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UNIT 13 ALTERNATIVE INTERVENTIONS

Objectives
After studying this unit, you should be able to:
understand the meaning of an OD intervention,
learn the range of OD interventions,
learn deeply a few selected HR based interventions.
Structure
13.1 Introduction
13.2 OD interventions: Nature and Rationale
13.3 Survey Feedback
13.4 Process Consultation
13.5 Confrontation Meetings
13.6 Organizational Mirroring
13.7 Team Building
13.8 T-Group Training
13.9 Role Analysis
13.10 Summary
13.11 Self Assessment Questions
13.12 Further Readings
Appendix 1 : An example of Process Consultancy
Appendix 2 : Team Building Programme - A Case Study
Appendix 3 : Formats for Role Analysis

13.1 INTRODUCTION
During the course of an OD programme there are several occasions in the
organisation to collect data, initiate action, observe processes and provide
feedback. All these activities are planned and carried out jointly between the
change agent and client organisation; and in OD language are called
interventions. Interventions are the action thrust of OD and collectively
comprise the OD strategy in a programme of organisational renewal. A
strategy is basically aimed at developing organisational climate, ways of work
and relationships that will be congruent with the future needs. Needless to say,
specific interventions are designed only after the overall strategy, has been
decided based upon a systematic diagnosis.

13.2 OD INTERVENTIONS :
NATURE AND RATIONALE
OD interventions are sets of structured activities in which selected
organizational units — individuals / groups engage with a task or sequence of
tasks where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational
improvement. Interventions make things happen and are “what’s happening”
(Wendell L. French and Cecil H Bell Jr, 1983).

Intervention is defined as a behaviour which affects the ongoing social
processes of a system (Beckhard, 1969). 1

Organisational
Different experts have tried to classify OD interventions in their own ways and Alternative Interventions
Development and Change
it is not possible here to present all classifications. A few approaches which
have helped in understanding the nature and rationale of interventions are
described as below.
Organizational Cultural
Structure intervention Theory
intervention intervention

Perspective Discrepancy
intervention intervention

OD INTERVENTIONS
Dilemma Procedural
intervention intervention

Experimentation Relationship
intervention intervention

Figure 1 : OD Interventions

1) Robert Blake & Mouton the pioneers of Grid OD, classify
OD interventions in the following categories.
Theory Interventions
Theory and concepts especially in the area of Applied Behavioural Science are
used to explain the behaviour and the underlying assumptions. This provides a
suitable background for understanding some of the behavioural processes
emerging during the interventions.
Discrepency Interventions
Many a times a contradiction, discrepancy or gap is observed in the behaviour
and / or attitude of the people in the organization. In such situations,
discrepancy interventions are used to focus attention and exhibit the matter.
Procedural Interventions
Such interventions focus on the critical appraisal of systems and procedures
indicating how something is being done. This is aimed at examining whether
the best methods / systems have been used.

Relationship Interventions
Inter-personal relationships are crucial in the organizational processes. Such
interventions focus on analyzing the relationships and evolving ways and means
to create conducive relationships.
Experimentation
Before taking a final decision, the proposed changes are tested for knowing
their consequences in a small area. The decisions may be modified or retained
after reviewing the results/ outcomes.
Dilemma Interventions
In dilemma interventions, an imposed or emergent dilemma is used to enable
close examination of the possible alternatives involved and the assumptions
underlying them.
Perspective Interventions
These are aimed at drawing attention away from immediate actions and
demands, and allow a look at the historical background, context and future
objectives in order to assess whether or not the actions are still functional.
2

Organizational Structure Interventions
By examination and evaluation, structural causes for organizational
ineffectiveness are identified and suitable interventions made under such
interventions.
Cultural Interventions
Such interventions help in examining the traditions, precedents and practices
existing in the organization’s culture and appropriate efforts are made to bring
desired changes.

2) Blake & Mouton further developed a typology called Consulcube, a 100-
cell cube depicting all consultation situations. The three dimensions of the
cube are —
What the consultant does:— the type of interventions consultants use:
– Interventions used to give client a sense of worth, value,
acceptance and support - acceptant.
– Interventions for helping the client generate data and information in
order to restructure the client’s perceptions - catalytic.
– Interventions for pointing out the value / attitudinal discrepancies in
the client’s beliefs and actions - confrontation.
– The interventions telling the client what to do to solve the problem -
prescription.
– Interventions used for teaching the client relevant behavioural
science theory so that the client can learn to diagnose and solve his
or her own problems.
The focal issues causing the client’s problems.
– Power - authority
– Morale / cohesion
– Norms / Standards of conduct
– Goals and objectives etc.
The targets of change
– Individual
– Group
– Inter group
– Organization and larger social systems.
3) Another simple approach to classification is based on the focus on
i) Individual - group; and
ii) Task process.
Individual - group:– the interventions are aimed at individual learning,
insight and skill building.
Task - Process:– The interventions focus on task, what is being done or
Process – How it is accomplished? How people relate to each other and
what processes and dynamics are occurring ?
4) Another way of classification is HR based interventions, Techno- structural
Interventions and Socio-technical interventions. In the table given below all
the interventions except those in italics are HR based interventions.
5) If all the approaches are combined together, OD interventions can be
classified into the following typology may be with some overlaping.

3

— Process Consultation. Being a Behavioural science based approach. It is very difficult to describe the interventions. 4 .Organisational Table 1 : HR Based Interventions Alternative Interventions Development and Change Individual. OD efforts ideally take care of all aspects of growth and development.II * Ph III * Ph IV. Dyads/ Teams Inter Total Triads Groups Group Organization Role Analysis * * T-Group (Sensitivity Trg) * * Education & Training & Development * * * * Job Enrichment * * Grid OD * Ph I * PhI.healthy and dynamic organization. In this unit. This enhances the self-renewing ability of the organizations. A few of these interventions have been described with the help of actual examples also. because variations are common. It is a medium to long term intervention.V. hence no magic in the short term should be expected. a proper balance and interrelationship between OD(HRD) efforts and strategic management efforts should be ensured to have a growing. OD is essentially a Behavioural Science based approach. — Team building. — T-Group training. career planning * OD has tremendous potential — it may encompass all change efforts and enhance the competence of the organization in facing challenges. The interventions discussed here are: — Survey feedback. However. therefore human process interventions are the core OD interventions. — Confrontation meetings. Some of these interventions are quite unique but many have some overlap with others. developing internal resource person assumes top priority.VI Transactional Analysis * * Process Consultation * * * * * Third party peace making * Team Building / (Task or Process focused) * * Survey Feedback * * * Socio technical system * Techno-structural activities * Confrontation meetings * * * Organizational Mirroring * * Strategic Planning Activities * Life planning. Each of the interventions have been briefly described below. and — Role analysis. developing . — Organizational mirroring. an attempt has been made to present the salient of some of the commonly used Human Process interventions.

It was decided to cover all executives working in different departments at the Head Office.0 to 20 . Organizational norms develop gradually and informally as the employees learn what behaviours are necessary for the group to function more effectively.3 SURVEY FEEDBACK This is the most widely used OD intervention involving data collection (through questionnaire). The Consultant. Poor 20 to 40 . Very good 60 and above .10 to 0 . Exceptional 5 . it was decided to go for a standard questionnaire (Organizational Norms Opinionnaire developed by Marks Alexander). The steps are described below with an example. redesigned questionnaires are commonly used. prioritization of issues and planning of further activities. Positive norms support organization’s goals and objectives and negative norms have the opposite effect.40 to . analysis and feedback of findings to the organizational members. In the present example. Low negative . ii) Deciding Objectives (purpose of the survey) and Scope of the Survey Before conducting the survey. Very negative .40 and below . He called an internal OD facilitator who advised to go for a preliminary diagnostic intervention to know the perceptions of executives on certain important dimensions. There were 42 one line statements in the questionnaire covering the 10 dimensions of norms. the managers and employees are provided with analysis of data collected from them for better diagnosis. The following scale was used for interpretation. . the Personnel Chief at the Head Office of a large multi unit company was keen on improving the organizational climate.” The study was confined to Executives working in various departments of the Head office. Extremely negative . Good 40 to 60 . Through Survey feedback.20 to . i) Feeling the Need of the Survey A feedback survey is conducted after some significant person feels the need of identifying and understanding the problem.20 .10 . the responses were scored on the basis of the key. iii) Selection of Instrument (Questionnaire) Normally data is collected through questionnares (instruments which are designed specifically) since design and testing of a questionnare is a complex task needing high expertise. ‘Norms’ (oughts of behaviour) are the behaviours which are considered to be acceptable behaviours as prescribed by groups and organizations. client and his representatives meet together and discuss different aspects. In this study the main objective of the Survey was defined as “To find out the perceptions of the executives on various dimensions of organizational norms with the aim of identifying areas for improvement of organizational environment. it is essential to decide and clarify the objective of the survey. Moderately negative .13. Considering the likelihood of debate on the validity of questionnaire. Alexander has tried to enable the understanding of environment on the basis of the organizational norms. In this instrument.

Customer & Client Relationships G AA + 37. Performance & Excellence G BA + 21. Wherever the population is large. Leadership & Supervision G BA + 27. In actual report the same for different departments were also shown in different tables. The response was over 40%. Candor & Openness G BA + 27. The score above 40% has been achieved only in case of Colleagues and Associate Relationship norms.86 3. This means all the norms support the organization’s goals and objectives and are able to foster behaviour directed towards achievement of the desired goals.69 2. The questionnaires were collected back from who had responded. secondary sources etc. a) Ranking and Relative Status Frequency Distribution for the whole division is shown in Table 2. After scoring. Colleague & Associate Relationships VG AA + 43.100 to + 100. Profitability & Cost Effectiveness G BA + 27. Emails.Very Good G . Organizational & Personal Pride P BA + 17. semi structured questionnaires.04 Note : VG . the data was analysed by the internal consultant to find out the status and patterns. 6 .Above Average BA . on the basis of which the average score for individual norms have been evaluated as AA and BA.46 10. Alternative Interventions Development and Change iv) Methodology of Data Collection A variety of methods are used for data collection— interviews. The highlights of findings (at the H.06 4.Poor AA.Good P . statistical sampling methods are used to determine the sample size. In this survey. EDs). workshops. In the later type. Team Work & Communication G BA + 26. it is difficult to understand the dimensions of data collection.4 5. Innovativeness & Creativity G AA + 34. but the range of the overall scores vary from 17.69.Organisational The theoretical range of scores was from . The average of the two (mean) scores comes out to be 30.42 9.Below Average The above table shows that all the norms perceived by the employees are positive in nature.39 6.15 7. it was decided to serve the questionnaire personally to all executives in the Head Office except the Top Management (Directors.) level are given below.04 to 43.O. Training & Development G BA + 26. v) Scoring and Summary of Findings Some questionnaires are direct and some concealed type.69 8. Table 2 : Frequency Distributions Norm Average Score 1. It also gives some framework for interpretation.365. hence scoring key with instruction is used.

d) Not so Strong Norms The remaining four dimensions i. where rewards are based on objectively assessed performance. he can do new experiments and implement things. it is not very good. Overall rating of this norm is ‘Poor’ and ‘Below average’. it will go a long way in achieving corporate objectives. iii) The third higher ranking is of ‘Innovativeness & Creativity’. ii) The ‘Profitability and Cost Effectiveness’ has been evaluated as ‘Good’ but the score is below average. This shows that supervisors are seen as helpers. This also indicates that the employees feel a lack of compatibility between their own and organizational ‘needs’. This shows that strong interpersonal relations exist in the organization. but it needs to be further improved. ‘Profitability & Cost Effectiveness’. ‘Customer & Client Relationship’ and ‘Innovativeness & Creativity’ have been perceived as strongest positive norms in descending order. For a reputed organization. Leadership & Supervision style and Reward system may have important bearing on this. It shows that to a large extent. The positive score shows that there is a good climate to encourage people to save money and reduce costs. The high concern for customer & client satisfaction is a very healthy sign for the company and if sustained and increased. ‘Leadership and Supervision’. One hypothesis may be drawn that on a ‘personal’ level relationships are very good and cordial but when the question of working together comes. The next weak dimension is of ‘Performance and Excellence’ (9th). but the relatively low ranking of Team work raises some questions. This indicates a poor identification with or sense of belongingness in the organization. there is a great scope or need to improve the quality of Leadership & Supervision. People see threats in sharing the feelings & information freely and openly. 7 .b) Strong Norms The ‘Colleague & Associate Relationship’. trainers and developers but to a lesser (varying) degree. i) ‘Leadership and Supervision’ has been perceived as ‘Good’ but the score is ‘below average’. In a climate. the quest for excellence or improvement is weak. ‘Good’ and ‘Below average’.e. This also shows the presence of ‘we-they’ attitude. i) The overall rating of the colleagues & associates relationships has come as ‘Very Good’ and the scores are ‘Above Average’. The reward system is specifically under question mark. iii) The organizational norm on ‘Candor and Openness’ has also been similarly placed i. ii) The second very positive norm has been identified as customer & client relationships.e. ‘Candor and Openness’ and ‘Training and Development’ fall in between. Therefore. This may have very wide ramifications. Efforts for planned change have a good potential of success. it should be a matter of concern. This shows that the environment of trust does not prevail to a greater degree. c) Weak Norms One of the most striking findings is the lowest position (10th) of ‘Organisational & Personal pride’. but since the overall score is only ‘Good’ such efforts may not succeed without sufficient preparation in raising awareness & breaking the inertia. people value this dimension. This shows that the behaviour of striving towards productivity and quality is not strong but in other words. If somebody has the will and desire. original activities and creative behaviour are considered important in the organization.

The Alternative Interventions Development and Change overall scoring of 26. After the presentations. . The Consultant gave a brief presentation on OD and Organizational Environment. Department wise and level wise analysis was also carried out and findings were also given. Some improvement would have been initiated in some corners only by the effect of listening the findings of the survey. v) Presentation of Feedback A meeting of the representatives from various departments along with the senior / top level executives was convened in the Conference Hall. He gave a brief talk on ‘how to give and receive effective feedback’ to prepare a climate of positive listening and exploration . This helped in creating a non-defensive (Supportive) climate before presentation of the findings.Organisational iv) The 7th rank has been received by ‘Training and Development’. The methodology of data collection and sampling plans also need be decided professionally. The samples should be 8 statistically valid. there was a consensus to work for improvement on certain dimensions especially those. He also talked about some of the challenges the company was facing and the need of improvement. He encouraged the participants for free and frank interaction and presented the highlights of the findings. vii) Follow up A core group of 3 Senior level managers from 3 different departments was constituted for follow up action. Concluding Remarks Designing instrument for Survey feedback is the most important task and should be carried out only by trained persons. Department level findings created much interaction and concern – many defensive responses started pouring in but were nicely facilitated leading to acceptance and exploration. They had a sigh of relief by observing that ‘Colleague and Associate Relationship’ was at the top although the score was not very high. and indicates that there is encouragement of training and development activities to some extent. which have been placed in the lower ranks. Many expressed their shock on ‘Organizational and Personal Pride’ and ‘Performance Excellence’ taking the lowest rank. The Survey feedback workshop served as an effective intervention because the awareness of the status and implication raised a lot of interest and desire for improvement. They selected: Organizational and personal pride Performance and Excellence Team work and Communication Training and Development vi) Action Planning Four Cross functional teams were constituted for preparing the recommendations and action plan to be presented in another workshop 4 weeks later: One of the suggestions was to prepare a hand book giving ‘helpful’ and ‘restraining’ practices for each of the norms.69 shows the presence of positive norms in the division.

Process Consultation is a set of activities on the part of the Consultant. apprehensions. 9 . Developing a process based relationship with the personnel involved. they are helped to diagnose the nature. Enhancing problem solving abilities of the client so that they are able to solve their problems. According to Schein. dimensions and extent of the problems and evolve their own solutions. role changes etc. Interventions aimed at helping individuals / groups to observe and process their own data. Interventions aimed at problem identification and analysis (diagnosis). Process consultancy is different from other models of consultancy and have following distinguishing characteristics: Facilitation of communication — a free and frank exchange of information and expression of feelings. leadership. An example of process consultation is given in Appendix 1.4 PROCESS CONSULTATION According to Schein. techniques etc. etc. and act upon the process events occurring in the client’s environment.Standard questionnaires should be used if adequate expertise for questionnaire design is not there. The presentations should be designed and organized in an effective manner. Coaching and counseling also are frequently used. fears by the clients and his personnel. understand. Interventions aimed a structural measures like job allocation. Interventions aimed at giving feedback. Process Consultants do not give solutions (contents.) themselves but emphasise on and facilitate behavioural processes to enable the clients come out with their own solutions. subject matter. the organizational processes such as communication. group norms. rather on the basis of observations of functioning of the group. learn giving and receiving feedback and solve the problems. 13. Process Consultancy is useful when (i) the client experiences the effect (symptoms) but is not aware of the problems (ii) he does not know what specific help is required (iii) he understands that problems are attitudinal and behavioural but is not able to intervene and (iv) the client is motivated to learn and develop problem solving abilities in himself/his people. problem solving and role and functions are of primary concern in Process Consulting. which helps the client to perceive. The findings should be developed only after in depth analysis of the collected data. Develop open and authentic relationships with clients and their people. a variety of interventions may be used in Process Consulting: Interventions aimed at making the group sensitive to its processes and enhance their interest in analysing the problems. Generally. A Survey feedback session motivates the listeners to come together and work for problem solving and improvement. Expert help (solutions to problems) is not directly provided to the clients.

Making a follow up and implementation plan and formal communication in this regard.) of an organization to collect the perception of other relevant sections of the organization with the aim of improving its performance. 7) Facilitating the participants to collectively select a few problems for solution. For this a Consultant (in this case internal) was invited . Technological etc. 5) Distributing copies of problems to be given to each participant and using an appropriate method. Different techniques may be used for problem identification. Generally such meetings are of 6-8 hours duration but depending upon the nature of problems. This intervention is very simple and needs a good internal or external facilitator.Organisational Alternative Interventions 13. prioritization of alternative solutions and choice of appropriate solution etc. 9) Convening the groups and making presentations by each group.6 ORGANIZATIONAL MIRRORING This is an intervention. 13. 10) Getting the approaches and solutions examined by the top management and getting their decision on future course of action . free and frank in communication. 1) Convening a meeting of representatives of all departments in the organization. and giving a brief presentation on the need and importance of problem identification and working for solution in groups. image and relationships with other sections. The climate building is crucial for success because a conducive environment will encourage the participants to give their ideas without any fear. generation of alternative solutions. Confrontation meeting can be held for Department / Function level and/or organization problems identification and solution. The typically used steps have been indicated as given below. 2) Assuring and motivating the participants to be open. Structural. 4) Convening all groups together and make presentations of the identified problems. this OD intervention is used for identifying and prioritising problems in organizations and beginning the working on the solution of the problems by involving many people. In a large multi unit company the Corporate Personnel Department wanted to know the perception of the unit Personnel Department and a few other 10 significant departments. Problems are classified into different groups such as Human. which is used by a section (department / function etc.5 CONFRONTATION MEETINGS Development and Change Originally developed by Beckhard. 3) Dividing participants in small groups (5-7) and asking them to identify problems which are inhibiting their own and organizational performance. 8) Dividing participants into groups according to the classification and nature of the problems and assigning them time to bring an approach for solution (or solution) with an action plan. 6) Prioritising the problems involving the entire participants arranging and synthesizing the problems for more meaningful understanding. may be of longer durations having a few days gap between two meetings if one is not adequate. Incorporating modification wherever required. 11) Preparing follow up plan. Economical.

consensus was 11 . By turns each group shared their perception. From Corporate Personnel. a core group was constituted which identified key issues and presented to the whole group. the hosts summarised and divided the main themes of perceptions in three parts: a) positive perceptions (appreciation) b) negative perceptions and c) main expectations (from Corporate Personnel) Once again. the head along with group leaders and a few others were the hosts. Members also interacted with each other in a controlled manner. the members of other groups were made to sit.and briefed. Thereafter. He assured that all the perceptions and impressions will be taken in a real positive way and requested to give free and frank opinion. objective and should be prepared keeping in view the requisites of effective feedback. The Consultant had separately interviewed some representatives of each of the client group including the host group and collected relevant information regarding expectations from host group and their perceptions about the host group. Once the issues were discussed. After 40 minutes. the Head of the Corporate Personnel welcomed all representatives and explained that the Corporate Personnel wanted to bring in improvement in their performance and satisfaction of the internal customers. In case of confusion. After completion of sharing by every group. the host group was seeking clarification. With the help of the Consultant and senior executives of Corporate Personnel. all groups were called in the hall and the representatives of Corporate Personnel (group leaders) sat in the Centre and around them. the total participants were divided into 4 groups by the Consultant and every group was asked to identify and prioritize issues / areas of improvement of the performance of Corporate Personnel. The Consultant divided the representatives in 7 groups and asked them to discuss and bring out their perceptions about functioning of the Corporate Personnel covering both the positive and negative aspects. the groups were once again convened and presentations were made by the representatives of each group. He also emphasised that the perceptions should be data based. The host group requested outside groups to tell them their perceptions. a few significant clients (customers) of Corporate Personnel Department were identified — – Corporate Finance – Personnel Department of Major Units – Personnel Department of a few sites – Shop Floor (Production) Deptt. – Training Department – Trade Union representatives Representatives (2-3 from each of these departments) were invited for a Workshop on a specified date. In the beginning of the Workshop. After 30 minutes. A person was assigned the task of noting down the points on white board. The host groups were also asked to bring out their perception of their own performance.

Inter-team people focus — with team(s) outside the organization. 13. The facilitator (Consultant) intervenes for creating a conducive. and People or Relationship aspects: How do the members feel while interacting and working with each other? How do they communicate with each other? How do they respond? Who is trying to dominate any leadership issues? Are there conflicts? How conflicts are resolved? The ‘Task aspects’ are covered by ‘Content’ aspects and ‘People or Relationship aspects’ by ‘Process’ aspects. Sometimes. and Inter team people focus – within the organization A team may have interactions with team(s) external to the organization like: Inter-team task focus — with team(s) outside the organization. making process observations to make group process more effective and crystallizing the issues. Thus. Depending upon the diagnosis.Organisational arrived at and an action plan was prepared for implementation. non-threatening climate. 12 methodologies are chosen. There are a variety of approaches but generally content based approaches. The method Alternative Interventions Development and Change used in this exercise is a simple example of ‘Organizational Mirroring. clarifications and strengthening perceptions. the theme and competence of the facilitator. Team building programmes under OD efforts are carried out using interventions for release of pent up emotions. Any team exists in environment and has interaction with several other teams within and outside the organization. Thus there are two important aspects in the working of any team: Task aspect: What is to be achieved or carrying out and the related aspects. resolution of conflicts. Inter team task focus – within the organization. Thus the teams may have different issues/ processes within the organization and focus may also be different like: Intra-team task (content) focus. ‘Problem Solving’ approach is used in . team building issues have a wider implications and all aspects should be explored while deciding interventions. A team is widely understood as a group of people working together to accomplish common goals. Intra team people (process) focus. eliciting desired information.’ ‘Organizational mirroring’ intervention is very effective in improving performance and optimising the inter-departmental / inter-functional relationships. problem solving and concept based approaches and strengths for bringing synergy. It takes different forms and emphasises different aspects depending on the need and expertise of the Consultant and Trainer. process based approaches and mixed approaches are used. confrontations involving examination of one’s own and others’ assumptions.7 TEAM BUILDING ‘Team building’ is the most commonly used OD intervention.

Various approaches are also being used to design such programmes. Such experiences create less hostility. The use of process-based interventions in Team Building programmes is increasing. Here the design of a ‘Team building’ programme conducted for a leading 2-wheeler manufacturer is being outlined briefly. The group evolves like a laboratory where learning takes place mainly through experiencing.” Parth Sarathi. The group does not have any pre-determined agenda and evolves its own agenda over the time. group dynamics and leadership. auditing and developing Human Resources. inter-personal relationships. An experience is narrated in Appendix 2. which is conducive to discovery through the data generated in the group. it is available in the book “Planning. how they are perceived by others etc. 13 . Some programmes are organised as a sequel to diagnostic exercises or as a part of on-going OD activities and others as independent events. the batch-size (of maximum 10 participants) and the programme duration (minimum 5 days ) impose a serious limitation on using this methodology. indicating the strong or weak dimensions of team working are of great help in designing short-duration team building workshops. 13. learning and refreezing stages. which shows how ‘structured experiences’ supported by instruments and facilitated through process skills can make the need based ‘Team Building programme’ for Engineers truly effective. This is also primarily known as Sensitivity training and is a training approach based on experiential learning. In a group. raise the feelings and provide suitable opportunities for making appropriate interventions at the de freezing. The use of process based ‘Structured experiences’ along with appropriate instruments in Team Building programmes helps in overcoming these constraints to a great extent. give desired pace of movement to the group. It is believed that ‘Team Building’ programmes based on T-group methodology are most effective. Prior diagnostic exercises. The structured experiences are able to simulate the real life situation. as such only accredited facilitators should facilitate programmes. As a result of phenomenon increase in the awareness of the benefits of ‘Team Work’ many organizations are organising training programmes on ‘Team Building’. around 10-12 participants assemble together and work with a facilitator to discover something about themselves — their strengths. Such experiences may be designed or adapted from ‘Structured experiences’ available in some books.8 T-GROUP TRAINING Introduction T-Group (Training Group) is a small unstructured group in which the participants learn from their own inter-actions and evolving dynamics about issues pertaining to inter-personal relations. Another important constraint is the duration of the programme. The proceedings of this programme presents an in-depth explanation. create a situation where all participants are involved and facilitate giving and receiving feedback effectively. reflecting.team building intervention where the team / teams are facing some difficult problem. participation in the group. however. The participants act as a resource to each other and help in creating a climate. One major parameter for the choice of interventions is the orientation of the HRD Head / Consultant or the faculty engaged for such programmes. Another constraint is the availability of professional T-Group Trainers. styles.

the person becomes more spontaneous. Increase ability to transform the learning into action etc. Enhance the understanding and awareness of group and inter-group processes. This leads to team building interventions (Interpersonal and organizational focus). feelings and actions). T-Group Training normally adopts two paths (directions): i) To gain deeper understanding about self and personal growth (inter-personal focus). processes that facilitate and inhibit group effectiveness. Discover one’s dormant potential to live more effectively and meaningfully. Enhance the understanding and awareness about others’ behaviour (thoughts. gain insights into one’s own behaviour and its impact on others including the ways in which these are interpreted by others. Alternative Interventions Development and Change The individual is encouraged to express oneself and increase one’s personal and inter-personal effectiveness in the group setting. group and organizational levels. This causes decrease in defensive behaviour and clarity in perception. experimenting and conceptualising rather than through lectures. 14 . Benefits of T-Group Training The benefits of T-Group training may be enumerated at individual. The internal locus of control gets strengthened and the motivation to make efforts for achieving individual and organizational goals increases. One is able to look into and examine his self-concept realistically and takes appropriate steps for strengthening it. Individual Level Many benefits of undergoing T-Group training have been reported and observed at the individual level. The stress level decreases and thus the physical and mental health increases. Increasing diagnostic skills in inter-personal and inter-group situations. The willingness to change and coping abilities increase. and ii) to explore group dynamics and relationship between members. With the venting out of feelings bottled since long. and is able to own up his feelings. tension free and is able to perceive things in more unbiased manner.Organisational hypothesizing. The following are some of the objectives frequently set for T-Groups: Enhance understanding about self. Improve one’s effectiveness in inter-personal situations so as to derive greater satisfaction from them. Experimentation of new behaviours initiated during the lab. The hopefulness increases. This enhances self-esteem. Objectives Every T-Group is organised with some objectives. The capability to explore options increases and therefore the decision-making becomes more effective. Identify and develop greater awareness of behavioural processes associated with one‘s life. the latent strengths and limitations become known which result in realistic and achievement oriented goal setting. He becomes more sensitive to himself.

members become very active. The leaders in various sectors who are instrumental in influencing and developing others will be especially benefited. a leadership agenda may be created and the group keeps on struggling to work and its own methods for proceeding further. It becomes easy to praise and give positive feedback to others. Health Services. Since the self-disclosure increases. and aggressive and sometimes there a long patches of silence. and enhanced self-esteem. team. the group generates “here and now data for learning experiences”. reduce the hostility towards others and receive feedback from others in a positive manner. Sometimes. empathy and assertiveness. There may be spells of silence. The change interventions are better appreciated and if a large number of persons have undergone this training. There are some Management Institute where the Postgraduate students compulsorily undergo T-Group training or Human Processes Labs or Personal Growth Lab. Total Quality Management. A Brief Outline of Working of T-Group There are 8-12 members (participants) in a T-Group. Organization development. This is one of the most effective interventions for Self Development / Personal Growth and is useful to all persons irrespective of their education or level in the organizational hierarchy. The assertiveness (concern for self) and cooperativeness (concern for others) undergo enhancement resulting in collaborative behaviour. the participant start inter-acting with each other. Social Work and Industry. the capability to cope with future challenges increases. It is essential for those who are in the role of facilitators in various organizational efforts such as . Aggression and defensiveness decrease which help in developing better relationships and increased influence. involved. The T-Group Training is not beneficial to Corporate Sector alone. All these aspects facilitate personal growth and effective inter-personal relations. Persons who are finding it painful and difficult to cope with the inter-personal. Quality Circle. It should not be misunderstood that this training is useful for Trainers/HRD Professionals only. The facilitator remains a member of the group and makes different types of interventions depending upon the purpose of the laboratory. To start with the Trainer (called facilitator) informs the group that he is a member and a resource to the group and after brief introduction vanishes into silence. Business Process Re-engineering. Hostility reduces and new and better ideas become available. trust realisation and inter-dependence which helps in creation of a conducive climate where everybody strives for realizing his potential. withdrawal and sulking. family. Over dependence and counter dependence reduce and inter-dependence increases. one is able to get more feed back which keeps on increasing the arena (open) resulting in creation of a trusting and open relationship with others. social or organizational set-up will experience this training as a unique opportunity. People want to work together and thus the teamwork improves. the leadership styles become more effective.Inter-personal Level Due to increase in the insights to understand others. Whatever goes on. communication with other persons becomes supportive resulting in productive relationships. his own style and 15 . Individual members try out different roles successfully or unsuccessfully as the group struggles with procedures. Productivity Circles etc. it has been observed to be equally effective for persons engaged in the areas of Education.HRDI. Due to increase in the influencing ability. Organizational Level T-Group training increases openness.

individuals undergo tremendous emotional pressure and turbulence and the bottled feelings find a venting out in the form of intensive emotional outbreaks. He manages group by providing opportunities. supportive and caring atmosphere where all members and facilitator are at the same level . He helps them in processing and also occasionally in inferring and in this own way. d) People’s learning is optimised when they establish authentic relationships with others. and e) The development of new skills (in working with people) is maximised as they examine the basic values. facilitate release of strong pent - 16 .publishing . This facilitates greater insights into their own and others behaviour and understanding of group dynamics.generalising .is created which ultimately enhances experimentation. The individual gets a unique experience. A facilitator is a process guide and makes a process easier or more convenient and guides the group towards a destination. which brings in clarity in their thoughts and feelings. c) Learning is largely a combination of experiences and conceptualisation and uses the experiential learning cycle: “experiencing . The facilitator. practice new behaviours and obtain feedback. through his interventions.processing .applying - experiencing ……….”. They are able to perceive and respond more clearly and objectively. T-Group Trainer A T-Group Trainer is called a ‘facilitator’. direction. behaviours and impact of the behaviour on themselves and others. generalising the inferences (learning) and then applying it again and again. He ensures that the members understand the contents and processes actively and encourages them to reflect. He may have to stimulate / manage the emotions by challenging and confronting. alternatives. It is difficult to enumerate the roles of a facilitator. An open. interpret and explain what they are thinking and feeling. sharing of data (thoughts and feelings and actions). the facilitator may also have similar experiences. In such situations. The facilitator does not teach them and never imposes his decisions. Some Basic Assumptions T-Group function under few assumptions : a) Learning is the responsibility of participants..Organisational the stages / processes within the group. observation. their feelings. processing of data with others for driving inferences. Many a times. become aggressive. One of the initial challenges in the role of the facilitator is his own leveling with the participants they should consider him a member of the group and not on a higher pedestal. gives meaning to their experiencing. The members are desired from Alternative Interventions Development and Change bringing outside data and emphasizes on here and now data. excited and in the state of emotional turbulence quite often. b) The role of trainer is to facilitate the examination and understanding of the experiences in the group. angry. sad. encourages members to understand what is going on in the group. the role of facilitator in handling his own and others’ feelings become critical. setting standards and directing the communication. Members get emotionally charged. acquire concepts and theories.

who have undergone even one Laboratory (Basic Human Process Laboratory) have acquired some basic process competency and developed reasonable insights for understanding self and others. Most of the Line Managers. Indian Society for Applied Behavioural Science is the only Organization in India which develops accredited T-Group Trainers through different stages of a systematic programme.Phase B (2 Weeks) 5) Internship (2 Weeks) A lot of inter-phase work is to be completed before progressing to the next stage right after stage No. a conducive group atmosphere will have to be created. It is an indispensable intervention for Team Building and OD. Thus. In order to ensure that all these happen. Conducting T-Group Labs by non-accredited facilitators may not only jeopardize the effectiveness but also cause immense harm to the others. Developing Facilitators Becoming a facilitator needs a lot of vigour and time.this has contributed tremendously in managing change. ISABS has so far not produced more than 100 facilitators. There are many organizations who have achieved their turn around. There are many individuals who have come out of their agonies. which would encourage venting out of bottled feelings. have become more proactive.Phase A (2 Weeks) 4) Professional Development Programme . their relationship with others has increased and they have become better team leaders/members. becoming facilitator is a tedious and time-consuming project. frustration and stagnation and are facing the challenges of life happily and successfully after undergoing process training. persuasiveness. 17 . HRD professionals with process competencies have been found to have a definite edge over others who have not acquired such competencies. Concluding Remarks T-Group training. The progression to next stages is based on evaluation and recommendation. 2.up emotions and playing a catalyst for interactions. The stages for being an accredited T-group trainer (facilitator) are: 1) Basic Human Process Laboratory (One Week) 2) Advances Human Process Laboratory (One Week) 3) Professional Development Programme . are some of the other benefits which have been reported. in spite of its limitations is spreading fast. He has to design and use a variety of interventions. T-Group is the basic process training. and facilitate a free and frank sharing. growth development and self renewal through process based interventions.. leadership effectiveness. Increase in the coping skills. and therefore T-Group training has become one of the most important training outputs for them. assertiveness. At the organizational level . stress relieving etc. which makes a facilitator. relationship building is another important role of facilitator. Many of the ex-participants have reported that they are facilitating HRD / OD / TQM / BPR initiatives more successfully after undergoing these laboratories. There is no academic qualification. dispelling apprehensions. One of the severe limitation of T-Group training is availability of competent and Accredited Facilitators.

productive activities. Dr. TV Rao have clarified a few related terms. the role definition is different from job description. A ‘role’ is the pattern of behaviour expected by others from a person occupying a certain position in an organizational hierarchy. Work . values. ambitions. should be initiated after ensuring the support of Top Management. a position or ‘office’ becomes a ‘role’ when it is defined by various expectations from that position. Udai Pareek and Dr. and therefore. According to them.9 ROLE ANALYSIS Development and Change Role analysis is a technique used for clarifying and prioritising the expectations of significant ‘role senders’ from a ‘role occupier/holder’. Decision to carry out Role Analysis Constitution of the Core Task Force Selection of Persons/ Positions for Role Analysis Constitution of Specific Task Forces Identification of Role Sender Collection of Role expectations and preparation of Summary Identifying Key Performance Identification of Areas (Role Definition) Competencies required for the role Identification of Gaps in capabilities Plans and activities for development Figure 1: Role Analysis : Block Diagram Decision to Carry Role Analysis ‘Role Analysis’ is a complex exercise affecting many persons and activities.a point in an organization structure. Job . Thus. Success of an individual in a role largely depends upon the clarity of objectives. . and ‘role senders’ are those persons who have some significant expectations from the role occupier. A ‘role holder’ is a person occupying a role.basic element of a job. Role analysis helps in establishing this clarity. growth. environmental instability are some of the factors determining a role. An approach for conducting role analysis has been given in this unit. Personal qualities. Some terms commonly used in this context are: Task . the latter is static and impersonal but role definition is dynamic and personal. motivations. Some important aspects to be divided are: 18 – Coverage in terms of function and level.a module of work. perceptions. The block diagram shown in Figure 1 can be referred for knowing various stages.Organisational Alternative Interventions 13. and Position . role tasks expected (in a position) by self and others.

* All the formats are appended at the end of the unit in Appendix 3. Role senders are those persons who have some work related expectations from the position or role. c) Changes in delegation of powers. A summary for each of the positions/roles will be prepared in format No.02 after resolving the discrepancies and discussions with the role senders and their superior. For each of the positions/roles. – Commitment for a) Budgets and resources.– Time frame for conducting the studies. – Identification and training of internal resource persons. For multi unit organizations. Identification of Role Senders For each of the positions selected for role analysis. role senders should be identified. it is essential to constitute a Core task force. Constitution of Specific Task Forces Depending upon the coverage. colleagues. if required. b) Development/updating of systems/procedures. a separate core task force will be constituted. The job descriptions of the executives / managers (positions selected as above) will be carefully prepared. the main functions/activities required to be carried out by the concerned role occupier will be outlined and prioritized in the format No 02. work instructions. This ‘Core task force’ should bear the approval of the top management and consist of members from different functions. A list of role senders for each of the positions selected should be prepared. This will indicate the main work areas and responsibilities for each of the position. as such. A copy of this format should be sent to all the role senders identified for that position. – Engagement of consultant. and – The Core Task Force Coordinator. Thus. The role senders will be requested to send the filled up format by the specified date. Selection of Positions / Persons for Role Analysis Role analysis exercise preferably should be conducted for top / senior level positions in the beginning and gradually it can come down to lower levels of management. 01) will be prepared for each of the positions/roles to be studied. Task forces should be constituted with some members from the Corporate Task Force and some from the concerned area and important interfacing area. staff numbers and place of posting. Constitution of the Core Task Force The role analysis exercise should always be carried out by a group of managers. specific task forces should be constituted for carrying out the Role analysis activities in specific levels / positions. the formats duly filled up by the role senders will be collected and the task force members will discuss the same. The members of the core task force should be given adequate training in role analysis by some internal or external consultants if required. A list of positions/managers selected for role analysis exercise should be made indicating their names. customers in his own department or other departments. subordinates. the Core task force will be overall responsible for role analysis exercise through out the organization but at each unit and division. Collection of Role Expectations A format* (No. The role senders may be superiors. 19 .

decision making. Team Building. deputation to another activity. ‘Competency’ is a word which has been used by different people with different meaning. An inventory of gaps for each of the roles will be prepared as shown in format no. Motivating. – Envisioning. These key performance areas provide the role definition for that particular role. analysing and prioritising. coaching etc. 03 in decreasing order of importance. this exercise will be quite easy. Organizing. developing strategies. nominations in cross functional teams. Developing. For managerial positions. Coordinating. sets of values and beliefs and attitudes which would lead to effective performance in that role. Leadership. – Strategic / Conceptual requirements. Procedures. gap in competencies will be identified by comparing with the competencies possessed by the role occupier. If there is an appropriate HRD climate. Here the term competency has been used to include all the characteristics which are related to effective and or superior performance of a person in a role and includes the necessary knowledge. These are the key performance areas for that specific role. This will be done by the task force members but the concerned manager will also be involved. people will experience various types of difficulties and differences. Plans and Activities for Development After prioritising the gaps in competencies for various roles. skills and abilities. Identifying the Gaps between the Capabilities Possessed and Required After identification of the important competencies for a particular role. assessment centres or evaluation by the superior. environmental understanding. training. his superior and the HRD professional. Various alternatives for enhancing the competencies may be education.Organisational Defining Key Performance Areas (Role Definition) Alternative Interventions Development and Change Activities which are bearing highest priority will be identified from the above mentioned format and entered into format no. Monitoring. Goal setting. The HRD Department normally have experts in Personnel assessment and their contribution would be valuable in carrying out this activity. attributes. Technical/Functional requirements: Methods. the competencies can be identified in each of the following aspects. Controlling. Supervising. otherwise. Systems. Gaps will be thus identified and prioritized for each roles. Delegating. strategies for enhancing those competencies would be prepared jointly by the role occupier. use of some bench marks or instruments. Techniques Managerial/Administrative requirements: – Planning. 04. resource allocation and mobilisation. Identification of Competencies Required for Carrying out the Roles Effectively Effectiveness of a person in the role depends on so many factors and one of the major factor is the competencies possessed by the person occupying that role. 20 . This can be done by the self analysis by the role occupier. Behavioural: Personal/inter-personal effectiveness. Abilities include qualities. Counseling.

Organization Development: Strategies and Models. Delegation of Powers etc. Miles M. L. et al. 13. Role analysis can also trigger efforts for organizational restructuring. A. E. Becknard R “The Confrontation Meeting” in Harward Business Review 45 (1967). process consultation. outsourcing of managerial activities.W John. OD in Schools.Conclusion As mentioned earlier. New Delhi (1983) Beckhard. the concept of role is dynamic. 13. R. periodically. Frohman. Cecil H Bell. Udai Rao. Process re-engineering and design. Addison Wesley (1969). Business Publications Inc Dallas (1978). University Associates California (1978). Jr. team building. San Diego (1971). Mark. 21 . Wendel. This will also prove to be one of the most effective methods of identifying the training and development needs and infusing achievement orientation in the role holders. Gulf (1964). we discussed the meaning and scope of OD intervention. Mouton J. confrontation meetings. Alexander Mark. the role definition should be updated. 2) Write short notes on: a) Process consultation b) Organisational mirroring c) Role analysis d) Team building 13. Ltd. Wendell L. Jones). Blake R. Reading Mass. The 1978 Annual Handbook for Group Facilitator (Ed. Subsequently a selected set of such techniques like survey feedback. New Delhi (1981). Action-research as applied to Organization Development in Organization Development and research (Ed. Addison Wesley (1976) Schein E. “Organizational Norms Opionnaire”. The Managerial Grid. Pfeiffer. French etal. Mouton J. Addision Wesley (1969). Venkateshwara. Pfeiffer & Co. Prentice Hall of Indian Pvt.11 SELF ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS 1) Explain the meaning of OD Intervention. Process Consultation: Its role in Organization Development. Job redesign.A. career planning and succession planning. Consultation.B. If implemented sincerely. Pareek. review of Personnel policies.. Oxford IBH Publishing Co. Schmuck.12 FURTHER READINGS Blake R. Designing and Managing Human Resource Systems.10 SUMMARY At the outset of the unit. Organization Development. role analysis will become a valuable tool for identifying suitable incumbents for placement on important jobs. J. As such. R. organisational mirroring. T. French. This will be most useful for other HRD activities. T-Group training and role analysis have been discussed with the help of relevant case studies and illustrations.

one of the Directors was not feeling comfortable. he was responsible for another function (Personnel). which they consider significant. Some persons have been treated very harshly on occasions and there was a fear in everybody’s mind and therefore. For example. This perception sharing identified the commonality in perceptions and also the sharp differences. he arranged a Workshop in which he gave some inputs like FIRO-B. This meeting ultimately proved to be the means of major break through in the sense that there was tremendous increase in openness. the Director proposed to invite an external Process Consultant for identifying the problems and doing the needful for their solutions. one of the executives told that there were problems but nobody was sharing because of fear. the executives started looking into themselves. Johari Window and also introduced the ‘Win as much as you can’ exercise for looking into the collaborative behaviour. During the meeting. trying to understand other persons in a better way and also the value of interactions. Some behavioural science based inputs were given here also followed by task of writing perceptions of different levels of executives. in one of the Departmental meetings. different executives had different types of experience with him but largely he was seen as a strong and autocratic type management personnel.Organisational Appendix 1 Alternative Interventions Development and Change AN EXAMPLE OF PROCESS CONSULTANCY After joining the Corporate Office. they were not interacting with him openly. The role of the Consultant was that of a Process Consultant as he made his 22 process observations right since the stage of interview and based on his . On this. In a few formal meetings and inter-actions. The Director had been a dynamic Unit head in one of the large manufacturing units of the company and in the Corporate Office. In the next part of the Workshop. During this period. executives were divided into different groups and each group were given the task of writing : a) How do they perceive themselves? b) How do they perceive their superiors ? c) How their superiors perceive themselves ? and d) How do the superiors perceive other officers ? The Consultant collected the perceptions of the Director and the Head about their executives and also about themselves. another Workshop was organised in which the executives except the Head of Personnel and Director (Personnel). With the help of these inputs over the two days. trust and concern for each other amongst the executives. The differences were discussed and gradually all including the superiors started expressing their thoughts and feelings openly. which had been collected over time was out and after some time calmness prevailed. After spending a few months. everybody participated. he expressed his uneasiness and also told that he wanted the department to work differently. the new Director asked the executives about their problems but no response. all were invited and with the permission of all present. the Consultant shared the responses of the previous exercise. There were a good number of personnel executives at different levels who had been in the office since long and had developed their own way of working and inter-acting which was largely bureaucratic in nature. After some gap. A number of interventions for the future were designed jointly and one of the most effective interventions was to have a morning meeting from 9.15 to 9.30 everyday where all executives will be present and would share anything. Much of the venom. The Consultant was briefed of the situation and he preferred to interview executives at all levels over a time period. After the interview.

sharing mutual concern. Concluding Remarks A survey is useful only if it is prepared in an unbiased manner. Hence a conducive climate will have to be made before presentation. In order to keep it perfectly unbiased a standard fully validated questionnaire has been used and identity of the respondents has not been disclosed. Since everything comes from the clients. he chalked out future interventions and initially the interventions were focused on enhancing the competence of the executives to understand their own and others behaviours. It is expected that it will be received by the top management in the right perspective with the ultimate aim of bringing in improvement in all facets of organizational working. empathy and moving towards collaboration. Since they are actively involved in designing the interventions. their confidence increases gradually and they start owning up the diagnosis. Based on the understanding of the human process. 23 . The same is true in case of the organizational diagnosis reports also. implementation becomes easier and their problem solving abilities also increase. the facilitator created an environment which was desired by everybody and the clients evolved the necessary interventions leading to improvement / solution of problems.observations. The Process Consultation interventions are highly helpful in achieving this. the concerned persons receive the findings in a non-defensive manner and ‘action’ follows the diagnosis. experiencing the need of an open and trusting relationship. It is a natural tendency in human beings to first ‘deny’ the medical diagnosis report and then get into a state of shock. This should be seen in totality and any attempt to present a ‘segmental view’ may be disastrous.

A preliminary diagnosis based on the “Building blocks questionnaire” (Team Development Manual by Mike Wood Cock) was conducted and the following were identified as the comparatively weaker dimensions — Regular reviews Cooperation and conflict Appropriate Leaderships Openness and Confrontation Support and Trust ‘Sound intergroup relations’ also was perceived as a weak dimensions but less in comparison to the above mentioned five dimensions. still the CPE decided to hold the Team Building workshop for one of the main areas. the company had drastically cut down the production. keeping in view the financial and operational constraints the duration was limited to three days and one evening. it was decided to hold the programme for this area first. Another diagnostic exercise had revealed the following aspects needing improvement. the cash position was not satisfactory. the HOD of the other area will be motivated to hold the programme for this area. Designing the Programme Based on the diagnosis and discussions. The CPE himself was very much keen to attend but opted out because of the fear that his presence would inhibit others from an open participation. the following broad objectives were 24 identified : . The most encouraging aspect was that all executives in that area were requested to attend this workshop. Inadequate team organization Unconstructive climate Inappropriate leadership A few other dimensions needing attention for improvement were identified as : Soft critiquing Lack of creative capacity Low achievement orientation Insufficient group commitment Negative intergroup relations Discussions had also been held with the heads of departments and the Chief Production Executive (CPE) of the factory who had some conflicting perceptions and unanimity on the opinions appeared to be difficult. It was expected that by the success of this programme. Although the problem appeared to be more intense in the other area but considering the willingness of the Head of the department (HOD).Organisational Appendix 2 Alternative Interventions Development and Change TEAM BUILDING PROGRAMME – A CASE STUDY Background During the course of the ongoing organizational development efforts in the two wheeler company under reference. to participate. Keeping in view the dwindling sales position. it was diagnosed that poor team work was one of the major problems in two main areas of the Factory. However.

Group Status Awareness (One and a half hour) The objective was to set the norm for group working that the whole programme would be centered on data generation. defreezing and giving a glimpse of what is likely to happen during the programme and To get an indication of the energy level and inertia of the participants.00 PM) so that approximately 2 to 3 hrs might be utilised on the opening day also. This session was planned to be initiated with a brief introduction to the background of organising this programme. hence these inputs were not included in this programme. closeness to each other— sandwitched between interesting spells of activities. Realising the impact of their behaviour on others. Providing an opportunity to experience the joys. Broad structure of the programme The broad structure of the programme as planned before the commencement of the programme was as given below. Micro Lab (One Hour) The objectives were : To have an informal introduction. The participants had been asked to report on the previous day evening (7. Bringing in synergy in the group. data collection through a simple questionnaire. feelings. collection. Bringing out an action plan for improving their performance as individuals and group. joint analysis and discussion.B) and a few had undergone Personal growth Lab based on T-group methodology etc. analysis. Agenda Building (3 Hours) This module was proposed with the aim of involving the participants in identification of major issues to be dealt in the programme and also to become 25 . It was also aimed at facilitating the awareness of the participants about the purpose of the programme and looking into the willingness and optimism about such interventions. A questionnaire (instrument). frustrations. The methodology included. The methodology was planned to be — interactive consisting of short instructions for sharing various personal and organisational perceptions. Sharing their concerns and feeling about each other and top management openly. The executives had earlier been exposed to interventions in the area of Interpersonal Relationships (FIRO . Duration of the programme The duration of the programme was 3 days full time on residential basis. inhibitions of working in group.Broad Objectives Identification / appreciation of the factors inhibiting the performance of executives. ‘TORI’ — developed by Gibbs was also planned to be filled up by each participant for capturing current and unbiased data to be analysed and discussed in one of the forthcoming sessions. open sharing and inference making and future planning will be done on that basis. Some changes occurred subsequently.

It was also planned to process interpret and exhibit the outcome of the ‘TORI’ instrument to give them the individual and group status of TRUST and its associated attributes like Trust. a structured experience was planned. FIRO . task and maintenance factors. The methodology to be used was experience through fantasy.Organisational aware of their perception of the factors inhibiting and facilitating their Alternative Interventions Development and Change performance. the individual’s impact on others and vice-versa.0. Decision Making Process in Group (2 Hours) For giving further experience in group working. to get a feedback on their predominant style of conflict handling etc. The focus was kept on interpersonal conflict. 26 .5 Hour) In order to give them an experience of how trust builds up. to be taken up only if found to be necessary. This session was also expected to enhance their collaboration and cooperation besides helping them to adopt the appropriate styles in conflict resolution and problem solving. intergroup conflict and conflict management style. A structured experience called “STRAW & PINS” modified to make it appropriate for the theme was proposed as means to have these experiences and emerging observations. Openness. This exercise was expected to enable them to get a quantified type of feedback regarding their performance in such situations. the session was kept as an optional one. Interpersonal Relationships (3-4 Hours) Keeping in view the fact that participants had been earlier exposed to interventions like FIRO-B earlier. especially in the context of decision-making where achieving ‘synergy’ is very important. The following interventions were kept in mind. Realisation and inter-dependence. strategies for conflict resolution. problem solving etc. leadership roles and resource utilization. Trust Building (1.5 Hour) Since all the participants had responded to the diagnostic questionnaire as mentioned in the paragraph No. it was planned that a brief presentation would be made on the findings of the study. instrumentation and lecture. an exercise called ‘LOST AT SEA’ similar to the famous ‘NASA’ or Desert Survival’ exercise was planned.B Johari Window / Giving and Receiving Feedback Interpersonal effectiveness profile Survey Feedback (1. Conflict Management (4 Hours) This session was planned considering the need of increasing awareness about different types of conflicts. It was planned to prepare a force field diagram by groups of participants showing the inhibiting and facilitating factors. Group Working Experience (3 Hours) This session was designed to provide an opportunity to the participants to have an awareness of the content and process aspects. 2.

especially the session on ‘open house’ and ‘image sharing’. and also to get an idea of the learning through the previous sessions. The preparation and implementation of Action Plan would be accompanied by a guide document especially prepared for this programme. Feedback / Closure This session was planned for taking the feedback of participants on various aspects of the programme and closing in appropriate manner. It was also thought that it would provide a very good opportunity to motivate them to apply the learning to their work. Here deliberations on the “Action planning” “interaction with top management” and ‘Closing’ sessions are being briefly outlined to give a better appreciation. Action Planning The participants were divided into the same two groups as in the Image sharing exercise. a) Individual Action Plan for Being More Effective The participants prepared their individual action plans in the background of the experiences in the previous sessions. this session was planned. Each participant was asked to prepare an action plan for (i) becoming more effective individually and (ii) making the work group more effective. The format was as below: Sl. (to be initiated/ is needed from others person / post to be continued/ to expedite the from which to be stopped) activity support is needed 27 . This session was included for providing an opportunity to different groups of participants to crystalize and share their perceptions about each other. It was also envisaged to practice giving and receiving feedback. Alternative inputs were also planned to be given depending upon the emerging needs and direction of movement. Activity What specific support Name of the No. The Programme Deleiberations The programme deliberations were documented thouroughly and available in the book “Planning and Auditing Human Resources”. Action Planning (Three Hours) In order to develop an individual and collective action plan for bringing in real improvement not only in terms of “Team Work” but related matters.Image / Perception Sharing (2 Hours) The perception of one class of employees about the others play the crucial role in interpersonal relationship and team work.

This presentation brought to the notice of the CPE many sensitive and controversial issues like— i) Not inviting Ashok. arriving at consensus. explicit and workable. when he was deeply in touch with his feelings.M. introspect within themselves and also take each others’ help. ii) By passing the seniors and talking to juniors directly. All these reflected a significant improvement in their problem solving approach. c) Individual Growth Goals and Support Keeping in view the time constraint. especially while describing his own and the superiors expectations and 28 the tough situation the company was facing. Initially. otherwise he was making the notes. One of the participants nicely explained in a chronological order.30 P. the exercise to identify the most important Training and Development needs by the individual participants was carried out and they were advised to discuss with their superiors. On the whole. Interaction with Top Management It had been planned that the CPE will be invited at the end of the programme at about 3. the content as well as the process aspect.” Salient features of the outline are enclosed. recognising others resources. The superiors were requested to objectively assess the subordinate‘s needs and do the needful to satisfy these needs. this action plan could not be made and discussed. The CPE first commended the participants for the hard and sincere work put in by them and also the facilitators. which was supplemented by the facilitator and a few other participants. It was clarified that the group will further refine their action plan to make it in more detail.a ritual. a one senior executive (who had submitted his resignation). Gradually. He had become ‘aggressive’ also . d) Other Actions The participants were given another document called “for reference in course of preparation of action plans. resolving conflicts and sensitivity to each other. tolerance to ambiguity. he became assertive and for quite some time.Organisational b) Action Plan for Making the Group More Effective Alternative Interventions Development and Change The participants initially worked in the same group. The interaction was started with a brief welcome. However. to meet the participants and get the feedback. Prabhakar) volunteered to coordinate this activity. Although discussions were held at length but the Action Plan gave only an outline. Then he started responding to each of the issues. The process was quite satisfying which gave a clear indication of the movement of the group on the dimensions of cohesiveness. The senior most manager (Mr. The CPE wanted to have a brief account of the deliberations. Prabhakar) carrying out manual production work instead of supervising the managers. They were asked to first respond individually in the format similar to the individual Action Plan and then try to arrive at a consensus action plan. The CPE was some times asking brief questions. iii) Tolerating one of the heads (Mr. as it provided them an opportunity to quickly scan through the 3 days experiences. the Action Planning session was quite useful. iv) At times being harsh on managers v) Too much monitoring vi) Meetings . They were advised to do it thoroughly at the time of detailing out the Action Plan. he was quite humble and polite. giving and receiving feedback. Then 2-3 representatives of both groups sat together and brought out a common Action Plan.

The CPE told that he was recruited by him. friendly but assertive. as it was likely to result in an inappropriate ‘reinforcing’ at the end of the programme. This could happen because of the fact that the CPE was open. Prabhakar was working in the shopfloor like a skilled worker in order to preserve his job and utilize his specific skills. probably in such clear words was not desired. (The CPE after a few days was given a feedback on this by the consultant). Facilitator made a few statements — regarding feeling of closeness. has remained ineffective inspite of periodic feedback. All participants. and many openly come out to confess their lapses and casual approach. these aspects were indirectly touched upon. perhaps. Although no specific interventions were planned on interpersonal relationship and self awareness. The CPE assured his full cooperation in further developing and implementing the Action Plan. The consultant and facilitator met Mr. satisfied the objectives to a very great extent. The theoretical input by way of lecturing was minimal. The participation and involvement gradually rose to the optimum level. but has consistently failed to satisfy his expectations. flow of energy from one person to another. owning up and realisation on the part of the participants. formed a circular chain joining hands with each other. this helped in using the resources on other factors contributing to Team Work. competencies. moved in the circle for a few rounds and stopped holding the hands of each other. learnings — to be channelised to develop an ideal work team in organization and contribute towards progress and prosperity of the organization and the country. frank. Conclusion This programme. These were also received by the participants in the right perspective. feelings. data based. Many of the deeply seated beliefs or value issues surfaced when he (the CPE) was speaking of the discipline and commitment issues. The joy of achievement and pain of separation could be experienced by all while telling ‘good bye’ to each other. he coined a resolution — let our energy. facilitators and administrative support personnel alongwith the CPE assembled in the centre of the Hall. This resulted in a truthful acceptance. The common perception of managers about the Head (Mr. After a few minutes. This statement. The open and frank acceptance. had a high degree of commitment and was showing an exemplary patience in listening. 29 . therefore. But gradually the pent up feelings were vented out and his communication became normal. Prabhakar) about the issue of his spending time on manual work. and it was a thrilling experience to use a number of structured experiences and instruments. Then all dispersed. and told the group members to experience this feeling. End of the Programme The programme ended with a closing intervention symbolising experiencing of synergy. Mr. Thus. Prabhakar alone after the programme and made an effort to make him comfortable. proved to be wrong.for some time which made the facilitator quite worried for some time. there were only two options: i) to sack him or ii) to put him on a job where he could contribute — and hence asked to function in that area where production is a bottleneck. The group had earlier been exposed to ‘FIRO-B’ ‘Johari Window’ concepts. The approach of experiential learning proved to be quite effective. because it would have been definitely embarrassing and having a demoralising effect on the concerned person. owning up of a few lapses on his part and the authentic explanations of the CPE brought a number of significant issues to light and induced a spirit of authenticity in the participants.

6 to be filled up by the role sender. Present responsibility/ : brief job description 5.Organisational Appendix 3 Alternative Interventions Development and Change FORMATS FOR ROLE ANALYSIS Format No.e. 4 to be filled up by the concerned executive (role occupant) Item No. 5 should be filled up by the concerned executive after consulting his superior/tasks force members or coordinator.No. expectations of the ranking role sender) (start from 1 the highest rank) Item No. Name of the Executive : (Role Occupant or the person being studied) 2. Name of the Role Sender : 6. Deptt. Expectations of Role Sender : (to be filled-up in the table given below) S. Designation : 3. . 01 ROLE EXPECTATION FORM 1. 1 to 3 to be filled up by the HRD Head’s representative Item No. Functions/Activities Relative % time Remarks suggested for the role importance (to be spent) (i./Function : 4. 30 Item No.

/function : 4. Name of the Executive : (Role Occupant) 2.No. from 1 the agreement/ rating Highest rank) Disagreement Item No. Summary of Expectations : (to be filled-up in the table given below) S. 31 . Functions/Activities Ranking (start Degree of Modified for the role. Deptt. 02 ROLE EXPECTATIONS FORM SUMMARY 1. Present responsibility/ : brief job description 5.. Format No. 1 to 4 will be filled up by the concerned executive. Designation : 3..

Present responsibility : brief job description 5./Function : 4. Designation : 3.Organisational Format No. Name of the Executive : (or role occupant) 2.No. 03 Alternative Interventions Development and Change KEY PERFORMANCE AREAS (ROLE DEFINITION) 1. Functions/Activities for the Role (KPAs) in decreasing Remarks. order of importance if any 32 . Deptt. Main activities in order of : importance : (to be filled up in the table given below) S.

Designation : 3. Format No. 2. Name of the Executive : (or role occupant) 2. Present responsibility / : brief job description 4.No. Main activities : (to be filled up in the following table) Sl. 4. 1 __________________ 2 __________________ 3 __________________ 4 __________________ 5 __________________ 33 . Overall priority for next 2-3 years: Priority No. Key Performance Areas Competencies for the KPAs in order (in order of importance) Knowledge / Skill / Abilities 1. 04 LIST OF COMPETENCIES REQUIRED 1. 3.

No. Title of the role & Competencies required for various roles Name of role occupant Knowledge Skill Abilities 34 .Organisational Format No. 05 Alternative Interventions Development and Change COMPETENCY INVENTORY FOR VARIOUS ROLES (SUMMARY) Unit ____________________________________ Deptt. ____________________________________ Section/Group ____________________________________ S.

Format No./Function ____________________________________ Section/Group ____________________________________ Role No/ Name of Executive Competencies identified for Development Description (Role Occupant) (Title of During Within Within Role) 1999-2000 2000-01 2001-02 35 . 06 LIST OF COMPETENCIES TO BE DEVELOPED FOR EACH EXECUTIVE Unit ____________________________________ Deptt.