You are on page 1of 200

The Design of Rolling Bearing Mountings

Design Examples covering Machines, Vehicles and Equipment

The Design of
Rolling Bearing Mountings
Design Examples covering
Machines, Vehicles and Equipment

Publ. No. WL 00 200/6 EA


This publication presents design examples covering
various machines, vehicles and equipment having one
thing in common: rolling bearings.

For this reason the brief texts concentrate on the roll-
ing bearing aspects of the applications. The operation
of the machine allows conclusions to be drawn about
the operating conditions which dictate the bearing
type and design, the size and arrangement, fits, lubri-
cation and sealing.

Important rolling bearing engineering terms are print-
ed in italics. At the end of this publication they are
summarized and explained in a glossary of terms, some
supplemented by illustrations.


. . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 3 FAG . . . . . . . . . . 40 52 Universal quill drive for threephase 27 Spur gear transmission for a reversing current locomotives of series 120 . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 STATIONARY GEARS Drives 26 Infinitely variable gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 RAIL VEHICLES 16 Bore grinding spindle . . . . 24 truck engines . . 29 42 Axle box roller bearings of an Intercity 18 Surface grinding spindle . . 18 37 Driven and non-steered rear wheel of a rear drive truck . . . . . . . 36 vehicle . . . . . . . . . . . 48 1 Traction motor for electric standard-gauge 32 Passenger car transmission . . . . . . 45 54 Spur gear transmission for the 30 Double-step spur gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . standard and modified types . . . 72 51 Kiln trucks for sand lime brick works . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 120's three-phase current locomotive . . . . . . . . . . 50 locomotives . . 12 Automotive wheels . . . . . . . 47 55 Bevel gear transmission for city trains . . . . . . . . 62 Other bearing arrangements 43-44 UIC axle box roller bearings for freight cars . . . . 67 22 Flywheel of a car body press . . . . . . . . .A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . class 92 . . . . . . 54 6 Vertical-pump motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 11 CNC-lathe main spindle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 34 Final drive of a passenger car . . 41 53 Suspension bearing arrangement 28 Marine reduction gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 axle of a car . . . . 6 33 Manual gearbox for trucks . . 64 19 Rotary table of a vertical lathe . . 68 MACHINERY FOR WORKING AND 48 Axle box roller bearings for an PROCESSING NON-METALLIC underground train . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 41 Belt tensioner for passenger car engines . . . . . 26 15 Vertical high-speed milling spindle . . . 11 5 Drum of a domestic washing machine . . . . . . . . . 61 14 Motor spindle of a lathe . . . . . . 53 4 Electric motor for domestic appliances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 36 Driven and non-steered rear wheel of a POWER ENGINEERING rear drive passenger car . . . . . . 70 MATERIALS 49 Axle box roller bearings for a light rail 23 Vertical wood milling spindle . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Other automotive bearing arrangements 10 NC-lathe main spindle . . . 75 29 Bevel gear – spur gear transmission . . . . . . 66 21 Rough-turning lathe for round bars 46 Axle box roller bearings for an ICE and pipes . . . 16 front drive passenger car . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contents Example Title Page Example Title Page PRIME MOTORS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 9 Drilling and milling spindle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Wheelsets 17 External cylindrical grinding spindle . . . . . . . . . . . 30 train carriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .R. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 8 Rotor of a wind energy plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 47 Axle box roller bearings for the Channel tunnel's freight engine. . . 14 35 Driven and steered front wheel of a 7 Mine fan motor . . . . 71 24 Double-shaft circular saw . . . . 37 50 Axle box roller bearings according to 25 Rolls for a plastic calender . . 46 underground or subway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 A. . . . 57 METALWORKING MACHINES 38 Steering king pin of a truck . 74 rolling stand . . . . . . . 60 13 High-speed motor milling spindle . . . . . 33 driving unit . . . . . . . . 52 3 Three-phase current standard motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 2 Traction motor for electric commuter trains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 for electric goods train locomotive . . . . . . . . . MOTOR VEHICLES ELECTRIC MOTORS Automotive gearboxes . . . . . . . . . . 58 39 Shock absorbing strut for the front Work spindles of machine tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Automotive differentials . . . . . . . . . 76 31 Worm gear pair . . . . 31 45 Axle box roller bearings of series 20 Tailstock spindle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 40 Water pump for passenger car and 12 Plunge drilling spindle .

. . . . 125 58-59 Spherical roller thrust bearings as 89 Drive unit of a finished-goods elevator . . . . . . . 149 79 Roller track assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 110 Straightening rolls of a rail straightener . . . . . . . . . . . 110 105 Work rolls for the finishing section of a 78 Crane pillar mounting with a spherical four-high hot wide strip mill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 68 Dryer rolls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 copper and brass bands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Aerial ropeways. 132 69 Guide rolls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 63-64 Ship shaft thrust blocks . . 111 slab stand or ingot billet stand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY · 84 Internal bearings for the tension/ FOOD INDUSTRY take-up pulley of a belt conveyor . . . . 94 94 Double-shaft hammer crusher . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Cranes. . . . . . . 114 wheel gear of a billet mill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 95 Ball tube mill . . 160 FAG 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 roller thrust bearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 RAW MATERIAL PROCESSING 65 Refiners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rope sheaves 99 Four-bearing screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 74 Rope return sheaves of passenger ropeway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 85 Rigid idlers . . . . 139 LIFTING AND CONVEYING 98 Two-bearing screen with straight-line EQUIPMENT motion . . . 138 97 Two-bearing screen with circle throw . . . . . . . 93 93 Hammer mill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 bearings . . . . . 158 86 Idler garland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 100 Vibrator motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Example Title Page Example Title Page SHIPBUILDING Excavators and bucket elevators Rudder shafts . . . . . . . . . . . 136 71 Anti-deflection rolls . . . . . 80 dredger . . . 101 Vibrating machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 70 Calender thermo rolls . . . . . . . . . . . 122 111 Disk plough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 EQUIPMENT 76 Rope sheave of a pulley block . . . . . . . . . . . 112 107 Combined reduction and cogging 80 Crane run wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 81 Crane hook . . . 143 73 Run wheel of a material ropeway . . . . . . . . . 124 56-57 Spherical roller bearings as rudder 88 Bottom sprocket of a bucket chain shaft bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 72 preader rolls . lift trucks 104 Roll bearings of a non-reversing four- 77 Crane pillar mounting with a spherical high cold rolling stand for aluminium . . . 98 96 Support roller of a rotary kiln . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 PAPER MACHINES . . . 130 67 Central press rolls . . . 82 Ship shafts CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY 61-62 Ship shaft bearings and stern tube 90 Driving axle of a construction machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 91 Vibrating road roller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 92 Double toggle jaw crusher . . . . . . 156 Belt conveyors 83 Head pulley of a belt conveyor . . . . 81 60 Spade-type rudder . 79 87 Bucket wheel shaft of a bucket wheel excavator . . . 148 roller thrust bearing and a spherical 106 Roll mountings of a two-high ingot roller bearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 112 Plane sifter . . . . . 152 82 Mast guidance bearings of a 109 Two-high rolls of a dressing stand for fork lift truck . . . . . . . 116 108 Work rolls of a section mill . . . . . . 104 STEEL MILL AND ROLLING MILL 75 Rope sheave (underground mining) . . . . . . 108 101-103 Large-capacity converters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Crushers and mills 66 Suction rolls . . . . . . . . . . 126 rudder carriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . 177 GLOSSARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COMPRESSORS. . . . . . . . . . ANTENNAS 121 Optical telescope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 123 Azimuth axis (track roller and king pin bearings) . . . . . . . . . . Contents Example Title . . . . 172 Radiotelescope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 122 Elevation axle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 114 Blanket cylinder of a sheet-fed offset press . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 5 FAG . . . . . . . . 165 116-117 Axial piston machines . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 119 Hot gas fan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 124 Data wheel . . . 164 PUMPS 115 Centrifugal pump . . .Page PRINTING PRESSES 113 Impression cylinders of a newspaper rotary printing press . FANS 118 Exhauster . . . . . . . . . . 171 PRECISION MECHANICS. . . . . . . 170 120 Fresh air blower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 VENTILATORS. . OPTICS. . .

unbalanced loads and rail shocks. load acting on the pinion and the reaction loads from P64 tolerance class P6. the unbalanced mag. The bear- ing loads are determined from this estimated load. The resulting axial clearance of 6 mm is required for the operating conditions in question. sions with standard gear ratios is 200 km/h). Machining tolerances netic pull. but its inner ring is 6 mm for the motor torque.8 and 3. is known.F1.200 2. Lhna1 Lhna2 Lhna3 ance (C4. due to the Three-phase current motor supplied by frequency high speed. This mentary factor fz = 1. converter.F1 serves as floating bearing at the drive end. It is further re- using the formula: duced during operation as the operating temperature Lhna = 100 of the inner ring is higher than that of the outer ring.. Bearing clearance mula Lhna = a1 · a23 · Lh [h]. speeds.P64. end cap to M6 depending on the type of motor suspension. pinion to align freely. therefore.690 34 polyamide.300 min–1 (maximum driving speed for transmis.324 18 C5 radial clearance larger than C4 4 3. expanded and the outer ring with the roller-and-cage The basic a23II factor is between 0.5.920 2.C5.5 is determined for every load case using the for. the drive end. q1 q2 q For this reason bearings with an increased radial clear- + + 3 + . which is sometimes of the shock type.240 1. Then. Of these loads only the rotor weight. Lhna is obtained bearing is reduced after mounting. end cap to M6 is multiplied by a supplementary factor fz = 1.C5) are mounted. the drive-end bearing is not too large.. With the bearings selected the theoretical mileage of Nominal output 1.. The cylindrical roller bearing FAG 566513 is an Collective loads which cover representative load cases NJ318E.056 2 TVP2 moulded cage of glass fibre reinforced 2 2. Thus the radial clearance of the ness factor s is assumed to be 1. The cleanli.240 4.5 – Opposite end: shaft n5. radial clearance C4 the bearings have to be calculated both for forward and backward motion (percentage times 50 % each).387 min–1) and the average driving 43283 "Cylindrical roller bearings for speed (111 km/h). For The bearings are fitted tightly on the shaft due to the the spring-suspended traction motor shown. and percentages of time wider. Due to the tight fits.400 kW.720 1. the bearings are subjected to loads due to the rotor weight.. are used to in order to allow the herringbone gearing on the determine bearing stressing.225 6 specification for cylindrical roller bearings in traction motors which considers. the inner ring of the bearing is the rated viscosity ␯1 as well as the factors K1 and K2. reduces the danger of fretting corrosion. high load. dimensioning locating bearing. GL. maximum speed 2. reached. The attainable life Lhna1..5 is used. assembly is contracted. sultant bearing loading to be determined by vector addition.. it Drive end: shaft r5. In addition to these forces.1 Traction motor for electric standard-gauge locomotives Operating data When selecting the bearing it should be ensured that the nominal mileage is reached and that. particularly at The bearing loads from weight and drive allow the re.746 42 F1 FAG manufacturing and inspection 5 2. For each of the load cases the tooth electric traction".TVP2. among The collective load is the basis for determining the others.. the requirements according to DIN average speeds (2. One-end drive with herringbone gear pinion. Load case Md n q Suffixes: Nm min–1 % E reinforced design 1 6. taking into account the operating viscosity ␯ of the transmission oil at 120 °C. FAG 6 .TVP2. In this example only the critical transmis- sion-end bearing will be discussed.F1 serves as the Bearing selection.2.. a supple.5 million kilometers required by the customer can be 4. rolling element riding 3 1. an FAG 566513 with an angle ring HJ318E. A cylindrical roller bearing FAG NU322E.

speeds.Lubrication. sealing The bearing at the opposite end is lubricated with a lithium soap base grease of NLGI penetration class 3 The drive-end bearing is lubricated. thus prevent contaminants from penetrating into the bear- reducing the bearing loading. No sealing is required between pinion and lometers or five years. respectively. collecting grooves prevent the oil from escaping in the direction of the coil. with transmission oil ISO VG 320 with EP The bearings should be relubricated after 400.000 ki- additives. Flinger edges and oil ings. Multiple labyrinths bearing so that a shorter cantilever can be used. 1: Traction motor for electric standard-gauge locomotive 7 FAG . due to the high (FAG rolling bearing grease Arcanol L71V).

M1. Relu- brication is possible. The mean torque is about 90 % of the torque at con- stant power. M1 Machined brass cage. among others. grease Arcanol L71V as for all traction motors. load which takes into account the rotor weight. They are tively high operating speed require an increased radial made up of the reaction loads resulting from the gear clearance C4 for the cylindrical roller bearing and the force on the driving pinion and a theoretical radial deep groove ball bearing. Bearing clearance The bearing loads are calculated as for traction motors The tight fits and the high temperature due to the rela- for standard-gauge locomotives (example 1).J20A 250. very safely accommodates the thrust load resulting from the 7° helical gearing of the pinion. maximum speed 3. For good support of the bearing rings. The value 2 takes into The bearings are lubricated with FAG rolling bearing account the relatively rigid motor suspension. Bearing selection. This theoretical radial load applied at the rotor centre of Lubrication. which is also determined from the operating Deep groove ball bearing: Shaft to m5. P64 Tolerance class P6.D. end cap to M6 speed. the magnetic pull. Machining tolerances The periodic operating conditions – starting. end cap to K6 graph. form the basis for the rolling bearing analysis. FAG 8 . end a cylindrical roller bearing FAG NU320E. driving. radial clearance C4 mum driving speed 120 km/h). and a grease valve is provided to An overhung pinion provides the drive. unbalanced loads and rail shocks.820 min–1 (driving M. At the pinion protect against overlubrication.F1 is mounted as the floating bearing. The bearings are sealed on both sides by multiple laby- tively high speeds. The operating mode of commuter train motor vehicles is characterized by the short distances between stops.P64. dimensioning J20A Current insulation on the outer ring O. rinths (axially arranged passages).P64. provided: The cubic mean of the motor torque and an average Cylindrical roller bearing: Shaft to n5. tight fits are resenting the motor torque versus the driving time. even at rela. At the commutator Experience shows that relubrication intervals of end a deep groove ball bearing FAG 6318M. the requirements of DIN 43283 "Cylindrical roller bearings for electric traction". braking – can be recorded on an operating graph rep. tion for cylindrical roller bearings in traction motors which takes into account.030 min–1 (maxi.000 km or 5 years provide optimum life. permanent E Maximum capacity power 200 kW at a speed of 1.2 Traction motor for electric commuter trains Operating data Suffixes Self-ventilated converter current motor. rolling element riding speed 72 km/h). one-end drive with F1 FAG manufacturing and inspection specifica- herringbone gear pinion. sealing gravity is calculated by multiplying the rotor weight by the supplementary factor fz = 2.

As a result. tor which can cause current passage damage in the bearing. coating on the outer ring O. more than 100 kW are used. an in.Current insulation To interrupt the flow of current. one bearing (in this case the deep groove ball bearing) is provided with cur- Where converter current motors with an output of rent insulation. Ventilation end Drive end 2: Traction motor of an electric commuter train 9 FAG .s and faces.D. ripple voltages can be caused by magnetic asymmetries. Current-insulated bearings feature an oxide ceramic duced circuit is generated between rotor shaft and sta.

The spring Machining tolerances at the drive side provides clearance-free adjustment of the bearings and accommodates opposing axial loads Shaft to j5. Since the operating load in most applications is lower than the admissible load. The re- rotor weight. on the rotor shaft. maintenance-free arrangement should be provided. rotor mass 8 kg. Drive end Ventilation end 3: Three-phase current standard motor FAG 10 . end cap bore to H6. The grease filling in these bearings is sufficient somewhat from the usual approach. an attainable life Lhna of more than 20. For the motor catalogues. therefore.2ZR design with shields on both bearing sides has been successful in small and medium-sized electric The calculation of the bearings for this motor differs motors. totally enclosed fan. the unilateral magnetic pull and the quirements on insulation type IP44 are. this reason the FAG high-temperature grease Arcanol To determine the radial load carrying capacity. With these values a permissible radial loading of 1 kN cooled according to DIN 42673. Gap type seals protect the shaft open- 20. As the met. insulation class F. Consequently. is usually defined not by mate- rial fatigue but by the grease service life.C3. In DIN 42673. As not even the for their entire service life.5. speed 2. Increased operating temper- motor manufacturer knows the amount of load at the atures must be taken into consideration in the case in shaft end. The life of electric mo- Bearing selection tor bearings. is calculated for the shaft-end middle. These requirements Suffixes are best met by deep groove ball bearings.2ZR. The shields prevent the grease from es- drive-side deep groove ball bearing is calculated. In addition. sealing Bearing dimensioning The . therefore. a bore diameter of C3 Radial clearance larger than PN (normal) 30 mm is required. type of protection IP44. The bore tolerance H6 ensures the slide fit required for By adjusting the deep groove ball bearings to zero free axial adjustment of both bearings.000 h and a basic a23II value of 1.e. an FAG 6206.5.2ZR Bearing with two shields size 100 L is 28 mm. Lubrication.L207.000 hours is obtained. the permissible radial loading is indicated in question due to the insulation class F provided. the L207 is used. They guide the rotor shaft both at the drive side and at the ventilating side. the ing at the drive side against dust and moisture. Low-noise bearings in a simple. In this case a bearing of series 62 L207 Grease filling with Arcanol L207 was selected for both bearing locations. caping and protect the bearings from contamination The calculation is based on an attainable life Lhna of from the motor. nominal fz = 1. unbalanced load have to be taken into account. i. clearance the adverse influence of bearing clearance on noise behaviour is eliminated.800 min–1. size 100 L. the shaft-end diameter specified for . sheet 1 – design B3.3 Three-phase current standard motor Operating data latter two criteria are not known the rotor weight is simply multiplied by a supplementary factor of Belt drive: Power 3 kW.

regreasing is not required. Quiet running is the prime requirement for domestic appliance motors.000 hours. the bearings reach the required life of between 500 and 2. It is characterized by its low friction. Suffixes The bearings with shields (. To allow the spring washer to adjust the bearings axially. The bearing seats on the shaft and in the end cap bores must be well aligned. the quality of standard bearings already ade- quately meets the common noise requirements. Fatigue damage Bearing selection hardly ever occurs. A deep groove ball bearing FAG 626. 4: Electric motor for domestic appliances 11 FAG . The overall efficiency of this motor is considerably influ- enced by the frictional moment of the ball bearings. and as a result the bearings are sufficiently di- mensioned with regard to fatigue life. they form a gap-type seal formed by the shields offers adequate gap-type seal protection against contamination under normal ambi- L91 special grease filling (Arcanol L91) ent conditions. speed 3. axial direction. bearing clearance and the finish of the shaft and end cap bore. The shaft diameter is usually dictated by the machine design.4 Electric motor for domestic appliances Operating data Bearing dimensioning Power 30 W. i. the outer rings have slide fits Sealing.L91 on sistency number 2 with an especially high degree of the other side. and an FAG 609. end cap bore to H5 Zero-clearance operation of the bearings is achieved by The bore tolerance H5 provides the slide fit required a spring washer lightly preloading the bearings in the to permit free axial alignment of both bearings.e.2ZR is provided Grease lubrication with lithium soap base grease of con- on the collector side.2ZR design) are prelubri- cated with grease. Shaft to j5.2ZR Bearing with shields on both sides.500 min–1. lubrication in the end caps. The . Machining tolerances Today.2ZR. cleanliness. The noise level of a motor is influ- enced by bearing quality (form and running accuracy).

floating bearing is able to adjust in the case of thermal g Acceleration due to gravity = 9.000 min–1 a Bearing B FrB = Bearing selection l F · 1 [N] a The domestic washing machine is of the front loading type.the inner rings are subjected to point load. r Radius of action of unbalanced load [m] Drum radius = dT / 2 [m] ␻ Angular velocity = π · n / 30 [s–1] Lubrication.. produces a large deep groove ball bearing FAG 6305. the drum bearings are only lightly dimensioned for an index of dynamic stressing loaded by the weight resulting from drum and wet fL = 0... This ensures that the laundry capacity is taken as unbalanced load.0. on which the bearing dimensions are based. applies to the spinning cycle: Since the laundry is un.C3 was selected for the drum side and a unbalanced load arises which. i.5 kg dry mass of laundry (weight Gw = 44 N).35 % of the dry not as tight. this is achieved by machining the housing bores to M6.500 hours of spinning. There is an additional rubbing-type seal at the This load is applied to the washing drum centre. For this reason. a cycle The bearings for domestic washing machines are without spinning. FAG 12 . Bearing A Speeds: when washing 50 min–1 FrA = when spinning after prewash cycle 800 min–1 l F · 2 [N] when dry spinning 1.2ZR) at both sides.. In the example shown a deep groove ball bearing FAG evenly distributed around the drum circumference. and also on the weight and unbalanced loads.e. GT.1. 10. The centrifugal force is calculated from: Machining tolerances FZ = m · r · ␻2 [N] Due to the unbalanced load GU. sealed at both sides. The belt pull is are sealed by shields (.85.C3 for the centrifugal force. on this centrifugal force as well as on the weights of the The bearings have an increased radial clearance C3 and drum. the outer rings must have a m = GU/g [N · s2/m] tight fit in the housing. sufficient for the bearing service thus is: F = FZ + GT + GW [N] life. in turn. Gw.. A loose fit also simplifies mounting. drum side. The fit of the inner rings is GU Unbalanced load [N]. washing cycles with or without spin- ning. Very simplified data is assumed for bearing load determination.. an 6306.2ZR. and the dry laundry. since loads and speeds are variable. are prelubricated The total force for determination of the bearing loads with a special grease.81 m/s2 expansion. Domestic washing machines generally have several. Bearing dimensioning partly automatic. During the actual washing cycle.2ZR. This loading is unimportant for the bearing These values correspond to a nominal life of dimensioning and is thus neglected. The bearing dimensioning is based pulley side.5 Drum of a domestic washing machine Operating data The bearing loads are: Capacity 4. drum journal to h5. the outer rings to circumferen- where tial load. generally neglected. Bearing selection depends on the journal diameter which is determined by rigidity requirements. sealing n Drum speed during spinning [min–1] The bearings. The opposite 300. The drum is overhung and pulley-driven. laundry.

Pulley Drum 5: Drum mounting of a domestic washing machine 13 FAG .

C3 takes up only a light radial load and the The relubrication interval is 1. On the pump impeller side a cylindrical roller bearing FAG NU1020M1.TVP which The bearings are lubricated with FAG rolling bearing has to accommodate the main thrust. directed downwards. – for the floating bearing 15 g In normal operation. housing pull and potential unbalanced loads from the rotor to H6 and pump impeller. (4 kN).6 Vertical-pump motor Operating data As a result. type V1. As it accommodates the unbalanced loads from the pump impeller both the inner and the outer ring are fitted Bearing selection tightly. housing that these loads are sufficiently taken into account by to E8 taking 50 % of the rotor and pump impeller mass. below the bearing locations. pump thrust face and end cap. reversal stage. field experience shows Angular contact ball bearing: Shaft to k5. nominal speed 3. the angular contact ball bearing is sub- jected to a minimum axial load by means of springs. Due to the relatively light radi- up of the weight of the rotor and and pump impeller al load. no radial force acts on the bearing this part of the Replenishment quantity housing is radially relieved to clearance fit E8. the deep groove ball bearing – for the locating bearing 40 g FAG 6216. briefly. Lubrication In the example shown. the supporting bearing is an angular contact ball bearing FAG 7316B. which in this case is 2 kN.000 min–1. Cylindrical roller bearing: Shaft to m5. to accom- modate an upward axial load of 4 kN. as well.000 hours. When the motor idles the pump thrust may be Machining tolerances reversed so that the bearings have. by the defined gap between deep groove ball bearing Rotor and pump impeller mass 400 kg. housing The radial loads acting on the bearings are not exactly to M6 known. FAG 14 . However. the lighter series NU10 was selected. the rotor is vertically displaced in the up- ward direction (ascending distance) which is limited Rated horsepower 160 kW. the pump thrust (9 kN) and the spring preload (1 kN). the thrust reversal grease is collected in annular cover chambers provided load of the idling motor has to be accommodated. which is directed downwards. It is made strength requirements. The spent axial spring preload. in addition. To avoid slippage during the thrust 9 kN. which in turn is dictated by main thrust. They are made up by the unbalanced magnetic Deep groove ball bearing: Shaft to k5.C3 acts as the floating bearing. The cylindrical roller bearing design depends on the The selection of the bearings is primarily based on the shaft diameter of 100 mm. To ensure that grease Arcanol L71V and can be relubricated.

6: Rotor bearing arrangement of a vertical-pump motor 15 FAG .

Based on the operating viscosity ␯ of the lubricating oil Bearing selection (viscosity class ISO VG150) at approx. it is ply during start-up. The cleanliness factor s the rotor and the two variable top and bottom fan im. assuming that half the rotor weight acts as the Spherical roller thrust bearing: Shaft to k5. dynamic load rating of C = 1430 kN. the radial load Machining tolerances per bearing is 3. 70 °C.393 (n = 750 min–1). Radial guidance is ensured by a deep groove ball bearing FAG 16068M Lower bearing location mounted on the same sleeve as the supporting bearing Deep groove ball bearing: Shaft to k5.5 kN. a basic a23II The axial load of 130 kN is made up of the weight of value of about 3 is determined. namic stressing fL = 4. is therefore sufficiently dimensioned. The two radial bearings are also sufficiently dimensioned with the in- The radial loads on vertical motors are only guiding dex of dynamic stressing fL > 6. to E8 Deep groove ball bearing: Shaft to k5. due to its asymmetrical design. is assumed to be 1. housing and accommodating the opposing axial loads on the to H6 rotor. these loads can be sufficiently taken into Upper bearing location account.3 is calculated with the axial load Fa = 130 kN and the speed factor for roller bearings fn = 0. The axial displacement is limited Thrust and radial bearings at the upper bearing loca- to 1 mm in the upward direction so that the spherical tion are oil-lubricated. it is preloaded with springs of for relubrication and a grease valve.MB has a Axial load Fa = 130 kN.000 hours. roller thrust bearing does not lift off.000 hours and the bearing are supported by the upper thrust bearing. radial load Fr = 3. If the exact values are not known. tions are labyrinth-sealed. Spherical roller thrust bearing FAG 29260E. housing radial load at the rotor centre of gravity. Axial guidance is necessary for transporting and mounting as well as for motor idling. loads. provides automat- continuous contact in the bearings.MB. housing The upper supporting bearing is a spherical roller to H6 thrust bearing FAG 29260E. ic circulation from the inner to the outer diameter.5 kN. The index of dy- the bearings are vertically arranged. The attainable life Lhna of the thrust pellers as well as the thrust of these fan impellers.800 kW. sealing condition the counterflow of air can cause reversal of rotation and thrust. In the example shown. They are very small and generally result from the unbalanced magnetic pull and the potential rotor un- balanced load. A retaining and a flinger ring ensure oil sup- vided by a deep groove ball bearing FAG 6340M. Since The lower bearing is grease-lubricated with provision it is only lightly loaded. Both bearing loca- 3 kN. bearing. Springs arranged The spherical roller thrust bearing runs in an oil bath below the housing washer (spring load 6 kN) ensure and. FAG 16 . mounted with a slide fit as the floating bearing. speed n = 750 min–1. In this operating Lubrication. The nominal life Lh = 65. A tapered oil feeder and angled oilways supply the upper Radial guidance at the lower bearing position is pro.7 Mine fan motor Operating data Bearing dimensioning Rated horsepower 1. the rated viscosity ␯1 and the factors K1 und K2. They bearing is longer than 100.

7: Rotor bearing arrangement of a mine fan motor 17 FAG .

For the bearing FAG 231/670BK.320 min–1. spherical roller bearings FAG The bearing seats in the housing bore are machined to 231/670BK. Mains connection Foundation The life values calculated for the normally loaded spherical roller bearings (in accordance with DIN ISO 281) are far above the number of hours for 20-year continuous operation. There are horizon. overhung blade rotor. The floating bear. steel and were checked by means of the finite-element gear transmission ratio i = 1:57.11 is obtained.MB accommo.. blade Tower dates a mean radial force of Fr = P = 1.500 kN. A nominal life of Lh > 130.000 = 0. splash difficult to exactly determine the loads to be accom.4. Today. Rotor floating bearing centage times. adjustment mechanism For the locating bearing. electr.200/11..090 x 336 mm) H7.200 kW at a nominal rotor speed of the generator of n = 1. Lubrication. The wind ings.1. as a rule. To support the ISO 1101).08.8 Rotor of a wind energy plant Wind energy plants are among the alternative and en.1. 1. With a dynamic load rating of 11.000 = 0. this allows the outer ring of the floating bearing to were selected for the locating bearing location and FAG be displaced. Rotor The floating bearing FAG 230/900BK. Machining tolerances Bearing selection The withdrawal sleeve seats on the rotor shaft are machined to h9 and cylindricity tolerance IT5/2 (DIN A service life of 20 years was specified.. possibly.08. causing vibrations.0. modated by the bearings. they generate powers of up to 3. sealing The bearings are lubricated with a lithium soap base Bearing dimensioning grease of penetration class 2 with EP additives (FAG rolling bearing grease Arcanol L186V).470 kN.15. Mounting and dismounting vironmentally friendly energy sources. make it prevents ingress of dust. dirt and.MB (dimensions 900 x 1. Wind energy plant. The locating bearing of the WKA60 Rotor brake Rotor locating bearing plant is subjected to radial loads of Fr = 400. water. the mean equivalent load is. Adapter sleeves also allow easier ad- justment of the required radial clearance.000 kN this bearing Wind tracker yields a load ratio of P/C = 880/11.200 kW. they are fastened on the shaft by means of hy- energy plant WKA60 is 44 meters high and features a draulic adapter sleeves FAG H31/670HGJS and FAG three-blade horizontal rotor with a diameter of 60 m.. switch unit ing may have to accommodate radial loads of and control system Rotor hub with rotor Generator Fr = 800.. 230/900BK. The recommended value for dimensioning the main The housings are sealed on both sides by means of a bearings of wind energy plants is P/C = 0. To facilitate mounting and dismounting of the bear- tal-rotor systems and vertical-rotor systems.000 h was specified. For this reason. electrical power method.MB (dimensions 670 x 1.000 kN a load ratio of 1. speeds and per. The bearings are supported by one-piece plummer Operating data block housing of designs SUB (locating bearing) and SUC (floating bearing). The housings are made of cast Nominal speed of the three-blade rotor = 23 min–1. the radial and axial loads to be accommodated yield a mean equivalent dynamic load of P = 880 kN. schematic drawing FAG 18 .. determined on the basis of several load cases with variable loads..MB Rotor blade with a dynamic load rating of C = 11.200 kN. A grease collar around the sealing gap The varying wind forces.850 kN Coupling Gear and thrust loads of Fa = 60. double felt seal.280 x 280 mm) for the floating bearing location.. H30/900HGS.

8: Rotor shaft bearings of a wind energy plant

19 FAG

9–18 Work spindles of machine tools
The heart of every machine tool is its main or work This yields a viscosity ratio ␬ = ␯/␯1 ≈ 4; i. e. the rolling
spindle and its work spindle bearings. The main qual- contact areas are fully separated by a lubricant film.
ity characteristics of the spindle-bearing system are With ␬ = 4, a basic a23II factor of 3.8 is obtained from
cutting volume and machining precision. Machine the a23 diagram. Since the bearings, as a rule, are rela-
tools are exclusively fitted with rolling bearings of in- tively lightly loaded (fs* > 8), a very good cleanliness
creased precision; mainly angular contact ball bearings factor (s = infinite) is obtained with increased (V = 0.5)
and spindle bearings (radial angular contact ball bear- and utmost (V = 0.3) cleanliness. Consequently, the
ings with contact angles of 15° and 25°, respectively), factor a23 (a23 = a23II · s), and thus the attainable life
double-direction angular contact thrust ball bearings, (Lhna = a1 · a23 · Lh) becomes infinite; the bearing is
radial and thrust cylindrical roller bearings and, occa- failsafe.
sionally, tapered roller bearings. So, as long as fs* ≥ 8 and the main spindle bearings are
lubricated well (␬ ≥ 4), only the cleanliness in the lu-
Depending on the performance data required for a bricating gap determines whether the bearing is failsafe
machine tool, the spindle bearing arrangement is de- or not.
signed with ball or roller bearings based on the follow-
ing criteria: rigidity, friction behaviour, precision,
speed suitability, lubrication and sealing.

Out of a multitude of possible spindle bearing arrange-
ments for machine tools a few typical arrangements
have proved to be particularly suitable for application
in machine tools (figs. a, b, c).

a: Spindle bearing arrangement with universal-design spindle bear-
Usually, a fatigue life calculation is not required for the ings (spindle bearing set), subjected to combined load, at the work
work spindles since, as a rule, to achieve the required end and a single-row or double-row cylindrical roller bearing at the
drive end which accommodates only radial loads.
spindle and bearing rigidity, bearings with such a large
bore diameter have to be selected that, with increased
or utmost cleanliness in the lubricating gap, the bear-
ings are failsafe. For example, the index of dynamic
stressing fL of lathe spindles should be 3...4.5; this cor-
responds to a nominal life of Lh = 15,000...50,000 h.

Example: The main spindle bearing arrangement of a
CNC lathe (fig. a) is supported at the work end in
three spindle bearings B7020E.T.P4S.UL in tandem-
O-arrangement (contact angle ␣0 = 25°, C = 76.5 kN,
C0 = 76.5 kN). At the drive end, the belt pull is ac- b: Spindle bearing arrangement with two tapered roller bearings in
commodated by a double-row cylindrical roller bear- O arrangement. The bearings accommodate both radial and axial
ing NN3018ASK.M.SP. The cutting forces cause 50 % loads.
each of the axial reaction forces for the two tandem-
arranged spindle bearings. The front bearing at the
work end accommodates 60 % of the radial forces. It is
loaded with Fr = 5 kN, Fa = 4 kN at n = 3,000 min–1.

If the bearings are lubricated with the lithium soap
base grease FAG Arcanol L74V (base oil viscosity
23 mm2/s at 40 °C), an operating viscosity of
␯ = 26 mm2/s will be obtained at an operating temper-
ature of 35 °C. With the mean bearing diameter c: Spindle bearing arrangement with two double-row cylindrical
dm = 125 mm and the speed n = 3,000 min–1 a rated roller bearings and a double-direction angular contact thrust ball
viscosity of ␯1 = 7 mm2/s is obtained. bearing. Radial and axial loads are accommodated separately.

FAG 20

9 Drilling and milling spindle
Operating data Machining of the housing bore is simplified in that the
nominal outside diameters of the radial and thrust
Input power 20 kW; range of speed 11...2,240 min–1. bearings are the same. The O.D. tolerance of the angu-
lar contact thrust ball bearing is such as to provide a
loose fit in the housing.
Bearing selection

Radial and axial forces are accommodated separately.
The radial bearings are double-row cylindrical roller Lubrication, sealing
bearings – an FAG NN3024ASK.M.SP at the work
end and an FAG NN3020ASK.M.SP at the opposite Circulating oil lubrication.
end. The double-direction angular contact thrust ball The labyrinth seal at the work end consists of ready-to-
bearing FAG 234424M.SP guides the spindle in axial mount, non-rubbing sealing elements. The inner laby-
direction. This bearing has a defined preload and rinth ring retains the lubricating oil, the outer laby-
adjustment is, therefore, not required. rinth ring prevents the ingress of cutting fluid.

Machining tolerances
Bearing Seat Diameter Form tolerance Axial runout tolerance
tolerance (DIN ISO 1101) of abutment shoulder

Cylindrical roller bearing Shaft, tapered Taper 1:12 IT1/2 IT1
Housing K5 IT1/2 IT1

Angular contact thrust bearing Shaft h5 IT1/2 IT1
Housing K5 IT1/2 IT1

9: Drilling and milling spindle

21 FAG

10 NC-lathe main spindle
Operating data Main spindle bearings do not normally fail due to ma-
terial fatigue but as a result of wear; the grease service
Input power 27 kW; life is decisive.
maximum spindle speed 9,000 min–1.

Bearing selection
Bearing clearance
The main requirements on this bearing arrangement
are an extremely good speed suitability, rigidity, and FAG spindle bearings of universal design are intended
accurate guidance of the work spindle. At the work for mounting in X, O or tandem arrangement in any
end, a spindle bearing set FAG B7017C.T.P4S.DTL arrangement. When mounting in X or O arrangement a
defined preload results. The light preload UL meets
in tandem arrangement is provided; at the drive end, a
the normal requirements.
spindle bearing set FAG B71917C.T.P4S.DTL in
The original preload remains in the bearings due to
tandem arrangement.
outer and inner spacer sleeves of identical lengths.
The bearings are lightly preloaded (UL) and have an
With a good bearing distance, the axial and radial heat
increased precision (P4S).
expansions of the work spindle compensate each other
The arrangement has no floating bearing; it is a rigid
so that the bearing preload remains unchanged under
locating bearing system. Both bearing groups together
any operating condition.
form an O arrangement.

Bearing dimensioning
Lubrication, sealing
The size of the bearings is primarily based on the spin-
dle rigidity required, i. e. on the largest possible spin- The bearings are greased for life with the FAG rolling
dle diameter. The fatigue life of the bearings is taken bearing grease Arcanol L74V and about 35 % of the
into account for dimensioning but it does not play a cavity is filled.
dominating role in practice. Sealing is provided by labyrinth seals with defined gaps.

Machining tolerances
Bearing Seat Diameter Form tolerance Axial run-out tolerance of
tolerance (DIN ISO 1101) abutment shoulder

Spindle bearings Shaft +5/–5 μm 1.5 μm 2.5 μm
Drive end/work end Housing +2/+10 μm 3.5 μm 5 μm

10: NC-lathe main spindle

FAG 22

dimensioning but it does not play a dominating role in Sealing is provided by a labyrinth with set narrow practice.5 μm Housing –15/+3 μm 3.T.TBTL in tandem-O-arrangement with The cylindrical roller bearing is adjusted with almost a light preload is mounted as locating bearing. on the spindle diameter. The approximately 20% of the cylindrical -roller bearing fatigue life of the bearings is taken into account for cavity is filled with grease. When mounting in X or O arrangement a have an increased precision. zero radial clearance by axially pressing the tapered At the drive end there is a single-row cylindrical roller inner ring onto the spindle.5. Machining tolerances Bearing Seat Diameter Form tolerance Axial runout tolerance tolerance (DIN ISO 1101) of abutment shoulder Spindle bearings Shaft +5/–5 μm 1. Main spindle bearings do not normally fail Speed range 31.M1. The light preload UL meets the At the work end a spindle bearing set FAG normal requirements.5 μm 2. set preload results.SP as floating bearing.5.e. bearing FAG N1016K.11 CNC-lathe main spindle Operating data Apart from the Hertzian contact pressure. Bearing selection Bearing clearance The bearings must accurately guide the spindle radially and axially and be very rigid.5 μm 5 μm 11: CNC-lathe main spindle 23 FAG .. The bearing size is primarily based on the spindle Approximately 35% of the spindle bearing cavity and rigidity required. radial gaps. service life. O or tandem arrangement in any bearing arrangement. FAG spindle bearings of universal design are intended ing as large a shaft diameter as possible and a suitable for mounting in X.P4S. This bearing arrangement is suitable for high speeds and for high cutting capacities. the service life of the bearings is mainly dictated by the grease Input power 25 kW.. This is achieved by select.5 μm 5 μm Cylindrical roller bearings Shaft.5 μm 2. tapered Taper 1:12 1. Lubrication.000 min–1.5 μm Housing –4/+8 μm 3. The bearings are preloaded and arrangement. B7018E. due to material fatigue but as a result of wear. sealing Bearing dimensioning The bearings are greased for life with the FAG rolling bearing grease Arcanol L74V. i.

T. 1 spindle bearing set FAG B71909E. Consequently. Sealing is provided by labyrinth seals with a collecting The bearing size is based on the spindle rigidity re. Machining tolerances Bearing Seat Diameter Form tolerance Axial runout tolerance tolerance (DIN ISO 1101) of abutment shoulder Spindle bearing Shaft +3. a set preload results.e. allows the grease service life to be fully utilized. O or tandem arrangement in any criterion is the available space which.T. Another for mounting in X. the axial and radial heat (two bearings mounted in tandem arrangement). groove and a drain hole where a syphon may be pro- quired. vided. e.DTL With a good bearing distance.T. i. The light preload UL meets the Work end: normal requirements.5/–3. life is significantly influenced by a good sealing which maximum spindle speed 7. lightly preloaded).TTL (three bearings mounted in tandem arrangement) The original preload remains in the bearings due to Drive end: outer and inner spacer sleeves of identical lengths. failsafe. the bearings usually have a stress in- dex fs* > 8 and are. expansions of the work spindle compensate each other The two bearing sets can also be ordered as a single set so that the bearing preload remains unchanged under of five: any operating condition. When mounting in X or O arrangement. 1 spindle bearing set FAG B71909E.000 min–1. multispindle cutter heads. The bearings are greased for life with the FAG rolling bearing grease Arcanol L74V and about 35 % of the Bearing dimensioning cavity is filled.P4S. it forms a rigid locating bearing system. sealing includes no floating bearing. in the case of arrangement.PBCL (tandem pair mounted against three tandem-arranged bearings in O arrange- ment. The bearing Input power 4 kW.g. is limited. consequently.5 μm 1 μm 1.P4S.P4S.12 Plunge drilling spindle Operating data As regards loading. Bearing selection Accurate axial and radial guidance of the drilling Bearing clearance spindle is required. This bearing arrangement Lubrication.5 μm (drive/work end) Housing –3/+5 μm 2 μm 3 μm 12: Drilling spindle bearing arrangement FAG 24 . FAG B71909E. bearing selection is based on the axial loads to be accommodated while FAG spindle bearings of universal design are intended providing the greatest possible axial rigidity. on as large a spindle diameter as possible.

P4S. corresponding greater thermal stressing and for high speeds.DTL in tandem arrangement. Two other factors that have to be taken into account Bearing selection are the heat generated by the motor. sealing The bearing pairs at drive end and work end are The bearings are lubricated with rolling bearing grease mounted in O arrangement and elastically adjusted by Arcanol L207V which is particularly suitable for the means of springs (spring load 300 N). ment. As a result. and the ring expan- for the specific thermal operating conditions in a mo.DTL in failsafe. Machining tolerances Bearing Seat Diameter Form tolerance Axial runout tolerance tolerance (DIN ISO 1101) of abutment shoulder Spindle bearing Shaft +6/+10 μm 1 μm 1. Bearing size and bearing arrangement are selected on maximum spindle speed 28. to a medium preload. both these influences are both in the axial and in the radial direction. Consequently. Drive end: 1 spindle bearing set FAG HC71908E.5 μm (drive/work end) Housing –3/+5 μm 2 μm 3 μm 13: Bearing arrangement of a high-speed motor milling spindle 25 FAG . this would considerably increase the preload. dictated by the grease service life.P4S. the service life of the bearings is tandem arrangement. Milling spindles must be guided extremely accurately Due to the spring preload. sion which makes itself felt by the centrifugal force re- tor spindle. the contact pres- sure in the rolling contact area of the bearing is rela- Work end: tively low (p0 ≤ 2.000 min–1.000 N/mm2). the basis of the specified speed and on the spindle diameter. which causes a major temperature difference between the inner ring The bearings must be suitable for very high speeds and and the outer ring of the bearing. In a rigid bearing arrange- are particularly suitable for this application.13 High-speed motor milling spindle Operating data Bearing dimensioning Input power 11 kW. and conse- is mounted on a sleeve which is supported on a linear quently to increase the grease service life. easily compensated for.T.T. and the bearings are 1 spindle bearing set FAG HC7008E. the bearings ball bearing with zero clearance so that axial length are sealed by labyrinths consisting of a gap-type seal variations of the shaft can be freely compensated for. Lubrication. Hybrid spindle bearings with ceramic balls sulting from the high speed. The bearing pair at the drive end To protect the grease from contamination. with flinger grooves and a collecting groove.

the specific thermal conditions found in a motor bear- ing arrangement have to be taken into account. Input power 18 kW.14 Motor spindle of a lathe Operating data obtained whose load carrying capacity is more than adequate. This grease is particularly as locating bearing suitable for increased temperatures and high speeds. required zero clearance at operating temperature. cavity is filled with grease.QBCL The bearings are lubricated for life with the rolling (tandem-O-tandem arrangement ) bearing grease Arcanol L207V. clearance of a few μm by axially pressing the tapered sible and a suitable bearing arrangement.SP approximately 20 % of the cylindrical-roller bearing as floating bearing.5 μm 2.5 μm 2. Opposite end: 1 cylindrical roller bearing Approximately 35 % of the spindle bearing cavity and FAG N1020K.T.P4S. Lubrication.5 μm Housing –15/+3 μm 3.M1.5 μm 5 μm 14: Motor spindle bearing arrangement of a lathe FAG 26 . Consequently. tapered 1:12 1. the service life of the bearings is primari- maximum spindle speed 4. sealing Work end: 1 spindle bearing set FAG B7024E. Also. ly dictated by the grease service life. Machining tolerances Bearing Seat Diameter Form tolerance Axial runout tolerance tolerance (DIN ISO 1101) of abutment shoulder Spindle bearing Shaft –5/+5 μm 1. A gap-type seal protects As the bearing size primarily depends on the spindle the cylindrical roller bearing from external contamina- rigidity (larger spindle diameter) bearing sizes are tion. the spindle in the radial and axial direction. This is The cylindrical roller bearing is adjusted to a radial achieved by selecting as large a shaft diameter as pos.5 μm Housing –4/+10 μm 3. Bearing dimensioning Sealing is provided by a stepped labyrinth with collect- ing grooves and drain holes. Bearing selection Bearing clearance The bearings must be very rigid and accurately guide The spindle bearings are mounted with a light preload. The bearings inner ring onto the tapered shaft seat and reaches the are preloaded and have an increased precision.5 μm 5 μm Cylindrical roller bearing Shaft.400 min–1.

000 min–1.000 min–1.. A gap-type seal with oil splash ring and collecting grooves protect the spindle bearings from contamina- tion. 15: Bearing arrangement of a vertical high-speed milling spindle 27 FAG .TBTM are mounted in tandem- O-arrangement with a medium preload.P4S.T.6/3.9 kN by means of a nut and a spacer sleeve. The required bearing rigidity is obtained by the chosen bearing arrangement and pre- load.14 kW. Machining tolerances Seat Diameter Cylindricity Axial runout tolerance tolerance tolerance of (DIN ISO 1101) abutment shoulder Shaft js4 IT1/2 IT1 Housing JS5 IT2/2 IT2 (work end) Work end Housing H6 IT3/2 IT3 (drive end) Lubrication. On the other hand.15 Vertical high-speed milling spindle Operating data Input power 2. To ensure clear- ance-free operation this bearing is lightly preloaded by means of Belleville spring washers. Nominal speed 500.. the spindle must be rigidly guided at 500 min–1 under heavy loads both in the radial and axial direction. The bearing group is preloaded with 1. at the maximum speed of 4. the bearing temperature must not be so high as to im- pair accuracy.P63 guides the spindle at the drive end. At the milling spindle work end a spindle bearing set FAG B7014E.000 min–1. sealing The bearings are grease lubricated (FAG rolling bearing grease Arcanol L74V). The two angular contact ball bearings arranged at the upper drive end accommodate the driving forces. Bearing selection The bearings must operate reliably over the entire Drive end speed range from 500 to 4. For example. The deep groove ball bearing FAG 6211TB. This requirement dictates the spindle diameter and the bearing size. Bearing dimensioning Milling spindles must be resistant to deflection and torsion.4.

relubrication is required. For this purpose the bing seals. Machining tolerances Seat Diameter Cylindricity tolerance Axial runout tolerance tolerance (DIN ISO 1101) of abutment shoulder Shaft js3 IT0/2 IT0 Housing (drive end) +2/+6 μm IT1/2 IT1 Housing (work end) –1/+3 μm IT1/2 IT1 Drive end Work end 16: Bearing arrangement of a bore grinding spindle FAG 28 . tions.16 Bore grinding spindle Operating data spacer rings must be identical in width and also flush ground. Bearing selection The spindle diameter. sealing requires primarily a high radial rigidity. The bearings are lubricated for life during mounting and therefore no At the work end and at the drive end there is one spin.T. Input power 1. however. The load is equally shared by these The high-speed bearings require the use of non-rub- O arranged tandem bearing pairs. bearing grease Arcanol L74V). are also required. limited by the permissible bearing temperature and varies between 300 and 500 N depending on the spindle application. The preload increases the rigidity of the bearing arrangement. especially in axial direction. It is.000 min–1. As the spindle Lubrication. feed and clearance-free operation under all operating condi- depth of cut. it is advisable to provide bearings with a contact angle of 15° (design Grease lubrication for high-speed bearings (FAG rolling C).DTL in tandem arrangement each. which determines the bearing size. The spindle is radially loaded by the grinding pressure.3 kW. The demands for high speed and high ri- gidity can be met with spindle bearings.P4S. dle bearing set FAG B7206C. The bearings are lightly preloaded by a coil spring for The load depends on grinding wheel quality. spindle speed 16. Sufficient rigidity and accurate guidance. Due to the high speeds required during bore grinding. in this case labyrinth seals. is based on the required rigidity. the spindle speeds must also be high.

17 External cylindrical grinding spindle
Operating data Bearing dimensioning

Input power 11 kW; speed n = 7,500 min–1; running The required spindle diameter or the specified outside
accuracy: radially 3 μm, axially 1 μm. diameter of the quill determines the bearing size. The
contact angle of 15° is suitable for high radial rigidity.
Damping and running accuracy are improved by
Bearing selection arranging four bearings at the work end.

During external cylindrical grinding a high cutting ca-
Bearing clearance
pacity is required (for rough grinding) and a high stan-
dard of form and surface quality (for fine grinding). A
All UL universal design bearings are lightly preloaded
high degree of rigidity and running accuracy as well as
when mounted in O arrangement. Spacers improve the
good damping and speed suitability form the main cri-
thermal conditions and provide a larger spread at the
teria for the bearing arrangement. These requirements
bearing location. To ensure that the defined bearing
are met by precision bearings.
preload is not altered by the spacers, the latter must be
Sealed universal spindle bearings with small steel balls
identical in width and flush ground.
(HSS) are used:
– at the work end: 1 spindle bearing set
FAG HSS7020C.T.P4S.QBCL in double- Lubrication, sealing
O arrangement as locating bearing
– at the drive end: 1 spindle bearing set The sealed FAG HSS spindle bearings require no
FAG HSS7020C.T.P4S.DBL in O arrangement as maintenance and are lubricated for life with the FAG
floating bearing rolling bearing grease Arcanol L74.
Where even higher speeds have to be accommodated, Additional sealing is provided at the grinding wheel
it is advisable to use sealed hybrid spindle bearings end by a labyrinth with defined narrow axial gaps of
HCS with small ceramic balls (lower centrifugal 0.3 ... 0.8 mm. A plain labyrinth seal is sufficient at the
forces). drive end.

Machining tolerances
Bearing Seat Diameter Form tolerance Axial runout tolerance
tolerance (DIN ISO 1101) of abutment shoulder

Spindle bearing Shaft +3/–3 μm 1 μm 1.5 μm
(work end) Housing -3/+5 μm 2 μm 3.5 μm

Spindle bearing Shaft +3/–3 μm 1 μm 1.5 μm
(drive end) Housing +5/+13 μm 2 μm 3.5 μm

17: Bearing arrangement of an external cylindrical grinding spindle

29 FAG

18 Surface grinding spindle
Operating data

Grinding motor power 220 kW; maximum speed
375 min–1; weight of spindle, rotor and grinding spin-
dle head 30 kN; maximum grinding pressure 10 kN.

Bearing selection

The spindle is supported at the grinding spindle head
by a double-row cylindrical roller bearing FAG
NN3060ASK.M.SP. The thrust ball bearing FAG
51164MP.P5 arranged above this bearing absorbs the
thrust component of the grinding pressure. The upper
end of the spindle is fitted with a double-row cylindri-
cal roller bearing FAG NN3044ASK.M.SP and a
thrust ball bearing FAG 51260M.P6. The cylindrical
roller bearing provides radial guidance; the thrust ball
bearing carries the weight of the rotor, spindle, and
spindle head. To increase axial rigidity this bearing is
adjusted with Belleville spring washers against the
lower thrust ball bearing.

Bearing dimensioning

Rigid spindle guidance in the radial direction is en-
sured by accurately dimensioned mating parts, tight
fits of the rings, and a light preload of the cylindrical
roller bearings. The inner rings are pushed along the
tapered bearing seat until the roller-and-cage assembly
runs under a light preload (5 μm). Surface finish and
dimensional accuracy of the workpiece mainly depend
on the axial rigidity of the spindle headstock and of the
rotary table. Therefore, the rigidity of the thrust bear-
ings is especially important. To increase the rigidity, the
thrust bearings are preloaded to 40 kN by Belleville
spring washers at the upper end of the spindle. Since
the combined weight of spindle, rotor, and spindle
head is 30 kN, the lower thrust bearing is preloaded to
10 kN. Rigid, clearance-free spindle guidance also in
the axial direction is, therefore, guaranteed. The nomi-
nal rigidity is 2.5 kN/μm; the spindle deviates axially
by only 4 μm with the maximum grinding pressure of
10 kN.

Lubrication, sealing

The headstock bearings are lubricated for life with
FAG rolling bearing grease Arcanol L74V. A gap-type
seal suffices at the upper spindle end since the head-
stock is protected by a cap.
A shaft seal prevents grease from penetrating into the
motor. The lower bearings are sealed at the motor end
with a gap-type seal and at the spindle head with a gap-
type seal preceded by a labyrinth. 18: Bearing arrangement of a surface grinding spindle

FAG 30

19 Rotary table of a vertical lathe
Operating data The high preload guarantees a high running accuracy
while ensuring a high radial and axial moment or tilt-
Input power 100 kW; speeds up to n = 200 min–1; ing rigidity and keeping internal heating relatively low.
rotary table O.D. 2,000, 2,200 or 2,500 mm; maxi- By taking special measures during mounting and after
mum workpiece diameter 2,800 mm, maximum work- final grinding of the rotary table a maximum axial run-
piece height 2,700 mm, maximum workpiece weight out of 5 μm is obtained.
250 kN; maximum radial and axial runout 5 μm.
Machining tolerances

Thrust ball bearing: gearing to j5
Bearing selection Angular contact ball bearing: kingpin to j5/gearing to K6

The face plate bearings must provide a high running Lubrication, sealing
accuracy and rigidity. As the thrust load predominates
and eccentric load application causes a great tilting The bearings have circulating oil lubrication.
moment, a thrust ball bearing of increased precision The oil is fed directly to the various bearings through
(main dimensions 1,250 x 1,495 x 150 mm) is in- oil feed ducts. After flowing through the bearings, the
stalled. Radial guidance is provided by an angular con- oil passes through a filter and into an oil collecting
tact ball bearing of increased precision, FAG container from where it returns to the bearings.
7092MP.P5 (30° contact angle). Both bearings are pre- The labyrinth seal prevents the oil from escaping from
loaded against each other with 50 kN. the bearings and protects them from contamination.

19: Bearing arrangement of a rotary table of a vertical lathe

31 FAG

20 Tailstock spindle
Operating data Cylindrical roller bearings have a high radial load
carrying capacity, and angular contact ball bearings
Maximum speed n = 3,500 min–1 with a 40° contact angle have a high axial load carrying

Bearing selection, dimensioning Bearing clearance

The bearing arrangement must be particularly rigid The cylindrical roller bearing with a tapered bore is
and have a high load carrying capacity. Other require- preloaded with 2...3 μm by pressing the inner ring on
ments such as precision and high-speed suitability are to the tapered shaft seat (taper 1:12).
met by bearings of precision design. The angular contact ball bearings of universal design
UL have a light preload in the O arrangement. The two
At the work end the high radial load is accommodated spacers are identical in width and exclusively serve to
by a double-row cylindrical roller bearing FAG provide a cavity which can accommodate the excess
NN3014ASK.M.SP. The high axial load is accommo- grease escaping from the bearings.
dated at the opposite end by four angular contact ball
bearings FAG 7210B.TVP.P5.UL. Three of these bear-
ings are mounted in tandem arrangement; the fourth Lubrication, sealing
bearing is merely for axial counter guidance.
The bearings are lubricated for life with FAG rolling
The maximum bearing O.D. is dictated by the size of bearing grease Arcanol L135V. A labyrinth seal prevents
the quill. dirt from penetrating into the bearings.

Machining tolerances
Bearing Seat Diameter Form tolerance Axial runout tolerance
tolerance (DIN ISO 1101) of abutment shoulder

Shaft, tapered Taper 1:12 1.5 μm 2 μm
Cylindrical roller bearing Housing –13 / +2 μm 2.5 μm 4 μm

Shaft –4 / +4 μm 1.5 μm 2 μm
Angular contact ball bearings Housing –4 / +6 μm 2.5 μm 4 μm

20: Bearing arrangement of a tailstock spindle

FAG 32

UL in O arrangement accommodate the has an operating viscosity of ␯ = 8 mm2/s.. 11. turrethead which are radially adjustable.3.The bearing seats for the outer rings are machined Bearing selection to G6. dates the cutting forces transmitted by the four cutting tools. These bearings are also adjusted against each other nomical production of bars and pipes to tolerance class with a spring preload of 5 kN (1 % of C0/Y0).21 Rough-turning lathe for round bars and pipes Rough-turning lathes are used for particularly eco.. At 80 °C the oil 71848MP. Operating data Machining tolerances Input power 75 kW.T. The bearings are mounted in O arrangement and preloaded with 14. 21: Bearing arrangement of a rough-turning lathe for round bars and pipes 33 FAG .600 min–1.P4S. The inner rings of both bearings are subjected to cir- material O.. The spring preload remains effective in all oper- ating conditions as the expansion of the rotating parts The main bearing arrangement is formed by two spin- due to the effects of heat and centrifugal force do not dle bearings FAG B7036E. even if the rough-turning lathe is tools at a certain feed rate.5 kN (2 % of C0/Y0) by means of springs. feed rate 1.D.40 m/min.85 mm..600 min–1 to zero within a tool carriages are attached to the circumference of the second. guiding loads from the axially displaceable hollow An elaborate labyrinth seal protects the bearings from cone in which the four tool carriages are radially the ingress of cutting fluid and chips (rubbed-off parti- guided and adjusted. cles) and from oil escape. In this machine four cutting slowed down from 3. cumferential loads and are fitted with a tolerance of js5. h9 with a wide range of diameters.P5.. speed n = 300.. In this process.UL and accommo- cause jamming of the outer rings in the housing. sealing C0 static load rating Y0 thrust factor (static loading) The bearings are lubricated by oil injection lubrication Two angular contact ball bearings FAG with ISO VG 32 (32 mm2/s at 40 °C). Lubrication. the Experience shows that with these preloads no slippage stationary round stock is moved against rotating lathe damage results.

one (value indicated in table). FAG 34 . sealing 0. by only cates that the bearings are fitted with an outer ring rid.6+0. Two angle rings HJ1048. ings. clearance (CN = 110. Spacer J is arranged between the bearing inner rings and spacer A between the outer rings. Shaft seals prevent the ingress of dirt. inner ring expansion (probable interference). Machining tolerances Bearing selection The outer rings are subjected to circumferential load Both rings must be tightly fitted to their mating parts and therefore require tight fits. 0. due to outer ring contraction and bearings FAG NU1048M1A. mounting and dismount. The inner rings are point-loaded.2 mm longer than spacer A.e.. 26 kN. These requirements can be met with cylindrical roller bearings. After the bearing has been Grease lubrication (FAG rolling bearing grease Arcanol mounted. determines in turn the bearing size. Bearing clearance The flywheel is supported on the hollow trunnion pro. The the outer ring. are provided for axial location of the flywheel. Bearings of normal radial at each of the outer sides of the cylindrical roller bear. Nevertheless. radial The trunnion diameter. Calculations show that the radial clearance is reduced truding from the press frame by two cylindrical roller after mounting. trunnion is machined to j5. Spacer J is Lubrication. 20 μm from the value measurable prior to mounting ing machined brass cage. and they are separable.4 mm). The suffix M1A indi.. which ensures ade- quate axial clearance. the axial clearance is checked (minimum L71V). i. flywheel speed 370 min–1. therefore. They feature a high load carrying capacity.175 μm) can. the hub bore is due to the heavy loads and the circumferential load on machined to M6. ing should be simple. which is determined by the load from flywheel weight and belt pull approximately design. be used. inner and outer rings can be mounted separately.22 Flywheel of a car body press Operating data Bearing dimensioning Input power 33 kW.

22: Flywheel bearing arrangement of a car body press 35 FAG .

the spring pre- load ensures that both bearings are loaded under all operating conditions.9 kN. be too large (careful regulation) so that a temperature rise due to working of the grease is avoided.P63. The bearing sizes thus determined allow a suffi- cient bearing life to be achieved so that a contamination factor V = 0. sealing Grease lubrication with FAG rolling bearing grease Arcanol L74V.000 min–1. be Work end employed without modifying the spindle design. In addition to this. tional heat. Seat Diameter Cylindricity Axial runout tolerance tolerance tolerance of the Bearing selection (DIN ISO 1101) abutment shoulder Shaft js5 IT2/2 IT2 Since a simple bearing arrangement is required the bearing is not oil-lubricated as is normally the case for Housing JS6 IT3/2 IT3 such high-speed applications.5 kN. Two Belleville spring washers preload the bearings to 500 N. therefore. which in turn is based on the anticipated vibra- tions.2 kN.5. nominal speed 12. Non-rubbing labyrinth seals are used instead of rub- Maximum load on the work end bearing: bing-type seals in order to avoid generation of addi- radial – maximum cutting load of 0. and for high speeds even more often. angular contact ball bear- ings with a small contact angle (spindle bearings) are often provided.. which in turn may cause roughening of the surfaces (increased running noise).4 kN.P63 and the drive end a deep groove ball bearing FAG 6208TB. With this very good to utmost cleanliness the bearings even can be failsafe. Clearance-free operation and high rigidity of the spindle system is. Experience has shown (work end) that grease lubrication is effective if deep groove ball Housing H6 IT3/2 IT3 bearings of increased precision with textile laminated (drive end) phenolic resin cages are used. Where very high speeds have to be accommodated. 23: Vertical milling cutter spindle FAG 36 . The bearings are packed with grease and Drive end replenished at the required intervals.0. In view of the high speeds the grease quantities should not. ensured. Bearing dimensioning The size of the bearings is dictated by the shaft diame- ter. Lubrication. The work end features a deep groove ball bearing FAG 6210TB. These bearings are interchangeable with deep groove ball bearings and can. Maximum load on the drive end bearing: radial – maximum belt pull of 0. the bearings have to be relubricated every six months. thus avoiding ball skidding which may occur in unloaded bearings at high speeds. Machining tolerances axial – spring preload of 0.3 can be assumed if great care was taken to ensure cleanliness during mounting and maintenance (relubrication). however. axial – shaft weight and spring preload of 0. Input power 4 kW. therefore..23 Vertical wood milling spindle Operating data As a rule.

Non-rubbing seals are used due to the high loaded by clamping the inner rings axially. The two spindle bearings FAG bearing grease Arcanol L74V. Machining tolerances Bearing selection Shaft tolerance js5 A simple bearing arrangement is required with stan- Housing tolerance JS6 dardized bearings which are suitable for very high speeds and allow accurate shaft guidance.P4S. with FAG rolling sible at this end. Good sealing is required due to the dust arising during The bearings of the UL universal design are lightly pre. sealing The locating bearing is at the work end in order to keep heat expansion in the axial direction as small as pos. The bearing speed.24 Double-shaft circular saw Operating data The cylindrical roller bearing FAG NU1026M at the drive end is the floating bearing. max.UL are mounted in O arrangement. The cylindrical roller bearing also accommodates the high belt pull tension forces.g. 24: Double-shaft circular saw 37 FAG . contaminants into the gap-type seals. Heat expansion in the Input power max. speed 2. sawing.940 min–1. Lubrication.T. axial direction is freely accommodated in the bearing. 200 kW. The required high shaft rigidity determines the bearing bore diame- ter. The bearings are greased for life. e. Flinger disks prevent the penetration of coarse pair is suitable for high speeds. B7030E.

Misalignments main bearing arrangement. to finished size in one setting at a roll surface tempera- ture of 220 °C. bearing housings in the machine frame.5 kN/cm. Roll arrangement 1 to 4 prising several rolls made of chilled cast iron or steel with polished surfaces which are stacked on top of each other or arranged side by side. are accommo.2 mm 2nd step 1..1 mm Roll speed n = 6. separate preloading bearings.P65. heat expansions are com- rolls are supported at both ends by the same type of pensated by cylindrical roller bearings. In addition. FAG 38 . At the locating bearing end the radially relieved deep Bearing system groove ball bearing accommodates only axial guiding loads.1. depending on the material. this is achieved by pre- loading the main bearing arrangement by means of 4 collaterally arranged. The bearings ings plus one deep groove ball bearing forming the must be dimensionally stable up to 200 °C as their locating bearing at the drive end. In order to still achieve the thickness tolerances of the sheets in the mi- crometer range. rolls 2 inner rings may heat up to 180 °C as a result of roll and 4 have to accommodate counterbending forces.25 Rolls for a plastic calender Plastic foils are produced by means of calenders com.25. the deflection is compensated for by 1 2 inclining of rolls 1 and 3 and by counterbending of rolls 2 and 4. 2 and 4 are subjected to deflection under the high loads in the rolling gap.The inner rings and the roll body can Bearing selection be ground together due to the fact that the inner rings of the cylindrical roller bearings – in contrast to those Main bearing arrangement of spherical or tapered roller bearings – can be easily The radial pressure by load of 1. as well as the The dimension of the inner ring raceway after grind- counterbending and preloading forces. which ensures a good processibility of the material. F-shaped Useful width 3. the four At the floating bearing end..620 kN resulting from removed and mounted separately. The radial loads and the axial guiding when the temperature difference between outer and loads are accommodated by double-row FAG cylindri.600 mm Roll diameter 820 mm Rolling gap 1st step 1...5 mm 3rd step 0. Operating data Type: four-roll calender. to up to 220 °C (rigid PVC). by grinding the bearing inner rings and the roll body ported at both roll ends in spherical roller bearings. Hot oil or steam flows through the rolls. the narrow tolerance of the foil thickness requires a high radial runout accuracy of 3 the bearings and adequate radial guidance of roll 3 which is only lightly loaded.. Moreover.D.s. ing has been selected such that no detrimental radial dated by the main bearing arrangement at each end of preload is generated even during the heating process rolls 1. It consists of two double. 2 and 4.. heating the O. and roll 3 has to accommodate preloading forces. Rolls 1.5. The high radial runout accuracy (≤ 5 μm) is achieved These counterbending and preloading forces are sup.. heating. resulting from shaft deflections and roll inclination are row cylindrical roller bearings forming the floating compensated for by providing a spherical recess for the bearing and of two double-row cylindrical roller bear. the maximum gap load of 4.24 min–1 Inner ring temperature 170 °C Roll mass 18 t (weight ≈ 180 kN) cal roller bearings (dimensions 500 x 650 x 130 mm) and deep groove ball bearings FAG 61996M. inner ring is about 80 K.. To accommodate the radial and thrust loads.

each end of rolls 2 and 4: 1 spherical roller bearing 23980BK. at each end of all rolls: 2 cylindrical roller bearings b Main bearing arrangement (axial). cleanliness in the lubri- A counterbending force is generated by means of cating gap and bearing type. hydraulic jacks. depending on the load direction. This con- 2. is only 42. the Two cylindrical roller bearings FAG 522028. A central circulation lubrication system with recooling The dimensioning calculation is carried out for the supplies all bearings with oil. The required bearing life of 40. Guiding bearing: Shaft to g6/housing radially relieved Preloading bearings Preloading bearing: Shaft tapered/ housing H7 The main bearings of roll 3 have to accommodate the Rollbending bearing: Shaft tapered/ housing to H7 difference from the rolling forces from rolls 2 and 4.000 h is reached. Due to the low Bearing dimensioning speed and the high operating temperature.C5 d c b a 25: Bearing arrangement of a plastic calender 39 FAG . circumferential grooves in the bearing outer speed of 15 min–1. lubricant additives. The counterbending force (max. The load accommodated by the bearings is dition requires particularly suitable and tested lubricat- calculated.000 hours.MB. The bearings are lubricated with oil. In order to avoid uncontrolled radial roll movements..160 kN.C5. Due to the outer faces feed the oil directly into the bearings. a Main bearing arrangement (radial). mount. rings and in the spacers as well as radial grooves in the The nominal life is approx.C5.P65 c Preloading bearing arrangement.C5 d Rollbending bearing arrangement. lubricant film from penetrating into the bearings. The lubricant has to meet very stringent requirements. the attainable life.MB. The bearings ensure low-friction roll rotation and accommodate misalignments result- Main bearings: Shaft to r6/housing to H6 ing from shaft deflection.MB. high bearing temperature. which Lip seals in the housing covers prevent dirt particles takes into account the amount of load. no elasto- hydrodynamic lubricant film can form. the main bearings are preloaded with 100 kN via spherical Lubrication roller bearings FAG 23888K. from (roll ing oils. 345 kN per bearing location) is transmitted to the roll neck by spherical roller bearings FAG Machining tolerances 23980BK. Holes in the bearing most heavily loaded roll 2 which rotates at an average housings.000 hours. 77. bearings always operate in the mixed-friction range ed side by side have a dynamic load rating of 2 x and are exposed to the risk of increased wear. As a result.MB. weight + press-on force + counterbending force)/2.Rollbending bearings thickness. each end of roll 3: 1 spherical roller bearing 23888K. at the drive end of all rolls: 1 deep groove ball bearing 61996M.

Thus. Machining tolerances Bearing Seat Diameter Cylindricity tolerance Axial runout tolerance tolerance (DIN ISO 1101) of abutment shoulder Deep groove ball bearing Shaft k5 IT3/2 IT3 Housing J6 IT3/2 IT3 Angular contact thrust ball bearings Bevelled disk hubs/ k5 IT2/2 IT2 and thrust ball bearing Sleeve IT3 Needle roller and Shaft h5 IT3/2 IT3 cage assembly Housing G6 IT3/2 IT3 26: Infinitely variable gear FAG 40 . The driving torque is transmitted by sleeve M via balls Lubrication to the bevelled disk hub H. By varying Two angular contact thrust ball bearings FAG the distance between the bevelled drive disks the run. 751113M.P5 accommodate the axial loads resulting from ing an infinitely variable transmission ratio. for this rea- Bearing selection son the two parts are separated by needle roller and cage assemblies (dimensions 37 x 45 x 26 mm). The ball contact surfaces of coupling K are wedge-shaped. provid. sleeve and bev. the contact pressure. 51110.26 Infinitely variable gear The main components of this infinitely variable gear transmitted. bevelled drive disks at each of the shafts.P5 and one thrust ball bearing FAG ning circle of the chain increases or decreases. The two variator shafts are each supported by two deep groove ball bearings FAG 6306. and subsequently the contact pressure are two shafts linked by a chain which is guided by two between chain and disks is adapted to the torque. Torque variations are associated with small relative movements between shaft and drive disks. Oil bath lubrication provides for ample oil supply to elled disk hub are separated depending on the torque variator components and bearings.

27: Spur gear transmission for a reversing rolling stand 41 FAG . housing JS6 loads.C3 and 24160B. VG320) is fed directly to the bearing positions from 23280B. Input shafts (1): Cylindrical roller bearing: – Shaft n6.C3.950 kW.27 Spur gear transmission for a reversing rolling stand Operating data Output shafts (4) A spherical roller bearing FAG 24096B. housing JS6 ing (relieved) and. Lubrication Intermediate shafts (2. Input speed 1. locating bearing. form the locating bearing. the oil filter. Cylindrical roller bearing: – Shaft p6.MB and 24164MB for shafts 3.000 min–1. The oil (ISO 22348MB. takes up just the axial Spherical roller bearing: – Shaft n6. The two cylindrical roller bearings only take up the radial loads. 3) The intermediate shafts have a floating bearing The bearings are also connected to the oil circulation arrangement with FAG spherical roller bearings: system for the transmission wheels. centre. housing and one four-point bearing FAG QJ336N2MPA. therefore. The four. Machining tolerances input power 2 x 3. housing H7 Input shafts (1) Intermediate shafts (2 and 3): One cylindrical roller bearing FAG NU2336M.C3 for shafts 2.C3 Spherical roller bearing: – Shaft n6.C3 relief-turned.MB is used as The housing contains two three-step transmissions. A full-complement single-row cylin- The drive shafts (1) are at the same level on the outside drical roller bearing as a floating bearing compensates and the output shafts (4) are stacked in the housing for the thermal length variations of the shaft. Output shafts (4): point bearing is mounted with clearance in the hous.835:1. gear step-up 16. housing J6 Bearing selection Four-point bearing: – Shaft n6. The floating bearing is a cy- lindrical roller bearing FAG NJ2336M.

radially supported in the housing to ensure that this bearing can transmit no radial loads.MB 242 3.3 > 84 »200. Shaft Bearing Rolling bearing Equivalent Index of Nominal Viscosity Factor Attainable location dynamic dynamic fatigue ratio life at load stressing life ␬= a23 = utmost P fL Lh ␯/␯1 a23II · s cleanliness [kN] [h] Lhna [h] Coupling shaft Locating bearing 1 23248B.8 >114 »200.0 >114 »200.000 7 23068MB 293 4.900 6. The modated by a spherical roller thrust bearing 29434E.000 hours required for clas- The bearing 23248B.000 6.000 4 23248B. fatigue lives are obtained for the different bearings. The thrust loads in the main sense of ro.88 4.000 7 new 23968MB 293 2.000 9 new 29364E 650 2.000 3 new 23048B.5 > 87 »200.98 49.MB 186 5.000 5. minimum value of Lh = 40.300 2. changes but keep rolling without slippage.000 5 new 29334E 80 4.000 5. as a spherical roller thrust bearing 29364E. radial and axial loads are accom- The coupling shaft (upper right) is supported at the modated separately.4 >84 »200.600 2.000 Thrust bearings 8 29364E only briefly loaded during sternway operation 9 29464E 650 3. The radial loads are accommodat- drive end by a spherical roller bearing 23248B.MB only slightly loaded by deadweight Floating bearing 2 NU1056M only slightly loaded by deadweight Input shaft Radial bearings 3 23248B.91 102. Bearing selection Output shaft Coupling shaft At the output shaft. not radially supported in the housing. ing washer of the spherical roller thrust bearing is not 50 °C.000 Output shaft Radial bearings 6 23068MB 158 >6.35 8.28 Marine reduction gear The hardened and ground gearings of marine gears modates the smaller axial loads in the opposite direc- transmit great torques.2 >114 »200.3 >114 »200.MB 242 1. locating bearing position at the output end a spherical cal roller bearing NU1056M (floating bearing). These two result larger bearings are used than needed to accom. Based on the operating data. Input shaft At the input shaft the radial loads from the gearing are Bearing dimensioning accommodated by two spherical roller bearings 23248B.500 2. a life calculation is with a slight axial clearance.64 83.000 Thrust bearings 5 29434E 80 >6. input speed 750 min–1. sification was not only reached but far exceeded.3 >114 »200.81 43.70 13. The hous- output speed 209 min–1.100 5. tion. thrust bearings are also adjusted against each other modate the loads. The smaller axial loads gearwheel forces from a power take-off system. It is adjusted against the spherical roller thrust bearing with a slight clearance and preloaded by Operating data springs. the following nominal tation during headway operation are separately accom.600 2. Consequently.MB.MB on the left side also accom.3 39 »200. preloaded by springs and not required.03 >200.475 kW.18 120. The during sternway operation are taken up by the smaller bearing dimensions are determined by the design. The roller thrust bearing 29464E accommodates the differ- shaft transmits only the torque. In the (locating bearing) and at the opposite end by a cylindri.000 FAG 42 .4 >84 »200.000 2. The preload ensures that the thrust bearing rollers do not lift off the raceways when the load Input power P = 5. operating temperature ca. The bearings have to ence from the propeller thrust during headway opera- accommodate only the slight deadweights and minor tion and the axial tooth loads.03 >200.MB ed by two spherical roller bearings 23068MB.

Due to the required minimum life of 40.900 h is calculated for spherical roller bearing dimensioned for the least load carrying capacity: the 3 and Lh = 43.300 h for spherical roller thrust bearing spherical roller bearing 23248B.000 h the 3) at the coupling end of the input shaft and the spher.MB (bearing location 9. transmission bearings would thus be sufficiently di- ical roller thrust bearing 29464E (bearing location 9) mensioned. Based on the index of dynamic stressing fL a nominal life able life become evident in the case of the two bearings Lh = 49. 28: Bearing arrangement of a marine gear 43 FAG . at the output end of the output shaft.The effects of basing the bearing dimensions on attain.

n = 750 min–1. which is used to lubricate both gear wheels and The cleanliness factor s is determined on the basis of the rolling bearings. tamination. 9): If the radial bearing outer rings are subjected to point C = 4. i. C0 = 15. 7 and 9 to accommodate the The actually attainable life Lhna is considerably longer same shaft diameter (see table: 3 new. K = 1 + 1 = 2. 100.9 ity. n = 209 min–1. From the viscosity ratio ␬ and the factor K the following Lubrication.3).3 are not exceeded. C0 = 4.2 mm2/s onto the shaft seats: Viscosity ratio: ␯/␯1 = 6.5 date exclusively thrust loads they are fitted with clear- ance.600 kN.3 – Radial bearings to n6 – Thrust bearings to k6. the bearing seats in the housings are machined to dm = (580 + 320)/2 = 450 mm H7. 3): C = 2. K1 = 1 and K2 = 1. into the housing seats which A stress index fs* = C0/P0* > 14 is obtained for both are machined to E8. radially relieved. adequate lubrication and cleanliness conditions are provided for marine gears. respectively. therefore. As all bearing inner rings in this application are sub- dm = (440 + 240)/2 = 340 mm jected to circumferential load they are fitted tightly Rated viscosity: ␯1 = 9. Spherical roller thrust bearing 29464E (no. cleanliness is usually utmost Taking into account the viscosity ratio ␬ and the stress (contamination factor V = 0. The Radial shaft seals protect the transmission from con- attainable life is in the endurance strength range.300 kN. Nominal viscosity of the oil: ␯40 = 100 mm2/s Operating temperature: t = 50 °C Operating viscosity: ␯ = 58 mm2/s Machining tolerances Spherical roller bearing 23248B (no.e.Attainable life This means that smaller bearings could be provided for bearing locations 3. load.450 kN. the oil cleanliness class should be an a23 factor = a23II · s > 114 and > 87. The circulating oil ISO VG Factor a23 is obtained from a23 = a23II · s. still be in the endurance strength range. consequently. Both bearings operate under ings. 9 than the nominal life Lh. Rated viscosity: ␯1 = 23 mm2/s As the spherical roller thrust bearings are to accommo- Viscosity ratio: ␬ = ␯/␯1 = 2. bearings. 7 new. FAG 44 .3). obtained for the bearings under consideration. Cleanliness is with an adequate filtration ratio ensure an oil condi- utmost if the particle sizes and filtration ratios of con. new) and would. is cooled and directly fed to the bear- contamination factor V. tion where no particles bigger than 75 μm are found tamination factor V = 0.250 kN. and where. consequently. a cleanliness factor of s > 30 and consequently For this reason. is 14/11 or 15/12 (ISO 4406). 5 new.8 To meet the high requirements on safety and reliabil- – for the spherical roller thrust bearing a23II = 2. sealing basic factors are obtained: – for the radial spherical roller bearing a23II = 3. By-pass filters with filter condition indicators and utmost cleanliness conditions (V = 0. in spite of the now higher bearing Lhna = a1 · a23 · Lh is calculated with the following data: loads. 5. index fs*.

DIN ISO 355). gear ratio 6.. input For the floating bearing of the pinion shaft an index of power 135 kW..88 is calculated. The tapered roller bearing pair is The output shaft is supported by two spherical roller supplied with oil which is fed through ducts from col- bearings FAG 23028ES.TVP2.TVPB in floating bearing lecting pockets in the upper housing part. This value cor- responds to a nominal life of Lh = 17. roller bearings FAG 30320A (T2GB100 . between the cups adjusts the bearing pair to achieve an axial clearance of 100. The bearings are mounted in X arrangement and are adjusted through the cups.A100. Shaft seals are fitted at the shaft openings.140.000 hours. For axial adjustment and adjustment of the axial clearance the spacers D and Lubrication.N11CA in X a factor a23 = 3 is obtained with the adjusted life calcula- arrangement are mounted at the locating end. Input speed 1. dimensioning into account the operating conditions such as: – oil ISO VG220 with suitable additives. The floating bearing. dynamic stressing fL = 2. arrangement. a cylindrical roller bearing FAG NUP2315E. The bearing seats for the pinion bearings must Crown wheel shaft be machined to the following tolerances: Shaft to The crown wheel shaft is supported by two tapered m5 / housing to H6.29 Bevel gear – spur gear transmission Operating data Detrimental axial preloads are avoided by means of a gap between the covers and outer rings. Spacer A tion. 29: Bevel gear-spur gear transmission 45 FAG . the attainable life Lhna = 50. has a tight fit on the shaft and a Machining tolerances slide fit in the housing. Therefore. The pinion is an overhung arrangement.25:1. Axial pinion adjustment is achieved by grinding the The bearing inner rings are subjected to circumferential spacers B and C to suitable width.700 hours. roller bearings FAG 31315. operating temperature 80 °C.000 min–1. Taking Bearing selection.140 μm prior to mounting. Two tapered – max. All bearings are sufficiently lubricated with the splash Output shaft oil from the gears. Pinion shaft – a good degree of cleanliness in the lubricating gap. sealing E are ground to suitable width. loads and consequently have to be fitted tightly on the shaft.

More sophisticated seals such as shaft seals The bearing seats on the shafts are machined to m6. The cups are sub. Two tapered roller bearings FAG 32224A speeds. if necessary) are provided where ambi- the housings to J7. of application of lubrication system and oils in ques- termine the axial clearance. Lubrication. ent conditions are adverse. The X arrangement chosen speeds circulating oil lubrication (possibly with oil means that the cups are adjusted and the adjusting cooler) is provided. input speed 1. For high power and high gear circumferential FAG 30336 are used.500 min–1. cooling. therefore. operating time and ambient tempera- The bearings supporting the three gear shafts are ad.30 Double-step spur gear Operating data The relatively loose fit in the housing simplifies cup adjustment.500 min–1. the gears. the end covers provide adequate sealing at the shaft jected to point load and can. Medium power often requires some extra 30330A (T2GB150)* and two tapered roller bearings cooling.25:1. In such a The rolling bearings are lubricated with the same oil as case larger bearings are used without sleeves. gear ratio 6. power. also used for gears transmitting higher power. have a loose fit. fitted tightly on the shaft. The cones are subjected to circumferential load and are. oil splash lubrication without extra cooling is (T4FD120)*. (with dust lip. sealing Bearing selection The lubrication system selected depends on the gear speed. two tapered roller bearings FAG sufficient. for this purpose baffle plates and collecting grooves are provided in the transmission case to trap Machining tolerances the oil and feed it through the channels to the bear- ings.100 kW at a maximum speed of 1. *) Designation according to DIN ISO 355 30: Double-step spur gear FAG 46 . For low power and low gear circumferential justed. The same gear housing is tion is available from gear manufacturers. openings. Gap-type seals with grooves and oil return channels in therefore. Detailed information on the range shims inserted between the cup and housing cover de. output power 1. Max. ture.

The radial loads acting on the bear- ings are relatively small.UA. A locating-flating bearing Angular contact ball bearings: Shaft to j5.TVP2 is mounted as the floating bearing. to j5 and the housing to J6. O or X arrangement.TVP2 at the floating Worm shaft bearing end. Worm gear shaft The bearings of the worm gear shaft are mainly radial- ly loaded. the bearings feature a The oil level should coincide with the lowest point of small clearance. housing to J6 arrangement is selected. Lubrication. housing to K6 contact ball bearings FAG 7310B. When the bearings are paired in O or X arrangement and the shaft is machined The worm gear and the bearings are oil-lubricated. tamination. Cylindrical roller bearings: Shaft to k5.31 Worm gear pair Operating data A cylindrical roller bearing FAG NU309E. Suffix UA indicates that the bearings can be mounted in any tan. Input power 3.500 min–1. the load direction changing with the direction of rota. sealing dem. are mounted in X arrangement. the axial loads are relatively low in compari- son. housing to J6 The locating bearing comprises two universal angular Deep groove ball bearing: Shaft to k5. The two angular contact ball bearings the worm teeth pitch circle diameter. either one or escaping and offer adequate protection against con- the other bearing accommodates the axial load. Depending on the The sealing rings at the shaft openings prevent oil from direction of rotation of the worm shaft. input speed 1.7 kW.TVP. The worm shaft bearings are primarily axially loaded. overall gear ratio 50:1. A deep groove ball bearing FAG 6218 is therefore Bearing selection provided at the locating bearing end and a cylindrical roller bearing FAG NU218E. 31: Worm gear pair 47 FAG . Machining tolerances tion of the worm.

due to the effects of contamination by the ings which run directly beside the gear wheel from ex. adjusted bearing or floating ed or "clean bearings"). transmission oil. the reserve capacities of the unsealed cessive oil supply. Unsealed transmission bearings in medium-weight to ment of the shaft. with joint lubrication of gear wheels and bearings care must be taken that the life-reducing con- The rolling bearings used in torque converters in vehi.. permitting.. In order to keep these contaminants (rubbed-off parti- combined bearings and tapered roller bearings have cles from the gears) out of the bearings as long as pos- proven themselves in the main bearing locations. deep groove ball bearing or four-point bearing) at the locating bearing The bearing calculation is based on the maximum in- end. On baffle plate. bearing arrangements.0. Regulation of the axial clearance by calculated. taminants are filtered out of the oil circulation (costly). however.. cant. FAG 48 .0.32–33 Automotive gearboxes Design However. On the other hand it is advisable to protect those bear. With extreme axial loads the radial and axial loads may be Bearing selection and dimensioning taken up separately (axial bearing e..6. a cleanliness factor of the splash oil does not reach the bearings may it be s = 0.. Radial loads are accommodated by both bearings while the axial load is taken up by the locating bearing. cles (manual transmissions and transfer boxes) are cus- tom-tailored to this application. Determination of the tooth loads The bearings.7 is obtained with V = 2. Based on the tangential load Ft = Md / r a radial load should have zero clearance or even preload (narrow (Fr = Ft · tan ␣E) and an axial load (Fa = Ft · tan ␤) are axial guidance). manual transmissions for cars are fitted today idlers are generally supported on needle roller and cage with sealed. as the fLm value for dirt-protected bearings should be verse thermal conditions. to be moderately (contamination factor V = 2) to heavi- Since the rolling bearings require only very little lubri.. grease-lubricated deep groove ball bearings assemblies. Consequently. the other hand. The bearings (except for angular contact bearings. Both bearings shafts.. also taking into account the tilting moment caused by the tooth load Floating bearing arrangement component Fa. or angular contact ball bearings (so-called dirt-protect- floating bearing designs. all bearing types may be used) accommodate both radial Index of dynamic stressing fL and axial loads. depending on the gear. 0. the oil splashed from the gear wheels is normally With the usual transmission bearing stress indexes of sufficient for bearing lubrication. over the individual bearing locations.3. For this reason oil Attainable life lubrication is usually also provided for the rolling bear.1. ly contaminated (V = 3) . the gearing data and the proportionate running times for the indi- Adjusted bearing arrangement vidual gear steps.8. Depending on the load accommodation and speed requirements. cylindrical roller bearings. when running at operating temperature.5 necessary to provide collecting pockets and feed ducts.7. The angular contact ball bearings or tapered roller bearings are mounted in opposition to one another..0.3. and s = 0. not even under ad. put torque with the corresponding speed. The gear wheels of vehicle transmissions are all oil-lu- bricated almost without exception. with V = 3. Only in cases where fs* ≈ 2.0. This axial displaceability is such that heavy cars should have an fLm value of 1. deep Dirt-protected bearings groove ball bearings – both unshielded and dirt-pro- tected ("clean bearings") –. The lubricant in open ball bearings must be assumed ings in the transmission. Since roller bearings are less affected by cycled parti- cles. Based on the distances at the individual axial displacement of the bearing rings. g.. if dirt-protected ball bearings are used.1. the dirt-protected design is not required in auto- Locating-floating bearing arrangement motive gearboxes. where- the bearings are never preloaded. axial displace. The main bearing locations have locating.. the forces acting on the teeth are distributed accommodate radial and axial loads. for example by means of a seal or a ball bearings (higher fLm value) cannot be utilized. The bearing loads in the individual speeds and the Lubrication transmission bearings are calculated in detail by means of computer programs. The sible.

. The bearing seats on the shafts are machined to So dirt-protected transmission bearings (deep groove j6. Machining tolerances in most cases improved cleanliness (V = 0. tighter bearing fits in light-metal housings take into sealed bearings running in the "contaminated" trans.5) or even utmost cleanliness (V = 0. light metal and steel.P6 (light ball bearings or angular contact ball bearings) reach metal) and to J6. respectively.. The lives which are up to six times longer than those of un.3) can be achieved. account the differences in the thermal expansion of mission oil. a cleanliness factor s is ob.. circumferential load and the outer rings to point load.. At all bearing locations the inner rings are subjected to with a viscosity ratio of ␬ = 1. least normal cleanliness (contamination factor V = 1)..K6 (grey-cast iron). tained which is between 1 and 3. 49 FAG .m6 and those in the housings to M6..

019 – 1. Lubricating holes in the gear mum input torque of 170 N m at 4. to the roller and cage assembly. The idlers on the output Combined bearings (deep groove ball bearing + roller shaft are directly supported by double-row needle- and cage assembly) as locating bearing for accommo.0 – 0. The outer ring is axially located via the housing cover in pull operation and via a snap ring in push operation. roller-and-cage assemblies. The axial clearance is adjusted by means of fitting washers Input shaft k6 N6 at the roller sleeve of the input end.717 – 2. Gear ratios: 3. The roller and cage assembly runs directly on the input shaft.500 min–1. Machining tolerances Lay shaft Bearing Tolerance location Shaft Housing Floating bearing arrangement with roller sleeves. Drive end/output end h5 N6 mounting. reverse gear) h5 G6 32: Passenger car transmission FAG 50 . axial loca- tion of the outer ring by means of the housing shoul- Input shaft der and retaining washer. from shaft deflection. The cage is (1st – 5th gear.316 – 1. There is an opening at the closed Lay shaft end of the output-side roller sleeve to facilitate dis. light-metal housing. Axial location is Direct bearing arrangement provided by a snap ring. the 5th wheel of the input shaft provide for a better oil supply speed is an overdrive gear. Idlers put shaft and in the bore of the input shaft. dating radial and axial loads.804 Output end: Bearing selection Deep groove ball bearing as locating bearing. Output shaft Output shaft Engine-end bearing g6 G6 Output end k6 N6 Engine-end bearing: The roller and cage assembly runs directly on the out.32 Passenger car transmission Operating data guided by the rolling elements. The transmission is sealed to roller and cage assembly g6 prevent oil escape. The logarithmic profile of the rollers is especially adapted to the stress resulting Five-speed transmission for passenger cars for a maxi.

Bearing arrangement with two cylindrical roller bear- ings.47 — 1.84 and 16. A deep groove Lay shaft ball bearing supports the cage versus the ring gear. Range group ment. ball bearing accommodates the radial and axial loads cage assemblies. both outer ring raceways integrated in the gear- Bearing selection wheel bore. Split group Four-speed group with reverse gear Range group 33: 16-speed truck transmission 51 FAG . The cup is double-row cylindrical roller bearings. Second split constant Gear ratios: 13. housing range from 220 to 370 kW.33 Manual gearbox for trucks Operating data First split constant Bearing arrangement with two single-row needle- 16-speed-transmission for heavy trucks in the power roller-and-cage assemblies. Shaft tolerance g5. Adjustment of these bearings via the cup of the The planet wheels are supported by full-complement. main bearings Adjusted tapered roller bearings in boxed X arrange. resulting from the joint shaft. The 4-speed component is tolerance G5. extended to 16 gears by means of a split group and a range group. tapered roller bearing at the input end.8 — 0. Input and output shafts.0. The cylindrical roller bearings accommo- date radial and axial loads. machined to K6. Tapered roller bearings in X arrangement. The lubricant is supplied via bores between the roller rows and collecting pockets in the cage. machining tolerances: shaft to k6 / housing to K6. At the output end of the output shaft a deep groove The idler gears are supported by needle-roller-and.

1... Wear of these bearings should be minimal since diffe- ter operating temperature is reached. mensioning the service life of differential bearings is ei- The opposite applies to aluminium housings. Bear- axes – are now almost always used for front and rear ings and gears are lubricated with the same oil. With grey-cast iron housings. load. be provided with sufficient rigidity. hypoid oils with EP additives are used. Fatigue life analysis of the bearings mounted in diffe- rentials is based on maximum torque and correspond- ing speed as is the case with automotive gearboxes. rential drives require a high guiding accuracy and as however. The oil ducts have to be ar- usually fitted with two tapered roller bearings adjusted ranged and dimensioned such as to ensure that oil cir- against one another. Bearing dimen- life. ral gearing. the preload has to be selected such as to A detailed calculation of the attainable life is usually achieve the required rigidity. vary as little as possible and mounting should. index of dynamic stressing fL is sufficient. with the lubricant is subjected to severe stressing in the spi- non-intersecting axes. Attention should be paid to the oil flow di- rigid as possible. (double-row tapered roller bearings with an unsplit cup or a cup with a flange) are common. there- fore. Due to the limited space and While the splash oil sufficiently lubricates the crown the elevated torque values. Compact bearing arrangements culates in every speed range. The percentage times at the individual speeds are based on Bearing adjustment experience. the preload must. The rolling bear- Rigid pinion and crown wheel guidance is achieved by ings mounted in cars should have an average fLm value adjusting the bearings against each other with a pre. The overhung arrangement is end of the tapered rollers. thermal expansion of the shaft increases the preload in nearly all cases af. never be such as to exceed the elastic limit of quiet running as possible. for the pinion shaft particularly for the bearing on the therefore. The pinion is either an overhung or a rection which is always from the small end to the large straddled arrangement. which ther terminated by fatigue or wear. may be several times the tangen.3. The pinion bearings should provide for er loads. The pinion shaft is normally sealed by means of radial The crown wheel is mounted in common with the dif. This is the case if the axial preload does not exceed sioning based on a comparison calculation with the about half the external axial force Fa applied. tial load at the pinion. inlets and outlets must be provided for the oil even meshing of pinion and crown wheel under load. The meshing accuracy of the teeth should sheet. of 1. Very high axial loads arise which. the pinion bearing arrangement should be as flange side. FAG 52 . are being used more and more because of their light- ness. the pinion bearings are very wheel shaft bearings. in some cases in combination with a flinger ferential. not necessary as these bearings have proved their worth ing loading must not significantly reduce the bearing sufficiently in the automotive sector. With today's bearing di- the bearing material. This information is then used to determine the mean index of dynamic stressing. The rigidity requirements are easier to meet than with the pinion Bearing dimensioning since more mounting space is available for this applica- tion and the axial loads are generally lower. which have to accommodate low- heavily loaded. but the additional bear. Since axle drives. shaft seals.Automotive differentials Design Lubrication Spiral bevel-gear drives – with or without intersecting Differentials rely exclusively on oil lubrication. So.

000 min–1. C = 39 kN. Bearing selection Machining tolerances Pinion shaft The pinion shaft is fitted with FAG inch-dimensioned Pinion shaft: m6 (larger-size bearing) tapered roller bearings mounted in O arrangement.1 x 68.163 x 68. The cones are cir.4 mm (dynamic housing P7 load rating C = 65.34 Final drive of a passenger car Operating data tapered roller bearings of 38.225 mm (C = 53 kN). Fitted are two FAG inch-dimensioned at most). h6 (smaller-size bearing) Dimensions: 34. Maximum engine torque 160 N m at 3. To allow the pinion to be adjusted to a certain torque cumferentially loaded. The cone of the smaller chining of a solid spacer). The through this ring. crown wheel by means of shims inserted between housing shoulder and bearing cup.263 x 22.288 x 20 mm.925 x 72. But only the cone of the larger and to avoid expensive fitting work (for instance ma- bearing can be press-fitted. Both bearing and gear mesh adjustment are achieved by means of shims.233 x 25. 34: Final drive of a passenger car 53 FAG .5 kN) and 30. sleeve is somewhat longer than the maximum distance between the two bearing cones. a thin-walled preformed bearing is slide-fitted because the bearings are adjusted sleeve is provided between the bearing cones. Crown wheel: hollow shaft to r6 The pinion is accurately positioned relative to the housing to H6. Depending on the Crown wheel width tolerance values of the bearings there will be Crown wheel and differential are mounted on the some elastic deformation of the sleeve (a few microns same shaft.

ings or – for double-row bearings on the individual tance.0.. therefore. therefore. commercial vehicles approximately 2. small dimensions. only be taken as reference values. The following advan. (hub bearings) are subjected to circumferential load tages can then be felt: (interference fit ) whereas the inner rings or cones ac- – little space is required in the axial direction. are point-loaded. The loads on the individual bear- tilting forces is achieved with the large bearing dis. FAG 54 . – The bearing system must be adjusted and the adjust- ing elements secured in the correct position. non-driven front wheels are concerned. a high moment load carrying this facilitates mounting and bearing adjustment. not have to be adjusted when mounting and which can mission and can. the bearings can be either larly with large series: steerable or non-steerable. In comparison. be given relatively easily be integrated in bearing units.5. and the outer rings or cups – suitable for integration in bearing units. driving control reasons. as well as the speeds of the ve- the highest load rating possible is reached in a small hicle in the operating conditions to be expected. at the inner ring – than with tapered roller bearings. The the inner rings or cones of driven wheel bearings – total weight of the bearings is low. for rear wheels there is also a tendency to Where steered. N7 (P7 for light-metal hubs) outer bearing: axle journal to g6.. the axial mounting space is normally not as restricted so the wheel bearings do not have to be particularly short.j6 With non-steered rear wheels. all wheels must be – Numerous single parts must be purchased. the dynamic tyre radius rdyn and its distance. however. Normally the ideal fL pensive where solely the bearing costs are concerned.35–39 Automotive wheels Differences exist between driven and non-driven There are. bearings which are adjusted against each other. stored guided as accurately and clearance-free as possible for and mounted. The tendency towards compact wheel bearing units is encouraged by the wish for the smallest roll radius possible as well as the pressure to reduce weight and to simplify series mounting. capacity due to a large contact angle. the tapered roller bearings which are mounted at a larger static wheel load.. are mounting space. sliding or wringing fit). a large commodate point load (loose. spread and. the maximum outside diameter of the hub. Double-row angular contact ball bearings are almost Machining tolerances always selected where the ratio of the mounting space for the wheel bearings axial width to the radial cross The outer rings or cups of non-driven wheel bearings section height is less than 2. which is inex. Non-driven front or rear wheels with two angular con- tact ball bearings or two tapered roller bearings: inner bearing: shaft to k6 (h6) Rear wheels hub to N6. values for passenger cars are approximately 1. N7 (P7 for light-metal hubs) space is generally limited not only in the case of con. This is in most cases achieved – The bearings have to be greased and sealed during by using angular contact ball bearings or tapered roller mounting. The calculation results can ings. Bearing dimensioning Today's standard bearing arrangement for such wheels. Driven front or rear wheels with double-row angular ventional drum brakes but also in vehicles with disc contact ball bearings (bearing unit): brakes since an extra drum brake is usually mounted at shaft to j6. also some disadvantages particu- wheels for automobiles. as a result. consequently. The actuation hub to N6. the radial mounting hub to N6.k6 the rear wheels as a parking brake. this simple bearing arrangement. this has to be taken into account – flanges can be more easily integrated – particularly when selecting the machining tolerances.5 and for offers diverse variations for all vehicle types and sizes. N7 (P7 for light-metal hubs) mechanism is inside the drum near the axle and limits. use double-row angular contact ball bearings which do the axle or shaft journal are relieved of torque trans. Basically. The necessary spread to accommodate taken into account. and moments calculated. The bearings have small contact angles so that coefficient of adhesion. Front wheels Therefore.. consists of two relatively small single radial For the fatigue life calculation of wheel bearings. rolling element rows – are determined with the forces With the wide range of standard tapered roller bear. are circumferentially loaded.

ing grease. Experience has Wheel bearings are almost exclusively lubricated with shown that these seals are satisfactory if the design pro- grease. tyre size 175/70 R14.Lubrication. ble-row FAG angular contact ball bearing. normally have a combination of dust shield and seal. maximum speed 180 km/h. Bearings which have no integrated seals are nor. Sealed bearings such as the double-row against dust and splash water. The bearing is greased for life with FAG rolling bear- rdyn = 295 mm. 35 Driven and steered front wheel of a front drive passenger car Operating data Wheel load 4. angular contact ball bearings with for-life lubrication. Collecting grooves mally sealed with spring-preloaded shaft seals with spe. sealing which are widespread in passenger cars. vides an additional gap-type seal. Bearing selection The bearing arrangement of a driven and non-steered rear wheel of a rear drive passenger car may also be de- The bearing arrangement is made up of a sealed dou- signed like this.600 N. 35: Passenger-car front wheel 55 FAG . and baffles are also required to protect the bearings cial dust lips.

Bearing selection Machining tolerances The wheel bearing arrangement consists of a double- row FAG angular contact ball bearing which is greased The inner rings and the outer ring of the bearing are for life. rdyn = 315 mm. Wheel load 4. maximum speed 220 km/h.800 N. tightly fitted.36 Driven and non-steered rear wheel of a rear drive passenger car Operating data Seals and flinger rings provided on both sides protect the bearing from contamination. tyre size 195/65 VR15. 36: Passenger-car rear wheel FAG 56 .

high gear ratio in a limited space. Tapered roller bearing: shaft to j6. rdyn = 569 mm.00-20. and bearings against contamination. Planetary gears rential gears and light drive shafts are possible. The outer planet drive increases the driving torque in a minumum space. tyre size 13. Since these bearings have Lubrication a particularly low section height they require only a small radial mounting space thus allowing light-weight Common oil lubrication for planet drive and wheel constructions. housing to N7 cording to DIN ISO 355) and FAG 33021 (T2DE105 according to DIN ISO 355). 37: Rear wheel of a truck 57 FAG .e. small diffe. welded housing protects gear long rollers result in a high load carrying capacity. i. As the high driving torque is generated directly at the wheel.37 Driven and non-steered rear wheel of a rear drive truck The rear wheel hubs of heavy trucks often feature a The bearings are adjusted against each other in O planetary gear. it features two rows of needle rollers. Axial guidance is provided by thrust Wheel load 100 kN. permissible maximum speed 80 km/h. This type of drive provides a relatively arrangement (large spread). housing to G6 Tapered roller bearings FAG 32019XA (T4CC095 ac. washers. The relatively large bearing width and bearings. The planet gear bearing arrangement Operating data is of the full-complement type. Machining tolerances Bearing selection Direct bearing arrangement Wheel bearings with needle rollers: shaft to h5. An oiltight.

needle roller bearings which provide for easy steering. It has a profiled ed tapered roller bearings for accommodating the axial shaft-washer raceway and a flat housing-washer race- loads is generally used in driven truck front wheels. which simplifies mounting. Experience has shown The shock loads on the steering king pin are very high. that this can be taken into account by means of an im- Therefore. the Mounting with a tapered roller thrust bearing thrust bearing can have zero clearance at best. in the case of adjusted tapered carrying capacity and be mounted with zero clearance roller bearings with an impact factor of fz = 3. it can be relu- ing arrangements is usually very limited the radial bricated if necessary. In this way. In way.6. The bearing arrangement with two adjust. consequently. the load carrying located by a relatively loose fit on the steering kin pin capacity can be increased. The bearing is filled with special grease.. 38: Steering king pin of a truck FAG 58 . As the king pin performs only slight slew- ing motions no cage is required so that the number of The shaft washer of tapered roller thrust bearings is rolling elements and. the thrust bearing must have a high load pact factor of fz = 5. The clearance between the knuckle and the cross member is compensated for by shims.. ball bearings or tapered roller thrust bearings. The sealed bearing is held together by a pressed other cases the axial loads are accommodated by thrust steel cap. Since the radial mounting space for king pin bearing mount. Openings in the sealing lip and loads (steering and guiding forces) are accommodated the elasticity of the sealing material ensure the escape by a plain bearing made of bronze and drawn cup of the spent grease..38 Steering king pin of a truck A variety of steering king pin mounting arrangements The example features a full-complement tapered roller are possible.. which means higher shock-type loads. thrust bearing as the thrust bearing. (g6). the housing washer has no radial guidance.5. or preload.

of lock. a: single path solution. for-life lubrication and economic efficiency. Possible bearing designs: Deep groove ball bearings these slewing motions are supported either by rolling loaded axially (with cage or full-complement vari- bearings or rubber elements. a b 39: Shock absorbing strut for the front axle of a car. coil spring supported by a special thrust ball bearing or angular contact Requirements ball bearing (spring seat bearing).39 Shock absorbing strut for the front axle of a car Front axles are being equipped more and more fre. Deep groove ball bearings ants with a fracture-split outer ring) or thrust ball best meet all requirements. – Damping unit and spring coil rotate together – When driving. Variants quently with McPherson shock absorbing struts. the coil spring and the damping unit of single path solution (fig. – Accommodation of weights and high shock loads Both variants meet all requirements concerning seal- – Maintenance-free design ing. b). Direct connection of shock absorber's piston rod to Bearing selection the body via a rubber element. The spring coil loads the McPherson strut cause movements relative to the and the pulsating loads from the piston rod act on body which are due to spring deflection and the degree the strut bearing. b: dual path solution 59 FAG . For comfort reasons and for easy handling. – Movements of the shock absorber's piston rod and of coil spring are independent of each other – dual path solution (fig. a). bearings.

grease. A spring loaded axial face the belt pull. bearing clearance ing water in the engine. Machining tolerance. The bearing clearance of the unit is selected to allow for a small operating clearance. Lip seals in the outer ring are provided on both ing bearing at the side that is most heavily loaded by sides against grease escape. Unavoidable water bearing: in addition to the radial loads it also accom. bore. For-life lubrication with a special rolling bearing ment. Smaller and lighter pump de- signs are possible with ready-to-mount bearing units. leakage is drained to the outside through the outlet modates the thrust of the pump impeller. The ball-cage assembly is the locating seal is fitted at the impeller end. The outer ring is mounted into the housing with an R7 interference fit. The example features one ball.40 Water pump for passenger car and truck engines The water pump provides for circulation of the cool. Lubrication. The roller-cage assembly is designed as the float. sealing and-cage assembly and one roller-and-cage assembly each mounted in a locating-floating bearing arrange. Bearing selection The water pump bearing unit consists of the shaft and a common outer ring with raceways for rolling-element- and-cage assemblies. 40: Water pump bearing unit for a truck engine FAG 60 .

41: Belt tensioner for passenger car engines 61 FAG . a ball. 7. belt tension can be applied by rotating the journal. ed by an FAG bearing unit. Speed is approximately tion-moulded tensioning pulley. the engine housing is eccentrically located so that the The belt tension necessary for quiet running is provid.41 Belt tensioner for passenger car engines The cam shafts of many four-cycle engines are driven The screw bore for fastening the tensioning pulley to with toothed belts from the crankshaft. This tensioning pulley unit consists of a journal with integral raceways.000 min–1. The bearing unit is sealed on both sides and packed cage assembly and an outer ring with the plastic injec. with grease for life.

3. 3.TVP. sealing Of all the roller bearing types cylindrical roller bear. Each axle box accommodates two cylindrical roller Operating data bearings. when dimensioning the axle box bearings: ing operation fz = 1. housing H7. however. compen. This simplifies stockkeep- which are bolted on one side. The bogie frame is supported on the bearing housing by a central coil spring. the polyamide cages without changing the lubricant. Bearing inner rings carry circumferential load. one FAG WJ130x240TVP and one FAG WJP130x240P. the dynamic load rating C of one bearing is Resulting axle mass per wheelset: A = 64. P = 46. Bearing selection Bearing clearance Cylindrical roller bearings installed as axle box roller bearings offer important advantages: The tight fit expands the bearing inner rings which re- duces radial clearance. therefore they are press-fitted: axle journal p6. drical roller bearings are pure radial bearings.497. Their speed suitability is grease. but the lips allow the safe accommodation of all thrust loads (guiding forces) occurring in operation.000 – 1. two bogies.5 million kilometres. mass of wheelset GR = 1. Machining tolerances maximum speed vmax = 200 km/h (possible speed 250 km/h).000 km and more) can be reached due to sate for misalignment between axle and bogie frame. FAG 62 .33 · D · π = (540/46.81 m/s2. acceleration due to gravity g = 9. The air stream cools the outer Mounting is simple and they are easy to check and rings to a greater extent than the inner rings during maintain in main inspections. Mass of the carriage plus maximum payload: 64. Lh10km = (C/P)3.6 ≈ 9.81 · 1.000 kg. Thus the equivalent dynamic load per bearing is: Under these conditions the bearings are sufficiently di- P = (A – GR)/iR · g · fz · fa mensioned.000 kg. The bearings are lubricated with a lithium soap base ings have the lowest friction.99 kN Wheel diameter DR = 890 mm. end keeps the grease close to the bearing. Despite the small amount of grease (≈ 600 g) high running effi- Cylindrical roller bearings do not. The same cylindrical roller bearings are used for pas- The wheelsets are guided by plate-type guiding arms senger cars and freight cars.99)3. 5 million kilometres (lower limit) applies today as a basis for dimensioning axle box bearings for P = (16. fective non-rubbing sealing. Lamellar rings at the wheel side provide for ef- therefore greater than in the case of other roller bear.000/4 = 540 kN. 16. A baffle plate at the cover ings. each with two wheelsets. The nominal rating life (Lh10) is checked in kilometres supplementary factor for dynamic loads occurring dur. Lubrication. 80 mm. ing. 120 to 160 microns.42 Axle box roller bearings of an Intercity train carriage The type of axle box roller bearings presented here is Therefore misalignment must be corrected by angular used for Intercity traffic in Europe.33 · 890 · π = number of bearings per wheelset iR = 4. Therefore the bearings have a radial clearance of Axial clearance is irrelevant for radial clearance. travel which leads to a further reduction in radial clear- ance.397 · 2.260 kg.990 N passenger train carriages. thrust factor for cylindrical roller bearings fa = 1. Cylin. im.260)/4 · 9. arranged above the bearings.3 · 1 = 46. freedom of the housing. The bearing dimensions (d x D x B) are 130 x 240 x plies 4 wheelsets per car. ciency (800.

42: Axle box roller bearings of an Intercity train carriage 63 FAG .

the axle support of the frame is engaged.180 μm Clearance group C3 FAG 64 ..000 kg Top speed vmax 100 km/h 100 km/h Wheel diameter DR 1m 1m Number of wheelsets 2 2 Wheelset mass GR 1. In some cases 120 mm journals are used for cylindrical Lubrication. bearing selection Operating data 43: UIC axle boxes with 44: UIC axle boxes with cylindrical roller bearings spherical roller bearings Mass of the car with max.300 kg 1.475 0. According to the latest UIC conditions 130 mm diameter journals are speci- fied for cylindrical and spherical roller bearings.475 Index of dynamic stressing fL 3.) Equivalent load: P = (A – GR) · g · fz · fa/iR (g = 9.3 · 1. Cylindrical or spherical roller bearings are used as axle box roller bearings.5 3.TVP Bore x outside diameter x width 130 x 240 x 80 mm 130 x 220 x 73 mm Dynamic load rating 540 kN 585 kN Machining tolerances of journals p6 p6 Machining tolerances of housing bores H7 H7 Radial clearance 130.75 · vmax) 75 km/h 75 km/h Average wheelset speed n = 5. The axle box roller bearings are lubricated with a lithi- um soap base grease.25 = 1. payload Gmax 40. cylindrical roller bearings with a radial clearance tion of the car body and to accommodate the thrust of 130 to 180 microns and spherical roller bearings peaks.43–44 UIC axle box roller bearings for freight cars The car body is supported by laminated springs on the from the air stream developed during travel which wheelset.5 Required dynamic load rating of one bearing: C = fL/fn · P 439 kN 549 kN Bearings mounted: Cylindrical roller bearings 2 spherical roller bearings FAG WJ130x240TVP and FAG 502472AA FAG WJP130x240P. the housing features guiding surfaces in which with increased radial clearance C3 are chosen. fore. Dimensioning.300 kg Mass on axle A 20.6 kN 74..5 kN Average travelling speed (vFm = 0.310 · vFm (km/h)/DR (mm) 400 min–1 400 min–1 Speed factor fn 0.25 for spherical roller bearings where thrust loads are taken up by the raceways.000 kg 40.625 (fa = 1 for cylindrical roller bearings where thrust loads are taken up by the lips. The tight fit expands the inner ring thus reducing UIC axle boxes with spherical roller bearings invari- radial clearance.3 · 1 = 1. There- job of guiding the wheelset. A further clearance reduction results ably use only labyrinth seals.The laminated springs have the additional cools the outer ring more than the inner ring. To limit the swaying mo. sealing roller bearings. Felt seals combined with a laby- Clearance rinth have proved most effective for cylindrical roller bearings.000 kg Number of bearings per wheelset iR 4 cylindrical roller bearings 4 spherical roller bearings Supplementary factor fz · fa 1. fa = 1.000 kg 20. The housing boundary dimensions of the UIC bearing are standardized.81 m/s2) 59.3 1.

43: UIC axle boxes with cylindrical roller bearings 44: UIC axle boxes with spherical roller bearings 65 FAG .

ing is guided by an arm on each side which is linked diagonally to the housing. The bearing inner rings have circumferential load and are therefore given a tight fit: Journals to p6. radial clearance becomes smaller.250 kg erance H7 usually taken for cast steel housings.45 Axle box roller bearings of series 120's three-phase current locomotive The frame is supported by coil springs and spring seats The axial clearance which arises thereby.000 kg efficient of expansion than cast steel which is why the Number of wheelsets: 4 tolerance field J7 was selected and not the housing tol- Wheelset mass: 2. the opposite side. The outer ring is cooled more than the inner ring by the wind resistance Bearing selection during travel which leads to a further reduction of Please refer to example number 42 to determine the clearance. an aluminium cast alloy.000 kg Supplementary factor fz = 1. The arms are supported by Machining tolerances elastic damping springs. The hous- Technical data ing material. The inner spacer ring is 2 mm wider than rinth seal. is necessary to which are integrated in the bearing housing. radial clearance C4 have been selected. The compensate for bogie production tolerances. Dynamic load rating of one bearing: C = 735 kN. the 200 km/h. The bear. has a greater co- Vehicle mass: 84. A V ring seal protects from contaminants on that of the outer rings.5 Bearing clearance The locomotive reaches top travelling speeds up to Due to the tight fit the bearing inner rings expand. Cylindrical roller bearings of the type NJ and NJP Lubrication. sealing with the dimensions 180 x 320 x 75 mm are mounted. 45: Axle box roller bearings of series 120's three-phase current locomotive FAG 66 . On outer and inner rings of both bearings are separated by the wheel side the bearing is sealed by a two-web laby- spacer rings. The A lithium soap base grease is used for lubrication. Axle mass: 22. The bear- spring seats are arranged at different heights. ing can always be mounted without preload. For this reason bearings with increased equivalent dynamic load P.

A setting mecha- nism enables the mounting of the wheelsets in the bogies without preload. Bearing selection Lubrication.900 kg and 0.090 kg Diameter of wheel 1. Mass of unsprung weight: 2. The seal caps are each provided with four discharge Machining tolerances holes through which excess grease escapes. The labyrinth is the dimensions: 150 x 250 x 160 mm.040 mm Maximum speed 250 to 280 km/h.46 Axle box roller bearings for the ICE driving unit The bogie frame is supported by 2 coil springs each on Housing to: H7 (for GGG material) the bearing housings. Bearing clearance Operating data A slight axial clearance is required for ideal running be- haviour of the bogies at top speeds.2 Axle mass: 19. shaped as a seal cap and pressed into the cup. 46: Axle box roller bearings of the ICE driving unit 67 FAG . This is par- ticularly important directly after relubrication. The sealing system consists of two parallel with the designation ET 401. The main component of outer diameter seated lamellar rings and one single- these units is a double row tapered roller bearing with web labyrinth acting as a pre-seal. is connected to the bogie by an arm. The bearing units are axially located by a cover. O rings The cones carry circumferential load and therefore have protect the bearing unit from the penetration of water a tight fit: journal to p6. The wheelset with the housings J7 (for aluminium alloys). sealing FAG tapered roller bearing units TAROL 150/250 are The TAROL 150 is supplied as a complete unit which mounted in the wheelset housings of the series vehicles is sealed.5 mm after mounting. It is between 0. in the seating area of the cup.

The two outer axles are designed as ing to H7.000 kW at 750 V DC Bearing selection Lubrication Tapered roller bearing units TAROL 150/250 with Both bearing types are lubricated with a lithium soap pressed cages (JP) are mounted to the outer standard base grease. lar rings provide for sealing on the side facing the Due to the constant right to left displacement of the wheel. 80 mm. ings is only changed during the main inspections. (25 kV). It is a two. floating axle bearings must be relubricated in between. C4 in order to compensate for heat expansion. Power P = 5. standard axles as customary. The inner rings carry circumferential load and have a The middle axle of each triple axle bogie is designed as tight fit to p6 on the journal. The extended inner ring allows axial displace- rect current (750 V) as well as on alternating current ment within the bearing of ± 20 mm at a maximum.600 t. Bearing clearance Operating data Prior to mounting.740 mm and axles. class 92 Class 92 is used for freight traffic in the Euro tunnel The floating axle is accommodated in two cylindrical between Great Britain and the Continent.665. FAG 68 . The engine with six axles (CoCo) draws loads weighing up to 1. two bogies each with three axle have an axial clearance of 0. While the lubricant in the TAROL bear- axles of the vehicles. greased and sealed by the manufacturer.000 kg. wheel diameter 1. The bearings are clearance-adjust.. A gap-type seal prevents rough dirt from pene. The vertical loads of the bogie are accommodated by two lateral coil springs on the housing of the axle box bearings. top speed vmax = the cylindrical roller bearing units a radial clearance to 140 km/h.47 Axle box roller bearings of the Channel tunnel's freight engine. roller bearings whose dimensions are 150 x 250 x system engine which means it can be operated on di.. the ed. therefore has to be replaced regularly. a floating axle box to insure trouble-free operation in The housing bores (point load ) are machined accord- narrow curves. Fey lamel. the TAROL units of the standard Vehicle mass 126. All lateral and longitudinal forces act via the guiding journals and sleeves which are attached to the Machining tolerances bogie frame and the housing. Sealing is achieved at the wheel end by means of long- webbed labyrinths. axle lubricant is removed from the bearing area and trating the bearings.0.000 kW at 25 kV AC 4.120 mm.

class 92 69 FAG .47: Axle box roller bearings of the Channel tunnel's freight engine.

housing cal and have an angular cross-section. sealing Bearing selection A lithium soap base grease is used for lubrication.000 kg.400 kg. than the inner rings due to the air stream during travel.F2 (dynamic load rating The labyrinth is provided with two axial webs since the C = 430 kN).H25 and one as a means of sealing. are therefore given a tight fit: journal to m6. to H7. The inner rings increase due to the tight fit: the radial Number of wheelsets per bogie: 2.F2. They are inclined to the verti.C3. axle boxes are subjected to extreme dirt. Operating data Bearing clearance Mass and maximum payload of one car: 34. Supplementary factor fz: 1.C3.3. clearance decreases.TVP2. Wheel diameter DR = 900 mm.6 kN. therefore a radial clearance C3 was selected. This leads to a further reduction in clearance and Equivalent dynamic load P = 22. 48: Axle box roller bearings for an underground train FAG 70 . Each axle box roller bearings is Machining tolerances cushioned and guided by rubber-metal silent blocks. FAG NJP2318ED. Lubrication.48 Axle box roller bearings for an underground train A car has two bogies. A Two cylindrical roller bearings are mounted per axle combination of a felt ring and a labrinth was selected box: One FAG NJ2318E.TVP2. The outer rings are cooled more Wheelset mass GR: 1. Top speed vmax = 80 km/h. These are arranged between the axle box roller bearing The bearing inner rings carry circumferential load and and the frame opening.

49 Axle box roller bearings for a city train
The bogie frame is supported by Chevron springs on Bearing clearance
the axle boxes.
Prior to mounting, the axial clearance of the bearing
unit TAROL 90 is 530 – 630 microns.
Operating data

The equivalent dynamic load Pm = 37 kN (calculated Machining tolerances
from the various load conditions).
Mean wheel diameter 640 mm. The bearing cones carry circumferential load and are
Maximum speed vmax = 80 km/h. therefore given a tight fit: journal n6.

Bearing selection Lubrication, sealing

The main component of the FAG bearing units Lubrication is with a lithium soap base grease. The
TAROL 90 used here is a double row tapered roller TAROL 90 is sealed at both ends with lamellar rings.
bearing whose main dimensions are (d x D x B overall The backing ring also has a collar which forms a gap-
widths cones/cup) 90 x 154 x 106/115 mm. type seal with the lid on the wheel side.

49: Axle box roller bearings for a city train

71 FAG

50 Axle box roller bearings
according to AAR standard*) and modified types
The FAG TAROL unit according to AAR standards is FAG use two types of seals: the rubbing radial shaft seal
a compact bearing unit with a double row tapered roll- (fig. a) corresponds to the design used by AAR. The
er bearing as the main component. Seals at both sides non-rubbing lamellar seal ring (fig. b) was developed
of the bearing, accessories and the grease filling make by FAG and tested and approved by AAR.
the FAG TAROL a ready-to-mount unit. Neither is
the adjustment of the bearing clearance required. The
so-called NFL design (no field lubrication) is consid-
ered standard today. These TAROL units are no longer
relubricated during operation. The bearing grease is
only renewed during a main inspection.

TAROL units do not have to be mounted into a hous-
ing. An adapter is attached between the TAROL unit
and the bogie frame to transmit the loads and support
the bearing cup on the loaded part of the circumfer-

FAG supply NARROW and WIDE adapters accord- a: Rubbing radial shaft seal
ing to the AAR standards as well as special adapters de-
signed for the particular cases of application.

AAR has stipulated the admissible loads for the various
sizes of TAROL units.

Components of the FAG tapered roller bearing unit

1 Locking plate
2 Cap screw
3 End cap b: Non-rubbing lamellar seal
4 Bearing cup
5 Bearing cone with roller set
6 Spacer FAG also supply TAROL units in metric dimensions.
7 Seal wear ring They (fig. c) have narrower tapered roller bearings and
8 Seal smaller sealing and retaining components than the
9 Backing ring AAR design. The relevant journals are also shorter re-
sulting in lower bending stresses with the same shaft
diameter than in the case of the AAR arrangement.
Higher wheel loads are therefore admissible.



7 8 5 6 4 7 8 9

50: TAROL units
with a double-row tapered roller bearing
c: TAROL units in metric dimensions and with short journal
*) Association of American Railroads (SK design)

FAG 72

51 Kiln trucks for sand lime brick works
Operating conditions The bearings are designed for a truck with two wheel-
sets accommodating a total weight Fr of 43 kN.
In sand lime brick autoclaves the wheelset bearings of The bearing load for each bearing is relatively low at
the kiln trucks are exposed for many hours to hot Fr/4 allowing the use of inexpensive FAG
steam of approximately 200 °C at 16 to 22 bars. Due 6208.R200.250.S1 deep groove ball bearings.
to corrosion hazard the bearing location should be Considering the high operating temperatures the
protected against penetration of the steam which is bearings have a particularly large radial clearance
strongly alkaline. (200...250 or 250...350 microns), are heat-treated
according to S1 (200 °C) and are dimensionally stable.

The bearings of the kiln trucks are mounted on the
Bearings shaft as far as its shoulder by means of a punching cap
and fastened securely with a shaft end washer and
Sealing requires major attention when designing the screw. They have a loose fit in the housing bore of the
bearing arrangement. The best solution is the use of FAG series housing SUB6208. Two bolts attach the
pulverized synthetic FAG sealing agent and solid lubri- housings to the frame of the trucks. Strips inserted
cant Arcanol DF. This lubricant is suitable for tempera- between housing and frame compensate for any differ-
tures ranging between –200 °C and +300 °C and re- ences in height due to warping of the truck frame.
sists almost any chemical even at high temperatures. It
is non-ageing and water repellent. The powder is
Machining tolerances
packed into the bearing location penetrating into all
cavities of the arrangement and forming a lubricating
Shaft: bearing seat j6.
film between balls and raceways, balls and cage and
Housing: the diameter of bearing seat is between
also between outer ring and housing bore. The film in
0.5 mm and 0.8 mm larger than the bearing O.D.
the housing bore ensures easy bearing displaceability,
even after prolonged operation. This protects the bear-
ing against detrimental axial preload. Sealing
In addition to lubrication Arcanol DF also acts as a
sealing agent. It settles in the sealing gaps of the axle Heat-resistant aramide stuffing box packings seal the
passage and protects the inside of the bearings against bearing area at the axle passage. The cover flange is also
the ingress of alkaline condensate. provided with a heat-resistant seal.

51: Kiln trucks for sand lime brick works

73 FAG

52 Universal quill drive
for threephase current locomotives of series 120
All four wheelsets of series 120's threephase current lo- mounted in O arrangement. Even with a small bearing
comotives are driven. The traction motor arranged distance there is a relatively large spread and as a result
transversely to the direction of travel is connected to tilting rigidity is high.
the bogie at three points. The torque of the traction The quill drive housing is stationary. The cones, which
motor acts via pinion and bullgear on a universal quill carry point load, have a loose fit. The cups carry cir-
drive which is linked to the bullgear and driving wheel cumferential load and have therefore a tight fit in the
by the articulated lever coupling. The driving wheel rotating bullgear.
transmits the tractive force to the rails. The axial clearance of the bearing pair depends on the
machining tolerances of the bearing seats and the oper-
Operating data ating conditions. With inner and outer spacer sleeves
bearing adjustment is not necessary when mounting.
Top speed: 200 km/h; number of motors: 4; nominal
power per motor: 1,400 kW; motor speed: max.
4,300 min–1. Lubrication

Bearing selection During mounting the bearings and the space between
the webs of the outer spacer sleeves are completely
The bullgear is supported on the universal quill drive filled with a lithium soap base grease of the NLGI class
in two tapered roller bearings FAG 534052 (dimen- 2. They are relubricated after every 150,000 km. The
sions: 381.03 x 479.475 x 49.213 mm) which are grease is fed through the holes of the sleeve's web.

52: Bullgear bearing arrangement for a universal quill drive

FAG 74

0. (nominal life over 2 million kilometres) roller bearings with a high load carrying capacity are selected. The traction mo.775 x 336. The profile of the Operating data tapered rollers or raceways are modified (slightly crowned) in order to avoid edge stressing. The cup or the angle sleeve in the For a suspension bearing to have a long service life housing is given a tight fit (perhaps a drive seat). Six driven wheelsets. They are abundantly 300. dimensioning The cups have circumferential load and an interference fit on the shaft. sealing dium drive torque and a medium speed are taken as a basis for dimensioning. When support point at the bogie frame.088 mm. dimensioned because of the large shaft diameter. High Labyrinth gap-type seals protect the bearing from con- loads due to vibrations and shocks are accommodated taminants. The index of dynamic stressing The suspension bearings are lubricated with a lithium fL should be 3..55 x 65. speed: 100 km/h.2. A me. the shaft has a maximum load the cups and cones are tilted by up to 3' against each other.3 mm). 53: Suspension bearing arrangement for electric goods train locomotive 75 FAG .000 to 231.625 mm and The relubrication interval is about 200. Max. tor arranged transversely to the direction of travel is supported directly on the wheelset axle in two bearing Both tapered roller bearings are mounted in O arrange- locations.000 km depending on the type of operation.188 x 317. mensions being 230. power per traction motor: 500 kW. Lubrication. The reaction torque is taken up by another ment with little axial clearance (0. ing (grease storage). soap base grease of penetration class 3 with anti-corro- sion additives..5 at least.53 Suspension bearing arrangement for electric goods train locomotive The torque of the traction motor is transmitted to the by special tapered roller bearings with reinforced wheelset axle via pinion and bullgear. pressed cage (reduced number of rollers). Usually it is well above it.5 x 47. Baffle plates hold the grease at the bear- Two FAG tapered roller bearings are mounted their di. Machining tolerances Bearing selection.

The floating bearing Bearing selection arrangement with two cylindrical roller bearings FAG NUZ1848 is therefore sufficient for the output shaft. ing. housing N6 angular contact ball bearing pair FAG 7215B. low noise. is axially guided by the spherical roller bearing of the intermediate shaft. Lubrication The bearings accommodate high speeds with a close axial guidance at the same time. The demand for a sufficient axial operat- for a high degree of travel comfort.P6 ent heat expansion coefficients of steel and light metal cannot have a direct effect on the bearings. The gearbox ance (C3). Therefore differ. 70 microns. is made of high- strength cast aluminium. The floating bearing in the motor is a cylindrical roller Angular contact ball bearing FAG NU212E (not illustrated). helical/double helical ring is in a steel angle sleeve. The floating bearing. This is 25 % lighter than Output shaft spheroidal graphite cast iron. avoids constraining forces in the shaft line which is supported in three Machining tolerances positions by a locating-floating bearing arrangement. The Cylindrical roller bearing/ locating bearing arrangement of the input shaft is an intermediate shaft Shaft m5. The spherical roller bear- gearing. The axial fulfilled by a new compact drive package which is clearance of the bearing pair prior to mounting is completely supported on springs in the bogie. Both angular contact ball bearings are output shaft Shaft n5. housing K6 NJ215E. is at the motor end of the input shaft. a cylindrical roller bearing FAG Spherical roller bearing Shaft m5. N6. pair housing K6 floating bearing.54 Spur gear transmission for the underground or subway The drive of modern suburban vehicles should provide angle sleeve. input shaft of the transmission. An elastic coupling which can be subject to bending. housing fitted in an angle sleeve made of steel. The output shaft whose large spur gear has a double helical gearing. Drive speed (input shaft) nmax = 5. This means tight fits All the bearings of the transmission are lubricated by for the bearing rings on the shaft and in the bore of the the oil circuit of the gearings.860 min–1.. A ing with the outer ring. These requirements are gular contact ball bearings in universal design.UA70 in Cylindrical roller bearing/ X arrangement. which is split at axis height. Its outer Two step parallel shaft drive.. ing accommodates chiefly axial forces from the gear- step-up i = 11. Input shaft The NUZ design with an extended inner ring raceway The rotor of the drive motor is firmly attached to the allows a large axial displacement of the hollow shaft. is directly in the light-metal hous- The drive motor is flanged on to the transmission. case. The very tight fit in the hous- universal joint coupling transmits the torque directly ing necessitates a bearing with increased radial clear- to the wheelset from the transmission. and be ing clearance in addition to the tight fit is met with an- economical at the same time.C3. Intermediate shaft Operating data A spherical roller bearing FAG 22218E is mounted as the locating bearing of the intermediate shaft. FAG 76 . a cylindrical roller bearing FAG NJ2216E.025. A second bearing pair Shaft k5.

Output hollow shaft Antriebs-Hohlwelle Intermediate shaft Zwischenwelle Input shaft Eingangswelle 54: Spur gear transmission for the underground or subway 77 FAG .

depending on the lever arms. The cups of the tapered roller bearings are therefore preloaded with springs.55 Bevel gear transmission for city trains With a so-called two-axled longitudinal drive in under. hourly Oil sump lubrication provides the transmission bear- speed) are calculated from the tractive force – surface ings with lubricant. transmission and track superstructure. ring gear from the oil sump and fed directly to the ning conditions. ring R6 (S7) mitted from the pinion shaft to the hollow ring gear Tapered roller bearing shaft and then via rubber couplings to the driving of ring gear shaft: Shaft n6 – p6 wheel shaft.000 hours is assumed for bearing dimensioning. Two ta- pered roller bearings FAG 31316 (80 x 170 x 42. Ring gear shaft There is a tapered roller bearing with the dimensions 210 x 300 x 54. This drive design leads to good running housing K6 – M6 behaviour and moderate stressing for the traction mo- tor.2 – 1.M1A. and corrosion. bearing selection Lubrication Mean torques and speeds (hourly torque. The bearing has the increased radial clearance C3 since the bearing rings have a tight fit on the shaft and in the housing. A life of 20. the other tapered roller bearing only accommodates the axial loads arising during a change in direction of rotation. A minimum bearing load is a requirement in order to avoid harmful sliding motion (slippage) and premature wear.C3 (120 x 215 x 58 mm) is mounted as a floating bearing at the pinion end. To check the static safety of the bearings the maximum torque (slippage torque) is taken as a basis. The special driving conditions for city trains and.5 mm) are used as locating bearings. Dimensioning. The flinger oil is conveyed via the speed diagram and the time shares for the various run. Assuming an average travel speed this corresponds to 1. are distributed to demand highly doped oils which are resistant to heat the bearing locations. The drive power is trans. The axial clearance of the tapered roller bearing pair depends on gearing and the operating conditions. Machining tolerances ground and metropolitan vehicles the traction motor (usually direct current motor) is arranged in the bogie Cylindrical roller bearing: Shaft m6.5 mm at each side of the ring gear. Both bearings are adjusted in X arrangement. with mantle ring: Shaft m6. The bearing at the motor end accommodates the radial loads as well as the axial loads from the gearing.3 million kilometers. housing M6 in the direction of travel. The machined cage of the bearing is guided at the outer ring.000 to 30. It accommo- dates the high radial loads. The drive motor end: Shaft m6. By means of the gearing data the transmission bearings via oil collecting bowls and sup- tooth loads of the hypoid bevel gear step are calculated ply ducts. 55: Bevel gear transmission for city trains FAG 78 . They are mounted in pairs in O arrangement. sleeve M6 unit firmly attached to the bogie frame is elastically Tapered roller bearing supported by the wheel sets. A bevel gear transmission is Tapered roller bearing/ flanged onto both sides of the motor's face. Pinion shaft A single-row cylindrical roller bearing FAG NJ2224E.

The rudder shaft bearings accommodate the bearing positions located outside the ship due to the radial and axial loads arising from the rudder and mounting difficulties and problems with sealing and the steering engine. are illustrated in figs.56 –60 Rudder shafts The rudders of ships make slow intermittent slewing Rolling bearings are only used for the bearing positions motions. a) Semi-spade rudder b) Spade-type rudder c) Steering nozzle 79 FAG . are used and water or numerous types of rudders the most common of which a mixture of grease and water is used for lubrication. plastic etc. bronze. a to c. plain bearings made of the vibrations created by the propeller jet. They are not suitable for both sides. The bearings are also subjected to lubricating. There are stainless steel. The maximum slewing angle is about 35° to of the rudders inside ships. For such locations.

.. housing H7... or FAG RS3052KW.1. An index of static three seawater-proof shaft sealing rings with an inter- stressing fs between 4 and 5 is suitable for spherical mediate grease chamber. The bottom end of dismounting particularly in the case of bearings with the bearing is provided with a spring seal.MB. For this purpose the shaft must and V ring suffice for sealing at the top end. A spherical roller bear.1.90 or FAG 23052K. spherical roller bearings are used. The under a light preload. 57: Rudder shaft bearing FAG RS3052KW.R40.1. The hydraulic method facilitates ation and if necessary readjusted.56–57 Spherical roller bearings as rudder shaft bearings Operating data Machining tolerances Axial load 115 kN (weight of rudder and shaft).. FAG 80 .. An automatic grease pump roller bearings. Sealing consists of because of the few slewing motions.MB. The housing which is attached to the housing base plate by bearing bore and the size of the bearing are determined sturdy webs. This bear- have oil ducts and the tapered seat a circular groove.. dimensioning bearings and housings are completely filled with lithi- um soap base grease of consistency number 2 which con- Due to the heavy loads and unavoidable misalignment tains EP additives. load 350 kN (driving force of steering engine and rudder). Dur.1... The bearing arrangement The static safety of a rudder shaft bearing is checked can also be below the waterline. plate. Vibrations can thus be adequate.. Bearing and seal are in one and the same housing and are lubricated with grease. A felt seal C2 bearing clearance. sealing During mounting.220 microns) is mounted. holds the latter under permanent pressure. The rudder Rudder shaft bearing FAG RS3052KS. They have a high load carrying capacity and are self-aligning. Lubrication. Its packing runs on a sleeve of seawater-resistant ing FAG 23052K. the cavities of the spherical roller Bearing selection... stuffing box can be inspected at any time during oper- ly accommodated.. shaft diameter depends on size and speed of the ship as The bearing is grease lubricated. are made of Rudder shaft bearing FAG RS3052KW. welded shipbuilding steel plates... It sits in the pot-like well as on the type and size of the rudder used. Due to the separation between the upper half and the ing mounting the bearing inner ring is pressed onto base any spray water which could penetrate runs along the tapered shaft seat so that the bearing operates the side and does not get into the rolling bearing. ing arrangement with stuffing box seal is maintenance- free... The housings of rudder shaft bearings FAG RS3052KS.. radial Shaft taper 1 : 12..1..C2 steel. 56: Rudder shaft bearing FAG RS3052KS....1.. (radial clearance 150. A stuffing box seal is mounted in this base by the shaft diameter specified...

Thus the bore diam- eter of the rolling bearing is fixed.. 59: Rudder carrier bearing FAG RS9284W. Machining tolerances Shaft h7. and shaft.. This is the case for all rudder drives not The supplementary plain bearing also accommodates loaded by lateral forces... dimensioning spring preload via the housing washer. 58: Rudder carrier bearing FAG RS9284N.1.. such as for rotary vane steering radial forces. The shaft diameter is determined according to formu- lae of the Classification Societies. The thrust bearings and housings are completely filled with bearing's index of static stressing fs ≥ 10. ing height.1.. lithium soap base grease (consistency number 2 with EP additives).. The housing is relief turned to ensure axial Bearing selection..58–59 Spherical roller thrust bearings as rudder carriers Spherical roller thrust bearings are used when the top Powerful springs under the bearing outer ring provide bearing mainly has to take up the weight of the rudder a permanent positive contact of rollers and raceways. for rudder carriers. if for example a cylinder in a four-cylin- gears and four-cylinder engines.. differ only in their sealing. sealing axial load carrying capacity a spherical roller thrust bearing FAG 29284E.1.. the cavities of the spherical roller 580 x 95 mm is mounted directly on the shaft. The two designs. This provides advantages especially for larger FAG RS9284N.. are sealed with seawater-proof shaft sealing rings.MB with the dimensions 420 x During mounting. N and W. Both designs have a V-ring seal at the housing cover.. rudder carrier bearings have felt steering engines. since the rudder shaft extension can seals. spade-type rudders.. Only the seal differs: base. 81 FAG . As with radial spherical roller rudder bear- The welded housings are extraordinarily flat – they ings. there are also two designs (N and W) in the case protrude just slightly beyond the deck or mounting of rudder carrier bearings. which do not operate der steering engine fails.. Due to the high Lubrication... be kept short due to the low mounting and dismount.1. the rudder carrier bearings FAG RS9284W.

Both bearing locations are Some of the grease (lithium soap base grease of the con- equipped with rolling bearings since they are inside the sistency number 2 with EP additives) penetrates into ship's hull. An index of static stressing fs ≥ 4 is a must. sealing ISO 1101). dimensioning. This upper bearing also takes up the weight from rudder and shaft as well as the radial loads.C2). initial grease filling is kept under pressure and the seal rings are lubricated at the same time. The lips form a grease chamber The slewing motion is accommodated by a top bearing permanently pressurized by an automatic grease pump. is sleeves which are mounted and dismounted by means mounted on the shaft with an adapter sleeve FAG of the hydraulic method. Since ings are pressed onto the adapter sleeve so far that they this bearing is permanently below the waterline. Bearing selection is based on the specified shaft diame- ter and the given loads. FAG 82 .700 kN (load from rudder and steering When relubricating with an automatic grease press.R60. cylindricity tolerance IT5/2 (DIN Bearing selection.60 Spade-type rudder Design The radial sealing rings run on a sleeve made of sea- water-resistant steel.MB. There is also a V ring at the upper Top bearing: shaft passage. obtain a preload of 20 to 30 microns. the housing keeping the initial grease packing under signed as the locating bearing due to the locating ring constant pressure.MB. an FAG microns and the upper bearing has 50 to 130 microns 230/750K. warping of the ship's hull and rudder shaft deformation. affected by misalignment of housing bores. Axial load 380 kN (weight of rudder and shaft).R50. is or 230 to 330 microns. With these pre- special sealing must be provided for the shaft passage. The seal above the bearing (shaft sealing ring and V ings are used at both locations and the bearing ring) protects it against water which may either run arrangement is therefore statically defined and not down the shaft or collect in the rudder trunk. A shaft sealing ring Operating data is fitted at the upper and at the lower shaft diameter for sealing purposes. an FAG spherical roller bearings are mounted on adapter 23188K. the bear- located on an adapter sleeve FAG H30/750HG. which is bolted into a circular groove in the shaft. Both The top spherical roller bearing.C2). During mounting. loaded bearings vibrations are easily accommodated. Housing H7. The bottom bearing is the floating bearing. Spherical roller bear.130 (or 23188K. Radial load 1. The top bearing or rudder carrier is de. between cover and bearing outer ring. The bearings have a particularly small radial clearance: the lower bearing has 60 to 210 microns or 390 to 570 The bottom spherical roller bearing. the engine).MB. Machining tolerances Rudder shaft h8.210 (or 230/750K. Since the bearings only make slewing motions they are selected according to their Bearing clearance static load carrying capacity.500 kN (load from rudder and steering engine). The relevant adapter sleeves H3188HG. below (HG design) have connecting holes and grooves for by the shaft shoulder and above by a split holding ring the pressure oil. The adapter sleeve is fixed axially.MB. and a bottom bearing. Bottom bearing: Radial load 4.

60: Spade-type rudder bearings 83 FAG .

FAG 23048K. welded considerable. tained. With a supplementary tion.. The last part of the shaft sup. The housing's sealing is provided for by the radial shaft port bearings. A special stern tube sealing protects the bear- eration when determining the bearing stress.. dimensioning. are attached to other dynamic forces are sufficiently taken into consid.MB with adapter sleeve H3048 and a split plummer block housing S3048KBL. Radial load from shaft and coupling 62 kN. For small quantities. Thus the index of dynamic stressing fL ranges Adapter sleeve seat on the shaft h8. the Machining tolerances bearings are overdimensioned for the loads to be accom. The oil pressure is kept a split covers. runs in the so-called stern tube arrangement made up of a spherical roller bearing or tail shaft bearings. modated. 62 shows a stern tube bearing arrangement. housing bore H7. 61b is an alternative ship shaft bearing porting the propeller. sealing Since the diameter of the ship shaft is specified.MB (di- Lubrication mensions 600 x 800 x 150 mm. shocks or whose inner rings. Operating data (material GG-25). Cylindricity toler- from 4 to 6 and therefore a high nominal life (Lh) is ob. By means of the The bearings are lubricated with a non-aging oil with hydraulic method the bearing is attached to the shaft EP additives (viscosity 150 to 300 mm2/s at 40°C). ings from seawater.61–62 Ship shaft bearings and stern tube bearings The propeller shaft of a ship is carried by so-called sup. 63 and 64).. endurance strength is reached in the adjusted life cal- culation (Lhna) for ship shaft and stern tube bearings. the shaft. with adapter sleeves. The tail load – the propeller thrust is taken up by the propeller bearing is also loaded by propeller weight and wave ac- thrust block (figs. Since length variations of the shaft are sealing rings in the cover. The with an adapter sleeve FAG H39/600HG and is located lower parts of the support bearing housings have view- in a plummer block housing FAG SUC39/600H. 61a: Ship shaft bearing. A spherical roller bearing FAG 239/600BK. The housing is made of grey cast iron GG. particularly with long shafts. the bearings housings are generally more economical than cast must have axial freedom. dynamic load rating C = 3.450 kN) is used as ship shaft bearing. Shaft diameter 560 mm. gap. The 25 and consists of a unsplit housing body with two stern tube is filled with oil...1. stern. ance IT5/2 (DIN ISO 1101).. maximum and minimum oil levels are marked. With very good cleanliness in the lubricating Flanged housings are used for the tail shaft bearings. spherical roller bearing in SUC housing FAG 84 . little higher than that of the surrounding water. 61a).. ing glasses or oil dip sticks on which the permissible (fig. nominal speed of propeller The ship shaft is surrounded by the stern tube at the shaft 105 min–1. no axial both bearings are designed as floating bearings. housings. The inner rings carry circumferential load.. Fig. Fig.1. Spherical roller bearings are applied here also factor of 100 % on the radial load (fz = 2). Bearing selection.

K housing 62: Stern tube or tail shaft bearing arrangement 85 FAG . Spherical roller bearing in S30.61b: Ship shaft bearing.

63b: propeller. The FAG thrust block housings are supplied either in The curvature centres of the outer ring raceways of the split design SGA (figs.156680. Design Fig. A constant axial minimum 1 Lock washer FAG MB26 load is thus ensured. 64b: Spherical roller thrust bearing Shaft m6. The ing fL are calculated. The radial spherical roller bearing 1 Thrust block shaft with loose flange transmits the weight of the shaft and the propeller pull FAG DRW110 x 610.63–64 Ship shaft thrust blocks The thrust block is located directly behind a ship's en. 63b) or SUB (fig. housing H7 ameters in a SGA plummer block housing. bricating gap.DRL. Apart from a small radial load from the shaft weight Fig. FAG BEHT:GRL:110. 63a illustrates a thrust block arrangement with turned two spherical roller thrust bearings for small shaft di. Three bearing arrangements are com. mended for the rolling bearings in ship shaft thrust peller thrust during forward motion and the propeller blocks. Oil lubrication FAG 86 . shaft and propeller is supported by a radial spherical roller bearing. In 63a the thrust bearings accom.156678 forward motion. it acts either forward or backward. b: – in SUB housing with sealing and thrust block shaft with loose flange. The spherical roller thrust bearing 2 Spherical roller thrust bearings FAG 29322E not under stress is preloaded by springs so that it does 1 Locknut FAG KM26 not lift during sternway. The unit includes bearings. housing H7 load. Particularly with utmost cleanliness in the lu- pull during sternway. It transmits the propeller thrust to the ship. ship shaft thrust blocks reach endurance modate the weight also while in 63b the weight of strength according to the adjusted life calculation. Machining tolerances gine. 64 shows ship shaft thrust blocks each with a spherical roller thrust bearing and a radial spherical Ship shaft thrust blocks are supplied as complete units roller bearing: FAG BEHT. The bearings are sign FKA (fig. Depending on the direction of rotation of the Fig. housing a: – in SGA housing. An fL value of 3 – 4 is recom- spherical roller thrust bearings accommodate the pro. housing relief sternway the thrust load is lower and usually occurs turned only seldom. During Spherical roller thrust bearing Shaft n6. In Order example for unit these thrust blocks only the propeller thrust is accom. Fig. 63a: the bearing is loaded by a purely concentric thrust Spherical roller thrust bearing Shaft m6. 64a. nal life Lh [h] and the resulting index of dynamic stress- ing is insufficient when sternway is very frequent. 63b illustrates a thrust block arrangement with Dimensioning of bearings two spherical roller thrust bearings and one radial spherical roller bearing in an FKA flanged housing. 64b). Taking the power output into account the nomi- load carrying capacity of a radial spherical roller bear.156678 during sternway. The diameter of the thrust block shaft is determined according to the guidelines of the Classification Soci- Both bearing arrangements are used when the axial eties. housing relief Fig. 63a and 64a) or in unsplit de- radial and axial bearings coincide. consisting of: modated by the spherical roller thrust bearing during 1 Plummer block housing FAG SGA9322. Radial spherical roller bearing Shaft n6. therefore self-aligning and thus misalignment and bending of the shaft and hull are compensated for. Radial spherical roller bearing Shaft m6. housing F7 monly used for these requirements: Fig.

470 kW Speed 800 min–1 150 min–1 500 min–1 Thrust 55 kN 1....1..200.DRL.MB. (SGA plummer block housing) 63b: Ship shaft thrust block with FKA flanged housing 87 FAG .110.DRL110.1..625 kN 170 kN Forward motion 50 % 50 % 95 % Sternway 50 % 50 % 5% Bearings mounted 2 x FAG 29322E 1 x FAG 239/600B.Operating data 63a: Ship shaft thrust block 63b: Ship shaft thrust block housing 64a. with 2 spherical roller thrust bearings 2 spherical roller thrust bearings 1 spherical roller thrust bearing 1 radial spherical roller bearing 1 radial spherical roller bearing Diameter of thrust block shaft 110 mm 600/510 mm 200 mm Power 320 kW 11. b: Ship shaft thrust block FAG BEHT.MB 2 x 29340E Lubrication Oil sump lubrication1) Oil sump lubrication1) Oil sump lubrication1) Sealing Shaft sealing rings Shaft sealing rings Shaft sealing rings 1) Non-aging oil with pressure additives (viscosity 150 to 300 mm2/s at 40°C) 63a: Complete ship shaft thrust block FAG BEHT..1....DRL.1 FAG BEHT.C3 1 x FAG 23140B.400 kW 1.. with FAG FKA94/600.MB 2 x FAG 294/600E...

. (SUB pot-shaped housing) FAG 88 .... (SGA plummer block housing) 64b: Complete ship shaft thrust block FAG BEHT.1.1.64a: Complete ship shaft thrust block FAG BEHT...200.DRL..DRL..200.

selves in the field or successfully stood dynamic testing This demands utmost sealing reliability.6) than in (high ageing stability). bearings for rope sheaves. for exam- and maintenance purposes. against moisture. reliability is priority number one when designing and Due to high temperatures in the area of the dryer roll. and design diversity based on the Lubrication can be improved considerably (increasing type of roll in question. the operating viscosity) by insulating the hollow jour- nals of the dryer rolls and thus reducing the bearing Lubrication also influences the bearing life greatly. Wet end section Dryer section Finishing group large extent of water high humidity ( environmental temperature < 50 °C ) ( environmental temperature > 100 °C ) Suction roll Spreader roll Guide roll Thermo roll Spreader roll Forming Spreader Anti-deflection roll DuoStabilizer Dryer Paper guide Anti-deflection roll roll roll roll roll roll Forming section Press section A modern paper machine 89 FAG .65–72 Paper Machines Modern paper machines are extensive plants which fre. dimensioning bearing locations: if trouble arises at just bearing lubrication is particularly critical. particularly on the FAG test rig FE8. A high degree of cleanli. spreader rolls. dryer rolls. anti-deflection rolls and with grease (lower environmental temperatures). guide end section of older paper machines are still lubricated rolls. roll bearings in modern paper machines are connected The following examples show the structure of some to an oil circulation system for operational reliability main bearing locations in the paper industry. Lightly doped mineral oils and synthetic oils are suitable nal life (index of dynamic stressing fL = 5. calender thermo rolls. All temperature.. In the dryer section. suction rolls. spread- quently stretch well beyond 100 m in length and have er rolls and sometimes guide rolls are still lubricated numerous rolls. press rolls. The bearings in the wet ple refiners. which correspond to the re- other industrial equipment. The demand for utmost operational with grease. quirements for dryer roll oils and have proven them- ness in the bearings is decisive for a long service life. reason the bearings are designed for a far longer nomi. For this oils of the viscosity class ISO VG 220 or 320 are used. Therefore one roll the whole plant has to be shut down..

Thus the locating bearing arrangement is made up The radial spherical roller bearing has oil circulation of two symmetrically arranged spherical roller thrust lubrication with 0. The bearing is mounted directly on the tapered shaft seat and fastened with a locknut HM3052. for locating and floating bearings. Bearing selection. supplied through the side of the bearing via the spacer A spherical roller bearing FAG 23052K. An attainable life Lhna = the outer side of the locating bearing a shaft sealing ring 162.MB is mount. The oil is outer rings. Excellent bearing lubrication is Sealing required due to slippage hazard when loads are low (P/C ≈ 0. vided for the spherical roller thrust bearings. housing (sliding fit). For the rollers to remain undis.600 h is calculated for the left wheel connected to one another and filled with grease locating bearing 29460E.02). dimensioning With the high axial loads which have to be accommo- dated. crushing) and can lead to increased oper. prevents oil escape.000 h results from the adjusted life calculation. Speed 600 min–1. both shaft and Temperature in locating bearing 80 °C. FAG 90 .2. The floating bearing reaches a nominal life Lh of well over 200.65 Refiners Wood chips from the wood chopper which have been The right locating bearing only has a slight axial load softened and steamed by water are broken down and (spring preload). tion. Taper angle tolerance AT7 (DIN 7178). machined according to k6 and G7 for the shaft sleeves and housing sleeves respectively. A second thrust bearing is necessary since the axial load acts mainly in the direction of the locating A lubricating oil ISO VG 150 with EP additives is used bearing but can also be acting in the opposite direc. sleeve. The attainable life Lhna is over crushed in the refiner by means of crushing wheels ro. Operating data Roundness tolerance IT5/2 (DIN ISO 1101). The oil shaft deflection. With oil circulation lubrica. tating in reverse motion with knife sections.000 hours is re. Oil jet lubrication is pro- bearings FAG 29460E. Lubrication quired. Tempera- tures up to 160 °C result from this process (steamed wood chips. Thermal length variations of the shaft is filtered in cirulation and cooled back to a tempera- are compensated for in between bearing outer ring and ture of 40 °C.8 l/min. Radial load (rotor/shaft) 15 kN per bearing. The bearing seats are bearing 70 °C. factor a23 is 3. There are two labyrinths on the side of the crushing A nominal life of Lh = 50. Bearing seat of housing bore according to G7. in floating housing washer are in sleeves. 200. Locating bearing: For mounting reasons. which protect the bearings from water and contamina- tion. This en- turbed when the axial load is "reversed" both bearings sures adequate oil constantly at the highly-stressed must be preloaded with springs (minimum load) at the contact areas between roller face and lip. good cleanliness and a bearing temperature of tion and prevent oil escaping from the bearings. On 70 °C. The minimum oil flow rate for both bearings is ed as a floating bearing and can easily accommodate 8 l/min (good heat dissipation from bearing). an attainable life Lhna ≥ 80.000 hours. Machining tolerances ating temperatures in bearings depending on their construction.000 h for this bearing. Floating bearing: The inner ring has circumferential load and is attached to the tapered bearing seat of the shaft. Axial load from crushing process 400 kN.

Floating bearing Locating bearing 65: Refiner bearings 91 FAG .

FAG spherical roller bearings FAG 239/850K. tion lubrication with a mineral oil quantity of 8 l/min. ic load rating as low as possible.2) is used. Some water is removed from the The attainable life reaches over 200. wire tension 5 kN/m. and water separation ability are also required. We recommend bearings with a dynam. An effec- Roll weight. Floating bearing Locating bearing 66: Suction roll bearings FAG 92 . tionary.800 mm. dimensioning Lubrication The diameter of the suction box is decisive for the size The spherical roller bearings are supplied by circula- of the bearing. tion 278 min–1 (speed 1. roll diameter 1. wire tension and rotational speed are the tive lubrication is achieved with an oil supply to the main criteria for dimensioning the bearings. Any oil which escapes is thrown off via splash grooves The hydraulic method is applied to facilitate mount. is sta. rota- angle tolerance AT7 (DIN 7178). as interior axle. in length which have several small holes all around The nominal life for both bearings is Lh > 100.600 mm. taper Roll length 7.C3 with tapered bore (K 1:12) and increased radial clear. They are hollow cylinders up to 10 m ring in the housing bore. Roundness tolerance IT5/2 (DIN ISO 1101). Additives with good anti-corrosive properties ing bearings are necessary as misalignment could arise. Sealing ance are used. Self-align. roll side a baffle plate and multiple grease-filled laby- The locating bearing provides axial guidance for the rinth with integrated V ring prevent water penetrating rolls while the floating bearing compensates for any from the outside. Machining tolerances The inner ring has circumferential load and is attached Operating data to the tapered bearing seat of the shaft.66 Suction rolls Suction rolls are found in the wire or press section of a length variations caused by displacement of the outer paper machine. (viscosity ratio ␬ > 2. The roll shell is driven by planet wheels in modern paper machines.400 m/min). outer ring.MB. centre of the bearing. into oil collecting chambers and directed back. their circumference. The suction box. the higher specific A mineral oil with sufficient viscosity and EP additives is bearing load reduces the danger of slippage.000 h when the web due to the rotating roll shell and the vacuum in. roll weight Housing bores according to G7 due to point load at the 270 kN. The bearings are mounted directly on the tapered shaft seats for running accuracy reasons. operating temperature is 60 °C and oil ISO VG 68 side the roll. Bearing selection. At the ing. factor a23 = 2.000 h. selected.

500 mm. The floating bearing at the operator's end permits tem. gap Lhna Ⰷ 100. Direct drive. dimensioning load at the outer ring. roll weight 750 kN.C3 is ing pockets and connecting holes. Locating bearing Floating bearing 67: Central press roll bearings 93 FAG . tect the bearings from environmental influences.MB. basic factor a23II = 3) and improved cleanli- against which one or more (suction) press rolls are ness (contamination factor V = 0. roll diameter 1. Self-aligning spherical roller bearings of the series 231 Lubrication or 232 with a very high load carrying capacity are cho. The locating Non-rubbing and maintenance free gap-type seals pro- bearing is at the drive end.67 Central press rolls The paper web runs through the press rolls on a felt The nominal life calculated is Lh > 100. The spherical roller bearings are supplied with a mini- sen due to the high radial load and the misalignment mum oil quantity of 7 l/min by circulation lubrication. Additives with good anti-corrosive since the height of the housing is restricted by the roll properties and water separation ability are also re- diameter. life calculation. 180° and 210°. speed of 308 min–1. Oil splash grooves in the roll journal prevent oil escap- perature-depending length variations of the roll by ing at the cover passage.800 mm. Pressure by 3 rolls to the tapered bearing seat of the shaft. bearing temperature about Roundness tolerance IT5/2 (DIN ISO 1101).000 h according to the adjusted rating ite/steel or steel with a protective coating. An effective lubrication is achieved with an oil the pressure rolls yield a resulting bearing load Fr = supply to the centre of the bearing. speed The inner ring has circumferential load and is attached 1. Operating data Machining tolerances Roll length 8. at 30°. shifting the outer ring in the housing. A low A mineral oil of sufficient viscosity (ISO VG 100) and cross section height is also important for these bearings EP additives is used. The roll weight and the load components of quired. made of gran. The bearings with tapered bore (taper 1:12) are pressed directly onto the Sealing tapered shaft seat by means of the hydraulic method. taper 60 °C. 300 kN. Housing bores according to G7 since there is point Bearing selection.000 h with a cloth and a large amount of water is pressed out of it. Oil returns to both sides of the bearing via oil collect- A spherical roller bearing FAG 231/600K. mounted at every bearing location.450 m/min. which is possible between the bearing locations. angle tolerance AT7 (DIN 7178). With good lubrication (viscosity Modern press sections consist of one central press roll ratio ␬ ≈ 3.5) in the lubricating pressed. The central press roll is solid.

FAG 94 . Lubrication decisively influences the adjusted rating life. A double-row The attainable life Lhna = a1 · a23 · Lh is therefore well self-aligning cylindrical roller bearing FAG over 250. Today. Self- ␬ = ␯/␯1 = 16/25 = 0. its thickness and speed. heating temperature 165 °C (7 bar). The high temperatures of roller bearing have the same dimensions unsplit PMD the heating steam transfer to the bearing seats stressing plummer block housings (FAG PMD3140AF or BF) the rolling bearings accordingly. Under an average operating Bearing selection temperature of 100°C the operating viscosity ␯ ≈ 16 mm2/s for a mineral oil with a nominal viscosity of The bearing load is calculated from the roll weight. 566487K.. Round- (260. tained for the spherical roller bearing. The spherical roller bear. the journals are applied both at the drive end and at the operator's through which the steam flows are insulated in order end.64.700 mm.1 is ob- alignment arising between both bearing locations. Due to increased operating temperature.340 microns).68 Dryer rolls The remaining water in the dryer section is evaporat. operator's end.330 erance AT7 (DIN 7178). and on Since the cylindrical roller bearing and the spherical the number of dryer rolls). A spherical roller bearing FAG 23140BK. bore according to G7.4 apply to the cylindri- sion series 31 is provided as floating bearing at the cal roller bearing. The paper runs over numerous heated dryer rolls mounted by the hydraulic method directly onto the guided by endless dryer wires (formerly dryer felts). The journals have perature difference of 50 K.C5 with the dimensions 200x340x112 mm is mounted. tapered journals. A double-row cylindrical roller bearing of the dimen- The values K = 0 and a23II = 1. roll leads to heat expansion which in turn leads to con- The viscosity ratio is then: siderable changes in length with such long rolls..000 h for both bearings.800 mm.C4 is mounted as locating bearing on the drive end. both bearings Operating data are given special heat treatment (isotemp) and are thus dimensionally stable up to 200 °C. environmental Bearing dimensioning temperature under the dryer section hood approx. taper angle tol- increased radial clearance according to C5 (275... insulated journal bores. Both bearings have a tapered bore (K 1:12) and are ed. the locating bearing with 83 kN the mean bearing diameter dm = (200 + 340)/2 = taking into account the drive force. The floating bearing is The rated viscosity is determined from the speed and loaded with 75 kN. aligning rolling bearings are necessary due to the mis- With the value K = 1 a basic factor a23II = 1. to keep bearing temperatures low. Machining tolerances Both bearings have about the same operating clearance in order to avoid any detrimental preload during the The inner rings have circumferential load and have a heating-up stage which may lead to a maximum tem.5 kN/m. It easily compensates for length varia- With normal cleanliness (cleanliness factor s = 1) the tions in the bearing between the rolls and the inner factor a23 = a23II · s ring raceway. felt 220 mm2/s (ISO VG 220). An attainable life Lhna ≥ 250. wrap angle 180°. spherical bearing's seating ring accommodates any 1. alignment inaccuracy of the journal.1 for the spherical roller bearing. Bearing seats in the housing microns).000 hours is required for dryer roll bearings.4 for the cylindrical roller bearing. tight fit on the tapered roll journal. The dryer rolls are steam heated (temperature depends on the type of paper. roll diameter 1. Heating the dryer 270 mm to ␯1 = 25 mm2/s. pull and temporary water fill. paper speed 1. 95 °C.400 m/min (rotational speed 248 min–1). oil ducts so the bearings can be mounted and dis- ing has an increased radial clearance according to C4 mounted by means of the hydraulic method. Felt pull 4. roll weight 90 kN. With its spherical sliding surface a plain 1. the cylindrical roller bearing an ness tolerance IT5/2 (DIN ISO 1101). Working width 5.MB.

dissipated from the bearing.6 Gap-tape seals. which are non-rubbing and mainte- l/min is guided directly to the centre of the bearing via nance-free. Locating bearing Floating bearing 68: Dryer roll bearings 95 FAG . good water separation ability and a high degree of cleanliness.Lubrication and leakage is minimized considerably. collecting chambers and flows back through return The oil can be carried off at both sides of the bearing holes to the two oil cavities on the housing floor. High-grade mineral oils ISO VG 220 or 320 are used which must have a high operating viscosity. The oil is thrown off via splash grooves and oil ring. good protection Sealing against wear. bearing are immediately washed out of it with this culation lubrication system so that heat is constantly method of lubrication. The danger of oil retention seals make the housing of the paper machine oil proof. Cover with the central oil system. A minimum oil quantity of 1. thermal stability. Any contami- nants or wear particles which might penetrate the The bearing housings are connected to a central oil cir. are provided as sealing for the journal pas- a lubricating groove and lubricating holes in the outer sages.

which are non-rubbing and mainte- Bearing selection. Spherical roller bearings FAG 22330EK. as the name indicates. Machining tolerances Wet end section Depending on the positions of the bearings in the ma. Due to different operating conditions higher with such good lubrication conditions. The attainable life is even lubrication. FAG 96 . The bearings in the wet end section must have relubri- alignment. The inner rings have circumferential load and are di- chine they are subject to a small or large degree of rectly fitted to the tapered roll journal. An increased radial clearance catable labyrinth seals to prevent water from penetrat- according to C3 is necessary due to temperature differ. For this reason the bearing inner rings are oil circulation lubrication. Lubrication In the dryer section: see example 68 (Dryer rolls) since the bearings are connected to the oil circuit of the Operating data dryer rolls. The same bearings are used for the P = (FG + Fz)/2 = (80 + 9)/2 = 44. and the dryer section with oil. however.9 l/min. depending on the place of application.5 kN guide rolls in both areas. Dryer section Environmental temperatures of about 95 °C lead to Bearing seats in the housing bore according to G7. taper angle tolerance AT7 (DIN 7178). prevent oil from escaping through the cov- er passages in the dryer section. Roll weight FG ≈ 80 kN Minimum flow rate 0. Roundness tolerance IT5/2 (DIN ISO 1101). separate oil circuits are necessary for the wet end and dryer sections. Cover seals mounted. dynamic stressing fL corresponding to a nominal life Lh In modern machines both sections have oil circulation of well over 200. ing. bending). As a result there is a high index of cated with grease. 105 °C Sealing Gap-type seals.000 hours. The housings can be in standing or suspended position The larger the machine the more often it is found to or can be laterally screwed on.800 mm In the wet end section: see example 66 (Suction rolls) Roll diameter 700 mm and 67 (Central press rolls). have oil ducts so the bearings can be mounted and dis- ticularly when machines are being high-pressure mounted with the hydraulic method.69 Guide rolls Guide rolls guide. Useful width 8. The operating temperature of the bearings can be 115 °C. mounted with a tapered bore directly on the tapered roll journal. Minimum flow rate 0. The bearings must be able to accommodate loads and compensate for misalignment at the same time (mis.C3 are collecting chambers and directed back. The roll journal moisture. Water must not penetrate the housing par. great length variations and place high demands on lubrication. dimensioning nance-free. Lubrication and sealing differ. Paper pull 1 kN/m (tensile load Fz ≈ 9 kN) Wrap angle 180° Bearing temperature approx. and turn the Bearing load: wire and felt cloth in the wet end and dryer sections of a paper machine.5 l/min. since the bearings are con- Paper speed 1. They are designed for be faster. cleaned. Remaining oil is thrown off by splash grooves into ences. The diameter of the roll journal is determined by the In older machines the wet end section is usually lubri. make the housing oilproof. roll rigidity required.650 m/min (n = 750 min–1) nected to the oil circuit of the wet section rolls.

Floating bearing Locating bearing 69: Guide roll bearings (dryer section) 97 FAG .

Useful width approx. the diameter of the roll journal and roll shell. With a lubricating oil ISO VG 220 the viscosity ratio is ␬ = 0. applied for mounting and dismounting the bearings. Bearing selection. Roundness tolerance IT5/2 (DIN ISO 1101). Soft calenders smooth and self-alignment are met by spherical roller bearings. which has stood dynamic test- ing on the FAG test rig FE8. P3. Any contaminants or wear particles are washed out of Taking the maximum load for designing the bearing the bearing. 224. P6 : 20 % each 220.70 Calender thermo rolls The paper passes through the so-called calender stack Requirements with respect to load carrying capacity after leaving the dryer section. P2 = FG + Fnip med = 990 kN Bearing seats in the housing boring according to F7.C4. P3 = FG + Fnip max = 1. a23II = Operating data 1. Oil returns at both sides of the bearing via would lead to overdimensioning (equivalent dynamic oil collecting pockets and connecting holes.02.71 under an operating temperature of 130 °C. load P < 0.. The cross section height of the bearing is limited by The calender consists of two pairs of rolls.. One calend. is achieved as well as a low thermal stress of the oil. another below relatively wide spherical roller bearings FAG one.100 m/min) the danger of detrimental radial preload in the bearing Heated by oil at 200.6). Remaining oil is thrown off by splash The risk of breaking through the lubricating film grooves into collecting chambers and directed back.02 · dynamic load rating C) in the case of application in the top roll.000 min–1 · mm we recommend bearings with increased running accuracy according to specification T52BW. Sealing age when lubrication is inadequate.MB. steam. on the weight rectly fitted on the tapered roll journal.250 °C during the heating up phase when the temperature Insulated roll journal difference is great.260 kN P4 = FG – Fnip min = 60 kN P5 = FG – Fnip med = 390 kN P6 = FG – Fnip max = 720 kN Lubrication Percentages of time: P1. depends on the type of paper. The er roll (steel) lies above a counter roll. 7 m The increased radial clearance C4 is required due to Rotation 350 min–1 (speed 1. P5. V = 0. The roll jour- FG and the variable pressure load with percentage of nals have oil ducts so that the hydraulic method can be time. An attainable life Lhna > 100. the surface of the paper thus improving its printability. dimensioning Machining tolerances The radial bearing load depends on the application of The inner rings have circumferential load and are di- the calender roll as lower or upper roll. drops with the smaller roller mass. The counter roll is the so-called anti-deflection 231/560AK. FAG 98 . Cover seals make the housing oilproof. With a speed index n · dm = Operating temperature at bearing inner ring 130 °C. taper P1 = FG + Fnip min = 600 kN angle tolerance AT7 (DIN 7178). s = 1. Soft calender rolls can be heated The nominal life Lh = 83. roll (elastic material). P4 : 10 % each Oil circulation lubrication with a synthetic oil ISO VG P2.T52BW are mounted. The sum of the roll weight and the nip load acts for By supplying a large amount of oil to the centre of the the application as bottom roll whereas their difference bearing (minimum flow rate 12 l/min) heat dissipation acts for the application as top roll.5. In order to avoid this problem.2. The gap or the "nip" pressure percentages of time.000 h with given loads and by water. the cover holes.000 h is obtained with the adjusted rating life calculation (where fs* > 12. Slippage may occur with such a low load which in turn can lead to bearing dam. suitable in quality. or oil. smaller bearings with a smaller dynamic Angle rings at the roll side prevent direct oil escape at load rating C should be selected so that P/C > 0.

Floating bearing Locating bearing 70: Calender thermo roll bearings 99 FAG .

a very good lubrication system must always pro- paper an even thickness. They support the roll shell hydrostatically and effect its adjustment. Due to the danger of slippage bearings of the series tion and in calenders. since running inaccuracy power is transmitted via gearing and the hypoid teeth of the rotating roll shell influences the quality of the coupling to the roll shell.T52BW the roll side a baffle plate provides for an oil reservoir (dynamic load rating C = 3. The outer rings have circumferential load and a tight fit.71 Anti-deflection rolls Anti-deflection rolls are found in both the press sec. dimensioning via a separate oil circuit. in the bearing area. The oil is fed laterally to the bearings via holes.025 mm. Floating bearing Locating bearing 71: Anti-deflection roll bearings FAG 100 . The deep groove ball bearings of the transmission ar- ranged at the locating bearing side are supplied with oil Bearing selection. The drive is at the locating bearing end. shell weight 210 kN.300 mm. To Spherical roller bearings FAG 23096MB. thickness across the web and a consistently high paper The bearings are produced with a reduced radial run- quality. The bearings are sealed externally with a shaft seal. The shell of the adjustment roll must adjust load for the inner rings. Control elements which can be pressure-balanced separately are provided on the Lubrication axle. and a rotating roll shell. vide a load-carrying lubricating film. to this form. A service life of > 100.000 h is required. paper web. The anti-deflection roll consists of a stationary axle the bearing seats in the housings are machined to P6. bearing temperature 55 °C. the lubricating oil is fed weight 610 kN. The bearings are supplied with the lubricating oil used for the hydraulic Operating data system (ISO VG 150 with EP additives). In new designs and Roll length 9.800 kN) are used. They provide for an even paper 239 with a low load rating should be selected. via lubricating holes in the inner ring directly to the circumferential velocity 1. Its out (specification T52BW). As a result the Machine tolerances mating roll is bent and the form of the roll shell Bearing seats on the axle according to f6 due to point changed. bearing contact areas.500 m/min (n = 470 min–1). roll diameter 1. The bearing Sealing only has a guidance function when in operation (with pressure and closed gap). pressure 700 kN. The adjustment roll is pressed against the mating roll (calender roll) under very high pressure. roll particularly with heated rolls. The roll shell is shaped like the When dynamic misalignment and/or slippage may bent mating roll by the changing pressure giving the occur.

consisting of 22 sections. Depending on shell it is given a tight fit with M6 tolerance and is se- the case of application – wet end section.72 Spreader rolls Paper webs transported in lengthwise direction tend to FAG 61936. provided for. 72 Spreader roll bearings 101 FAG .300 mm.C3 deep groove ball bearings are selected. bly reasons the sleeve is loosely fitted and axially at- tached with a screw. Due to the bent roll axle and for assem- rubber).000 hours. or subsequent processing – the sections are made of The inner ring has point load and is fitted to the shaft stainless steel or provided with a flexible coating (e. i. Spreader rolls consist of a stationary axle which is bent symmetric to its longitudinal axis. Lubrication weight/section plus wire or paper web pull at 30° wrap angle 2 kN/m. smooth running as well as a service life of up to five in the dryer section and in subsequent processing with years (8. no relubrication is results therefrom. dimensioning With rotating outer ring. the bearings creases and any middle or end parts of the web which have a nominal life Lh of well over 100. greases of class LG10 for the wet end sec- tion) are advantageous with high speeds and low loads. The increased radial clearance C3 permits easy adjust- rection the webs running over them. the smooth running required.5 kN per bearing The bearings are greased for life. sleeve with h6.g. extremely smooth running is required from the bearings since the sections in the wet Sealing end section and in the dryer section or subsequent pro- cessing are only driven by the wire tension and the Non-rubbing dust shields are used for sealing due to paper web respectively. dryer section. Spreader rolls stretch or expand in cross di. Low-friction infrared drying temperatures can reach 120 °C. The sections adjust to one another in such a way that the bending form of As the outer ring of the bearing rotates with the roll the axle is reflected on the shell surface. They are stuck to the High operational reliability is also necessary since the bearing outer ring on both sides so the base oil centri- failure of one bearing alone means that the whole fuged from the lubricating grease cannot escape. and around which the roll shell rotates. They flatten ment of the sections. cord seals also provide for oil tightness. bricating grease is determined by the demand for Operating temperature in the wet end section 40 °C. Operating data Roll length 8.160 min–1. Round spreader roll has to be dismounted. Tube-shaped sec- tions make up the roll shell and are arranged to rotate Machining tolerances freely and have angular freedom. Bearing selection. creasing. a radial load of just 0. greases (e. are loose. With the low load. The selection and filling quantity of lu- Rotation of roll shell 1. cured axially by a snap ring.g.000 operating hours per year).e.

The cups carry circumferential load FrB = Fr/2 – Ka · (D/2)/l = 4 – 1. The thrust load Ka = 1.9 = 2. radial load Fr = 8 kN. This value corresponds to a nominal rating life of more than 100.2. therefore.9 = 3. nation to DIN ISO 355: T2FB030): dynamic load rating C = 60 kN.6 + 0. The load carrying capacity of bearing B does not need to be checked since its loading is much less than that of bearing A. FAG 102 .4 · 6. The service life will probably be ter- minated by wear.1 Bearing selection For calculation of bearing A the following thrust load FaA must.9 = 1 and Speed n = 270 min–1.9/1. therefore.9 · 2. Radial loads acting on a shaft supported on two ta- pered roller bearings generate axial reaction loads which have to be considered in the calculation of the equivalent dynamic load. i.6 · 125/95 = 6. FAG rolling bearing grease Arcanol L186V. sealing with the external thrust loads should. As thrust load Ka acts at the wheel circumference. g. chapter "Tapered roller bearings"). the run wheel. the indicated dynamic load rating and Bearing dimensioning the speed factor fn = 0. the equivalent dynamic load PA of bear- spread than an X arrangement. it generates radial reaction forces at the bearing loca. FrB/Y = 1.1 kN The run wheel mounting is a so-called hub mounting.9/1.1 kN bearings FAG 30306A. the bearings are sealed by Thrust factor Y = YA = YB = 1. approximately one year.6 kN.9 kN and are thus tight-fitted. the hub bore to M6.9. considered by 20 % of the radial load: Ka = 1. The second condition proven is Ka > 0.1 + 1. Machining tolerances Bearing A: FrA = Fr/2 + Ka · (D/2)/l = 4 + 1. be tak- en into account for life calculation (see FAG catalogue The bearings and the free spaces have to be filled dur- WL 41 520. e.534 = 4. fL = C/PA · fn = 60/6. heavy contamination). spring steel seals (Nilos rings). be taken into account: Each run wheel is supported by two tapered roller FaA = Ka + 0. with the two cups.73 Run wheel of a material ropeway Operating data Thus.5 · 1. The grease filling will last for Data for tapered roller bearings FAG 30306A (desig. In the example shown. ing A is: the lower the additional bearing load from thrust load K a. Thrust consequently FrA/Y > FrB/Y loads as guidance loads only.5 · (FrA/Y – FrB/Y) = 0.97 tions.5 · FrA/Y = 1. especially under adverse operating conditions (high humidity. PA = 0.6 · 125/95 = 1. FrA/Y = 6.534 (n = 270 min–1) the index of dynamic stressing.1/1. rotates about a Bearing B: stationary shaft.45 kN With this load.4 · FrA + Y Fa = 0.5 (3. The wider the spread. These internal loads together Lubrication. ing mounting with grease. the bearing is adequately dimensioned with re- gard to fatigue life.000 hours. The shaft is machined to h6.2 – 1) = 1. Since this calculation is based on the most unfavourable load conditions. the thrust load acting constantly at its maximum and only in one di- rection.45 · 0. The bearings are assembled in O arrangement which provides for a wider bearing Consequently.6 kN acts toward bearing A.e.1 = 6.

Rope 73: Run wheel of a material ropeway 103 FAG .

station tensioning weight pit. The sheaves are fitted with spherical roller bearings FAG sleeve is locked to prevent it from rotating with the in- 22234E. with a The sleeve has a sliding fit on the shaft. dimensioning spacer ring. FAG 104 .3 meters.100 kN and a speed factor fn = 0. Sleeve to g6. hub bore to M6. ported by spherical roller bearings FAG 22240B. ner rings. a tight fit. holes in the shaft. To safeguard the spherical roller 2. sealing fL = C/P · fn = 1. corresponding to a speed of 60 min–1. the index of dynamic stressing: Lubrication. tection against contamination. The sheave diameters are therefore.100/65 · 0. bearings against detrimental axial preloading.MB.74 Rope return sheaves of a passenger ropeway In this example of a passenger ropeway.8 and 3.838 = 14. The outer rings are securely locked via the two covers by means of a Bearing selection. The sheaves at the mountain station are sup. Relubrication by means of lubricating dimensioned with regard to fatigue life. A shaft seal ring in the covers provides adequate pro- venient changing of the rope sheaves. eight sheaves Machining tolerances are installed at the mountain station and another eight at the valley station including the sheaves in the valley The outer rings carry circumferential load and require. The centre lip of sleeve H is slightly nar- rower than the spacer so that the sheave can float axial- The valley station sheaves and the tensioning weight ly on the sleeve via the loosely fitted inner rings.2. The one-piece sleeve carrying the bearings allows con. The load on the bearings FAG 22234E installed in the tensioning weight sheaves is P = 65 kN each. the de- sign is of the floating mounting type.838. Grease lubrication with FAG rolling bearing grease This shows that the bearings are more than adequately Arcanol L186V. dynamic load rating C = 1.

74: Rope return sheaves of a passenger ropeway 105 FAG .

rope sheave diameter dS = 6.4.14) = contamination. Arcanol L186V.. Spherical roller bearings FAG 23252BK.000 kN. For this purpose the withdrawal sleeves fea- ture oil grooves and ducts. The rope fastened to the cage runs from the drive 4. usually their service life is terminated by wear. wrap angle 140°.5/0. Mounting Sheave and and dismounting is simplified by using the hydraulic shaft 75 kN method. FAG 106 .000 hours. the nominal rating life is about sheave or the drum of the hoist into the mine by pass..MB with a Acceleration forces are taken into account by assuming dynamic load rating C = 2. Replenishment of labyrinth grease is 60 min–1. The spherical roller bear- ings are supported by FAG plummer block housings FS3252AHF and FS3252AHL. It should be borne in mind that only in ing over the rope sheaves. weight of rope sheave and shaft 75 kN. A multiple labyrinth protects the bearings against Speed n = v · 60/(dS · π) = 20 · 60/(6. Bearing selection.5. haulage C = fL/fn · P = 4. the other one Additional load 10 % as the floating bearing. They are mounted on the shaft journal 1000 kN Additional load 10 % with withdrawal sleeves (FAG AH2352H)..838 · 500 = 2.3 · 3.75 Rope sheave (underground mining) These sheaves are arranged in the head frames of the The recommended index of dynamic stressing fL is pits.3 m. rare cases the rope sheave bearings fail due to material fatigue. sealing approximately 1. Both bearings have a tapered bore (K 1:12).680 kN speed v = 20 m/s. cylindricity tolerance IT5/2 (DIN ISO 1101)..5. the radial load per bearing is Grease lubrication with FAG rolling bearing grease P = 500 kN. effected about every 4. Shaft journal to h6. The bearings feature a high load carrying capacity and compensate for potential housing misalignments. 10 % of the static rope load. Since the two bearings are symmetrically arranged. dimensioning From the parallelogram of forces the resultant load is Lubrication. Housing to H7. this yields a speed factor fn = 0.6 weeks.900 kN were chosen. the required dynamic load rating C for the spher- ical roller bearing is calculated as follows: Static rope load 452 kN. shaft deflections and deformations of the head frame. 75. With 4. Operating data Thus. Machining tolerances 452 kN 452 kN One bearing acts as the locating bearing.838.

Locating bearing Floating bearing 75: Rope sheave (underground mining) 107 FAG .

76 Rope sheave of a pulley block
In pulley blocks it is customary to arrange several Lubrication, sealing
sheaves on a common shaft. To achieve minimum
overall pulley block width, the sheaves and their bear- The sheave bearings are lubricated with lithium soap
ings should, therefore, be as compact as possible. base grease of penetration class 3 (Arcanol L71V). High
loads (load ratio P/C > 0.15) require a lithium soap
base grease of penetration class 2 and EP-additives
(Arcanol L186V). One grease filling normally lasts for
Bearing selection
several years.
For the rope sheaves of pulley blocks the wrap angle is The rope sheave in this example is sealed by spring
180°. Thus the radial load on the bearing is twice the steel seals (Nilos rings).
rope pull. Thrust loads, resulting from a possible in-
clined rope pull, and the moments caused by them are
low and can be neglected for bearing life calculation.
Adequate bearing spread for load accommodation is
achieved by mounting either two bearings or one
double-row bearing. Deep groove ball bearings are
satisfactory for accommodating the loads in this appli-
The bearings are mounted on a sleeve, forming a
ready-to-mount unit with the sheave which can be
easily replaced.

Operating data and bearing dimensioning

Rope pull S 40 kN
Bearing load
F=2·S 80 kN
Speed n 30 min–1
Speed factor fn 1.04
Bearings mounted 2 deep groove ball bearings
FAG 6220
Dynamic load rating C = 2 x 122 kN
Equivalent dynamic load P = F/2 = 40 kN
Index of dynamic stressing fL = C/P · fn
= 122/40 · 1.04 = 3.17
Nominal rating life Lh = 16,000 h

Usually, an index of dynamic stressing fL = 2.5...3.5 is
used for rope sheaves. This corresponds to a nominal
rating life of 8,000 to 20,000 hours.
Thus the bearings are adequately dimensioned com-
pared with established field applications.

Machining tolerances

The mounting is a so-called hub mounting, i.e. the
pulley, with the outer rings, rotates about a stationary
shaft. The outer rings carry circumferential load and are
press-fitted: hub to M7.
The inner rings carry point load allowing a loose fit or
sliding fit: shaft sleeve to g6 or h6. 76: Rope pulleys with deep groove ball bearings

FAG 108

77–78 Gantry of a floating crane
Floating cranes are used in harbours for transportation
of heavy and bulky goods, in shipyards for repair work
and for ship outfitting. Due to their mobility they are
an ideal complement to stationary cranes.

The pillar of the crane described is attached to the
ship. The slewing gantry with the crane superstructure
is supported on the crane pillar. The bearing mounting Gantry
has to take up the weight of the superstructure and the
Crane pillar bearing
payload. Since the common centre of gravity of pay-
Crane pillar
load and gantry is outside the pillar axis, a tilting mo-
Roller track assembly
ment is produced causing horizontal reaction forces in
the bearings at the upper and lower pillar end.

At the upper pillar end the gantry runs on the so-called
pillar bearing mounting. It consists either of one single
spherical roller thrust bearing or one spherical roller
bearing combined with one spherical roller thrust At the pillar foot the gantry is supported on a roller-
bearing, depending on the amount of radial loading. track assembly (see example no. 79).

109 FAG

77 Crane pillar mounting with a spherical roller thrust bearing
Operating data The index of static stressing
fs = C0/P0 = 58,500/13,800 = 4.24
Thrust load (crane superstructure and payload) Fa =
6,200 kN; radial load (reaction forces resulting from Thus, the requirement fs ≥ 4 for spherical roller thrust
tilting moment and wind pressure) Fr = 2,800 kN; bearings (FAG catalogue WL 41 520) whose housing
speed n = 1 min–1. and shaft washers – as in this example – are fully sup-
ported is met.
Bearing selection, dimensioning
With fs values ≥ 4...≤ 6 the shaft washer and the hous-
The thrust load, consisting of the weight of the slew- ing washer must be fully supported axially, and good
ing superstructure and the payload, is much higher radial support of the housing washer must also be pro-
than the radial load resulting from the tilting moment vided.
and wind pressure. Therefore, the crane pillar bearing
must have a high thrust load carrying capacity. More-
over, the bearing must be self-aligning to compensate
for misalignment and elastic deformation unavoidable Machining tolerances
on these crane structures. Due to the low speed of
1 min–1 the bearing is chosen with regard to its static Shaft washer to j6; housing washer to K7
load carrying capacity.
A spherical roller thrust bearing FAG 294/630E.MB
with a static load rating of C0 = 58,500 kN; factor X0 =
2.7 is selected. Lubrication, sealing

For spherical roller thrust bearings under combined Oil bath lubrication, with the rollers fully immersed in
load the ratio Fr/Fa must be small in order to ensure oil. The oil level should be maintained to the upper
that most of the rollers transmit loads. Condition: edge of the shaft washer and is controlled by means of
Fr/Fa ≤ 0.55. an oil level indicator.
In this example
Due to adverse ambient conditions existing for float-
Fr/Fa = 2,800/6,200 = 0.45 ing crane applications, high-efficiency seals must be
Thus the equivalent static load provided (oil-filled labyrinths). The inner and the
outer labyrinth are interconnectd by oil holes. The oil
P0 = Fa + X0 · Fr = Fa + 2.7 · Fr level in the labyrinths is also checked with an oil level
= 6,200 + 2.7 · 2,800 = 13,800 kN indicator.

77: Crane pillar mounting with a spherical roller thrust bearing

FAG 110

78 Crane pillar mounting with a spherical roller thrust bearing
and a spherical roller bearing
Operating data Equivalent static load:
P0 = Fa + X0 · Fr = Fa + 2.7 · Fr for Fr ≤ 0.55 Fa
Thrust load (crane superstructure and payload) Fa =
= 1,700 + 2.7 · 150 = 2,100 kN
1,700 kN; radial load (reaction forces resulting from
tilting moment and wind pressure) Fr = 1,070 kN; For the spherical roller bearing:
speed n = 1 min–1. P0 = Fr = 1,070 kN
Hence the indices of static stressing fs = C0 / P0 are:
Bearing selection, dimensioning Spherical roller thrust bearing = 8,500 / 2,100 = 4.05
Spherical roller bearing = 3,000 / 1,070 = 2.8
In this case Fr/Fa > 0.55. The radial load is relatively These values show that the bearings are safely dimen-
high. Therefore, it is accommodated by an additional sioned.
radial bearing, a spherical roller bearing. The two bear- The shaft washer and housing washer of spherical roll-
ings are mounted so that their pivoting centres coin- er thrust bearings with fs values of ≥ 4...≤ 6 must be
cide. Thus angular alignability is ensured. A thrust fully supported axially; good radial support of the
washer inserted between the two bearings prevents ex- housing washer is also required.
cessive radial loading on the thrust bearing. The spheri-
cal roller bearing size depends on that of the spherical
Machining tolerances
roller thrust bearing. The outside diameter of the
radial bearing must be larger than the housing washer
Spherical roller thrust bearing:
of the thrust bearing. To ensure close guidance of the
Shaft washer to j6,
crane superstructure, the reduced radial clearance C2 is
housing washer to K7
provided for the radial bearing.
Spherical roller bearing:
Crane pillar mountings with one spherical roller bear-
shaft to j6; housing to J7
ing and one spherical roller thrust bearing provide
compact designs. They require, however, a wider
mounting space than mountings with one single Lubrication, sealing
spherical roller thrust bearing.
The mounting features a spherical roller thrust bearing The bearing housing is filled with oil beyond the upper
FAG 29440E with the static load rating C0 = 8,500 kN edge of the spherical roller bearing, i.e. the bearings
and a spherical roller bearing FAG 23056B.MB.C2 run in an oil bath. Thus they are well protected against
with the static load rating C0 = 3,000 kN. condensation water and corrosion.
For calculating the equivalent static load for the spheri- Outer sealing is provided by labyrinths. In view of the
cal roller thrust bearing it is assumed that the friction adverse ambient conditions an additional, rubbing seal
at the thrust washer, acting as a radial load, is 150 kN. with elastic lip is provided. Inner sealing is effected by
Thus Fr/Fa < 0.55 for the spherical roller thrust bear- the tube communicating with the housing, and a laby-
ing. rinth.

Thrust washer

78: Crane pillar mounting with a spherical roller thrust bearing and a spherical roller bearing

111 FAG

self-aligning bearings have to cation is possible through lubricating nipples in the be provided. each bearing is loaded with P0 = 1. 79: Roller-track assembly FAG 112 . dimensioning Lubrication.48 normally of several rollers travelling on a circular track. inner static load rating C0 = 1. Bearing selection. sealing by a shaft seal ring.100 kN. A flinger ring between roll- With an equivalent static load P0 = 1.100 kN an index er and lower bearing additionally protects the lower of static stressing shaft seal ring against dirt and rubbed-off particles. Spherical roller bearings FAG 23230ES. is calculated. the upper bearing being the locating bearing.100 = 1.TVPB with Outer sealing is provided by the housing cover. Shaft to k6. tightly. ity with a lithium soap base grease with EP additives ment conditions inherent in structural steelwork and (FAG rolling bearing grease Arcanol L186V). the lower one This value meets the requirements for smooth running the floating bearing. of the bearing. sealing The rollers transmit only the horizontal loads resulting The bearings and housing cavities are packed to capac- from the tilting moment.630 kN are mounted.630 / 1. Machining tolerances Operating data The inner rings carry circumferential load and are fitted The maximum load on one roller is 2.79 Roller track assembly The radial bearing mounting at the pillar foot consists fs = C0/P0 = 1. housing to H7.200 kN. Relubri- for wheel axle deflection. To cater for the misalign. Each of these rollers is supported by two bearings. housing cover. Thus.

and axial and radial reaction loads 113 FAG . and the payload.Crane run wheels Bearings in crane run wheels have to accommodate the resulting from the axial guiding loads between wheel heavy loads resulting from the deadweight of the crane flange and rail.

the Lubrication. bearing centres l = 186 mm. this standard specifies the thrust resulting from friction between wheel and rail to be 10 % of the radial load.885 = 2.1 R With the radial factor X = 1 and e = 0. satisfactory. thus providing for a slide fit for the inner within reasonable limits.84. wheel diameter d1 = 630 mm.3.2 · 0.1 R Pmin and Pmax.1 R PII = 90 – 30. are tight fits. The run wheel rotates.2 kN With the dynamic load rating C = 360 kN and the speed factor fn = 0.1 · R · d1 / (2 · l)] + Y · 0. operating speed The weight of the crane and the maximum payload are n = 50 min–1. The hub is machined to M7.5.80 Crane run wheel Operating data Bearing dimensioning Wheel load R = 180 kN. The bearing loads PI (bear- 0. 15 071. Spherical roller bearings are used because of their very high load carrying capacity. It is a floating bearing arrangement.1 · R 0.6 kN = Pmin Assuming that the bearing loads vary linearly between 0. sealing inner rings being displaceable on the sleeve.. Thus PI = 90 + 18 · 630/372 = 120. known. FAG 114 . which carry circumferential should not be too small in order to keep the bearing load. The equivalent dynamic load P acting on the bearings is calculated in accor- dance with DIN 15 071. quately dimensioned. about a stationary shaft. together with wheels fL = 2.1 R ing I) and PII (bearing II) are: PI = X · [R/2 + 0. the bearing mounting is ade- the bearing outer rings. since Arcanol L186V). only be estimated. This grease with EP additives (FAG rolling bearing grease arrangement allows optimum bearing loading. This prevents detrimental axial preloading and This bearing arrangement is standardized by DIN simplifies bearing mounting and dismounting. rings. The relubrication interval is approxi- the bearing which accommodates the additional thrust mately one year.6 + 241)/3 = 117.72 The bearings fitted in run wheels are often designed as With the generally recommended value for crane run hub mountings. The thrust acting between wheel and rail can.5 kN = Pmax 0. either the left-hand or The bearings are lubricated with a lithium soap base the right-hand bearing abuts the sleeve collar.5.24 for Fa/Fr ≤ e the thrust factor Y = 2. Depend- ing on the thrust load direction.885 (n = 50 min–1) the index of dynamic stressing Bearing selection fL = C/P · fn = 360/117.84 · 18 = 110.1 · R · d1 / (2 · l)] PII = X · [R/2 – 0. loads is relieved of radial load due to the tilting Gap-type seals or simple rubbing seals are in most cases moment from the thrust load.. The distance between the two bearings The bearing outer rings.5 + 2. however. P = (Pmin + 2 · Pmax)/3 = (110. The two spherical roller bearings run on a sleeve to allow for rapid replacement of the complete run wheel unit. Machining tolerances The bearings fitted are two spherical roller bearings FAG 22220E. the reaction loads resulting from the wheel-rail contact sleeve to g6.

80: Crane run wheel with spherical roller bearings 115 FAG .

Bearing selection.100 = 0. sealing The bearing assembly is packed to capacity with lithium soap base grease with EP additives (FAG rolling bearing grease Arcanol L186V). Machining tolerances The bearing seats are machined to j6 (washer) and to H7 (housing). Above the crane hook nut a sheet steel cap is provided which protects the bearing against contamination. 81: Crane hook mounting FAG 116 .93. Lubrication. The load carrying capacity of the bearing is based on its static load rating. However. Maintenance of the bearing is not required. permanent deformation occurs at maximum load.000 kN plus a safety margin of 10 %. Based on the maximum hook load of 1.81 Crane hook The load suspended from a crane hook often has to be swivelled before being lowered. A thrust ball bearing FAG 51152FP with a static load rating C0 = 1. the load is pure thrust. the index of static stressing fs = C0/P0 = 1. This prevents the shaft washer from separating when the crane hook is set on the ground. e. loose radial guidance of the shaft in the crosshead is satisfactory.020 / 1. Therefore. i. dimensioning Since the weight of the payload acts vertically down- ward.020 kN is mounted. The bearing is adjusted against the collar at the hook shaft by means of a locknut.. Therefore. it is so small that it does not interfere with the swivelling of the load. the hooks of heavy-duty cranes are designed for these swivelling motions.

The mast guide rollers feature thick-walled outer The inner rings of der mast guide rollers and return rings and can. The outer ring profile is dictated by Mast guide rollers (HMFR) and chain sheaves (KR) of the pull chain used. thrust loads and the moments resulting from these.75 are preferably used for fork carrier and lifting frame. lateral guidance is provided by the modern fork lift trucks are largely fitted with double. They can accommodate radi- Machining tolerances al loads. Mast guide rollers Chain return sheaves are axially locked. two lips. The distance between the two ball rows. provides for a wide spread so that the return sheaves can also accommodate tilting forces and axial guiding forces.or double-lip RSR seals. Sealing is provided by single. thus a loose fit is satisfactory. sheaves carry point load. The pin is machined to j6. bearing design Roller mounting is simple. and serve to deflect the pull chain. Bearing selection. the handle the live loads efficiently. axial preloading by a screw is not required.82 Mast guidance bearings of a fork lift truck The fork lift carriage must run smoothly in order to Due to their relatively thick-walled outer ring. they are simply placed on the pin. The profile and dimensions of the outer ring are large- ly dictated by the standardized U-beam dimensions. FAG HMFR30x75x20. fork and live load. gether with the contact angle. shock-type loads. Mast guide roller Chain sheave 82: Mast guide roller and chain return sheave for a fork lift truck 117 FAG . to- row angular contact ball bearings. Lubrication. including sheaves. sealing Chain sheaves Chain sheaves FAG KR30x75x28/27 are attached to The bearings are lubricated for life with a lithium soap the hydraulically actuated upper section of the mast base grease (EP additives). therefore. accommodate even high. This requirement is bearings can accommodate high radial loads made up satisfied by mast guide rollers and chain return of the deadweight of the fork lift carriage.

000 h). These influences are taken into account in the adjusted rating life calculation by the factor a23. Often the bearing life is limited this application. the other one as the floating bearing.83 Head pulley of a belt conveyor One head pulley is not sufficient for very long belts. They are fitted on the shaft with adapter sleeves FAG H3264HG. Spherical roller bearings FAG The housing covers and rings on the shaft form non- 23264K. dimensioning Grease lubrication with a lithium soap base grease of The shaft of the head pulley is supported on plummer penetration class 2 with EP additives (FAG rolling bear- blocks. In very dusty environ- locating bearing. FAG 118 . pulley diameter 1. The shaft diameter is dictated by strength con.500 m3/h. Lubrication. Machining tolerances The bearing inner rings carry circumferential load. housing bore to H7. Power consumption 3 x 430 kW. Three identical driving motors are used: ally shorter than the nominal rating life (approx.300 mm. the first pulley is driven from both ends. In such are adequately dimensioned compared to field-proven cases several head pulleys are mounted in tandem. These multiple labyrinths are block housings FAG BND3264K are made of cast filled with the same grease as the bearings and prevent steel GS-45. With an index of dynamic stressing fL ≈ 4 the bearings steeply inclined belts or heavily loaded belts. siderations. In bearing arrangements.MB are mounted. reduce wear. belt width 2. To simplify mounting and dismounting hydraulic Grease is injected into the bearing until some of the sleeves are used.730 mm. conveying capacity 7. One of the plummer blocks acts as the penetration of foreign matter.2 m/s. ing fL. belt speed 5. thus in- creasing the bearing life. ing grease Arcanol L135V or L186V). and a suitable lubricant. the second 50. thus determining the bearing bore and housing size. two head pulleys are arranged at the by wear on rolling elements and raceways and is gener- drive station. calculated with the index of dynamic stress- one from one end only. ments relubrication at short intervals is required. The one-piece plummer rubbing labyrinth seals. sealing Bearing selection. Improved cleanliness during mounting and op- eration. spent grease escapes from the labyrinths. Operating data Shaft to h8 and cylindricity tolerance (DIN ISO 1101) IT5/2.

83: Head pulley bearing arrangement of a belt conveyor 119 FAG .

To supply the bearings with fresh rating C/the required bore diameter. relubrication is dynamic stressing fL > 4. an FAG tight fit in the pulley bore. of dirt) via the stationary shaft.MB with an adapter sleeve FAG H3276HGJ is used as locating bearing and an FAG 23276B. The bearings are integrated than the nominal rating life determined on the basis of into the pulley so that the pulley body revolves about the fL value. These influ- ences are taken into account in the adjusted rating life Belt width 3. dance with DIN ISO 281. pulley load 1. Both cylindrical roller bearings grease of penetration 2 with EP additives (FAG rolling have the main dimensions 360 x 680 x 240 mm and bearing grease Arcanol L186V).MB with an adapter sleeve FAG External sealing of the bearings is provided by non- H3276HGJ. a) or in two cylindrical roller bear- ings (fig. the floating bearing is an FAG 547400A and the locating bearing The bearings are lubricated with a lithium soap base an FAG 544975A. It is used for example to compare the effects of different lubricants. These pulleys are supported either in two spherical roller bearings (fig. are interchangeable with spherical roller bearings FAG 23276BK. With an index of grease and to increase the sealing effect. Often. The internal design of the cylindrical roll- Machining tolerances er bearings allows the rolling elements to accommodate load-related shaft deflections without edge running. the actual bearing life is considerably shorter ted with internal bearings. The fatigue life calculated for pulley bearings with this method in Bearing selection. b). 23276BK. pulley diame. sealing In a cylindrical roller bearing arrangement. In view of the circumferential load and the relatively high amount of load the outer rings must be a very In a spherical roller bearing arrangement. effected at short intervals (depending on the amount mensioned with regard to fatigue life. belt speed 6 m/s. dimensioning most cases is not equivalent to the attainable life as the service life is mainly limited by wear. Lubrication.MB is used as floating bearing. Tolerances. ing elements as a result of adverse ambient conditions. In both cases the labyrinths are filled with the same grease The bearings must feature the required dynamic load as the bearings. The cause is wear in raceways and on roll- the stationary shaft. floating bearing Pulley bore N7 IT5/2 FAG 120 . rubbing labyrinth seals or multi-collar rubbing seals.650 kN. calculation and in the modified life calculation in accor- ter 1. Machining tolerances Bearing Seat Diameter tolerance Cylindricity tolerance Spherical roller bearing Shaft h8 IT5/2 as locating bearing Pulley bore M7 IT5/2 Spherical roller bearing Shaft g6 IT5/2 as floating bearing Pulley bore M7 IT5/2 Cylindrical roller bearing Shaft g6 IT5/2 locating bearing. the bearings are sufficiently di.000 mm.84 Internal bearings for the tension/ take-up pulley of a belt conveyor Non-driven pulleys in belt conveyors are frequently fit. Improved cleanliness during mounting and in opera- tion as well as the utilization of a suitable lubricant Operating data have a positive effect on the bearing life. see table below.000 mm.

a b 84: Internal bearings for the tension / take-up pulley of a belt conveyor 121 FAG .

137 + 9.500 + 35) = 3. the two outer idlers are ar. This allows a simple and economical idler design.81 m/s2.200 mm.000 = 530 min–1 three idlers per station.3. Consequently. are preferably Deep groove ball bearings FAG 6204. idler diame- ter d = 108 mm.137 N 3. rating C of a bearing Since a belt conveying plant requires a large number of C = fL · P/fn = 3 · 1. Load per idler station: weight per roller GR = 6 kg.1 kN Equivalent dynamic bearing load: Bearing selection P = Fr = FR/2 = 1.e. i.6 · 3 For a trough angle of 30° the horizontal centre idler takes up approximately 65 % of this load. the required dynamic load stationary shaft. The conveyors run on idlers and may extend over many miles. idler garlands linked to each other by flexible joints. With fL = 3.65 · F + g · GR = 0.6I · v + G ) = F = g · lR · m G = 9. thus the number of idlers Small belt conveyor systems feature idlers rigidly needed may be very large. The usual index of dynamic stressing for idler bearings ments (hub mountings). Large belt conveyor systems feature mounting design is dictated by cost-saving considera. between two idler stations lR = 1. belt speed v = 3 m/s.. dead..81 · 6 = = 2.C3 having used.65 · 3. distance For ball bearings.500 t/h. ( 3. Design: troughed belt with Idler speed n = v · 60 · 1.Belt conveyor idlers Many industries use belt conveyors for transporting Idler arrangement bulk materials.4 = 7. the idler rotates about a fL = 2. a b c 85a. Thus the load on the centre idler is FR = 0.05 kN Idler mountings are usually internal bearing arrange. tions. which are produced in large quantities at low cost.. belt weight GG = 35 kg/m.5. 85 Rigid idlers Operating data Bearing dimensioning Capacity Im = 2.88 kN roller bearings. the speed factor fn = 0.81 · 1. a dynamic load rating C = 12..100 N = 2. deep groove ball bearings.c: Idler sealing variations FAG 122 .7 kN are mounted. bearing linked to a frame.2 · ( 2. d·π ranged at an angle of 30° to the horizontal.05/0.4.5. accel- eration due to gravity g = 9.2ZR.

Fig. is lowered and can be replaced relatively easily if neces- As the bearings in belt conveyor systems fail as a result sary. The deep groove ball bearings (design .2ZR.2ZR) are sealed cient for the entire bearing service life. Increased cleanli. shaft to h6 or js6. As the These idlers are part of a conveying installation for inner rings are subjected to point load the shaft is ma. New idler bearings feature utmost cleanliness (V = Idler garlands accommodate impacts elastically. sealing and maintenance The deep groove ball bearings FAG 6209. ing selected is decisive. the service life of a bearing is not terminated In addition to the rigidly troughed belt conveyors the by fatigue but by wear in raceways and on rolling ele. at the manufacturing plant. 86: Idlers connected by chain link 123 FAG . These joints may consist of a wire the bearing life. the idler shaft in a floating bearing arrangement. both the attainable life and the lu. The second. a lithium soap base grease of pene- With idler bearings. Figs. into the idler end with an M7 interference fit. The ajdusted rating life calculation is rope. 86 shows idler garlands connected by chain links. round chain). sealing. 86 Idler garland Generally. of wear. 85c shows an idler seal for brown coal open pit mining.3). the values obtained by the adjusted rating life calculation (Lhna) usually are not equivalent to the actu- ally attainable lives. Machining tolerances The two deep groove ball bearings are mounted onto Fig. garland type belt conveyors are being increasingly ments as a result of contamination. maintenance packed. Such a grease is by dust shields on both sides and filled with FAG roll- also used for the sealing. a chain link (flat chain. ing bearing grease. used. 85a and b) are used for clean envi. A grease chamber with a non-rubbing laby- grease contamination during operation so that the seal. tration class 2. ronments. 85a..C3. with a lithium soap base grease of penetration class 2 which is suffi. similar. hinge or used for comparing different seal designs. coarse particles. rock phosphate.2ZR. Machining tolerances Idler ends to M7. in the 0. A baffle plate protects the bearing against Simple seals (figs.C3 are Lubrication.c show various types adjacent chamber is closed by a shield pressed into the of sealing for belt conveyor idlers. Lubrication. hub bore. However. The bearings fitted are deep groove chined to h6 or js6. circumferential load and are pressed. The outer rings are subjected to ball bearings FAG 6303. therefore. in the course of operation the lubricant event of problems with a roller the individual garland gets heavily contaminated by particles (V = 3). The idlers of each station are linked to each other ness during mounting and efficient sealings increase by flexible joints.. rinth seal is provided at the outboard end. The grease filling suffices for idler ser- bricant service life may be considerably reduced by vice life.

220 x 170/100 mm on this side as well. 87: Bucket wheel mounting FAG 124 . The labyrinths at the spherical roller bearings can after dismounting the spherical roller bearing first. only hydraulically fastened to the shaft (machined to h8) by self-aligning roller bearings are suitable for supporting means of withdrawal sleeves FAG AH39/900H. The radial clear- ance of the spherical roller bearings is eliminated dur. bucket wheel speed 3 min–1. For this reason. Operating data Each bearing accommodates axial guiding loads in only one direction.000 m3 / day. theoretical conveying capac.MB are misalignments must be expected. Ther- seats are toleranced to H7. sions 1. shaft deflections and The spherical roller bearings FAG 239/900K. Bearing selection Machining tolerances The bearings of the bucket wheel shaft are subjected to All inner rings are subjected to circumferential load. to the shaft by means of separate locking rings. spherical roller bearings split cylindrical roller bearings sit directly on the shaft FAG 239/900K. Moreover. be relubricated. calculated nominal rating life of all bearings is over 75. The inner ring halves are attached Input power 3 x 735 kW. It is supported in the boom ends. The increased axial clearance of the two cylindri- cal roller bearings yields a floating bearing arrangement. the bull gear and the transmission using a split FAG cylindrical roller bearing of dimen- housing. The the shaft. The bucket wheel shaft carries have to be removed from the boom. Lubrication. sealing ing mounting by pressing in the withdrawal sleeves. wheel side of the transmission box due to the solid The split cylindrical roller bearings are supplied by the forged shaft flange to which the bull gear is attached. The ity 130. Only a split bearing can be provided on the bucket The spherical roller bearings are oil-bath lubricated.MB with withdrawal sleeves FAG which is machined to m6 in this place. This is avoided by the bucket wheel. an unsplit bearing were to be provided on the opposite The sealing is a combination of labyrinth and rubbing side of the transmission box it could only be replaced seal.000 x 1. high shock-type loads.000 hours. All outer ring AH39/900H are mounted as locating bearings.87 Bucket wheel shaft of a bucket wheel excavator Bucket wheel excavators are mainly used for brown For this purpose the entire bucket wheel shaft would coal open pit mining. At both shaft ends. If draining oil from gearwheel lubrication. mal length variations of the shaft are compensated for by the elastic surrounding structure.

fitted with two rubbing seals (shaft seals dredging depth approximately 14 m. Operating data The bottom sprocket is constantly immersed in water. with two bottom sprocket approximately 250 kN.88 Bottom sprocket of a bucket chain dredger Bucket chain dredgers perform dredging work in shaft call for self-aligning bearings. the bearings are not nipped axially. housing to J7. sealing The grease in the bearing (FAG rolling bearing grease Arcanol L186V) is renewed at intervals of 1 1/2 to 2 years coinciding with the general overhaul period of the dredger. Machining tolerances Circumferential load on the inner ring. maximum is. in addition. The shaft seals run on a bush of seawater-resistant material.MB. Shaft journal to m6. This requires waterproof sealing. Each bearing location Ladder length 32 m. However. the housing being mounted with clearance in its ladder yoke seat. therefore. 88: Bottom sprocket of a bucket chain dredger 125 FAG . Grease is regu- Rugged operation and unvoidable misalignment larly pumped into the labyrinth between the shaft seals between the housings at both ends of the sprocket and packing rings. The buckets are carried by a continuous are spherical roller bearings FAG 22240B. For easier bearing dismounting the shaft journal is provided with oilways and grooves for hy- draulic dismounting. bearings. Lubrication. number of buckets 44. Both chain from the bottom sprocket to the top sprocket bottom sprocket shaft bearings are designed as locating over a large number of support rolls and back. packing rings (stuffing box). radial load on with bronze garter spring) and. The stuffing box Bearing selection can be retightened by means of a cover. The bearings used waterways.

89: Drive unit of a finished goods elevator FAG 126 .2 min–1. the bearing at the Operating data opposite end is the floating bearing. Selecting split spherical roller bearings FAG 222SM125T ensures that the heavy drive unit with Shaft to h6. sealing would be with one-piece bearings. a split spherical roller bearing was The bearings are lubricated with grease. Split spherical roll- er bearings FAG 222SM125T are designed in such a Input power 22 kW.. for example. the torque arm does not have to be dismounted in the housing to H7 event of repair. continuous relubrication is ensured. The drive-end bearing is mounted with two locating rings and acts as the locating bearing. outer ring and cage with roller set are split The shaft openings on both sides of the housing are into halves. conveyed in buckets attached to a chain. the downtimes of the plant and the cost of production loss are considerably lower than they Lubrication.. The chain is Both outer ring halves are fitted together without a gap driven by the tumbler situated at the upper end. The housings provided at the free shaft end as well.h9. radial bearing way that they can be mounted into split series hous- load 90 kN. are connected to a central lubricating system so that Split spherical roller bearings have a cylindrical bore. out- er ring width and shaft seat diameter are identical. As a result. by means of two dowel screws. Inner ring. ings FAG SNV250 instead of one-piece spherical roller bearings with an adapter sleeve.89 Drive unit of a finished goods elevator Finished-goods elevators are used. for The split inner ring halves are braced together by charging salt granulating plants. To limit the variety of bearings used.000 hours. As shaft deflections and misalignments have to be ex- pected the drive shaft is supported on self-aligning Machining tolerances bearings. The material is means of four dowel screws and attached to the shaft. Bearing selection The theoretical fatigue life Lh of the bearings is over 100. speed 13. Outside diameter. each sealed by a two-lip seal.

This yields a uniform contact pattern for the rings to point load. As a rule. which is indicative of an optimal gear mesh. splash water. (brinelling marks) resulting from adverse operating conditions avoided.35. sealing Wheel mounting Rolling bearings and gearing are washed around in the revolving wheel hub by the transmission oil. The wheel bearings are tapered roller bearings FAG Planet wheel bearing arrangement 32021X (in accordance with DIN ISO 355: T4DC105) and FAG 32024X (T4DC120). This is achieved by means of assemblies where the outer ring raceway is integrated in the planet wheel. 90: Driving axle of a construction machine 127 FAG . As the considerable drive torque is generated im. deformations and tilting of the planetary gear are 6. the wheel mounting on rigid axles of con. a light drive shaft is sufficient. the stationary inner load. The self-aligning spheri. This yields a considerable step-down arrangement (larger spread ) and with preload.90 Driving axle of a construction machine Modern construction machines feature planetary gears ings which are axially adjusted against each other in O in the wheel hub. In the example shown the internal design of spherical roller bearing FAG 22309E. The planet wheel bearings must provide a high load carrying capacity in a limited space. In this ratio in a limited space. Lubrication. minimized and impermissible plastic deformations mediately at the wheel. therefore: journal to k6. Machining tolerances cal roller bearing selected in the example smoothly compensates for small misalignments resulting from The rotating outer rings of the wheel mounting are the deflection of the cantilever bearing journal under subjected to circumferential load.TVPB is used. hub to N7. in the example shown ig = way. Radial shaft seals protect the bearings from dirt and struction machines consists of two tapered roller bear. gearing.

sealing For the above conditions.4 kN ing by O-ring seals. Thus. The equivalent dynamic load per bearing is: Eccentric shaft to k5. roller bearing FAG NJ320E.5 · 1.302 · 59. Mineral oils introducing a supplementary factor fz = 1. of the cylindrical roller bearings.91 Vibrating road roller The vibrations of such road rollers are produced by an On each side of the imbalance weights a cylindrical eccentric shaft.2 = 359. Internal sealing is provided by shaft seals. number of bearings z = 4. cylindrical roller bearings. nal rating life Lh ≥ 2.52 and a speed factor of fn = 0.000 hours.M1A. FAG 128 . the imbalance weights. external seal- C = fL/fn · P · fz = 1.302 are obtained. ings each.52/0. The misalignment between the two bearing locations from housing Speed of eccentric shaft n = 1.C4 (dynamic load rating C = 380 kN) is mounted.800 min–1. Axial The centrifugal force from the imbalance weights on guidance of the eccentric shaft is provided by the lips both sides of the roll are accommodated by two bear. Due to the vibratory loads the bearings are fitted with an outer ring riding Operating data machined brass cage (M1A). the with EP additives and anti-corrosion additives have required dynamic load rating of one bearing proved to be suitable. housing bore to M6.5 kN Lubrication.2. an index of dynamic stressing The bearings are lubricated by the oil splashed off from fL = 1. dimensioning In view of the vibrations it is advisable to provide tight fits for both the bearing inner and outer rings. Machining tolerances Bearing selection. required nomi. radial load machining inaccuracies is less than that permissible for Fr = 238 kN. P = 1/z · Fr = 1/4 · Fr = 59. Additional guide plates im- The adverse dynamic stressing is taken into account by prove lubricant supply to the bearings.

91: Vibrating road roller 129 FAG .

to h7 with a cylindricity tolerance IT5/2 (DIN ISO The outer bearings transmit. sleeves FAG H3260HGJ and FAG H3176HGJ. dimensioning Machining tolerances The pitman is fitted to the eccentric part of the hori. for example. Bearing selection.3 months. The relubrication interval ment features a locating bearing at the drive side and for the bearings is 2. the flywheel weight and the circumferential loads resulting from the drive. Spherical roller bearings FAG 23260K. eccentric radius 28 mm. Operating data Input power 103 kW.MB as Grease lubrication with a lithium soap base grease of inner bearings. The coarse crushing is followed by further crushing operations until an ag. They are used.MB are mounted as outer bearings and FAG 23176K. ing grease Arcanol L186V). Due to the high loading and the rugged operation. loads.5 the bearing arrangement is twice a week. rinths. is obtained. mouth opening 1. re- ble toggle lever system. With an index The bearings are sealed by multiple labyrinths. Once or of dynamic stressing fL ≈ 4.92 Double toggle jaw crusher Double toggle jaw crushers have a large mouth open.200 x 900 mm. The outer bearing arrange. as primary crushers to prepare ballast for road building. fresh grease is injected into the laby- safely dimensioned with regard to nominal rating life.g.. speed of eccentric shaft n = 210 min–1. sealing chosen. in addition to these 1101). spherical roller bearings are Lubrication. e. Locating bearing Floating bearing 92: Bearing mounting of a double-toggle jaw crusher FAG 130 . The bearings are mounted on the shaft with adapter zontal shaft and actuates the swing jaw through a dou. The bearing seats on the shaft are machined the pitman must accommodate heavy crushing loads. gravel or grit. The pitman bearing arrangement is of penetration class 2 wit EP additives (FAG rolling bear- the floating bearing type.. the floating bearing at the opposite side. Swing jaw Eccentric shaft ing. The inner bearings supporting spectively. and the bores of housing and pitman to H7. Pitman gregate of the size and shape required.

coal. the speed grooves on the shaft..5 · GR · fz) = 915 · 0. input power An fL value of 3. with a cylindricity tolerance IT5/2 (DIN ISO 1101). sealing multiplying the rotor weight GR with a supplementary factor fz of 2. bearing centre dis. into plummer block housings MGO3228K..000 h). They are designed for oil The increased radial clearance C3 was selected because lubrication and feature particularly effective seals. Both alignments of the two plummer block housings. Machining tolerances ance to be reduced during operation. hammer The bearings are mounted on the rotor shaft with mill rotors are mounted on spherical roller bearings.32 (n = 1. whose magnitude can only be estimated. These loads are introduced in the nominal rating life calculation by Lubrication.000 mm. Two spherical roller bearings ings (design BF) and for floating bearings (design BL).. bearing: Operating data fL = C · fn / (0. mills.32 / (20 · 3) = 4.93 Hammer mill Hammer mills are mainly used for crushing ores. Bearing selection Bearing mounting Due to the high loads and rugged operation. For reliable operation at high speeds. They are fitted This self-aligning bearing type can compensate for mis.4. the shaft seats are machined Bearing dimensioning to h7. efficiency. the bearings are tions. of the high speed. For mounting with sleeves.120 t of iron ore.C3 are mounted. causing the bearing clear.. the requirement that the outer ring of the floating bear- Added to this are unbalanced loads and shock loads ing must be displaceable within the housing is met. withdrawal sleeves FAG AHX3228.5. one acting as The split housings of series MGO were especially de- the locating bearing. Thus the bearings are adequately dimensioned ing hammers approximately 40 kN. 100. The thrust loads acting on the bearings are so oil bath lubricated. The bearing inner rings heat up more than the outer rings.. and oil collecting grooves in the factor fn = 0.. The housing bores are machined to G6. To increase the sealing calculation. the index of dynamic stressing fL for one and stone. with regard to nominal rating life (Lh approximately tance 2. the other one as floating bearing. rotor weight includ.480 min–1.M. veloped for mill applications. Thus The rotor weight imposes a radial load on the bearings.3. rotor speed 1. Flinger With the dynamic load rating C = 915 kN.5 is usually applied to hammer 280 kW. FAG 23228EASK.480 min–1) and the rotor weight housing covers retain the oil within the housing. grease is replenished frequently.5. Grease-packed labyrinths prevent small they need not be taken into account in the life the ingress of foreign matter. depending on the operating condi. GR = 40 kN.88 Hourly throughput 90. Locating bearing Floating bearing 93: Hammer mill mounting 131 FAG . and housings (open design) are available for locating bear- possible rotor deflections.

bearing centre distance One of the plummer blocks is designed as the floating 2.400 t of iron ore.5. They feature two contra-rotating shafts to which the hammers are at. They were designed for grease lubrication (grease valve) and Due to the rugged operation. Frequent grease re- GR = 100 kN.2 hammer crushers or hammer mills. optimum size reduction. For the moderate speeds Arcanol L71V is satisfactory for the speeds in this of this application normal radial clearance CN is satis. input pow. Machining tolerances The shaft seats are machined to h7.. example.132887. Due to the adverse ambient conditions a double- factor fn = 0. sulting from imbalances and shocks. The housing bores are machined to H7. A grease valve protects the bearing against over-lubrica- With the dynamic load rating C = 1. plenishment to the labyrinths improves sealing effi- ing: ciency. the speed tion. With this fL value. design BF). the bearings have to accommodate loads re- placed. with a cylindricity Bearing dimensioning tolerance IT5/2 (DIN ISO 1101). rotor weight in. the bear- large-sized material with a high hourly throughput and ings are very adequately dimensioned.476 (n = 395 min–1) and the rotor weight passage labyrinth seal is provided. design AL).M at each side. FAG plummer block housings BNM3234KR. this allows the In addition to the loads resulting from the rotor outer ring of the floating bearing to be axially dis- weight. Small thrust loads need not be taken into account in the life calculation. are mounted which can compensate for misalignment between the two plummer blocks and for shaft deflec- tions. Lubrication. withdrawal sleeves FAG AH3234 and mounted in er 2 x 220 kW. the index of dynamic stressing fL per bear. factory. the other one as the locating bearing (continuous shaft. Bearing mounting Operating data The bearings are mounted on the rotor shaft with Hourly thoughput 350.000 hours.. sealing The shaft diameter at the bearing locations determines the use of one spherical roller bearing FAG Grease lubrication with FAG rolling bearing grease 23234EASK.370 · 0.94 Double-shaft hammer crusher Double-shaft hammer crushers are a special type of fL = C · fn/(0. The unsplit housings of series BNM were developed Bearing selection especially for hammer mills and crushers. Relubrication is required at certain intervals. This type is especially suitable for crushing ing life Lh of approximately 120. cluding hammers 100 kN.5) = 5.5 · GR · fz) = 1.270 mm. which corresponds to a nominal rat- tached. FAG 132 . rotor speed 395 min–1. bearing (closed on one side. spherical roller bearings feature particularly effective seals.370 kN.476/(50 · 2. They are taken into account by multiplying the rotor weight GR by the supplementary factor fz = 2.

Floating bearing Locating bearing 94: Double-shaft hammer crusher 133 FAG .

The labyrinths are also continuously replen- stressing fL = 4.962 kN).962 kN.95 Ball tube mill Tube mills are mostly used in the metallurgical. throughput 250 t/h. maximum thrust load Fa = 100 kN. The outer rings are Drum: diameter 5.5 · 1. 248 or 249. 248/1500BK30MB are mounted both as the locating bearing at the drive end and as the floating bearing at The trunnions are machined to h9. maximum radial load per bearing Fr = pensation of axial length variations. FAG ings). Due to (400/2 · 9.. With a dynamic load rating C = 12. made of grey-cast power 3. is lined with chilled-cast 12. g. This combination is also referred to as Taconite 100. The bearings are mounted in split FAG plummer Operating data block housings SZA48/1500HF (locating bearing) and SZA48/1500HL (floating bearing). in plummer block housings with Lubrication.81 = 1. The grain size of the materi. bearing is enhanced by grease injected into the shell distance 11. This is easily achieved by mounting series 239.31 = 4.5 · 100 = used in an Australian gold mine for grinding aurifer- 3. Continuous replenish- ment (approx. Both drum The circumferentially loaded inner rings are press-fitted trunnions are supported on spherical roller bearings of on the trunnion. sleeve/housing joint. sealing Taconite-seals FAG SD3276TST. Drive pinion bearings The drive pinion is supported on two spherical roller bearings FAG 23276BK.5. Charged with the grinding stock.900/3.56 min–1. The bearings are mounted on the trun. drum mass when iron) in the lower housing half.490 mm. ished with approx.30 mm) into grit by means of grinding bodies (balls).680 mm. e. iron plates. 5 g/h per labyrinth.g.962 + 4. which revolves fL = C/P · fn = around its horizontal axis.000 h. tolerance IT5/2 (DIN ISO 1101). speed 13..393 kN ous minerals (grain sizes 4. chapter on spherical roller bear- cal roller bearings with a tapered bore (K 1:30).9. They facilitate com- loaded 400 t. this corresponds to an index of dynamic sealing. Machining tolerances date. the labyrinths are The shock loads are taken into account by a shock fac. the housing bores nion with a wedge sleeve. constant shock- type loads caused by the grinding bodies.393 · 1. In this example. The equivalent dynamic load ing and cement industries. The sliding effect 1.98 (Lh > 100. in addition to the heavy weight. input tightly fitted into shell sleeves (e.900 kN the index of al depends on the number of balls and the quantity of dynamic stressing: added water. with a cylindricity the feed end. length 8. the bearings have to accommo.850 kW. The bearings are very safely dimensioned with regard to nominal rating life. Grease lubrication with a lithium soap base grease of penetration class 2 with EP additives. the extreme ambient conditions.000 h). 5 g/h per bearing) ensures adequate lu- The dimensioning of the drum bearings is based on brication. FAG rolling Bearing dimensioning bearing grease Arcanol L186V. min.MB with adapter sleeve FAG H3276HG. Bearing selection Trunnion bearings As the drum rotates. preceded by dirt baffle plates and rubbing seals (V- tor fz = 1. The radial clear- static and dynamic misalignments that can be caused ance reduction and the radial clearance of the mounted by misalignments of the bearing seats (large bearing bearing have to be observed (see table in FAG cata- distance) or drum deflections. The bearings compensate for them hydraulically on wedge sleeves. half the weight of the loaded drum The bearings are sealed by multiple labyrinths. The required nominal rating life is rings). it is very heavy.700 mm. logue WL 41 520. The tube mill described is P = fz · Fr + Y · Fa = 2 · 1. spheri. The grinding drum. to H7. FAG 134 .

95: Ball tube mill mounting 135 FAG .

g. support roller width 0. sealing with axle LRW. rolling bearing grease Arcanol made of grey-cast iron.6 m. support roller diameter ings are adequately designed. the support roller Lubrication. correspond- ing to a nominal rating life Lh = 100. thrust load 700 kN. radial load per support roller 2. Spherical roller bearings FAG L186V).4 m. In this example the two support-roller bearings are mounted into split Grease lubrication with a lithium soap base grease with plummer block housings with a common base (frame) EP additives (e. and the bearings.000 h. Speed 5 min–1.8 m.96 Support roller of a rotary kiln Rotary kilns for cement production can extend over a shaft can be displaced relative to the housing by a de- length of 150 m or more. the and grease-packed labyrinths. For such rotary kilns FAG offers complete assemblies consisting of a twin housing SRL. mass of support roller and housing 13 t. 1. i. the spherical roller bearings accommodate thrust loads resulting from dis- placements of the rotary kiln.9. The support rollers are fined axial clearance. In addition to the radial loads. hous- Bearing selection. FAG 136 .200 kN) are At the roller side the bearings are sealed with felt strips mounted in a floating bearing arrangement. dimensioning ing bore to H7. e.400 kN. the bear- Kiln outside diameter 4. Machining tolerances Shaft to n6 (circumferential load on inner ring). 24184B (dynamic load rating C = 6. Operating data With an index of dynamic stressing fL = 4. spaced at about 30 m intervals.

96: Support roller of a rotary kiln 137 FAG .

T41A. Vibrator motors and vibrating road rollers also come Shafts with diameters of 160 mm and more are sup- under the category of vibrating machines. ported on vibrating screen bearings A. and pronounced shaft of the index of dynamic stressing fL.T41A is used for shaft di- and processing plants. quarries. fL values met by spherical roller bearings. To compound matters.MA. Bearing dimensioning This results in high radial accelerations (up to 7 g) which additionally stress the bearings.. and especially Vibrating screen bearings which are comparable with the cages. mostly shock-type loads. FAG 138 . field-proven bearings can be dimensioned on the basis rately aligned bearing locations. provided that the deflections are additional requirements which are best boundary conditions are comparable as well. ameters of 40. High operating speeds. usually with inaccu. window-type cages and radially supported by a straight-line motion. per- form a circular. in the foodstuff and tolerances and an increased radial clearance are used: chemical industries.150 mm. the bearings. They operate in mines.5 and 3 are ideal. between 2. elliptical or linear vibrating motion. while rotating about their own axis. and in many other preparation The FAG standard design E. stone roller bearings with reduced bore and outside diameter crushing plants and foundries. The centrifugal forces of the The main vibrating screen types are: two-bearing unloaded rollers are accommodated by two pressed- screens with circle throw. cage guiding ring in the outer ring. and four-bearing screens. The split machined Selection of bearing type and bearing design brass cage is of the outer-ring riding type.. Rolling bearings in vibrating screens are stressed by high. two-bearing screens with steel. These bearings have a fixed centre lip on the inner ring and retaining lips on both sides.Vibrating machines Vibrating screens are used for conveying and grading For these adverse operating conditions FAG spherical bulk material.

34 (n = groove prevents oil leakage. acceleration due to gravity g = 9. Floating bearing Locating bearing 1 Festlager 97: Two-bearing screen with circle throw 139 FAG . The outer rings are The bearing load due to the screen box centrifugal circumferentially loaded and fitted tightly in the hous- force is: ing bore to P6.97 Two-bearing screen with circle throw Operating data The recommended index of dynamic stressing fL for vibrating screens is 2. one as the locating bearing.5 kN Lubrication.81 m/s2.000 to 20.81 · 0. Machining tolerances Bearing dimensioning The eccentric shaft features two spherical roller bear- Two-bearing screens work beyond the critical speed.14 · 1. Thus.4 = 811.000 hours.200/30)2 = 84.200 min–1. the other as floating thus the common centroidal axis of the screen box and bearing. The oil should contain EP additives P = fz · Fr = 1. Spherical 0.003 m.2.5 = 101.72/0. speed n = 1. the equivalent dynamic load are recommended. The inner rings are point loaded and mounted the unbalanced load does not change during rotation. corresponding to a nominal Screen box weight G = 35 kN. with a shaft tolerance of g6 or f6. vibration radius r = fatigue life Lh of 11. the Circulating oil lubrication.3..5.003 · (3. A flinger ring with an oil collecting 14. Fr = 1/z · G / g · r · (π · n/30)2 = = 1/2 · 35 / 9.000 h) and the speed factor fn = 0. load rating of 900 kN are chosen. ings. A V-ring is provided 1. sealing To allow for the unfavourable dynamic stressing.2 kN grease.T41A with a dynamic z = 2 .200 min–1) the required dynamic load rating between flinger ring and labyrinth to separate oil and C = fL/fn · P = 2.2 · 84. replenish- With the index of dynamic stressing fL = 2.4 kN and anti-corrosion additives.. Outer sealing is provided by a grease-filled.34 · 101. Mineral oils with a mini- bearing load should be multiplied by the supplemen- mum viscosity of 20 mm2/s at operating temperature tary factor fz = 1. number of bearings roller bearings FAG 22324ED.72 (Lh = able labyrinth.

14 · 900/30)2 = 59. amplitude r = 0. equivalent dynamic load P with the supplementary factor fz = 1. The outer rings are cir- plitude of linear vibration r and distance R have the cumferentially loaded and tightly fitted in the housing following relationship: bore (P6). FAG 140 .372 · 82.5 / 9.32 · Frmin) = Operating data = 1. synchronous minimum according to a sinusoidal pattern. a two-bearing screen with straight-line Since the radial load varies between the maximum and motion consists of two contra-rotating. i. Frmin = 1/4 · G1/g · (R . the distance R between the gear end. the maximum radial load Frmax Oil lubrication.81 · 0.T41A with a dynamic load rating of 655 kN is chosen. the circular throw systems.035 · (3. the floating bearings at the drive end. load rating C = fL/fn · P = 2.043 m Lubrication.2 · (0.53 (Lh = 7.4 kN sealing at the drive shaft passage. speed n = 900 min–1.2 is thus: P = 1.14 · 900/30)2 = 73 kN faces maintain an oil level reaching about the centre The radial load is at its minimum (Frmin) when the point of the lowest rollers. The oil level is such that the directions of centrifugal forces and vibration coincide. G · r = G1 · (R – r) In this example R = 0. 11.98 Two-bearing screen with straight-line motion Basically.4) = 82.81 · 0.372 (n = 900 min–1) the required dynamic g = 9.r) · (π · n/30)2 = A flinger ring and a V-ring in the labyrinth provide = 1/4 · 7. e. the oil thrown off by the gear suffices.4 kN Bearing dimensioning The spherical roller bearing FAG 22320ED. The radial load is then The oil level can be checked with a sight glass. lower gear and the flinger ring are partly submerged. The locating bearings of the two eccentric shafts are at For calculation of these loads.4 = 560. Weights G and G1.008 m.4 kN Screen box weight G = 33 kN.68 · 73 + 0. For lubricating the spherical roller is calculated as follows: bearings at the locating end. imbalance weight G1 = With the index of dynamic stressing fL = 2. A flinger ring is provided for this purpose Frmax = 1/z · G1 / g · R · (π · n/30)2 = at the opposite end.32 · 59.2 · (0.000 h) selected for vibrating screens and the speed number of bearings z = 4 . The the centres of gravity of imbalance weight and the per- inner rings (point load ) are have loose fits.68 · Frmax + 0.5 kN.5/9.043 · (3. acceleration due to gravity factor fn = 0.53/0. Baffle plates (A) at the housing = 1/4 · 7. sealing When the centrifugal forces act perpendicular to the direction of vibration. the tinent bearing axes is required. The bearing loads of a linear motion screen vary twice between the maximum value Frmax and the minimum value Frmin during one revolution of the eccentric Machining tolerances shafts. am- shaft is machined to g6 or f6.81 m/s2.

1 2 A A B 1 Locating bearing 2 Floating bearing A Baffle plates B Sight glass 98: Bearing mounting of a two-bearing screen with straight-line motion 141 FAG .

number of inner bear- ings z = 2.T41A (dynamic load rating C = 1. acceleration due to gravity g = 9.220 kN) are chosen. the standard design with normal clearance is satisfactory.005 · (3.4 kN drawal sleeves. is machined to g6 or f6. 0.14 · 850/30)2 = 145. the hous- ing bore to H7. The bearing size is tion of the shaft eccentricity. the equivalent dy. Generally spherical roller labyrinths. Machining tolerances Bearing dimensioning Inner bearings The inner bearings (a locating-floating bearing arrange- Inner bearings ment ) feature point load on the inner rings: The shaft For the two inner bearings of a four-bearing screen.93/0.005 m. Since these bearings are not subjected to vibration. into the housing (P6).99 Four-bearing screen The vibration radius of a four-bearing screen is a func. capacity is high and fatigue life calculation unnecessary. Sealing is provided by grease-packed. bearings of series 223 are also used. speed n = 850 min-1.2/2 · 60/9. namic load P is the same as for the two-bearing screen with circular throw Outer bearings The outer bearings – also a locating-floating bearing P = 1. relubricatable anced by counterweights. there. It is not variable. The required dynamic load rating C = fL/fn · P = 2.2/z · G/g · r · (π · n/30)2 = arrangement – are mounted on the shaft with with- = 1.2 · Fr = 1.81 · 0. Grease supply between the roller The stationary outer bearings are only lightly loaded rows through lubricating holes in the outer rings. Locating bearing Floating bearing Counterweight 99: Four-bearing screen FAG 142 . sealing Spherical roller bearings FAG 22328ED. The bearings are fitted tightly which are subjected to vibration. The shaft is machined to h8. Operating data In the example shown spherical roller bearings FAG 22320EDK (dynamic load rating C = 655 kN) are Screen box weight G = 60 kN.4 = 1. since the centrifugal forces of the screen box are bal.378 · 145. eccentric radius r = chosen. Grease lubrication with a lithium soap base grease of penetration class 2 with anti-corrosion and extreme Outer bearings pressure additives. dictated by the shaft diameter so that the load carrying fore these screens are also called rigid screens.81 m/s2.127 kN Lubrication.

speed n = 3. the dynamic load rating of 0.26 = 2. tight fits. mum radial load on one bearing Fr = 6.3 mm exists between the roller sets of the two the bearings is 73.000 min–1. housing to N6.0. The bearing outer rings carry circumferential load and are. in vibrating screens and vibrating Shaft to k5. ported on cylindrical roller bearings.C4. 100: Imbalance rotor bearings of a vibrator motor 143 FAG . The arrangement To prevent detrimental axial preloading. Vibrator motors are.. sealing factor fz = 1. sup. therefore. radial clearance larger than this application. base greases of penetration class 2 with EP additives With the speed factor fn = 0. Bearing clearance Bearing selection.000 min–1). the equivalent dynamic load Both bearings are lubricated with grease. the load carrying from the different thermal expansion of inner and capacity of the deep groove ball bearings usually used outer rings in operation.26 (n = 3. Further radial clearance reduction results Due to the high centrifugal forces.45 type seals with grooves are satisfactory. gap- fL = C/P · fn = 73.2. The bearings are loaded by the rotor weight and the separable cylindrical roller bearings of design NJ are centrifugal forces resulting from the imbalances: maxi. dimensioning The initial radial clearance of the bearings is reduced by tight fits. It is referred to as a "vibrator motor". Therefore. used. it is advisable to fit them Operating data tightly onto the shaft as well. C3) are mounted. Vibrator motors are Machining tolerances primarily mounted in machinery for making prefabri- cated concrete parts.2.5 kN.8 · 0. imbalance rotor is an example of such an activator.8 kN. e. Lithium soap P = 1. Since the inner rings are sub- jected to oscillating loads. Thus the bearings are correctly dimensioned.5 kN. An electric motor with an 10. bearings and the lips (floating bearing arrangement ). and dismounting extremely complicated.7 kW..TVP2. Therefore. bearings of radial for medium-sized electric motors is not sufficient for clearance group C4 (i. With non-separable bear- ings this requirement would make bearing mounting Input power N = 0. The adverse dynamic bearing stressing by the centrifu- gal forces is taken into account by a supplementary Lubrication. chutes. therefore.100 Vibrator motor The vibrations of vibrating equipment are generated This fL value corresponds to a nominal rating life of by one or several activators. index of dynamic stressing Since the vibrator motor is closed at both ends.000 h.5/7.2 · Fr = 7. Relubrication after approxi- mately 500 hours. the have proved successful. the inner shown incorporates two cylindrical roller bearings rings are assembled so that an axial clearance of FAG NJ2306E. Considering this supplementary factor.

1 · (800 + 265) = 9.1. The housing of the floating two linear bearings. (raceways) is 59. Lithium For converters. besides a high static load rating. criteria in bearing selection are. For cost reasons. (static load rating C0 = 26. limited to the rolling contact friction occurring in the linear bearings (coefficient of friction μ ≈ 0. Bearings with a cylindrical bore: trunnion to m6.. Bearings with a tapered bore and hydraulic sleeve: Example 102 shows two spherical roller bearings trunnion to h7.05 · FrL = 265 kN. displacement 0. With this design the amount of bearing ovality which might otherwise result from the friction to be overcome during axial displacement is split housing. the bore of the sleeve is ground and coated with dry lubricant (molybdenum disulphide). The consider- Index of static stressing fs = 26.300 kN. the drive unit.100 kN trunnion ring distortion and deflection.MB sionally rotated up to 360˚. the index of static stressing fs = C0/P0 soap base greases of penetration class 2 with EP and should be more than 2. Important Y0 = 3. FAG 144 . linear bearings (rollers) which provide support for one Tighter fits should not be used in order to prevent of the two housings. sealing Bearing dimensioning Converter bearings are lubricated with grease. This simplifies axial dis. Steel mills often demand that the bearing at the con- Locating bearing: Radial load FrF = 5. Five cylin- tures one spherical roller bearing each as locating bear. cylindricity tolerance IT5/2 (DIN ISO 1101). thrust factor fore. there. anti-corrosion additives (e.000 / 9.800 + 3. This requirement is satisfied by split Thrust load from drive Fa = 800 kN and from axial spherical roller bearings (example 103).0.101–103 Large capacity converters Converters perform swinging motions and are occca. The trunnions are machined with a mounted in the housings as locating bearings.120 kN Bearing selection Index of static stressing fs = 26. Axial dis. Bearing selection is.65 HRC. The hardness of the guide rails bearing is fitted with a sleeve.1) are mounted. placement bearings.05 · FrL = 5. based on static load carrying capacity. Lubrication. placement of the spherical roller bearing. drical rollers (80 x 120 mm) each are required for the ing and as floating bearing. verter drive end are replaceable without dismounting Floating bearing: Radial load FrL = 5.15 is used.800 kN. g.05).000 kN. Efficient P0 = equivalent static load sealing is achieved by graphited packing rings..000 / 6.100 = 2.300 + 3.. placement is permitted by two collaterally arranged The support bores in the housing have H7 tolerance. To minimize the frictional resistance.1 · 265 = 6. Both bearings are thus safely dimensioned.05 · FrL) from the large distance between the bearings and from = 5..24 Example 101 – showing the conventional design – fea. see calculation example. Operating data Split rolling bearings Calculation example: two spherical roller bearings and two linear bearings (example 102). FAG rolling bearing C0 = static load rating of the bearing grease Arcanol L186V) are a good choice.85 able length variations are due to the large differences in converter temperature as the converter is heated up Floating bearing and cools down. Misalignment invariably results P0 = FrF + Y0 · (Fa + 0. Two spherical roller bearings FAG 230/900K. Machining tolerances For thrust load calculation a coefficient of friction of μ = 0. split bearings are usually used as re- trunnion diameter at bearing seat 900 mm.120 = 4. P0 = FrL + Y0 · 0. the compensation of major misalignments Locating bearing and length variations.

two linear bearings) 103: Locating bearing end with split spherical roller bearing 145 FAG . Locating bearing Floating bearing 101: Converter bearings (two spherical roller bearings) Locating bearing Floating bearing 102: Converter bearings (two spherical roller bearings.

by cylindrical rating C of 3. adjusted by means of helical springs. roll body length 2.500 mm Machining tolerances: Work rolls: roll diameter 600 mm Roll neck +0.000 kN Maximum rolling speed 1.500 mm Maximum rolling load 26. roll body length 2. mounted at each roll end.220 x 840 mm) is Machining tolerances: Shaft to f6. axially.500 kN. The back-up roll is supported at both ends by Radial bearings a double-row tapered roller bearing FAG 531295A (di- The high radial loads are best accommodated. chock to H7. thrust Selection of the back-up roll bearings (fig.440 mm. in a lim.260 m/min Thrust bearings Since thrust loads in strip rolling stands are low.350 / +0. 104a: Back-up roll mounting of a four-high cold rolling stand for aluminium (identical bearing arrangements at drive end and operating end) FAG 146 . The bearings feature pin- type cages and reach a dynamic load rating of The cups are not supported radially.450 kN.104 Roll bearings of a four-high cold rolling stand for aluminium Operating data The increased radial clearance C4 is required as the in- ner rings are fitted tightly and heat up more in opera- Back-up rolls: roll diameter 1. roller bearings. mensions 400 x 650 x 240 mm) with a dynamic load ited mounting space and at high speeds.525 mm tion than the outer rings. 104a) bearings are used that are small compared to the radial bearings. One four-row cylindrical roller bearing FAG 527048 (dimensions 900 x 1. they are C = 31.

c) with a narrow axial clearance. Radial bearings Floating bearing end (drive end): a deep groove ball Each roll end is supported on two double-row cylin. drive end 147 FAG . chock bore to H6. All bearings supporting the back-up rolls and work Thrust bearings rolls are oil-mist lubricated. additives is used as the cylindrical roller bearings – es- tact ball bearings FAG 7064MP.K22 (dimensions ance for the chock.UA in X arrangement. machined brass cages and an increased radial clearance C3. Machining tolerances Lubrication Roll neck to p6. The bearings feature reduced Machining tolerances: Sleeve to k6. 350 x 500 x 190 mm). dially supported. yielding a bearing pair 70 ˚C. operating end 104c: Work roll bearings. The angular contact ball bearings accommodate the thrust loads from the rolls.C3 merely provides axial guid- drical roller bearings FAG 532381.Selection of the work roll bearings (figs. 104b: Work roll bearings. pecially at the back-up rolls – are heavily loaded and Any two bearings of universal design UA can be have to accommodate operating temperatures of up to matched in X or O arrangement. 104b. bearing FAG 61972M. A high-viscosity oil with EP Locating bearing end (operating end): two angular con. outer rings not ra- tolerances so that all roller rows are evenly loaded.

amounts of dirt have to be accommodated in hot roll.2 mm) are used. they are lubricated with grease. The amount of only high radial loads but also thrust loads. 105: Work roll mounting for the finishing section of a four-high hot wide strip mill FAG 148 . the modified life calcu- improves sealing efficiency. roll body length 2.235 mm. 1. The inner lip pre- Bearing selection. rolling speed.105 Work rolls for the finishing section of a four-high hot wide strip mill Work roll bearings are often exposed to large amounts The service life of work roll bearings is mainly dictated of water or roll coolant. e. No relubrication is required dur- good choice for work rolls. As a rule. sealing Roll body diameter 736 mm. e. Open bearings.. higher than that reached by an open bearing of the same size. In addition. lubrication and cleanliness. the attainable life exceeds the nominal rating life..5. rolling speed 3. the bearings must be efficiently rating life due to adverse lubricating and cleanliness sealed. dimensioning vents grease escape from the bearing. In spite of the lower load rating.. environmen- x 330. lation for sealed bearings usually yields a23 factors > 1. sealed four-row tapered roller with the conventional external seals (collar seals).95 These are filled with a moderately priced. They accommodate not ing rolling operation and roll change.200 hours of operation. bearings FAG 563681A (dimensions 482.15 m/s. On the other hand. Operators of modern roll. considerable by the loads. The chocks are fitted In the example shown.1. ing mills endeavour to reduce grease consumption and i.. Operating data Lubrication.6 x 615. tally compatible sealing grease. The bearings have a duration of one chock regrinding cycle. as a rule. i. The bearings are filled with relatively small amounts of high-quality rolling bearing grease. for sliding fit on the roll neck. the outer lip pro- tects the bearing from moisture that might have pene- Four-row tapered roller bearings have proved to be a trated into the chock. damage to the environment caused by escaping grease. Therefore. do not reach their nominal ing mills.000. allowing rapid roll changes. the value is generally water emulsion. which conditions. and they grease provided during assembly usually suffices for the require only little mounting space. On each side they feature a double-lip rubbing seal.

Roll diameter 1.100 mm (122"). Roll bearings Lubrication The work rolls in this example are also supported on multi-row tapered roller bearings.65 mm). cup and in the spacers. the rolled material moves back and cal groove in the bearing bore. forth. and the sense of rotation of the rolls alternates from pass to pass. The tapered roller bearings are lubricated with grease quire relatively little mounting space and accommo..035.e. yearly rection.106 Roll mountings of a two-high ingot slab stand or ingot billet stand Operating data The bearing rings are loosely fitted on the roll neck and in the chocks for easy mounting and dismounting.5. which is continually supplied through grooves in the date high radial and thrust loads. rolling speed 2. The rolls are sup. the fitting output of 1 million tons.05 Excess grease escapes through the bores in the central x 755. 106: Roll mounting of a two-high ingot slab stand or ingot billet stand 149 FAG . i. These bearings re. surfaces are usually supplied with grease through a heli- ing stand.5 m/s. faces of cone and spacer ring. ported at each end on a four-row tapered roller bearing FAG 514433A (dimensions 730. The mill operates as a revers. roll body length The cones creep on the roll neck in circumferential di- 3.168 mm (46").25 x 1. To reduce wear and heat generation..

vantage of smaller axial clearance and higher thrust car- ishing section. One decisive factor in the selec- tion of the bearing size is the diameter of the individu- al gear shafts determined in the strength calculation. how- tal stands in alternate arrangement. rying capacity. from the gears. Lubrication The two largest cylindrical roller bearings of the gear are situated on the cogging wheel side and have the Circulating oil lubrication. compared to a deep groove ball bearing. housing to D10. the ad- 55.000 tons. Axial share the same lubrication system. shafts to a minimum. Machining tolerances Cylindrical roller bearings: Shaft to p6.200 kW. the Shaft to f6. Radial loads and thrust loads are accommodated separ. The mill comprises a roughing and a fin. they ac- ing space. The oil is directly location of the four gear shafts is provided by one four supplied to the bearings via an oil filter which prevents point bearing each which are double direction angular contamination of the bearings by particles abraded contact ball bearings. Four point bearings and angular contact ball bearings: ately: the radial loads by cylindrical roller bearings. thrust loads by angular contact ball bearings and four The outer rings of the four point bearings and angular point bearings. The bevel gear shafts feature foundations are not as deep as for a bottom drive. The drive of the ever. The use of four point bearings is. on the smallest possible axial clearance to ensure perfect the other hand. by one duplex pair of angular contact ball bearings each on the pinion shaft and on the bevel shaft. a four point bearing offers the advantage of smaller width The billet mill is designed for a monthly output of and. also accommodate the thrust load whereas the radial motor speed 350/750 min–1. dimensioning H6/H7.107 Combined reduction and cogging wheel gear of a billet mill Operating data Compared to two angular contact ball bearings. limited to applications where the thrust load is vertical stands is on top. housing to Bearing selection. This is achieved height. thus. thus keeping the distance between the gear commodate only thrust loads. Cylindrical roller bearings offer the contact ball bearings are fitted into the housing with best radial load carrying capacity in a limited mount- clearance to relieve them of radial loads.100/2. each with two vertical and two horizon. the top drive involves a greater overall meshing of the spiral-toothed gears. load is taken up by cylindrical roller bearings.000 x 250 mm. The bearings and gears following dimensions: 750 x 1. with this arrangement the not constantly reversing. They Rated horsepower 1. FAG 150 .

107: Combined reduction and cogging wheel gear of a billet mill 151 FAG .

load the chocks which support the rolls and their bear. The horizontal rolls are supported by multi-row cylin- vented by means of elaborate roll adjustment mecha. As the rolling stock enters. bearings have a loose fit on the roll neck (e7). Compensation of length variations through the chock ing mountings against each other via the roll stands axially floating in the stand at the drive end is not pos- (see schematic drawing).6 x 257. The vertically arranged roll sets.550 kN).1 x 336. are supported in four-row cy- nine preloaded stands can also operate as universal lindrical roller bearings and four-row tapered roller stands. b). The tapered roller bearings are preloaded to ensure that the rolling elements always maintain con- tact with the raceways at these speeds. a).108 Work rolls of a section mill The roll stand frames expand under the influence of Roll neck mountings high rolling loads. Another way to compensate for the negative cylindrical roller bearings at the drive end compensate effect of the material's elasticity is to hydraulically pre.6 x 194.150 kN. which are with such hydraulically preloaded chocks. a).1 x 336. No loose fit can be provided in those stands where sec- tion steels are finish-rolled as the required quality can only be achieved with accurately guided rolls. which simplifies mounting. For this purpose they are equipped with two bearings of 355. the vertical rolls and their bearings are accelerated to operating speed very quickly.2 x 323.5 mm (fig. The vertical rolls are each supported by a tapered roller bearing pair (dimensions 165. The nisms.2 mm) in O arrangement (fig. for the length variations caused by heat expansion. The bearings sit directly on the rolls. drical roller bearings and tapered roller bearings. sible with preloaded chocks. Five of the loaded with 3. which can have a negative effect on the quality of the rolled material. the horizontal rolls in this case are supported by double-row cylindrical roller bearings and tapered roller bearings of 220. This is usually pre.8 mm (fig. This is achieved by matching the tolerances of the bearings and bearing seats in such a way that the bearings after mounting have the right preload without any fitting work. 9 of the 13 in-line stands of a section mill are fitted The horizontal rolls in the roughing stands.6 x 244. 1 Hydraulic piston 2 Upper chock 3 Piston ram 4 Lower chock 5 Frame FAG 152 . The hydraulic meth- od used simplifies mounting and dismounting. Due to the lower rolling load (2. For this reason cylindrical roller bearings and tapered roller bearings with a tapered bore were selected and press- fitted onto the tapered roll neck.

108a: Bearing mounting of horizontal rolls in the preloaded roughing stands and bearing mounting of the vertical rolls 108b: Bearing mounting of horizontal rolls for stands in which section steel is finish-rolled 153 FAG .

Operating data At the drive end the chock is located on the roll neck by a deep groove ball bearing FAG 6080M. maxi. and the minimum (dimensions 445 x 600 x 435 mm) is mounted at each final thickness is 0. rolls.2 mm.000 kN. Grooves The rolling forces cause an elastic deflection of the in the inner ring faces facilitate dismounting. The counterbending forces roll neck +0.300 kN per roll neck. ed by two O arranged angular contact ball bearings FAG 507227. end. The cylindrical roller bearings are fitted with pin- type cages consisting of two side washers to which the "Counterbending" is one special feature of this stand.N10BA (dimensions 400 x 600 x 90 mm). FAG 154 . They can easily be lubricated through lubri- roller bearings FAG 24068B. cating holes and lubricating grooves in the outer rings Machining tolerances: roll neck to e7. radially relieved. are lubricated with a lithium soap base grease with EP The counterbending forces are applied via spherical additives. Two-high roll diameter 690/650 mm. maximum counterbend- ing force 1. chock H6. pins passing through the rollers are fastened. The One four-row cylindrical roller bearing FAG 547961 maximum initial thickness is 4 mm. and spacers.C3. roll body length Machining tolerances: roll neck to f6.MB. outer ring 1.160 / +0.050 mm are rolled. maximum rolling speed 230 m/min. At the operating end the axial forces are accommodat- ness over the entire band width. Lubrication Counterbending bearings The cylindrical roller bearings. like the other bearings. housing to H6.109 Two-high rolls of a dressing stand for copper and brass bands On this dressing stand copper and brass bands with Accommodation of radial loads widths between 500 and 1. mum rolling force 8. Accommodation of thrust loads This counterbending ensures a uniform band thick. are applied to the roll necks on both sides and outside the roll neck mounting via spherical roller bearings. This deflection is hydraulically compensated for Machining tolerances: by counterbending forces.150 mm.200 mm.

Drive end Operating end Counterbending bearing Roll bearings 109: Two-high rolls of a dressing stand 155 FAG .

Thus the cylindrical roller bearing. For this reason the bearing assembly x 108 mm). ever. Due to the lower straightening loads.200 mm form an overhung ar. As this design allows the distance between the rollers to be indefinitely small. They are spring-adjusted. Speeds range from two to 60 min–1. Afterwards they have to be straightened in rail thrust loads of up to 2.. ing. The bearing assembly for the straightening rolls must Radial bearings: one axially displaceable double-row have maximum rigidity since this determines the accu. togeth- rangement in order to allow easy replacement. which is situated directly rails are straightened in both planes after having passed beside the roll. how- running times. The mounting space for the bearings is dictated by the Vertical straightening rolls distance of the straightening rolls. dated. In the first machine the rails vided to accommodate the radial forces and because of run through horizontally arranged rolls. The second cylindrical roller bearing is seated. four of safely on the inner ring even with maximum axial dis- which are being driven. resulting in warp. had to be designed such as to allow for a change of the position of the straightening rolls by ±50 mm in the Thrust bearings: two spherical roller thrust bearings axial direction. Depending on the type of rolled stock.MB (dimensions 240 x 440 x 122 mm). The higher loaded machine through vertically arranged rolls. After rolling the rails cool down The maximum rolling force at the horizontal rolls is on cooling beds but not uniformly. diameters of 600. This is made possible by providing an extended inner ring for the cylindrical roller bearing located beside the straightening roll. x 200/305 mm) and one single-row cylindrical roller The roll position must be adjustable to the position of bearing FAG NU2244M. in a sleeve which is axially displaceable within the hollow cylinder.000 kN have to be accommo- straighteners between horizontal and vertical rolls.110 Straightening rolls of a rail straightener Rails for railway track systems or for craneways are hot Horizontal straightening rolls rolled in rolling mills. 4. was especially developed for supporting through the two machines. In this mounting The vertical straightening roll bearing arrangement is space bearings are accommodated which have such a in principle identical to that of the horizontal straight- high load carrying capacity as to allow for reasonable ening rolls. er with the two spherical roller thrust bearings. the highest possible load carrying capacity can be obtained for the bearing. adapted to the mounting space. cylindrical roller bearing (dimensions 340 x 520 racy of the rolled stock.C3 (dimensions 220 x 400 the rolled stock.1. The thrust loads are accommodated by two spherical roller thrust bearings FAG 29448E. FAG 156 . The straightening rolls with placement. When positioning the straightening rolls. the straightening rolls (dimensions 530 x 780 x 285/ 475 mm). The straightening plant consists of two machines one Double-row cylindrical roller bearings have been pro- installed behind the other. The less loaded cylindrical roller bearing has the dimensions 300 x 460 x 180 mm.200 kN. smaller bearings can be mounted. the largest possible number of rollers can be fitted and. The cylindrical roller bearings are fitted with bored rollers which are evenly spaced by pins and cage side washers. FAG 29432E (dimensions 160 x 320 x 95 mm). in the second their high load carrying capacity.. The inner ring width is such that the lips of the two seals always slide Each machine features nine straightening rolls. the bearings must be able to compensate for axial displacements by up to ±50 mm. The position of the straightening rolls relative Demands on the bearing assembly to the rolled stock is adjusted by means of a ball screw.

the spherical roller thrust bear. However. grease- ings must be oil-lubricated. Therefore. The oil flow rate per straightening roll unit is about 10 l/min. of the straightening roll two laterally reversed. In spite of the high loads and the low speeds it would At the spherical roller thrust bearing end the unit is be possible to lubricate the cylindrical roller bearings closed by a cover. sealing system. 110: Horizontal straightening rolls 157 FAG . At the shaft opening in the direction with grease. all bearings are lubricated seal rings prevent oil escape and penetration supplied with oil by means of a central lubricating of contaminants into the bearings.Lubrication.

be exactly deter- mined. sealing tapered roller bearing FAG 30210A (T3DB050 *) and one FAG 30306A (T2FB030 *) are installed in O Grease lubrication (FAG rolling bearing grease Arcanol arrangement and adjusted. seals and an additional labyrinth seal. The bearings are adequately protected from bearing. in the housing: N7. with zero clearance. via the cone of the smaller L186V). *) Designation to DIN ISO 355 FAG 158 . – k6 for the larger bearing. The working width of the plough is determined by the on the journal: number of disks. This cone must. For safety reasons roller bearings with the max- imum possible load carrying capacity are used. Bearing selection During ploughing both radial and axial loads are im- posed on the bearings. be able to slide on the journal. One Lubrication. there. dirt and atmospheric influences by means spring steel fore.111 Disk plough In a disk plough the usual stationary blades are re. – j6 for the smaller bearing. Bearing loads depend on soil conditions and cannot. Machining tolerances placed by revolving disks fitted to the plough frame. therefore.

111: Disk plough 159 FAG .

5 kN. – Spherical roller bearing. The plane sifter the drive shaft and balancing masses. Hollow shaft to k6. pulley bore to J6. The supporting bearing must be self-aligning in order to avoid preloading. Sleeve B is a loose fit on the eccentric shaft.22 kW. The eccentric described in this example consists of four sections. From the top the oil passes through the during mounting.8 mm). The bearings The ball bearings at the top mounting run in an oil mounted are a self-aligning ball bearing FAG 1213 bath. thus the spherical roller bearing is axially displaceable together with the Operating data sleeve and cannot be submitted to detrimental axial preloading. Layout of a plane sifter FAG 160 . speed 220. grits.112 Plane sifter Sifters are used in flour mills to segregate the different The thrust bearing has to accommodate the weight of constituents (e.. frame housing bore to K6. groats. Starting power 1. operating power 0. This bearing accom- eccentric shaft induces circular vibrations in the frame. Sleeve to k6. A thread cut 53214 (70 x 105 x 28.230 min–1. shaft of the sifter frame is supported by a spherical roll- each comprising 12 sieves fastened to a frame. spherical roller bearing and back into the oil bath. The spherical housing in the eccentric shaft feeds the oil upward through washer FAG U214 compensates for misalignment sleeve B. circular throw of the sifter frame and sieves. flour). modates the high centrifugal forces resulting from the sieve assembly..g. The spherical roller bearing at the bottom (65 x 120 x 23 mm) and a thrust ball bearing FAG mounting is lubricated by circulating oil. An er bearing FAG 22320ED.T41A..25 kN. Bearing selection The drive shaft with the balancing masses is suspended Lubrication from the top bearing. distance between centre of gravity of Machining tolerances balancing masses and axis of rotation 250 mm. 20.1 kW.. total weight of balancing masses 5. total weight of frame and sieves plus material to be sifted – Self-aligning ball bearing.

Pulley 1 2 112: Plane sifter 161 FAG .

By providing identi- ders (negative effect on printing quality). of running accuracy and radial rigidity. This requires a high guiding accu- production.M. tapered roller bearing pairs and spherical roll- ticularly low in friction and which have a high degree er bearings to triple-ring eccentric bearing units. Often the To rule out differences in vibration behaviour FAG has floating bearing at the operating end is a cylindrical separated the accommodation of the radial and axial roller bearing and the locating bearing arrangement at loads from the impression cylinders. Operating data The forces acting on impression cylinders in rotary Bearing clearance and adjustment printing presses are safely accommodated by FAG roll- ing bearings. bearings.000 racy and a minimal radial clearance. FAG 162 . mass takes place in the cylindrical roller bearings between 1.100 kg.. The temperature-related length compensation cylinder diameter 325 mm. A deep groove ball bearing pair takes up both radial and thrust loads. Bearing selection lutions can be adopted for supporting impression cyl- inders in a newspaper rotary printing press.Printing presses Printing quality is created in the heart of a printing FAG has designed a number of highly efficient locat- press. Differing spring 2 x FAG 16024. The floating bearing accom. Plate ing/floating bearing arrangements for the main cylinder cylinders. At a maximum speed of the impression ments of the different impression cylinders indepen- cylinders of 35. is fed on both sides by eccentric bushes which serve to con- into the machine via automatic wheel stands at a speed trol the "impression on" and "impression off" move- of 9. The separation of radial and thrust loads means that the radially supporting bearings are symmetrically loaded. which helps achieve the re- quired optimal guiding accuracy. cal bearing arrangements on both sides of the impres- sion cylinder identical spring rates are obtained. the rotary printing press produces 7. ring can be fitted tightly in spite of the point load.. a variety of so. pression cylinder.. the printing group with its main cylinders.81 m/s. within the bearing is low. The bearing clear- The circumference and width of the impression cylin.000 revolutions per hour and double dently of each other. the drive end consists of a spherical roller bearing or a At each end the radial loads are accommodated by a tapered roller bearing pair.10 μm is adjusted via the tapered bearing ders are adapted to the required newspaper sizes (e.000 hours per year). Heat development copies per hour with a volume of up to 80 pages. operating temperature 50. 113 Impression cylinders of a newspaper rotary printing press Depending on the specific application.g.400 mm wide. This produces a uniform vibration behaviour on both sides of the impression cylinder. guiding forces in both directions. speed 583. therefore. ance of 0. seat. blanket cylinders and impression cylinders bearings ranging from solutions with cylindrical roller are. average the rollers and the outer ring raceway so that the outer time in operation 7. guided in rolling bearings which are par.SP. double-row cylindrical roller bearing FAG modates only radial loads whereas the locating bearing NN3024ASK.3 min–1. which may be up to 1. In newspaper rotary printing presses a The low-friction precision bearings are accommodated paper web.C3 provides axial guidance for the im- rates (elastic deformation of rolling elements and race..60 °C. The outer rings are radially relieved ways) and loads acting on the bearings can result in a so that the ball bearings exclusively accommodate axial differing vibration behaviour at each end of the cylin.

The bearings at the drive end are supplied Inner ring: Circumferential load. ing holes in the outer ring the lubricant is fed directly into the bearings. 113: Impression cylinder of a KBA Commander newspaper rotary printing press 163 FAG . housing bore to K6. system. outer ring radially relieved in the housing. Through a circumferential groove and lubricat- guiding forces. sealing ment with zero clearance (Technical Specification N13CA). At the operator end the supply lines Machining tolerances are usually connected to a central grease lubrication system. V-ring seals prevent both grease escape and dirt Cylindrical roller bearings ingresss. The oil first flows through the cylindri- Outer ring: Point load. The C3 radial clearance ensures a contact The bearings are automatically supplied with lubri- angle which is favourable for accommodating the axial cant. Lubrication. At the cylinder end a pressure- Deep groove ball bearings relieved shaft seal retains the oil in the lubricating Shaft to j6 (k6).The deep groove ball bearings are fitted in X arrange. via feed ducts. interference fit on with oil from the transmission oil lubrication system tapered shaft 1:12. cal roller bearing and then through the deep groove ball bearing pair.

blanket cylinder are eliminated by using a new triple. sealing roller bearings. tions. Under the given conditions the bearings are adequately dimensioned so that an adjusted rating life calculation is not required. Machining tolerances The inner rings are subjected to circumferential load.4. Axial guidance of the cylinder is provid- ed by angular contact ball bearings (FAG 7207B) in X arrangement. an interference fit is also obtained by axial displacement. nominal speed Bearing dimensioning An index of dynamic stressing fL of 4. It offers the benefit of ab. Thanks to the favourable ambient condi- of the machine frame. 114: Triple ring bearing for a blanket cylinder FAG 164 . The ready-to-mount unit is based on an NN cylindrical roller bearing design which is used as a low-friction precision bearing in machine tools. or by a thrust ball bearing. through feed ducts. Both the considerable cost and long grease relubrication intervals and thus a long the risk of the sleeve getting jammed during the "im. Via collecting grooves and return solute zero clearance which is not possible with the holes the oil returns to the oil circuit. Operating data Roll weight. conventional unit as the sleeve always requires some clearance. this required an elaborate tech. needle roller bearings or other designs in a sliding bearing supported sleeve and to accurately The eccentric units can be lubricated both with grease fit this complete unit into an opening in the sidewall and with oil. The outer ring is mounted with a K5 or K6 fit or re- duced tolerances (with a slight interference).000 hours.. Bearing arrangement The FAG triple-ring eccentric bearing units (floating bearings) are available both with a cylindrical and with a tapered bore. A tight fit is obtained by machining the cylinder journal to k4 (k5). and a double-row needle roller bearing which guides the eccentric ring.5 would be ideal. service life are possible. the oil flows to the bearing rollers ring eccentric bearing unit. This corresponds to a nominal life Lh of 50. With a tapered bearing seat.000 – 80.. press-on force. A non-rubbing gap-type seal pression on" and "impression off" movements of the prevents grease escape. Another significant advantage is the adjust- able preload which allows its radial rigidity to be con- siderably increased compared to bearings with clear- ance. With oil lubrication.114 Blanket cylinder of a sheet-fed offset press To date it was common practice to integrate cylindrical Lubrication. the lubricant is only very slightly stressed so that nology and was costly.

625 · Cindividual bearing = 1.000 Oil bath lubrication. O and X arrangement. therefore.14.5 kN Thus the index of dynamic stressing fL = C/P · fn = 186/10. mensioned with regard to fatigue life.284 than the centre point of the lowest rolling element. adequately di- Fa = 7. have a slight axial clearance.450 min–1.000 l/min.57 · Fr + 0. sealing The nominal life amounts to approximately 60. The oil level should be no higher hours. ment. axial thrust cal roller bearing FAG NU314E. The bearings are.284 = 5.03 Lubrication. Locating bearing Floating bearing 115: Centrifugal pump 165 FAG .3 > e = 1.322 = 5.000 hours.TVP. delivery rate 24. The coupling end of the im. the equivalent dynamic shorter if formation of condensation water in the bear- load P of the bearing pair ings or penetration of contaminants is expected. With the speed factor for roller bearings fn = 0. The service life is Since Fa/Fr = 1. the dynamic load rating of the bear- machined to j5 and the housing to J6. The bearing pair acts as The recommended fL values for centrifugal pumps are the locating bearing and accommodates the thrust 3 to 4. if the shaft is (n = 1. Input power 44 kW.93 · Fa = 10. At the impeller end of bearing pair the shaft a labyrinth provides extra sealing protection. floating bearing. The suffix UA identifies bearings which can be universally mounted in tandem. speed n = 1.450 min–1) and the dynamic load rating of the bearings are sealed by shaft seals.UA mounted in X arrange- 100.97 peller shaft is fitted with a duplex pair of contact ball corresponding to a nominal rating life of more than bearings FAG 7314B.7 kN. 5.450 min–1).5 · 0. the index of dynamic Bearing selection.115 Centrifugal pump Operating data C = 1.625 · 114 = 186 kN. The speed factor for ball bearings fn = 0. P = 0. dimensioning stressing The impeller is overhung.9 kN.TVP2 acting as the 7. The radial load Fr is approx.5.7 kN. the bearings ing C = 204 kN. The impeller end of the shaft is fitted with a cylindri- delivery head 9 m. fL = C/P · fn = 204/11 · 0. Thus. This bearing supports a radial load of approximately 11 kN.322 When mounted in O or X arrangement. The (n = 1.

bearing location J two universal angular contact ball bearings FAG 7209B. D C B A G Suffix UA indicates that the bearings can be universal- ly mounted in tandem. provided that the rotational axis of cylinder block and drive shaft are at an angle to each other. loads normal to each other at the bearing locations. F E e Bearing dimensioning Assuming that half of the pistons are loaded. Bore G es- tablishes connection from each cylinder to openings E.97 kN ual forces of the loaded pistons are combined to give a resultant load which acts eccentrically on the swash The two components of the piston load produce radial plate and/or drive flange. max.800 min–1. piston load H J FK = z/2 · p · dK2 . Bearing loca- bearings. They also produce the reciprocat- ing motion of the pistons. distance between load line and rotational axis e = 19. The discharge opening is subject.000 min–1.906 = 9.97 · 19.73 = 5. FKa = FK · cos ␣ = 11 · 0. compact.65 · (90 + 10)/90 = 5.TVP. operating speed nnom = FJx = FKa · e/l = 9. Piston rods C transmit the rotation of drive shaft D to the cylinder block. π/4 = 3.14/4 = = 11. the pistons are act- ed upon by a force. tion H features a deep groove ball bearing FAG 6208.65 kN pressurized (normally half of all pistons). The individ.3/90 = 2. Bearing selection ney-shaped openings E in pump housing F.14 kN 1. each bore accommodate the reactions from the calculated resul- sweeps once over the intake (suction) and discharge tant load.3 mm. FrJ = √ FJx2 + FJy2 = √ 4. angle of inclination ␣ = 25°. piston pitch circle = 59 mm.116 Axial piston machine Cylinder block A accommodates a number of pistons B symmetrically arranged about the rotational axis. Consequently. At relatively high speeds.000 N = 11 kN For determination of the bearing loads the piston load FK is resolved into tangential component FKt and thrust load component FKa: In axial piston machines only some of the pistons are FKt = FK · sin ␣ = 11 · 0. The bearing mounting should be simple and (pressure) openings.17 kN number of pistons z = 7.5 · 10 · 400 · 3.4226 = 4. Fluid intake and discharge are controlled via two kid. The following bearing loads can be calculated by means of the load diagram: Operating data Bearing location J Rated pressure p = 100 bar = 10 N/mm2. This force is carried by the piston These requirements are met by deep groove ball bear- rods to the drive shaft and from there to the drive shaft ings and angular contact ball bearings. O or X arrangement.58 + 26. bearings H and J have to During one rotation of the cylinder block. FJy = FKt · (l + t)/l = 4. ed to high pressure. piston diameter dK = 20 mm. speed nmax = 3.UA in tandem arrangement.59 kN FAG 166 .

65 · 10/90 = 0.In addition to this radial load FrJ.58 + 0.35 and Y = 0.49 = 0.5. Loads occurring with gearwheel factor fn = 0.35 · 5.52 kN Shaft j5 k5 FrH = √ FHx2 + FHy2 = √ 4. the equivalent dynamic load with Fa/Fr = factor fn = 0. thus the bearing mounting is ade- With the dynamic load rating C = 72 kN and the speed quately dimensioned. bearing location J The equivalent dynamic load for the deep groove ball accommodates the thrust load component of the pis.57 · 9.800 min–1) the index of dynam- drive or V-belt drive are not taken into account in this ic stressing example. Machining tolerances Bearing location H FHx = FKa · e/l = 9.265 = 2.59 + 0.97/5.27 = 2.97 · 19.97 kN With the dynamic load rating C = 29 kN and the speed Thus.2 kN FaJ = FKa = 9.5 Here the load rating C of the bearing pair is taken as double the load rating of a single bearing.265 = 3.3/90 = 2.97 = 7. ic stressing P = 0.14 and X = 0.265 (n = 1.64 · 0.57.2 kN Housing H6 J6 116: Drive flange of an axial piston machine 167 FAG . bearing equals the radial load: ton load: P = FrH = 2.14 kN Seat Deep groove Angular contact ball bearing ball bearing FHy = FKt · t/l = 4.800 min–1) the index of dynam- 9. fL = C/P · fn = 72/7.59 > e = 1.35 · FrJ + 0.265 (n = 1.2 · 0.57 · FaJ = fL = C/P · fn = 29/2.64 kN The index fL for axial piston machines selected is between 1 and 2.

sealing Bearing location H: Deep groove ball bearing The bearings are lubricated by leakage oil from the FAG 6311 pump.500 min–1. sufficient for many applications (e. This life span and rotational axis e = 24 mm. Lubrication. however. piston mined for the two pumps shows that the pump de- pitch circle = 73. ball bearing ball bearing dated by angular contact ball bearings mounted near Shaft h6 j5 the drive flange end. thus ensur- nmax = 3. dimensioning The bearing loads are determined as in example 116. Index of dynamic stressing fL = 2.98 Bearing location J: Angular contact ball bearing FAG 7311. A comparison of the fL values deter- 1.g.000 min–1.19 Seat Deep groove Angular contact In examples 116 and 117 the axial load is accommo. Bearing selection.117 Axial piston machine Operating data To minimize shaft tilting due to the radial clearance of the deep groove ball bearing. Housing J6 J6 117: Drive flange of an axial piston machine FAG 168 . operating speed nnom = ing zero clearance. maximum speed keep the bearing under light axial preload. A shaft seal is satisfactory. scribed in example 117 is designed for only a short number of pistons z = 7.TVP Machining tolerances Index of dynamic stressing fL = 1. angle of inclination ␣ = 25°. piston diameter dK = 25 mm. distance between load line operating life (rating fatigue life 850 h). is. Counter guidance is provided by a deep groove ball bearing.5 mm. Belleville spring washers Rated pressure p = 150 bar. dump trucks).

5 (corre- approx. an fL value of 4. ing with a shaft opening (design BF). supplies the bearings with oil. This Lubrication. sealing prevents the bearings from running under preload when there are major temperature differences between The LOE housings feature an oil bath.. However. 180 °C. A ring oiler inner and outer ring.000. The shaft diameter is housing bodies are split to simplify mounting. 118: Rotor mounting of an exhauster 169 FAG . Thus.. dimensioning bearings before the calculated fatigue life has been reached.100.118 Exhauster The exhauster is of the double-flow type. the bearings are very safely dimensioned with re- gard to fatigue life. premature wear can be caused by slippage.. cooling discs are re.000 h) would be adequate. dictated by strength considerations. The shaft is simple and economical. sponding to 55.. plenished with grease at regular intervals. housing to G6. and determines plummer block and bearing size. FAG LOE226AL. the bearings feature an increased radial clearance C3. The design of the lateral quired to limit the bearing temperature.200 min–1. The use of plummer blocks for mounting the rotor The plummer blocks are made of grey cast iron. exhaust gas temperature of dynamic stressing fL ≈ 10. between cover and labyrinth ring. The plummer housing covers (oil collecting pockets and return block at the drive end is designed as the locating bear. In addition. Due to the exhaust gas temperature of +180 °C and the relatively high exhauster speed. ducts) allows excess oil to return to the sump. the chamber is re- sign AL). Machining tolerances The shaft is mounted on spherical roller bearings FAG 22226E. and that at the A grease chamber is provided as an additional sealing opposite end as the floating bearing with end cap (de. speed 1. ending the actual service life of the Bearing selection.C3 fitted in housings FAG LOE226BF and Shaft to m6. rotor weight With the specified operating data the calculated index 22 kN.

Since Lubrication. housing to K6. thrust 3 kN. The sleeves mounted on the shaft feature thrust) loads. The shaft diameter. FAG 7317B. This requirement is satisfied Angular contact ball by plummer block housings of series FAG VR(E) bearings: Shaft to k6. however. the first bearing location. The axial overhung impeller arrangement produces.C3 acts as the floating bearing. sealing the operating speed is relatively high. e. Machining tolerances viding a large distance between the bearing locations in relation to the distance between the impeller and Cylindrical roller bearing: Shaft to m5.g. heating of the bearings and thus preloading. housing to J6. dictated by strength flinger grooves. (grease lubrication) or FAG VOS (oil lubrication) which were especially developed for fan applications. Oil collecting grooves and replenishable considerations. Flinger rings feed the oil to the lar contact ball bearings for combined (i.000 min–1.M1. O or X arrangement. The radial loads re- sulting from this moment can be minimized by pro. A particularly simple and economical Suffix UA identifies bearings which can be universally arrangement is achieved by providing a one-piece mounted in tandem.e. The arrangements feature a small axial clearance. operating speed The mounting consists of a plummer block housing 3.UA are mounted in O arrangement.MP.119 Hot gas fan Gas temperature 150 °C. The oil sump in the housing contains bearings for accommodating the radial loads and angu. at the drive end two universal angular contact ball bearings The impeller of small and medium-sized fans is gener. a clearance combined with oil lubrication prevents over- tilting moment from the impeller weight and unbal. is 85 mm. approximately 4 l of oil. (series VOS) for oil lubrication FAG VOB317. Floating bearing Locating bearing 119: Rotor bearings of a hot gas ventilator FAG 170 . radial and bearings. ally overhung. grease chambers are provided in the housing covers. bearings with a high speed suitability are used. anced forces acting at the impeller. At the impeller end a cylindrical roller bearing FAG Bearing selection NU317E. the X and O housing incorporating two bearing mountings. cylindrical roller Oil lubrication.

cylindricity tolerance IT6/2 (DIN ISO are exactly aligned. weight of shaft 0.TV.120 Fresh air blower Weight of impeller 0.C3 is arranged at either side of the impeller. Since a simple and economical mounting is required. A grease nipple is provided at the housing Lubrication.3 kN. 120: Rotor mounting of a fresh air blower 171 FAG . sealing cap and a grease escape bore at the opposite side of the housing base. a The SNV housings are made of grey-cast iron. The bearings are lubricated with FAG rolling bearing As long as the impeller is satisfactorily balanced the in. Self-aligning bearings are Machining tolerances necessary because of the difficulty in aligning two sep- arately mounted housings so accurately that the bores Shaft to h9. aligning ball bearing FAG 2311K. ner rings of the bearings are circumferentially loaded. They are mounted on the shaft with adapter sleeves thrust 0.000 min–1.5 kN. However. The housing is sealed on each side by an FSV felt seal. Calculation of the rating fatigue life shows that the Bearing selection bearings are more than adequately dimensioned. housing bodies are split to simplify mounting. The housing is suitable for grease replenishment (suffix G944AA). The plummer block FAG SNV120. speed 3.2 kN. 1101). grease Arcanol L71V. when the imbalance forces ex- ceed the weight of impeller and shaft the circumferen- tial load is transmitted to the outer ring.G944AA with a self. housing to H7. FAG H2311.

The cylindrical roller bearing is fitted with a Due to the extremely low speed of rotation of the yoke gap-type seal with grease grooves. The mirror diameter is 1 m. tapered taper 1 : 12 IT2/2 IT2 Housing K6 IT3/2 IT2 FAG 172 . bearing friction is required. a preload of 35 kN is obtained. sealing The telescope is approximately 7 m high. Floating bearing Bearing assembly Despite the large diameter of the yoke axle. De- flection of the yoke axle under the effect of the over- hanging load must also be taken into account. Machining tolerances Bearing Seat Diameter Form tolerance Axial run-out tolerance of tolerance (DIN ISO 1101) abutment shoulder Angular contact ball bearing Shaft j5 IT2/2 IT2 Housing J6 IT3/2 IT2 Cylindrical roller bearing Shaft. the deflec- tion still existing would result in increased friction in the preloaded angular contact ball bearing unless suit- able countermeasures were taken. the angular contact axle (1 revolution in 24 hours). a very low and uniform ball bearing is sealed by a labyrinth. The lower end Locating bearing of the yoke axle is supported by a cylindrical roller bearing FAG NU1044K. L186V). when adjusting the bearing 2.500 kg port is a high-precision double-row angular contact ball bearing with split outer ring. Its dimensions are 600 x 730 x 98 mm. Telescope mass 2. 8 m long and Grease lubrication (FAG rolling bearing grease Arcanol weighs about 100 kN. The gap width between the two Yoke mass outer rings is such that. The crowned inner ring raceway of the cylindrical roller bearing allows for slight misalignments and shaft deflections.M1.P51 acting as the floating bearing. The problem was solved by mounting the cylindrical roller bearing in two outer shroud rings whose inside diameters are ec- centric to the outside diameter. the yoke must be guided rigidly and with absolute zero clearance. Moreover. Bearing selection The locating bearing at the upper end of the yoke sup.500 kg axially.121 Optical telescope Operating data Lubrication. These shroud rings are rotated in opposite directions during mounting (D) until the shaft deflection at the angular contact ball bearing location is equalized.

Floating bearing Locating bearing Bending moment Shroud rings 121: Optical telescope 173 FAG .

azimuth axis. reflector diameter 100 m. an axis parallel to the earth surface.000 kN). the elevation axis. The radiotelescope antenna is a huge reflector in the Total mass of the radiotelescope 3. track diameter 64 m.01 min–1.000 kN). the 16.600 tons (load approximately The whole telescope slews about the vertical axis. The reflector is slewable about approximately 30. nmin = 0. reflector mass 1. A Reflector B Azimuth axis C Elevation axis D King pin bearing E Travelling gear (track rollers) F Data wheel FAG 174 . speed of track rollers nmax = 8 min–1.122–124 Radiotelescope For radioastronomy highly sensitive radiotelescopes are Operating data used for picking up radio waves from the universe.000 tons (load form of a paraboloid.

The bearings are The spherical roller bearings are lubricated with FAG mounted onto the journals with tapered sleeves by rolling bearing grease Arcanol L135V. The bearings are sealed by a rubbing seal. sealing ings feature tolerance class P6 and radial clearance C2 (smaller than normal clearance CN).000 kN.000 kN). Lubrication. Maximum loads in the horizontal di- rection may be 5.122 Elevation axis The reflector is supported on two spherical roller bear. The bear. Each of the two bearings has to accom. Journal to h7 / housing to H6 modate a radial load of 8.000 kN. in the vertical direction 3. Machining tolerances ings FAG 241/850BK30. Bearing centre distance is 50 m.P62 (static load rating C0 = 49.500 kN. During mounting the radial clearance is eliminated by driving in the sleeves. 122: Elevation axis 175 FAG . means of the hydraulic method. Added to this are the loads resulting from the effects of wind and snow on the reflector.

thus providing ac- 30.580 x Sealing by multiple labyrinths. vided for this purpose has the dimensions 1. The bearings are mounted on the journal with withdrawal sleeves FAG AH3060H.550 kN the bearings are safely dimensioned. The cylindrical roller outside diame- supported on a circular track of 64 m diameter. features circulating oil lubrication. Every second roller of a roller group is driven. The ters are slightly crowned in order to avoid edge stress- roller track assembly. Track rollers: Housing to H7 In the most adverse case one bearing has to accommo- King pin: Journal to h7/ housing to M7 date approximately 800 kN.000 kN. transmits the weight of approximately radial clearance can be eliminated. The cylindrical roller bearing for the king pin pin bearing. The outer rings of the bearings are mounted into the Lubrication. Since low friction is required The spherical roller bearings in the track rollers are the rollers to not incorporate wheel flanges.C2. Thus it is lubricated with FAG rolling bearing grease Arcanol necessary to radially guide the superstructure on a king L135V. comprising four groups of eight ing.MB. By mounting the bearing with a tapered sleeve the rollers each.000 x 250 mm. With the static load rating C0 = 3. Each roller is supported on two spherical roller bearings Machining tolerances FAG 23060K. 123a: Roller track assembly 123b: King pin bearing FAG 176 . The FAG cylindrical roller bearing pro. curate radial guidance. sealing housings with axial clearance so that a floating bearing arrangement is obtained.123 Azimuth axis (track roller and king pin bearings) The radiotelescope with its complete superstructure is 2.

Axial runout < 25 μm. Radial runout < 10 μm.300 x 1. Sealing by a multiple labyrinth. sealing four-point bearing with the dimensions 1.500 x 80 mm. 124: Data wheel 177 FAG . The four-point bearing is fully immersed in oil. Machining tolerances The four-point bearing is fitted according to the actual bearing dimensions.124 Data wheel The data wheel is supported on a clearance-free FAG Lubrication.

Modified life). Lhna The FAG calculation method for determining the at- tainable life (Lna. the adjusted rating life calculation takes mined for every operating time q [%]. It takes into account the influences of the operating conditions on the rolling bearing life and indicates the preconditions for reaching endurance strength. action. The attainable into account. The Arcanol greases listed in the table on page 179 cover almost all demands on the lubrication of rolling bearings. one bearing ring (for an O arrangement. in addition to the load. angular contact bearings are an- Adjusted bearing arrangement/ Adjustment gular contact ball bearings.Glossary Additives Alignment Additives are oil-soluble substances added to mineral Self-aligning bearings are used to compensate for mis- oils or mineral oil products. also Factor K). During mounting. termined by FAG by means of the latest test methods for pinion bearing arrangements with spiral toothed under a large variety of operating conditions and with bevel gears.). Lhna) is based on DIN ISO 281 (cp. Additives are also an important factor in calculat- ing the attainable life (cp.. also Modified life in accordance with DIN ISO 281. By chemical or physical alignment and tilting. for example. Axially loaded deep An adjusted bearing arrangement consists of two sym. really attainable life of rolling bearings. EP properties. So. a23 factor a23 (life adjustment factor) L nominal rating life [106 revolutions] Lh nominal rating life [h] Adjusted rating life calculation If the quantities influencing the bearing life (e. q1 + q2 + q3 Cp. Adjusted bearing arrangement Lna = a1 · a23 · L [106 revolutions] (X arrangement) and Lhna= a1 · a23 · Lh [h] a1 factor a1 for failure probability (DIN ISO 281). viscosity- temperature behaviour. formula ditions (factor a23 in the FAG procedure for calculating Lhna = 100 the attainable life). speed. g.) under constant conditions has to be deter- Therefore. This means that the adjusted bearing FAG rolling bearing greases Arcanol are field-proven arrangement is particularly suitable for those cases lubricating greases.. bearings. the attainable life (Lhna1. foaming. flow properties. Lhna1 Lhna2 Lhna3 FAG 178 . they change or improve lubricant properties (oxidation stability. the outer ring) is displaced on its seat until the bearing ar. . groove ball bearings also act in the same way as angular metrically arranged angular contact bearings or thrust contact bearings. rolling bearings of all types. life is calculated for the total operating time using the ability (factor a1) and other significant operating con. Lhna2. temperature. The term "angular contact bearing" is collectively used for single-row bearings whose contact lines are inclined to the radial plane. cleanliness. type and condition of The nominal life L or Lh deviates more or less from the lubricant) are variable. load. the inner ring. Adjusted bearing arrangement (O arrangement) Attainable life Lna. for a normal (10%) failure probability a1 = 1. Their scopes of application were de- where a close axial guidance is required. tapered roller bearings and spherical roller thrust bearings. setting point. the failure prob. for an X arrangement. Angular contact bearings etc. Arcanol (FAG rolling bearing greases) rangement has the appropriate axial clearance or the re- quired preload.

+180 Special grease for high temperatures.. oscillating movements Mineral oil Rotor blade adjusting mechanisms for wind power stations. construction machinery.. ventilators L74V Special soap ISO VG 2 -40. electric machines (motors. rail vehicles.....D.s > 62 mm Mineral oil 100 Large electric motors.+140 Standard grease for bearings with O. Mineral oil particularly for impact loads and large bearings 179 FAG ..+140 Standard grease for bearings with O. agricultural and construction machinery. wide speed range. instruments L78V Lithium soap ISO VG 2 -30. construction machinery. with EP additives high speeds.. rail vehicles L223V Lithium/calcium ISO VG 2 -20. household appliances L79V PTFE 400 2 -40. high temperatures Mineral oil Rolling mills...+160 Special grease for high temperatures Mineral oil Couplings. with EP additives high loads..+150 Special grease for high temperatures.. packaging machinery L186V Lithium soap ISO VG 2 -20.+260 Special grease for extremely high temperatures (please observe Synthetic oil safety data sheet) chemically aggressive environments Track rollers in bakery machines. piston pins in compressors. range Typical applications at 40°C Class mm2/s DIN 51818 °C L12V Calcium/polyurea 130 2 -40. with EP additives 460 medium speeds.s ≤ 62 mm Mineral oil 100 Small electric motors. wheel bearings for motor vehicles.+140 Special grease for extremely high loads..+140 Special grease for extremely high loads. construction machinery.. motor vehicles..+100 Special grease for high speeds and low temperatures Synthetic oil 22 Machine tools..+140 Special grease for high loads. high loads with EP additives 460 Synthetic oil Continuous casting plants L215V Lithium/calcium ISO VG 2 -20. chemical plants L135V Lithium soap 85 2 -40..D..+150 Special grease for high loads.... high humidity soap 220 with EP additives Mineral oil Rolling mill bearings. spinning and grinding spindles L166V Lithium soap 170 3 -30. machines with oscillating movements L195V Polyurea ISO VG 2 -35. spindle bearings. kiln trucks.. generators) L71V Lithium soap ISO VG 3 -30.Glossary Arcanol rolling bearing greases · Chemo-physical data · Directions for use Arcanol Thickener Base oil Consistency Temperature Main characteristics Base oil viscosity NLGI. medium temperatures Mineral oil Heavily stressed mining machinery. low speeds soap 1000 with EP additives Heavily stressed mining machinery.

is the operating time until fail- ure due to material fatigue (fatigue life). evenly spaced and guides them through unloaded sec. s = 1 always applies to normal cleanliness (V = 1). is The cleanliness factor s quantifies the effect of contam- determined. the nominal rating life L or Lh. s < 1 is ob- the needle rollers parallel to the axis. arable bearings the cage retains the rolling element set. The product of s and the process. and the resulting load acts. Bearings with circumferential load must be mounted with a The axial clearance of a bearing is the total possible ax. Oscillating ial displacement of one bearing ring measured without load ).4. In the case of sep. with the radial component Fr and the thrust compo- during each revolution. The penetration number and the frictional Constant load direction with outer ring behaviour of the grease vary with the amount of base oil and its viscosity.5) and utmost Cage cleanliness (V = 0. With improved cleanliness (V = 0. Contamination factor V is required to determine s. s = 1 applies to ␬ < 0. This ring is circumferentially loaded. ring Base oil is the oil contained in a lubricating grease. a com- parison calculation. load on inner ning at operating temperature. also factor a23). the entire circumference of the ring is. as de- fined by DIN ISO 281. tions of the bearing circumference. Point load. load. the equivalent dynamic If the ring under consideration rotates in relation to load P or the equivalent static load P0 is determined the radial load. at the Circumferential load load angle ␤. tight fit to avoid sliding (cp. thus facilitating bearing mounting. used in attainable life calculation. subjected to the maximum nent Fa of the combined load. Circumferential Imbalance ance existing when the bearing is mounted and run. based The cage of a rolling bearing prevents the rolling ele. With V = 2 (moderately contaminated lubricant) to The cage of a needle roller bearing also has to guide V = 3 (heavily contaminated lubricant).3) a cleanliness factor s > 1 is ob- tained from the right diagram (a) on page 181. It keeps them ratio ␬. by means of the refined FAG calculation ination on the attainable life. FAG 180 . the attainable life Lna or Lhna is determined (see basic a23II factor is the factor a23. The amount Weight Stationary inner ring of oil varies with the type of thickener and the grease Rotating inner ring Direction of load rotating application. Rolling bearing cages are classified into the categories pressed cages and Combined load machined/moulded cages. tained from diagram (b). Circumferential Imbalance load on outer Basic a23II value ring The basic a23II value is the basis for determining factor a23. There is a difference between the axial clearance of the unmounted bearing and the axial operating clear. on the stress index fs* and depending on the viscosity ments from rubbing against each other. therefore. Depending on the type of load.Glossary Axial clearance load. Weight Bearing life Stationary outer ring Rotating outer ring Direction of load rotating Constant load direction with inner ring The life of dynamically stressed rolling bearings. Cleanliness factor s By means of the classical calculation method. This applies when a bearing is loaded both radially and axially.

angular contact ball bearings etc. Contact angle ␣ The contact angle ␣ is the angle formed by the contact lines of the rolling elements and the radial plane of the bearing. Consistency Measure of the resistance of a lubricating grease to being deformed. In roller bearings with asymmet- rical rollers the contact angles at inner ring and outer ring are not identical.Glossary Diagram for determining the cleanliness factor s a Diagram for improved to utmost cleanliness b Diagram for moderately contaminated lubricant and heavily contaminated lubricant A cleanliness factor s > 1 is attainable for full- complement bearings only if wear in roller/roller contact is eliminated by a high-viscosity lubricant and utmost cleanliness (oil cleanliness according to ISO 4406 at least 11/7). 181 FAG . These changing contact angles are taken into account when calculating the pressure dis- tribution within the bearing. Consistency classification to NLGI. cp. ␣0 refers to the nominal contact angle. Under axial loads the contact angle of deep groove ball The rolling elements transmit loads from one bearing bearings. Penetration. increases. Under a combined load it changes from one rolling ele- ment to the next. the Contact line contact angle of the load-free bearing. The equilibrium of forces in these bearings is maintained by a force component which is directed towards the lip. ring to the other in the direction of the contact lines. i.e. Ball bearings and roller bearings with symmetrical roll- ing elements have identical contact angles at their inner rings and outer rings.

It is a measure of the probability of life- reducing particles being cycled in a bearing. These are particles of hardened certain size when being cycled. an oil cleanliness class 15/12 according to ISO 4406 means that between 16.Glossary Contamination factor V At the same contamination level.5 15/12 ␤6 ≥ 75 15/12 ␤12 ≥ 75 > 35 1 17/14 ␤12 ≥ 75 18/14 ␤25 ≥ 75 2 18/15 ␤25 ≥ 75 19/16 ␤25 ≥ 75 3 20/16 ␤25 ≥ 75 21/17 ␤25 ≥ 75 The oil cleanliness class can be determined by means of oil samples by filter manufacturers and institutes.3 11/8 ␤3 ≥ 200 12/9 ␤3 ≥ 200 0. a lubricant. to determine the cleanliness factor s. the V depends on the bearing cross section (D – d)/2.. more sensitively than larger ones and bearings The contamination factor V indicates the degree of with point contact (ball bearings) are more vulnerable cleanliness in the lubricating gap of rolling bearings than bearings with line contact (roller bearings).5 14/11 ␤6 ≥ 75 15/12 ␤6 ≥ 75 > 20.000 and 32.. based on the oil cleanliness classes defined in ISO 4406. sand and abrasive particles. the number of all particles > 5 μm and all particles > 15 μm type of contact between the mating surfaces and espe. a filtration ratio ␤3 ≥ 200 (ISO 4572) means that in the so-called multi- pass test only one of 200 particles ≥ 3 μm passes the filter. The cleanliness classes are reached if the entire oil volume flows through the filter within a few minutes.000 particles > 15 μm most heavily stressed contact area of a rolling bearing. together with the stress index fs* and the viscos. DIN 51570). FAG 182 . To ensure a high degree of cleanliness flushing is required prior to bearing operation. the more damaging the effect of a particle above a life of rolling bearings. therefore..5 12/9 ␤3 ≥ 200 13/10 ␤3 ≥ 75 ≤ 12. example..3 14/11 ␤6 ≥ 75 14/11 ␤6 ≥ 75 0. g. Today. Filters with coarser filtration ratios than ␤25 ≥ 75 should not be used due to the ill ef- fect on the other components within the circulation system. For example.5 13/10 ␤3 ≥ 75 14/11 ␤6 ≥ 75 > 12. 1 ) Only particles with a hardness > 50 HRC have to be taken into account.3 13/10 ␤3 ≥ 75 14/11 ␤6 ≥ 75 0. are allocated to a certain ISO oil cleanliness classs. Small bearings with steel. For cially the cleanliness level of the oil. is an objectively measurable level of the contamination of V is used. The smaller the contact Specially particles with a hardness > 50 HRC reduce the area. Guide values for V Point contact Line contact required oil guide values for required oil guide values cleanliness class filtration ratio cleanliness class for filtration ratio (D-d)/2 V according to according to according to according to 1 1 ISO 4406 ) ISO 4572 ISO 4406 ) ISO 4572 mm 0. Abrasive particles are point contact are especially vulnerable.000 particles If hard particles from a defined size on are cycled in the > 5 μm and between 2. Suitable sampling should be observed (see e.35 1 16/13 ␤12 ≥ 75 17/14 ␤12 ≥ 75 2 17/14 ␤25 ≥ 75 18/15 ␤25 ≥ 75 3 19/15 ␤25 ≥ 75 20/16 ␤25 ≥ 75 0. small bearings react.3 12/9 ␤3 ≥ 200 13/10 ␤3 ≥ 75 0. particularly harmful. are present per 100 ml of a fluid.5. premature material fatigue. The necessary oil cleanliness class according to ISO 4406 When determining the factor a23 and the attainable life.000 and 4. The step from one class the resulting indentations in the contact surfaces lead to to the next is by doubling or halving the particle number. online measuring instruments are available.20 1 15/12 ␤6 ≥ 75 16/13 ␤12 ≥ 75 2 16/13 ␤12 ≥ 75 17/14 ␤25 ≥ 75 3 18/14 ␤25 ≥ 75 19/15 ␤25 ≥ 75 0.5 1 14/11 ␤6 ≥ 75 15/12 ␤6 ≥ 75 2 15/12 ␤6 ≥ 75 16/13 ␤12 ≥ 75 3 16/13 ␤12 ≥ 75 17/14 ␤25 ≥ 75 0. ity ratio ␬. In accordance with the particle-counting method.

cleanliness during mounting with DIN ISO 281. i. reach the oil cleanliness required. The life of fail-safe types is usually limited by the service life of the lubricant. the filtered out contaminants are found. . particles from machining left in the housing. in accordance . how.3): . For forces in the other direction.Water which entered the bearing. water. symmetrically arranged bearing must be used the ratio of all particles > x μm before passing the filter for “counter guidance”. Curvature ratio A filter of a certain filtration ratio is not automatically indicative of an oil cleanliness class. the measured value of the particle counter should be reduced correspondingly. example. 183 FAG . V = 0. The filtration ratio is A second.grease lubrication by the user who fits the bearings into clean housings under top cleanliness conditions.5 improved cleanliness V = 1 normal cleanliness V = 2 moderately contaminated lubricant curvature ratio ␬ = groove radius – rolling element radius rolling element radius V = 3 heavily contaminated lubricant Preconditions for utmost cleanliness (V = 0. ever. to be almost exclusively mineral matter as. the measured values must be in. the lubricant properties.bearings are greased and protected by seals or shields against dust by the manufacturer.good sealing adapted to the environment ing under dynamic load. This curvature difference in the axial plane boldface): is defined by the curvature ratio ␬. for example. In all bearing types with a curved raceway profile the ra- According to today’s knowledge the following cleanli. fibres or Counter guidance paint. If.The cast housing was inadequatly cleaned (foundry in many technical applications. to wear enter the circulating oil system of the machine. Angular contact bearings and single-direction thrust A defined filtration ratio ␤x should exist in order to bearings accommodate axial forces only in one direction.flushing the oil circulation system prior to the first operation of the cleanly fitted bearings (fresh oil to be filled in via superfine filters) and taking care that the oil cleanliness class is ensured during the entire Dynamic load rating C operating time The dynamic load rating C (see FAG catalogues) is a Preconditions for normal cleanliness (V = 1): factor for the load carrying capacity of a rolling bear- . On the other hand. caused standstill corrosion or deterioration of creased by one or two cleanliness classes before deter.Foreign matter penetrates into the bearing due to counting. also condensation or abrasive grains.Abraded particles from components which are subject rectly with the values of the table on page 182. the cleanliness class de. The curvature ratio is the curvature difference between the rolling element V = 0. mining the contamination factor V.observing the recommended oil change intervals revolutions (fatigue life). . sand. if the greater part of the particles found in the lubricant are soft materials such as wood. which is the case . lubricates them with clean grease and takes care that dirt cannot enter the bearing during operation . termined with a particle counter can be compared di.Glossary If the major part of foreign particles in the oil samples Possible causes of heavy lubricant contamination (V = 3): is in the life-reducing hardness range. dius of the raceway is slightly larger than that of the roll- ness scale is useful (the most important values are in ing elements. unsatisfactory sealing. a filtration ratio ␤3 ≥ 200 means that in the so-called multi-pass test (ISO 4572) only one of 200 particles ≥ 3 μm passes the filter.3 utmost cleanliness radius and the slightly larger groove radius. the particularly harmful moulding sand . It is defined.oil cleanliness according to V = 1 theoretically accommodate for a nominal life L of 106 . as the load a rolling bearing can .e. after . to accommodate the axial to the particles > x μm which have passed the filter.

The equivalent static load P0 is calculated with Rolling bearings are dynamically stressed when one the formula: ring rotates relative to the other under load. the calculation is based on the The a23 factor takes into account effects of: equivalent dynamic load. The most important zone (II) in the diagram applies to normal cleanliness Statically stressed rolling bearings which operate under a (s = 1). fail-safe: . load. a dynamic stress is as. rolling bearings can be tion of the attainable life. to the effect of the P0 = X0 · Fr + Y0 · Fa [kN] load but rather to the operating condition of the bear- ing. ment factors for material (a2) and operating conditions (a3) indicated in DIN ISO 281. FAG use a23 instead of the mutually dependent adjust- cants. combined load are calculated with the equivalent static load. The equivalent dynamic load P is calculated by – contaminants in the lubricating gap (cleanliness means of the following equation: factor s). – lubricating film thickness (viscosity ratio ␬). 10 % failure prob- ability is taken. The magnitude and direction of the load can re. Y thrust factor (see FAG catalogues) The viscosity ratio ␬ = ␯/␯1 and the value K are required Equivalent static load P0 for locating the basic value. P = X · Fr + Y · Fa [kN] The diagram on page 185 is the basis for the determi- Fr radial load [kN] nation of the a23 factor using the basic a23II value. Fa axial load [kN] X0 radial factor (see FAG catalogues) When calculating the bearings. cating oils. Fr radial load [kN] main constant. therefore.Glossary Dynamic stressing/dynamic load with regard to permanent deformation as the combined load. – bearing type (value K).21 EP additives Factor a23 (life adjustment factor) Wear-reducing additives in lubricating greases and lubri. also referred to as extreme pressure lubri.utmost cleanliness in the lubricating gap Failure (contamination factor V = 0. This is a radial load for radial – amount of load (stress index fs*). The factor a1 is also used for failure Tests by FAG and field experience have proved that. FAG 184 . probabilities between 10 % and 1 % for the calcula- under the following conditions. bearings and an axial and centrical load for axial bear.3) probability % 10 5 4 3 2 1 . Factor a1 Endurance strength Generally (nominal rating life L10). having the same effect on fatigue as the combined – lubricant additives (value K). Equivalent dynamic load P a23 = a2 · a3 For dynamically loaded rolling bearings operating under a combined load. The Fa axial load [kN] a23 factor is obtained from the equation a23II · s (s be- X radial factor (see FAG catalogues) ing the cleanliness factor). The a23 factor is used to calculate the attainable life. ings.62 0.44 0.53 0. see following table.complete separation of the components in rolling contact by the lubricating film (viscosity ratio Fatigue ␬ ≥ 4) life L10 L5 L4 L3 L2 L1 .load according to stress index fs ≥ 8 * Factor a1 1 0.33 0. having the same effect development in the bearing. The term „dynamic“ does not refer. It is a radial load for radial bearings and an axial and The viscosity ratio ␬ is a measure of the lubricating film centric load for thrust bearings. Y0 thrust factor (see FAG catalogues) sumed when the speed n amounts to at least 10 min-1 (see Static stressing).

suitable lubricant II Normal degree of cleanliness in the lubricating gap (with effective additives tested in rolling bearings. a23 must be expected to be in zone III. a23II is found on one of the curves in dm and operating speed n (fig.Glossary ␯ operating viscosity of the lubricant. a23 factors > 1 are possible even with ␬ < 0. zone II of the diagram. In the case of lubricating (contamination factor V = 1). depending on mean bearing diameter With K = 0 to 6. In zone II. ␯1 rated viscosity. 2). The calculated attainable life can only correspond to the actual service life of the bearing when the lubricant service life or the life limited by wear is not shorter than the fatigue life. II and III. such a case conditions should be improved so that zone II can be reached. ␯ is the operating viscosity of the base oil. 1). With K > 6. depending on Most applications in rolling bearing engineering are the nominal viscosity (at 40 °C) and the operating covered by zone II. termined as a function of ␬ by means of value K. 1: Average viscosity-temperature behaviour of mineral 3: Basic a23II factor for determining the factor a23 oils. In tor is subdivided into zones I. It applies to normal cleanliness temperature t (fig. 3) for determining the basic a23II fac. a23 can be de- greases. diagram for determining the operating viscosity Zones I Transition to endurance strength Precondition: Utmost cleanliness in the lubricating gap and loads which are not too high. The diagram (fig. 185 FAG .4) III Unfavourable lubricating conditions Contaminated lubricant Unsuitable lubricants 2: Rated viscosity ␯1 Limits of adjusted rating life calculation As in the case of the former life calculation. only material fatigue is taken into consideration as a cause of failure for the adjusted life calculation.

grease lubrication tightly. For this reason. Bearing rings accommodating a circum- ferential load or an oscillating load are always fitted Grease. is used to determine the nominal life L or Lh. Non-separable radial bearings such as deep groove ball are obtained by the correct selection of shaft and hous- bearings. length variations are compensated for in quired for reliable bearing operation. Three factors should be borne in mind in the selection of fits: 1. can also be used as ing C. The fatigue life is the upper limit of service life. Bearing down. self-aligning ball bearings and spherical roller ing machining tolerances. ever. such as deep groove ball bear. additives) – bearing type and size Floating bearing – type and amount of loading – speed index In a locating/floating bearing arrangement the floating – bearing temperature bearing compensates for axial thermal expansion. a comparison calcula- tion where no close axial shaft guidance is required. by The design is similar to that of an adjusted bearing means of the refined FAG calculation process the attain- arrangement. The fatigue life of a rolling bearing is the operating time from the beginning of its service until failure due to ma- Floating bearing arrangement terial fatigue. particularly for shock loading. One ring of each bearing – characteristics of the rings are indicated by the shaft generally the outer ring – is given a loose fit. Dif- ferences in length are compensated for in the floating The value recommended for dimensioning can be ex- bearing itself. FAG 186 . The The grease service life is the period from start-up until temperature gradient between bearing ring and mating the failure of a bearing as a result of lubrication break- component should also be taken into account. – grease type (thickener. Cylindrical roller bearings of NU and N designs. the equivalent dynamic load P and the speed floating bearings. The value s is determined depending Fits on the required guiding accuracy in such a way that detrimental axial preloading of the bearings is prevent- The tolerances for the bore and for the outside diame- ed even under unfavourable thermal conditions. Simplicity of mounting and dismounting s 3. – amount of grease rect fit. dent on the operating conditions of the application. Inner and outer rings can be fitted tightly. A floating bearing arrangement is an economical solu- The classical calculation method. Tolerance class). as the index of dynamic Non-separable bearings. The higher the load the tighter should be the interfer. It is calculated from the dynamic load rat- ings and spherical roller bearings. which are depen- the bearings. instead of in hours. Bearing rings accommodating a point load may cp. are ideal floating bearings. Axial freedom of the floating bearing The simplest and safest means of ring retention in the circumferential direction is achieved by a tight fit. a factor which is indispensable for the full utilization of the load car- rying capacity. and housing tolerance symbols. The seating characteristics re- roller bearings. In such a case one of the two bearing factor fn. A tight fit will support the rings evenly. pressed. Safe retention and uniform support of the bearing rings 2. as well Index of dynamic stressing fL as needle roller bearings. base oil. The grease service life is determined by the type and size also play a role in the selection of the cor.Glossary Fatigue life rings is given a loose fit. ter of rolling bearings are standardized in DIN 620 In floating bearing arrangements with NJ cylindrical (cp. stressing fL. the seating bearings can also be used. the shaft can shift relative to the housing by the axial clearance s. tion. Lubricating grease be fitted loosely. Grease service life ence fit provided. how- able life Lna or Lhna is determined (see also a23 factor). with no axial mating surface so that it can shift freely on its seat. The bearing rings can be given tight fits. In a floating bearing arrangement.

mountings. be based on the same former method. 1) Attainable only with lubricant filtering corresponding to V < 1. Value K1 Lh = 500 · fLp [h] a ball bearings b tapered roller bearings. 2) To be observed for the determination of ␯: the friction is at least twice the value lent static load P0.. otherwise K1 ≥ 6 must be assumed. K = K1 + K2 sioned bearing arrangement is an empirical value ob- tained from field-proven identical or similar bearing K1 depends on the bearing type and the stress index fs*.5 for a normal degree K2 equals for 0 for lubricants with additives with a corresponding suitability proof. see diagram. fs = 0. the nominal rating life Lh in hours can be determined. The following values are generally recommended: fs = 1. of the curves in zone II of diagram 3 on page 185 (cp. Minimum load must be observed. For comparison with a field-proven With K = 0 to 6.7.4 wear dominates unless eliminated by suitable additives. spherical roller thrust bearings3). conform with the latest standards resulting from tech- nical progress. The fL values whose effects in rolling bearings was not tested. cylindrical roller thrust bearings1). 187 FAG . higher-than-usual peak loads... adaptation to given mating bricants without additives and lubricants with additives parts.5 for a high degree fs = 1.5. etc. C0 fs = P0 Value K2 The index fs is a safety factor against permanent defor- mations of the contact areas between raceway and the most heavily loaded rolling element. culated from the static load rating C0 and the equiva. 3) in caged bearings. The values in the diagram (below) apply to lu- weight constructions. tio ␬. the basic a23II value is found on one of bearing mounting the calculation of stressing must. It is cal. Smaller values suffice where a moderate degree of running quietness is required.Glossary K value fL = C · fn The K value is an auxiliary quantity needed to deter- P mine the basic a23II factor when calculating the attain- able life of a bearing. 3) p = 3 for ball bearings d full complement cylindrical roller bearings1). course. cylindrical roller bearings c spherical roller bearings.2. The fL value to be obtained for a correctly dimen.1 for a moderate degree ** With ␬ ⬉ 0. factor a23).. This results in higher bearing temperature. fs* quate load carrying capacity has been selected. A high fs value is required for bearings which must run smoothly and particularly quietly.1.. The values indicated in various FAG publications take into account not only an adequate fatigue life but also K2 depends on the stress index fs* and the viscosity ra- other requirements such as low weight for leight.. 2) 4 d 10 p = for roller bearings and needle roller bearings 3 3 c 2 K1 b Index of static stressing fs 1 a The index of static stressing fs for statically loaded bear. 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 ings is calculated to ensure that a bearing with an ade. Based on the calculated fL value.

Like pressed cages. The following grease types are distin- guished: tan ␤ = Fa/Fr . able for large-series bearings. Every rolling bearing has a dynamic load rat- ing (DIN ISO 281) and a static load rating (DIN ISO The lubrication interval corresponds to the minimum 76). limit of the bearing components or the permissible sliding velocity of rubbing seals. The limiting speed can be reached. They are accommodate thrust in either direction in addition to made from tubes of steel.non-soap greases comprising inorganic gelling agents or organic thickeners and lubricating oils . It is the resultant of the radial component Fr and the axial Lubricating greases are consistent mixtures of thicken- component Fa: ers and base oils. Lubricating oil Rolling bearings can be lubricated either with mineral oils or synthetic oils. the bearing which guides the shaft axially in both directions is re. Locating bearing Machined/moulded cages In a locating/floating bearing arrangement. Angular contact ball bearing nated phenolic resin. the strength bearings. all the other bearings must be floating Decisive criteria for the limiting speed are e.g. Cages of pairs (universal design) and tapered roller bearing pairs polyamide 66 (polyamide cages) are manufactured by in X or O arrangement may also be used as locating injection moulding. All bearing types which lic resin are produced in a cutting process. tion WL 81 115). or cast brass rings.metal soap base greases consisting of metal soaps as thickeners and lubricating oils. the floating bearing compensates for the heat expansion differential The limiting speed is indicated in the FAG catalogues between shaft and housing. With this bearing arrangement the locating bearing Limiting speed guides the shaft axially in both directions. The values are indicated in the FAG rolling bear. Machined cages of metal and textile laminated pheno- ferred to as locating bearing. they are suit- bearings. The load rating of a bearing reflects its load carrying Lubrication interval capacity. . grease service life of standard greases (see FAG publica- ing catalogues. FAG 188 . This value is assumed if the grease service life for the grease used is not known. mineral oils are most fre- Load rating quently used. light metal or textile lami- radial loads are suitable. Today. for example.synthetic greases consisting of organic or inorganic thickeners and synthetic oils.Glossary Life Locating/floating bearing arrangement Cp. Shafts supported with also for bearings for which – according to DIN 732 – more than two bearings are provided with only one lo- no reference speed is defined. also Bearing life. with – specially designed lubrication – bearing clearance adapted to the operating conditions – accurate machining of the bearing seats – special regard to heat dissipation Load angle The load angle ␤ is the angle between the resultant Lubricating grease applied load F and the radial plane of the bearing. cating bearing.

Penetration. Lhna). Ma- chined cages are also used where lip guidance of the n speed [min–1] cage is required. see Lubricating oil. fits and temperature differences between inner and Where the bearing speed is constant. cleanliness in the lubri- Modified life cating gap. the inertia forces. Nominal rating life The standardized calculation method for dynamically stressed rolling bearings is based on material fatigue (for- mation of pitting) as the cause of failure. apart from the load. Due to tight p = 10/3 for roller bearings and needle roller bearings. A bearing arrangement with a large NLGI class spread is obtained which can accommodate a consider- able tilting moment even with a short bearing dis- Cp. no extreme temperatures. such as light Lh can also be determined by means of the index of dy- metal or textile laminated phenolic resin to minimize namic stressing fL. In the formula. also Synthetic lubricants. 6 Lh10 = Lh = L · 10 [h] lic resin are mainly eligible for bearings of which only n · 60 small series are produced. Large. outer ring the operating clearance is usually smaller pressed in hours. Lip-guided cages for high-speed bear- ings are often made of light materials. Operating clearance C dynamic load rating [kN] There is a distinction made between the radial or axial P equivalent dynamic load [kN] clearance of the bearing prior to mounting and the ra- p life exponent dial or axial clearance of the mounted bearing at oper- p=3 for ball bearings ating temperature (operating clearance). the modified life Lna to take into account. Influences such as lubricating film thickness. The nominal rating life L or Lh applies to bearings made of conventional rolling bearing steel and the usu- Mineral oils al operating conditions (good lubrication. lubricant additives and bearing type are taken into account in the adjusted rating life calculation The standard Norm DIN ISO 281 introduced. the O arrangement influence of the failure probability (factor a1). can be expressed in terms of figures by the factor a23. really attainable life of rolling bearings. of the material (factor a2) and of the operating conditions In an O arrangement (adjusted bearing mounting) two (factor a3). 189 FAG . the life can be ex. With the O arrangement one of the bearing inner rings is adjusted. The life for- mula is: p L10 = L = C ( ) [106 revolutions] P L10 is the nominal rating life in millions of revolutions Oil/oil lubrication which is reached or exceeded by at least 90 % of a large group of identical bearings. by the factor a23. With the FAG calculation process for the at. than the clearance of the unmounted bearing. however. tance. normal cleanliness). dition to the nominal rating life L10. in ad. heavily loaded bear- ings feature machined cages for strength reasons. angular contact bearings are mounted symmetrically in DIN ISO 281 indicates no figures for the factor a23 (a23 such a way that the pressure cone apex of the left-hand = a2 · a3). operating conditions the right-hand bearing points to the right. Crude oils and/or their liquid derivates.Glossary Machined cages of metal and textile laminated pheno. The nominal rating life deviates more or less from the Cp. bearing points to the left and the pressure cone apex of tainable life (Lna. A suitable fit must be selected to ensure dis- placeability of the inner ring.

Worked penetration is the penetration of a PA66-GF25 are made by injection moulding and are grease sample that has been worked. FAG 190 . 3 220..340 extended periods of time. bearings of precision design (precision bear- radial load are stationary relative to each other. a tight fit is not absolutely necessary. The elasticity and low weight of the cages are of advan- tage where shock-type bearing loads. In addition. Moulded cages of glass fibre reinforced polyamide ing grease. For these applications the tolerance classes P6. speeds or quietness of running.. P4 and P2 were standardized. some its seat is minor. the risk of the ring sliding on P5.. precision. Stationary outer ring Rotating outer ring Direction of load rotating ing load" occur. Then the depth of penetra. Both bearing rings must be given a Constant load direction with outer ring tight fit to avoid sliding (cp. The operating viscosity of mineral oils with average viscosity-temperature beha- Weight viour can be determined by means of diagram 1 (page Rotating inner ring Direction of load rotating 185).. Point load Precision bearings/precision design In selecting the fits for the bearing rings of radial bear- ings and angular contact bearings the load conditions In addition to bearings of normal precision (tolerance have to be considered.205 impact on the cage life so that it is important to ob- serve the oil change intervals. Since. Penetration Polyamide cage Penetration is a measure of the consistency of a lubricat.295 additives contained in the oil may reduce the cage life. The operating viscosity ␯ can be determined by means of a viscosity-temperature diagram if the viscosities at two temperatures are known. Stationary inner ring Constant load direction with inner ring For evaluating the lubricating condition the viscosity ratio ␬ (operating viscosity ␯/rated viscosity ␯1) is formed when calculating the attainable life. 2 265. (Penetration classes) 0. In oil-lubricated bearings. conditions of "oscillat. a tight fit P4S. into a grease-filled vessel is measured. Polyamide cages feature very good sliding and dry run- NLGI class Worked penetration ning properties.. at 25 °C... Injection moulding has made it possible to realize cage tion – in tenths of a millimetre – of a standard cone designs with an especially high load carrying capacity. under exactly de. circumferential load ).250 At increased temperatures. bearing types are also produced in the tolerance classes With circumferential load or oscillating load. one ings) are produced for increased demands on working point on the circumference of the ring is always sub. This ring is point-loaded. P6X.1 mm Cages of glass fibre reinforced polyamide 66 can be used at operating temperatures of up to 120 °C for 1 310. Point load Imbalance on outer ring Oscillating load In selecting the fits for radial bearings and angular con- tact bearings the load conditions have to be considered. great accelera- tions and decelerations as well as tilting of the bearing Penetration of common rolling bearing greases rings relative to each other have to be accommodated. If the ring to be fitted and the class PN)..Glossary Operating viscosity ␯ Point load Imbalance on inner ring Kinematic viscosity of an oil at operating temperature. With relative oscillatory motion between the radial Weight load and the ring to be fitted. aged oil may also have an 4 175. SP and UP in accordance with an FAG company is imperative. with point load. fined conditions. used in numerous large-series bearings. standard. jected to the maximum load.

The viscosity ratio ␬ (operating viscosity In angular contact bearings the external forces act. it is defined as the speed at which the reference temperature of 70 °C is established. It depends on the axis where the contact lines of an angular contact bear. modate radial loads. too. speed and can be determined with diagram 2 (page ing intersect. This term is used collectively for balls. Thrust bearings). The (thermal) reference speed is a new index of the speed suitability of rolling bearings. covering a certain range of radial clearance. There is a dif. tem. under zero measuring load. In cases where the limiting criterion for the attainable speed is not the permissible bearing temperature but. not ␯/rated viscosity ␯1) allows the lubricating condition to at the bearing centre. relubrication interval should be shorter than the lubri- cation interval. four- point bearings. lubricating grease C3 radial clearance larger than normal can easily penetrate into the bearing. the refer- Radial bearings ence speed values indicated in the FAG catalogue WL 41 520 now apply equally to oil lubrication and grease Radial bearings are those primarily designed to accom. The of brass. rolling bearings ers. The mounted bearing running at operating temperature. the thermally permis- rating of radial bearings refer to pure radial loads (see sible operating speed is determined. spindle bearings. Rated viscosity ␯1 Pressure cone apex The rated viscosity is the kinematic viscosity attributed The pressure cone apex is that point on the bearing to a defined lubricating condition. bearing speed. each rolling contact with the raceways. Contrary to the past (limiting speeds).Glossary Pressed cage The radial clearance group CN (normal) is such that the bearing. Therefore. barrel rollers. In FAG catalogue WL 41 520 the standardized reference con- ditions are indicated which are similar to the normal operating conditions of the current rolling bearings (exceptions are. they have a nominal contact angle For applications where the operating conditions devi- ␣0 ≤ 45°. but sometimes tions. maintains an adequate operating clearance. but at the pressure cone apex. thrust ball bear- ings). In DIN 732-1 (draft 1994-12). The contact lines are the generatrices of 185) by means of the mean bearing diameter and the the pressure cone. The dynamic load rating and the static load ate from the reference conditions. Relubrication interval ference between the radial clearance of the unmounted bearing and the radial operating clearance of the Period after which the bearings are relubricated. be assessed (see also factor a23). tapered rollers or needle rollers in are assembled into several radial clearance groups. cylindrical roll- perature gradient. 191 FAG . Radial clearance group Rolling elements The radial clearance of a rolling bearing must be adapt- ed to the conditions at the bearing location (fits. barrel roller bearings. speed). lubrication. They are lighter than machined metal other clearance groups are: cages. Since a pressed cage barely closes the gap C2 radial clearance less than normal between inner ring and outer ring. This fact has to be taken into account when calculat- ing the equivalent dynamic load P and the equivalent Reference speed static load P0. cage. by which one bearing ring can be displaced in the radial plane. Radial clearance for example. the strength of the bearing components or the sliding velocity of rubbing seals the limiting The radial clearance of a bearing is the total distance speed has to be used instead of the reference speed. under normal fitting and operating condi- Pressed cages are usually made of steel. for example. It is stored at the C4 radial clearance larger than C3.

instead of the speed cant (usually lubricating grease or lubricating oil ) from n [min–1]. the mean bearing diameter dm [mm] is mainly used for These bearings have a spherical outer ring raceway. Contamination factor V ). 2 Thrust ball bearings with seating rings and S-type D bearing outside diameter [mm] bearings are not self-aligning bearings because they can d bearing bore [mm] compensate for misalignment and deflections only during mounting and not in operation. p 33 1/ fn = 3 ing arrangement (cp. is measured between the bearing centres. cordance with DIN 732-1. single-row angular contact ball bearings. It is determined on the basis of exactly rings require a tight fit. oil viscosity or aligning ball bearings. Generally. While the distance between deep groove ball bearings etc. escaping from the bearing and. 1994-12). g. conditions. felt rings. radial shaft seals. (draft 1994-12). The fatigue life of a bearing is the upper limit of its serv. e. to determine the index of dynamic stressing. spherical roller bearings and spherical roller dm = D + d [mm] thrust bearings. labyrinth seals.Glossary Seals/Sealing Speed factor fn On the one hand the sealing should prevent the lubri. drical roller bearings. The auxiliary quantity fn is used. gap-type seals. where the operating conditions (load. This is of advantage where both bearing reference speed. for determining the thermally permissible op- Non-separable bearings include deep groove ball bear. Often this limit is not reached due to wear or lu- brication breakdown (cp. n A distinction is made between non-rubbing seals (e. for bearings with rubbing seals. shields) and rubbing p =3 for ball bearings seals (e. This limiting criterion takes into account the separately. They are self-aligning ball bearings. Wear. cylindrical roller thrust bearings and erence is made to a method based on DIN 732-2 (draft spherical roller thrust bearings. barrel roller bear- ings. the spread of a machine component sup- ported by two rolling bearings is the distance between the two bearing locations. the maximum attainable speed of rolling bearings is dictated by the permissible operating tem- These are rolling bearings whose rings can be mounted peratures. barrel roller bearings and spheri. The product from the operating speed n [min–1] and alignment as well as shaft and housing deflection. uniform criteria (reference conditions) in ac- Separable bearings include four-point bearings. Speed suitability Separable bearings Generally. permissible temperature) deviate from the reference cal roller bearings. FAG 192 . fL. It √ has a considerable influence on the service life of a bear. tapered roller bearings. on the other hand.g. This is the life during which the bearing operates reliably. Spread ice life. the spread with single-row angular contact ball bearings and tapered roller bearings is the distance between the pressure cone apexes. cylin. thrust In catalogue WL 41 520 “FAG Rolling Bearings” a ref- ball bearings. p = 10 for roller bearings and needle roller bearings 3 Self-aligning bearings Speed index n · dm Self-aligning bearings are all bearing types capable of self-alignment during operation to compensate for mis. self. The limiting speed is indicated also for bearings for Service life which – according to DIN 732 – no reference speed is defined. sealing washers). Grease service life).g. V-rings. defined. erating speed on the basis of the reference speed for cases ings. selecting suitable lubricants and lubricating methods. pre- vent contaminants from entering into the bearing.

600 N/mm2 for self-aligning ball bearings and conditions for the reference speed the thermally permis- 4. Stress index fs* Thickener In the attainable life calculation the stress index fs* re- presents the maximum compressive stress occurring in Thickener and base oil are the constituents of lubricat- the rolling contact areas. see FAG rolling bearing catalogues. i. at the centre of the contact area between the most heavily loaded rolling element and the raceway. with a nominal contact angle ␣0 > 45°. A tandem arrangement consists of two or more angular tionary (no relative movement between the bearing contact bearings which are mounted adjacent to each rings). good V-T behaviour. high oxidation PN) for rolling bearings there are also the tolerance stability. diagrams. P5. calcium) as well as polyurea. Bearings which perform slow slewing motions or ro- tate at a low speed (n < 10 min-1) are calculated like statically stressed bearings (cp. Radial bearings). a total plastic deformation of about 1/10. therefore.Glossary Static load/static stressing Tandem arrangement Static stress refers to bearings carrying a load when sta. ing greases. The method is described in FAG catalogue WL 41 520. their Tolerance class properties can be adapted to meet special require- ments: very low setting point. 193 FAG . g. lithium. the axial force is distributed over all bear- the bearings but not to the effects of the load. the oil viscosity or the 4. Y0 thrust factor (see catalogue) The dynamic load rating and the static load rating of thrust bearings refer to pure thrust loads (cp. other facing in the same direction. classes P6. Static load rating C0 The static load rating C0 is that load acting on a statio- nary rolling bearing which causes. C0 static load rating [kN] P0* equivalent bearing load [kN] Thrust bearings P0* = X0 · Fr + Y0 · Fa [kN] Fr dynamic radial force [kN] Bearings designed to transmit pure or predominantly Fa dynamic axial force [kN] thrust loading. asymmetrically. sible operating speed can be determined by means of C0 values.000 N/mm2 for roller bearings. P6X.200 N/mm2 for all other ball bearings. P4 and P2 for precision bearings. permissible temperature deviate from the reference 4. fs* = C0/P0* PTFE and magnesium aluminium silicate compounds. long life. For Thermally permissible operating speed the normal curvature ratios this value corresponds to a Hertzian contact pressure of about For applications where the loads. The most commonly used thickeners are metal soaps (e. Synthetic lubricants/synthetic oils Lubricating oils produced by chemical synthesis. design angular contact bearings. Dynamic stressing). In addition to the standard tolerance (tolerance class small evaporation losses. An even distribution is achieved with universal- magnitude and direction of the load may change. The ings.000 of the rolling element diameter. relates to the operation of In this way. X0 radial factor (see catalogue) are referred to as thrust bearings.e. The term „static“.

being displaceable. Therefore it is nec- essary to specify the temperature to which any given viscosity value applies. an X arrange- of a fluid (density of mineral oils: 0. The clearance of a SP (super precision) and UP (ultra precision). factor a23. Under the same con- X arrangement ditions. apart also produces rolling bearings in tolerance classes P4S. X or tandem in the bearing if it is not prevented by suitable addi- arrangement. The effective bearing spread in an Viscosity ratio ␬ X arrangement is less than in an O arrangement. being the quotient of the operating viscosity ␯ and the rated viscosity ␯1. It determines the load carrying capacity of the oil film under elastohydrodynamic lubricating conditions. Viscosity-temperature behaviour (V-T behaviour) The term V-T behaviour refers to the viscosity varia- tions in lubricating oils with temperature. The viscosity ratio. The formerly used unit Centistoke (cSt) corre. and that of the right-hand bearing points to the left. One frequent cause of wear are foreign particles which penetrate into a bearing due to insufficient sealing and have an abrasive effect. bearings suffixed UO feature zero axial clear- ance. worn bearing gets too large. cone apex of the left-hand bearing points to the right Viscosity Viscosity is the most important physical property of a lubricating oil. SI units for the kinematic viscosity are m2/s and With an X arrangement. the bearing clearance is ob- mm2/s. This ring should be sponds to the SI unit mm2/s.Glossary The standard of precision increases with decreasing Wear tolerance number (DIN 620). viding good lubrication conditions (viscosity ratio The position of the ring faces relative to the raceway ␬ > 2 if possible) and a good degree of cleanliness in bottom is so closely toleranced that the bearings can be the rolling bearing. FAG 194 . cp. Where ␬ ≤ 0. Bearings suffixed UA are matched together in such a way that unmounted bearing pairs in O or X arrange- ment have a small axial clearance. wear can be considerably reduced by pro- Special design of FAG angular contact ball bearings. two angular contact bearings are bearings are given tight fits the axial clearance of the mounted symmetrically in such a way that the pressure bearing pair is reduced or the preload increased. The nominal viscosity ␯40 of an oil is its kinematic viscosity at 40 °C.4 wear will dominate universally mounted without shims in O. is a measure of the lubricating film development in a bearing. it the product of the kinematic viscosity and the density cannot be fitted tightly (Fits). If the In an X arrangement. Therefore. ment is provided where the outer ring is subjected to point load or where it is easier to adjust the outer ring than the inner ring.9 g/cm3 at 15 °C). tives (EP additives). Viscosity decreases with rising temperature and vice-versa (see V-T behaviour). Therefore. In addition to the standardized tolerance classes FAG The life of rolling bearings can be terminated. as a result of wear. The V-T be- haviour is good if the viscosity varies little with chang- ing temperatures. tained by adjusting one outer ring. from fatigue. The dynamic viscosity is subjected to point load because. and bearings suffixed UL a light preload. Wear is also caused by starved Universal design lubrication and when the lubricant is used up.

Notes 195 FAG .

Notes FAG 196 .


Phone +49 9721 91-0 WL 00 200/6 EA Fax +49 9721 91-3435 . E-Mail FAGinfo@schaeffler. KG correctness of the information contained WL 00 200 / 06 / GB-D / 2012061 / Printed in Germany by kraus in this publication but no liability can be Georg-Schäfer-Straße 30 97421 Schweinfurt accepted for any errors or © Schaeffler Technologies AG & Co. Every care has been taken to ensure the Schaeffler Technologies AG & Co. Germany We reserve the right to make technical Internet www.fag. KG In Germany: Phone 0180 5003872 Issued: changes. June Fax 0180 5003873 This publication or parts thereof may not From other countries: be reproduced without our permission.