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# APPLICATION OF STATISTICAL CONCEPTS IN THE DETERMINATION

## OF WEIGHT VARIATION IN COIN SAMPLES

J. IBAEZ1, H. CASTILLANO1
1
DEPARTMENT OF MINING, METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING, COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DILIMAN, QUEZON CITY, PHILIPPINES
DATE PERFORMED: JANUARY 26,2017
INSTRUCTORS NAME: MICHELIN ANG

## 1. Discuss the significance of mean, 4. Compare the statistical parameters

standard deviation, and confidence limits. obtained for data set 1 with those
Mean is the widely used measure of obtained for data set 2.
central tendency, which is obtained by The means of the the 2 data sets are
dividing the sum of replicate measurements near in value with each other with a
by the total number of measurements in the difference of only 0.00267. The standard
set. It gives the estimate of the dispersion deviation and relative standard deviation of
value. 1, 2 each data set differ from the other by 0.0083
The standard deviation gives the and 1.5457, respectively. However, the spread
measure of the scattering of measurements in values in the two data sets are relatively close
a data set. It is more useful when expressed with a difference of 0.02, while the relative
relative to the mean of the data set. It is the spread for both data sets are the same except
most important statistic (Christian, 2004). for the 0.05 and 0.03 uncertainty.
Confidence limits are the boundaries of
the interval within which the population Table 1. Statistical Parameters for Data
mean is expected to lie with a certain degree Set 1 and Data Set 2
of probability. Parameter DS1 DS2
Mean 5.3461 5.3488
2. What is the importance of using Standard 0.0489 0.0406
Grubbs Test? Deviation
Grubbs test is used to detect the outliers
Relative SD 9.1386 ppt 7.5929
in a data set, which are caused by gross errors.
In any data set, there is one or more outliers.
0.0005 0.0006
Identification of these outliers is relevant
since they may cause bad data and if proven Relative 23.91 0.4% 23.89 0.5%
to be erroneous, they can be rejected from the Spread
set. Grubbs test is one of the proposed tests Confidence 5.35 0.05 5.35 0.03
for detecting outliers.2 It is recommended to Interval
use this test when testing for a single outlier. Pooled SD 0.044

3. What does the pooled standard 5. Enumerate and explain the three
deviation tell us about the measurements? types of experimental error. Give examples
Pooling the data, instead of using only one of each type.
data set, can give a better estimate of the Errors during an experiment is inevitable.
population standard deviation. However, this One or more of these three types of
is only valid if the samples are of the same experimental errors may be encountered
composition and have been through the same during an experiment.
analysis.1, 2 Random error is an error inherent in any

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experiment and cannot be avoided no matter REFERENCES (include at least 3 credible
how careful the experiment is handled. The publications i.e. books or journal articles)
sources of this error cannot be identified, but  Skoog, D.A.; West, D.M.; Holler, F.J.; Crouch,
they are possibly from environmental factors. S.R. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry, 9th
Random error causes the scattering of data ed.; Brooks/Cole: USA, 2014; pp 84-124, G-7.
around a mean value.1 An example of this is a
top loading balance showing some variation  UP Diliman - Institute of Chemistry.
in measurement due to fluctuations in Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Manual
temperature or conditions of loading and 2017 ed.; Institute of Chemistry, UP Diliman:
Systematic error is also an inherent part
of an experiment. However, its sources can be  Christian, Gary. Analytical Chemistry, 6th
identified and controlled to reduce this type ed.; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.: USA, 2004; pp
of error, if not eliminated. Systematic error 74.
causes the mean of a data set to differ from
the accepted value.1 For example, a
thermometer is not calibrated properly and is
off by 5o C.
Gross error differ from the other two
types of error. It causes a result to be either
high or low. This is often caused by human
errors.1 It can be a misreading of a
temperature value in a thermometer, late
detection of color change during titration or
miscalculation in preparing a solution.

## 6. What is the normal or Gaussian

distribution and what are the
requirements for a data set to have this
type of distribution?
A Gaussian distribution is a theoretical
bell-shaped distribution of results that is
obtained for replicate measurements that are
affected by random errors.1 This can be used
if a data set has more than 30 values and are
not heavily skewed.

## 7. Why do we use forceps in handling the

coins?
Weighing is a crucial part of this
experiment but there is a big probability of
error propagation from this due to several
reasons. The use of forceps in handling the
coins is one of the ways to minimize these
errors. If bare hands are used, oils, dirt and
other materials may be transferred to the
coins from the hands of the experimenter,
causing added weight to the original weight of
the coin.

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