen

QW-451.1 Number of tension and transverse bend tests


Table generally to be used

QW-451.2 Number of tension and longitudinal bend tests


Table may be used in lieu of transverse bend tests for testing weld
metal or base metal combinations, which differ markedly in bending
properties between either two base metals or the weld metal and the
base metal.

QW-451.3 Number of fillet weld tests


macro test specimen required, however
Groove tests qualify all fillet sizes on all base metal thicknesses and
all diameter
Article II - Procedure Qualification Record - PQR

QW-462 Dimensions of test specimen for tension, bend and impact test
specimen

QW-463 + QW-464 Location of test specimen in test plates

QW-466 to QW-469 Dimensions of test jigs

QW-470 Etching processes and reagents


Specifies etching solutions for ferrous and nonferrous metals

Special testing requirements for P-No 11 base material, Corrosion


Resistant Weld Metal, Electron and Laser Beam Welding, Hard-facing
Weld Metal Overlay, Joining of Composite (clad metals), Applied Linings
and Flash welding
Article II - Procedure Qualification Record - PQR

Mechanical Tests for a WPS


QW-202 covers the required tests for welding procedure qualifications. At minimum, the
mechanical tests are two tensile tests and four bend tests. The types of bend tests are:
For test coupon thicknesses up to and including 3/8": Two face and two root bends.
Over 3/8 but less than 3/4": May use two face and two root, or four side bend tests.
3/4" and over: Four side bend tests.
Note: All filler metal and processes used must be included in the tensile and bend tests to
qualify.
Types of Tests Based on Coupon Thickness
Tension tests are covered in QW-150. This paragraph is referenced from Table QW-451.
QW-151 states:
If the coupon is greater than 1" thick, multiple specimens may be cut mechanically.
Each set of multiple specimens shall represent one tensile specimen.
There is a special exemption for pipe 3" or less. This pipe may be tested without
cutting specimens.
Article II - Procedure Qualification Record - PQR

One PQR may support a number of WPSs


or
One WPS may require a number of PQRs

Examples
1 G plate PQR support WPSs for the F, V, H, and O position on plate
or pipe within all other essential variables.
One WPS with thickness range from 1.5 mm to 32.0 mm is supported
by two PQRs with thickness ranges from 1.5 through 5.0 mm and
from 5.0mm through 32.0 mm.
One WPS with a combination of processes ( 2 or more ) is supported
by 2 or more PQRs with single process qualifications within all
other essential variables.
One PQR with a combination of processes ( 2 or more ) support
WPSs with single processes within all other essential variables.
Article II - Procedure Qualification Record - PQR

Some notable requirements

Qualification in one position qualifies the procedure for all positions.

A welder making and passing the WPS qualification test is qualified with
the limits for positions specified in QW-303.

Qualification in plate also qualifies for pipe welding and vice versa.
Diameter limits for welder performance qualification to be considered

Dissimilar base metal thickness


More than one procedure qualification may be required to qualify for
some dissimilar thickness combinations (QW-202.4).
Article II - Procedure Qualification Record - PQR

The PQR shall be certified by the manufacturer.


Is intended as the verification that the information on the PQR is a true
record of variables used during welding of the test coupon and that the
mechanical / chemical tests are in compliance with Code requirements.

Form QW-483 has been provided as a guide for the PQR, however, any other
format may be used as long as every essential and, when required,
supplementary essential variable for the process is included.

WORKSHOP COMPLETION OF WPSs + PQRs


Article II - Procedure Qualification Record - PQR

Weldability Performance

Not possible to be Possible to be


found by NDE found by NDE

Approval of weldability Approval of welder


(Mechanical/Chemical) performance

Procedure Qualification Performance Qualification


Article III - Welding Performance Qualification

Welders Performance Qualification Record.


The Welders Performance Qualification Record is a document used to record
welders and welding operators qualifications. The WPQ documents that welders
have been determined to have a necessary skill for depositing sound weld metal for
the processes within their qualified limits. The WPQ contains actual essential
variables and test results, ranges to which the welder is qualified, and other
information as desired (for example, special positions).
Welders Essential Variables
A welders essential variable is defined as a condition which, when changed, will
Affect the welders ability to deposit sound weld metal. Welders do not have non-
essential or supplementary essential variables.
Article III - Welding Performance Qualification

General Issues

Article lists the welding processes with the essential variables that
apply to welder and welding operator performance qualifications.

Welder qualification is limited by essential variables given for each


process.

Variables are listed in QW-350 / QW-360 and defined in Article IV.

Welder may be qualified by mechanical tests or by radiography of a


test coupon or radiography of his initial production welding (The
welder may be qualified by the production welding : minimum 6 inch
(150mm) length of the first production weld. This may be applied in
the field).
Welding Steps of Welder/welding Operator Qualification
(Sec IX, QW-300.2, Sec VIII-1, UW-29)
Qualified WPS

Preparation of
QW-463
Test Coupon

Full supervision Welding Welding Data

Preparation of
Test Specimen

Mechanical Test Legends


Test Test Result
NDE
: May use subcontractor
Record on WPQR : Must be done by Manufacturer

Certification of Acceptance Criteria (QW-


Welder/welding 160,180 & 190)
Operator
Article III - Welding Performance Qualification

General Issues

Manufacturer is responsible for conducting tests to qualify the performance


of a welder in accordance with a qualified WPS.

Manufacturers Responsibilities for Qualification of Welders


When qualifying welders, it is the manufacturers responsibility to:
Establish a QC program to control welders qualification.
Qualify each welder with each process that welder is to use.
Weld the test coupon in accordance with WPS (quality control)
Control and supervise welding of the coupon.
Maintain identification of welders.
Article III - Welding Performance Qualification

General Issues

If in an organization effective operational control of the welder


performance qualification for two or more companies of different
names exists, the companies involved shall describe in their Quality
Control System.
In this case requalification of welders and welding operators within
the companies of such an organization will not be required.
Article III - Welding Performance Qualification

General Issues

When a manufacturer is acquired by a new owner, the WPQs may be used


by the new owner without requalification, provided all of the following are
met :
(1) the new owner takes responsibility for the WPQs
(2) the WPQs reflect the name of the new owner
(3) the Quality Control System/Quality Assurance Program reflects the
source of the WPQs as being from the former manufacturer or contractor
Article III - Welding Performance Qualification
General Issues contd

Responsibility cannot be delegated to another organisation, however


Preparation of test coupon, test specimen, destructive and non-
destructive tests can be subcontracted.

The welder who has welded a WPS qualification test coupon is qualified
within the limits of the performance qualifications for that process.

Each welder shall be assigned an identifying number which shall be used to


identify the work of that welder.

The record of the welder performance qualification (WPQ) tests shall


include the essential variables, the type of test and test results and the
ranges qualified.
Article III - Welding Performance Qualification
Welders who are not the employee of the manufacturer may be permitted
provided :

All code construction is the responsibility of the manufacturer.


All welding shall be performed in accordance with the manufacturers WPS
which have been qualified by the manufacturer in accordance with the
requirements of Section IX.
The manufacturer has qualified all the welders.
Complete and exclusive administrative and technical supervision for the
welders shall be performed by manufacturer.
Article III - Welding Performance Qualification
Article III - Welding Performance Qualification
Type of tests required
Type and number of test specimen required for mechanical
testing shall be in accordance with QW-452
Normally visual examination and 2 bend tests required
When radiography: minimum length of test coupon shall be
150 mm and if pipe: it shall include the entire weld
circumference
(If test coupon size for welder qualification is NPS 0.5inch (OD
21.34mm, 3 Coupons are required for satisfaction of min.
length)

Test coupon and specimen to be in accordance with QW-463


Article III - Welding Performance Qualification

Special Processes QW-360 and QW-380


Requirements and tests on special processes
Electron beam, laser beam and friction welding
Corrosion resistant and hard-facing weld metal overlay
Joining of clad material
Resistance and flash welding operator qualification
Article III - Welding Performance Qualification
Combination of welding processes
Welder may be qualified by either
Making tests with each individual process
or
With a combination of welding processes in a single test coupon
Limits of deposited weld metal carefully to be considered

A welder qualified in combination on a single test coupon is


qualified to weld in production within his limits of qualification
with each specific process.

Welding variables
are summarized for each process in QW-416
Article III - Welding Performance Qualification
Limits of qualified positions and diameters
Table QW-461.9 defines the range of positions and diameters qualified
for production groove and fillet welds based on their qualification
tests made in either plate, pipe, groove or fillet welds.

Position of qualification test weld is decisive for position and type


of weld in production.

Diameter limits for pipe production welds to be considered.

Welders who pass the required tests for groove welds shall also
be qualified to make fillet welds in all thicknesses and pipe
diameters of any size within the limits of variables given in QW-
350 / QW-360.

Fillet weld qualifications are restricted to thickness of material,


size of fillet weld and diameter of pipe.
Article III Welding Performance Qualification
Qualification thickness limits and test specimen
QW-452.1(a) Groove weld thickness limits and test specimen
3 groups ( < 10mm, 10-19mm, >19mm )
except for special positions 2 bend tests only required

QW-452.1(b) Groove weld - thickness of weld metal qualified


2 groups only ( all, >13mm )
either 2t or maximum to be welded

QW-452.3 Groove weld diameter limits


based on outside diameter of test coupon
3 groups ( < 25mm, 25-73mm, >73mm )

QW-452.4 to QW-452.6 Fillet weld tests


Limits on diameter and thicknesses, however, any groove weld
qualifies all base material thicknesses, fillet sizes and diameter
Article III Welding Performance Qualification

Important tables
QW - 423 : Alternate base metals for welder qualification
Article III Welding Performance Qualification

Contd Alternate base metals for welder qualification

Metals used for welder qualification conforming to national or


international standards or specifications may be considered as
having the same P- or S-Numbers as an assigned metal
provided it meets the mechanical and chemical requirements of
the assigned metal.
The base metal specification and corresponding P- or S-
Number shall be recorded on the qualification record.
Article III - Welding Performance Qualification

Expiration of qualification
Performance qualification is affected when one of the following
conditions occur.
When he has not welded with a process during a period of 6
month or more, his qualification for that process expire.
Whenever a change is made in one or more essential variables.
When there is specific reason to question his ability to make
welds that meet the specification.

Renewal of qualification
Renewal of qualification expired may be made for any process by
welding a test coupon of
Either plate or pipe, any material, thickness or diameter in any
position and by testing of the test coupon as required.
Article IV -- Welding Data

QW-400 to QW-416
Variables
QW-420 to QW 424
Material groupings
QW-430 to QW-433
F Numbers
QW-440 to QW-441
Weld metal chemical composition
QW-450 to QW-452
Procedure and performance qualification
limits and test specimen requirements
QW-460 to QW-469 Graphics, test positions, diameter limitations
for performance qualification, dimensions
and locations of test specimen
QW-470 to QW-473 Etching processes and reagents
QW-490 to QW-492 Definitions
Article IV -- Welding Data

QW-400 to QW-416 Variables

Section Variables is covering all aspects of welding processes.


Joints, base and filler metal, positions, preheat, postweld heat
treatment, gas, electrical characteristics and technique.
However
Do NOT read individual paragraphs on their own but in conjunction with
procedure or personnel qualification requirements only.

Three Types of Variables


Essential Variables - affect mechanical properties or ability of a
welder.
Supplementary Essential Variable - affect notch toughness
properties.
Nonessential Variable - will not affect mechanical properties.
Article IV -- Welding Data

QW-420 to QW 424 Material groupings

Base metals are assigned P- or S- Numbers in table QW / QB 422.


P-Number : Ferrous / Nonferrous material according to base metal
spec.
S-Number : Ferrous / Nonferrous material acceptable for use ASME B
31

Each individual P- or S- Number cover a great variety of materials in order


to reduce the number of procedure qualifications.
When a base metal with a UNS number designation is assigned a P- or S-
Number, then a base metal listed in a different ASME material
specification with the same UNS number shall be considered that P- or S-
Number whether or not these specifications are listed in table QW/QB422.
Article IV -- Welding Data

QW-430 to QW-433 F Numbers


grouping of electrodes and welding rods
Based on their usability characteristics
Grouping similar to P / S numbers
Table QW-432 shows F, ASME (SFA.) and AWS (E.) numbers
Article IV -- Welding Data
Article IV -- Welding Data
Article IV -- Welding Data
Article IV -- Welding Data
QW-451 and QW-451.X shall be used for procedure qualification by groove-
weld and fillet weld (PQR/WPS).

QW-452 and QW-452.X shall be used for performance qualification (WPQR).

QW-453 shall be used for procedure and performance qualification by hard-


facing and corrosion resistant overlays (PQR/WPS/WPQR).

QW-461.9 shall be used for performance qualification (WPQR).

When applying the thickness range in the table from QW-451 to QW-453, T is
the base metal thickness and t is the weld metal thickness.
Article IV -- Welding Data
Article IV -- Welding Data
Article IV -- Welding Data
Article IV -- Welding Data
Article IV -- Welding Data

If the size of test coupon is NPS inch, the outside diameter of this
coupon is not 0.75 inch but 1.05 inch (26.67mm).
Article IV -- Welding Data

If test welding for welder was performed by groove-welding, the welder is


qualified for all base metal thickness, all fillet sizes and diameters in fillet
welding.
Article IV -- Welding Data
Article IV -- Welding Data
Article V Standard Welding Procedure Specifications

Standard Welding Procedure Specifications (SWPSs)

Are standardized procedure specifications for the most common


processes and materials
Are acceptable for Code construction
Are not permitted when impact testing is required

Prior to use

Specified information must be entered in the SWPS


One groove weld test coupon shall be welded
Coupon shall be visually examined, mechanical tested (2 bend tests)
or radiographically examined
Article V Standard Welding Procedure Specifications

Form QW-485
is a suggested form for documenting the welding conditions and test
results of the demonstration.

Production use
Welding shall be strict in accordance with the SWPS.
SWPSs may not be supplemented with PQRs or revised.
SWPSs shall not be used in the same production joint together with
WPSs qualified by the manufacturer.
SWPSs shall be certified by the manufacturer.

Advantage / Disadvantage
Less qualification testing but limited use.
Appendices - Mandatory and Nonmandatory Requirements

Mandatory requirements
Appendix A Submittal of technical enquiries to the Boiler and Pressure
Vessel Committee
Identical as for all other Code sections
Appendix E Permitted SWPSs
Appendix F Standard units for use in equations

Nonmandatory requirements
Appendix B Welding and brazing forms
Appendix D P-Number listing
Appendix G Guidance for the use of U.S. customary and SI units
Tip : Welding monitoring

What should be monitored during production welding

Use a qualified WPS


Use a qualified Welder or Welding Operator
Welding within the parameters of a qualified WPS
Use only welding material described in the WPS
Record the welder identification
Inspect the weld for defects
Assure required NDE is performed
Tip : Tube-to-Tubesheet Welds

Which methods are being used for preparing PQR/WPS and


WPQR?

Dissimilar Base metal thickness in accordance with Sec. IX QW-202.4


Use the rules in either section III, NX-4350 or Section VIII, Div. 2,
Article F-3
Sec. IX QW-193 and QW-288
Tip : Tube-to-Tubesheet Welds
Tip : Tube-to-Tubesheet Welds

Interpretation : VIII-1-89-32
Date Issued : September 20, 1988
File Number : BC88-202

Question : Do the requirements of Section VIII, Div. 1 prohibit the


use of the rules in either Section III, Division 1, NX-4350 or Section
VIII, Division 2, Article F-3 to be used to qualify a tube-to-
tubesheet welding procedure?

Reply : No.
Tip : Preparation for Welder qualification

Type of welder qualifications required in the shop

- Welders for groove and fillet welding in the plate

- Welders for groove welding for small diameter pipe

- Welding operators for automatic welding

- Welders for weld metal overlay

- Welders for tube-to-tubesheet welding


Section II, Part C

Understand what is included in the SFA specifications of Section II, Part C and
how these specifications are used in the purchasing and use of welding filler
materials.
Part C of Section II covers welding materials. Information included in these
specifications are:
The process that may be used with various electrodes.
Recommended storage requirements.
An explanation of the AWS markings.
Recommended positions for electrodes.
Recommeded polarity and current.
Information on how to meet an SFA Specification.
Section II, Part C
Section II, Part C

Definitions for Section II C


Some of the definitions in Part C are provided below. It is important, however, to
keep in mind that these definitions do not necessarily use the same terminology as
that used in the industry. For example, rod and electrode.
A welding rod is defined as filler metal deposited separately from the electrode that
initiates the arc. This would include brazing and OFW.
An electrode is defined as the item that creates the arc in arc welding. It may or
may not be the filler metal.
Filler metal is defined as the material, other than the base material being welded,
that is deposited to from a weld.
Flux is defined as a fusible material that serves to stabilize and shield the arc.
Section II, Part C

Specifications of SFA-5.1
Specification SFA-5.1 prescribes the requirements for the classification of carbon
steel electrodes for shielded metal arc welding. Examples of the electrode
classifications in this specification include: E6010, E6011, E7018, and E7028
Only 60 and 70 ksi electrodes.

Marking Requirements
SFA-5.1 specifies marking requirements for both the package and the electrode.
For packages: The AWS specification and class, suppliers name and trade
designation, size and net weight, lot, control, or, or heat number. For electrodes: the
electrode classification must be within 2-1/2 of the grip end. The prefix letter E
may be omitted.
Section II, Part C
Specifications of SFA-5.1
Section II, Part C
Specifications of SFA-5.1
Section II, Part C
Specifications of SFA-5.1

Example:
An E7018 electrode has a minimum tensile strength of 70,000, uses low hydrogen
potassium/iron powder covering, and can use AC or DCEP.

Example of SFA-5.1 Electrodes


E-6010
E-7018
E-7024
Only 60 and 70 thousand tensile electrodes are covered by this specification.
Section II, Part C
Specifications of SFA-5.1
Example:
An E7018 electrode has a minimum tensile strength of 70,000, uses low hydrogen
potassium/iron powder covering, and can use AC or DCEP.
Example of SFA-5.1 Electrodes
E-6010
E-7018
E-7024
Only 60 and 70 thousand tensile electrodes are covered by this specification.
Section II, Part C
Specifications of SFA-5.1
Section II, Part C
Specification SFA-5.4
Specification SFA-5.4 prescribes the requirements for classification of Corrosion-
Resisting Chromium and Chromium Nickel Steel Covered Welding Electrodes for
Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW Electrodes for Stainless Steel)
Section II, Part C
Specification SFA-5.4
Section II, Part C
Specification SFA-5.4
Example:

An E308L- 15 uses 308 austenetic stainless steel, with lower carbon than
straight E308, lime covering, and used with DCEP.
Examples of SFA-5.4 Electrodes

E-308L-15
E-309Cb-15