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SECTION 1 : STRAIGHT OBJECTIVE TYPE

1. Consider the following statements;


(i) Retherford names was associated with the development of periodic table.
(ii) A metal M having electronic configuration 1s2, 2s2,, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 3d10, 4s1 is d block
element.
(iii) Diamond is not a element.
(iv) The electronic configuration of the most electronegative element is 1s2, 2s2, 2p5, and
select the correct one from the given codes.
(a) I, II, IV (b) I, II, III, IV (c) II, IV (d) I, III, IV
1.2 There are four elements p, q, r and s having atomic numbers Z 1, Z, Z + 1 and Z + 2
respectively. If the element q is an inert gas, select the correct answers from the following
statements.
(i) p has most negative electron gain enthalpy in the respective period.
(ii) r is an alkali metal
(iii) s exists in+2 oxidation state.
(a) (i) and (ii) (b) (ii) and (iii) (c) (i) and (iii) (d) (i), (ii) and (iii)
1.3 Which of the following orders is correct for the size?
(i) Mg2+ < Na+ < F - < Al (ii) Al3+ < Mg2+ < Li+ < K+
(iii) Fe4+ < Fe3+ < Fe2+ < Fe (iv) Mg > Al > Si > P
(a) (1), (2) & (3) (b) (2), (3) & (4) (c) (1), (3) & (5) (d) (1), (2), (3) & (4)
1.4 Which of the following orders are correct for the ionization energies ?
(i) Ba < Sr < Ca (ii) S2 < S < S2+ (iii) C < O < N (d) Mg < Al < Si
(a) 1, 2 and 4 (b) 1, 3 and 4 (c) 1, 2 and 3 (d) 1, 2, 3, and 4
1.5 The correct order of second ionization potential of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and fluorine is
(a) (C < N > O > F (b) O > N > F > C (c) O > F > N > C (d) F > O > N > C
1.6 The electron gain enthalpies of halogens in kJ mol-1 are as given below.
F = - 332, Cl = - 349, Br = - 324, I = - 295.
The less negative value for F as compared to that of Cl is due to :
(a) Strong electron electron repulsions in the compact 2p sub shell of F.
(b) weak electron electron repulsions in the bigger 3p sub shell of Cl
(c) smaller electronegativity value of F than Cl
(d) (A) & (B) both
1.7 Which of the following statements are correct ?
(i) Generally the radius trend and the ionization energy trend across a period are exact
opposites.
(ii) Electron affinity values of elements may be exothermic (negative) or endothermic
(positive)
(iii) The first ionization energy of sulphur is higher than that of phosphorus
(iv) Te2- > I- > Cs+ > Ba2+ represents the correct decreasing order of ionic radii.
(a) (i), (iii) and (iv) (b) (ii), (iii) and (iv) (c) (i), (ii) and (iv) (d) (i), (ii) and (iii)
1.8 Which of the following statements is not correct ?
(a) The first ionization energies (in kJ mol-1) of carbon, silicon, germanium, tin, and lead
are 1086, 786, 761, 708 and 715 respectively :
(b) Down the group, electronegativity decreases from B to TI in boron family.
(c) Amongoxides of the elements of carbon family, CO is neutral, GeO is acidic and SnO is
amphoteric.
(d) The 4f and 5f inner transition elements are placed separately at the bottom of the
periodic table to maintain its structure.
1.9 The correct order of acidic strength is :
(a) Cl2O7 > SO2 > P4 O10 (b) CO2 > N2O5 > SO3
(c) Na2O > MgO > Al2O3 (d) K2O > CaO > MgO
1.10 Which of the following orders is correct ?
(a) F > N > C > Si > Ga non metallic character.
(b) F > Cl > O >N oxidizing property.
(c) C < Si > P > N electron affinity value.
(d) All of these.
1.11 If the same element is forming oxides in different oxidation states then :
(a) that oxide will be neutral in nature in which element will be in its highest oxidation
state.
(b) that oxide will be highest acidic in nature in which element will be in its highest
oxidation state.
(c) that oxide will be amphoteric in nature in which element will be in its highest oxidation
state.
(d) that oxide will be highly basic in nature in which element will be in its highest
oxidation state.

SECTION II : MULTIPLE CORRECT ANSWER TYPE

1.12 Which of the following pair(s) represent(s) the isoelectronic species ?


(a) S2- & Sc3+ (b) SO2 & NO3- (c) N2 & CN- (d) NH3 & H3O+
1.13 Which of the following represent (s) the correct order of electron affinities ?
(a) F > Cl > Br > I (b) C < N < Cl < F (c) N < C < O < F (d) C < Si > P > N
1.14 The process (es) requiring the absorption of energy is (are) :
(a) Cl Cl- (b) O- O2 (c) Fe3+ Fe2+ (d) Ar Ar-
1.15 Which of the following statement (s) is (are) true ?
1
(a) Ionisation energy
Screening effect
(b)The first ionization energies of Be and Mg are more than ionization energies of B and Al
respectively
(c) Atomic and ionic radii of Niobium and Tantalum are almost same
(d) Metallic and covalent radii of potassium are 2.3 and 2.03 respectively
1.16 Which of the following statement (s) is (are ) are ?
(a) The electron affinity for sulphur is more exothermic than that for oxygen.
(b) Successive ionization energies of an atom always increase
(c) First ionization energy of As is greater than that of Se.
(d) Chlorine has larger atomic size as well as electron affinity than that of fluorine

SECTION III : ASSERTION AND REASON TYPE

1.17 Statement 1 : The 5th period of periodic table contains 18 elements not 32.
Statement 2 : n = 5, = 0, 1, 2, 3. The order in which the energy of available orbitals 4d,
5s and 5p increases is 5s < 4d < 5p and the total number of orbitals available are 9 and
thus 18 electrons can be accommodated.
(a) Statement 1 is True, Statement 2 is True; Statement 2 is a correct explanation for
Statement - 1
(b) Statement 1 is True, Statement 2 is True, Statement 2 is NOT a correct
explanation for Statement 1.
(c) Statement 1 is True, Statement 2 is False.
(d) Statement 1 is False, Statement 2 is True.
1.18 Statement 1 : The 4f and 5f inner transition series of elements are placed separately
at the bottom of the periodic table.
Statement 2 : (i) This prevents the undue expansion of the periodic table i. e., maintains
its structure.
(ii) This preserve the principal of classification by keeping elements with similar
properties in a single column.
(a) Statement 1 is True, Statement 2 is True; Statement 2 is a correct explanation for
Statement - 1
(b) Statement 1 is True, Statement 2 is True, Statement 2 is NOT a correct
explanation for Statement 1.
(c) Statement 1 is True, Statement 2 is False.
(d) Statement 1 is False, Statement 2 is True.
1.19 Statement 1 : The first ionization energy of Be is greater than that of B
Statement 2 : 2p orbital is lower in energy than 2s.
(a) Statement 1 is True, Statement 2 is True; Statement 2 is a correct explanation for
Statement - 1
(b) Statement 1 is True, Statement 2 is True, Statement 2 is NOT a correct
explanation for Statement 1.
(c) Statement 1 is True, Statement 2 is False.
(d) Statement 1 is False, Statement 2 is True.
1.20 Statement 1 : Third ionization energy of phosphorus is larger than sulphur.
Statement 2 : There is a larger amount of stability associated with filled s and p sub
shells (a noble gas electron configuration) which corresponds to having eight electrons in
the valence shell of an atom or ion
(a) Statement 1 is True, Statement 2 is True; Statement 2 is a correct explanation for
Statement - 1
(b) Statement 1 is True, Statement 2 is True, Statement 2 is NOT a correct
explanation for Statement 1.
(c) Statement 1 is True, Statement 2 is False.
(d) Statement 1 is False, Statement 2 is True.
1.21 Statement 1 : Manganese (atomic number 25) has a less favorable electron affinity than
its neighbours on either side because
Statemene 2 : The manganese has stable, [Ar]18 3d5 4s2 electrons configuration.
(a) Statement 1 is True, Statement 2 is True; Statement 2 is a correct explanation for
Statement - 1
(b) Statement 1 is True, Statement 2 is True, Statement 2 is NOT a correct
explanation for Statement 1.
(c) Statement 1 is True, Statement 2 is False.
(d) Statement 1 is False, Statement 2 is True.
1.22 Statement 1 : The electron gain enthalpies have large negative values toward the upper
right of the periodic table percedign the noble gases.
Statement 2 : The effective nuclear charge increases from left to right across a period
and consequently it will be easier to add an electron to a smaller atom since the added
electron on an average would be closer to be positively charged nucleus.
(a) Statement 1 is True, Statement 2 is True; Statement 2 is a correct explanation for
Statement - 1
(b) Statement 1 is True, Statement 2 is True, Statement 2 is NOT a correct
explanation for Statement 1.
(c) Statement 1 is True, Statement 2 is False.
(d) Statement 1 is False, Statement 2 is True.
1.23 Statement 1 : Fluorine forms only one oxoacid, HOF because,
Statement 2 : Fluorine has small size and high electronegativity.
(a) Statement 1 is True, Statement 2 is True; Statement 2 is a correct explanation for
Statement - 1
(b) Statement 1 is True, Statement 2 is True, Statement 2 is NOT a correct
explanation for Statement 1.
(c) Statement 1 is True, Statement 2 is False.
(d) Statement 1 is False, Statement 2 is True.

SECTION IV : TRUE AND FALSE TYPE


1.24 S1 : Metals comprises less than 78% of all known elements and appear on the left side of
the periodic table.
S2 : Silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, selenium and tellurium all are semi metals
S3 : The following order represents the correct increasing order of metallic character ; P <
Si < Be < Mg < Na
S4 : Solubility of the carbonates of alkali metals increases with increasing atomic number.
(a) F F T T (b) T T F F (c) F T F T (d) T T T T
1.25 S1 : In modern periodic table each block contains a number of columns equal to the
number of electrons that can occupy that sub shell.
S2 : The greatest increase in ionization enthalpy is experienced on removal of electron from
core noble gas configuration.
S3 : The size of the isoelectronic species is effected by electron electron interaction in the
outer orbitals
S4 : Any thing that influences the valence electrons will affect the chemistry of theelement
and the valence shell is not affected by nuclear mass.
(a) F F T T (b) T T F T (c) F T F T (d) T T T T
1.26 S1 : Long form of periodic table completely helps in predicting the oxidation state of
elements.
S2 : Metallic and covalent radii of potassium are 203 pm and 230 pm respectively.
S3 : The following set of elements does not represent the correct order of electron affinity
values C < Si > P > N.
S4 : Formation of Se2- and Ar-, both require the absorption of energy.
(a) F F F T (b) T T F T (c) T T T F (d) T T T T
1.27 S1 : IE1 of Sr > Rb but IE2 for Rb > Sr.
S2 : The ionic radii of Li+, K+, Mg2+ and Al3+ in are 0.76, 1.38, 0.720 and 0.535
respectively.
S3 : The negative value o electron gain enthalpy of Cl > F because there is weak electron
electron repulsions in the bigger 3p subshell of Cl as compared to compact 2p subshell
of F.
S4 : The second ionization energy of copper is less than potassium.
(a) F F T T (b) T T F T (c) T T T F (d) T T T T
1.28 S1 : Na2O2 < MgO < ZnO < P4O10 : Acidic property.
S2 : Na < Si > Mg < Al : First ionization potential.
S3 : F > Cl > Br : Electron affinity.
S4 : Te2- > I- > Cs+ > Ba2+ : Ionic size.
(a) T T T T (b) T T F T (c) T F F T (d) T F T T

SECTION V : COMPREHENSION TYPE


Comprehension # 1
The periodicity is related to the electronic configuration. That is, all chemical and physical
properties are a manifestation of the electronic configuration of the elements.
The atomic and ionic radii generally decrease in a period from left to right. As a
consequence, the ionization enthalpies generally increase and electron gain enthalpies
become more negative across a period. In other words, the ionization enthalpy of the
extreme left element in a period is the least and the electron gain enthalpy of the element
on the extreme right is the highest negative. This results into high chemical reactivity at
the two extremes and the lowest in the centre. Similarly down the group, the increase in
atomic and ionic radii result in gradual decrease in ionization enthalpies and a regular
decrease (with exception in some third period elements) in electron gain enthalpies in the
case of main group elements. These properties can be related with the :
(i) reducing and oxidizing behavior of the elements
(ii) Metallic and non metallic character of elements
(iii) acidic, basic, amphoteric and neutral character of the oxides of the elements.

1.29 The correct order of the metallic character is :


(a) B > Al > Mg > K (b) Al > Mg > B > K
(c) Mg > Al > K > B (d) K > Mg > Al > B
1.30 Which of the following statements is incorrect ?
(a) In general metallic character increases down the group and decreases across a period.
(b) In general reducing property decreases down the group and increases across a period.
(c) In general, the oxide formed by the element on extreme right of the periodic table is the
most acidic.
(d) Chemical reactivity of non metals in terms of oxidizing power increases from nitrogen
to fluorine across the period.
1.31 Among Al2O3, SiO2, P2O3 and SO2 the correct order of acid strength is :
(a) Al2O3 < SiO2 < SO2 < P2O3 (b) SiO2 < SO2 < Al2O3 < P2O3
(c) SO2 < P2O3 < SiO2 < Al2O3 (d) Al2O3 < SiO2 < P2O3 < SO2

Comprehension # 2
It is not possible to measure the atomic radius precisely since the electron cloud
surrounding the atom does not have a sharp boundary. One practical approach to estimate
the size of an atom of a non metallic element is to measure the distance between two
atoms when they are bound together by a single bond in a covalent molecule and then
dividing by two. For metals we define the term metallic radius which is taken as half the
internuclear distance separating the metl cores in the metallic crystal. The van der walls
radius represents the over all size of the atoms which includes its valence shell in a non
bonded situation. It is the half of the distance between two similar atoms in separate
molecules in a solid. The atomic radius decreases across a period and increases down the
group. Generally same trends are observed in case of ionic radius. Ionic radius of the
species having same number of electrons depends on the number of protons in their nuclei.
1.32 The size of isoelectronic species F-, Na+ and Mg2+ is effected by :
(a) nuclear charge (b) valence principal quantum number (n)
(c) electron electron interaction in the outer orbitals
(d) atomic mass
1.33 Atomic radii of the noble gases are larger than the precedent elements of the same periods
because :
(a) atomic radius of a noble gas is expressed as van der Waals radius.
(b) valence shell electrons are completely filled so there is inter electronic repulsions
(c) both (A) and (B)
(d) none
1.34 Which of the following statements is correct ?
(a) Metallic radius refer to metals only and is greater than covalent radius
(b) Metallic radius refer to metals only and is smaller than covalent radius
(c) Generally covalent radius refer to non metals as well as metals in bonded state
(Covalent bond).
(d) Atomic radii of noble gases are expressed as van der Waals radii which are smaller
than metallic radii.

Comprehension # 3
The first (1H1) and second (1H2) ionization enthalpies (in kJ mol-1) and the (eg H)
electron gain enthalpy (in kJ mol-1) of a few elements are given below :
Elements 1H1 1H2 egH
(a) P 520 7300 - 60
(b) Q 419 3051 - 48
(c) R 1681 3374 - 328
(d) S 1008 1846 - 295
(e) T 2372 5251 + 48
(f) U 738 1451 - 40
1.35 The least reactive element is :
(a) P (b) Q (c) R (d) T
1.36 The most reactive metal is :
(a) P (b) Q (c) S (d) U
1.37 The most reactive non metal is :
(a) R (b) S (c) P (d) U

Comprehension # 4
The amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron from an isolated
gaseous atom I called as first ionization energy (IE1). Similarly the amount of energies
required to knock out second, third etc. electrons from the isolated gaseous cation are
called successive ionization energies and IE3 > IE2 > IE1.
(i) Nuclear charge (ii) Atomic size (iii) penetration effect of the electrons (iv) shielding
effect of the inner electrons and (v) electronic configurations (exactly half filled &
completely filled configurations are considered extra stable) affect the ionization energies.
On the other hand, the amount of energy released when a neutral isolated gaseous atom
accepts an extra electron to form gaseous anion is called electron affinity.
O(g) + e-
Exothermic
O- (g) ; Heg = - 141 kJ mol-1 .(i)
O-(g) + e- O2- (g) ; Heg = + 780 kJ mol-1 (ii)
Endothermic

In (ii) the energy has to be supplied for the addition of second electron due to electrostatic
repulsion between an anion and extra electron (same charged species). The electron
affinity of an element depends upon (i) atomic size (ii) nuclear charge & (iii) electronic
configuration. In general, ionization energy and electron affinity increases as the atomic
radii decrease and nuclear charge increases across a period. In general. In a group,
ionization energy and electron affinity decrease as the atomic size increase.
The members of third period have some higher (e.g.S and Cl) electron affinity values than
the members of second period (e. g. O and F) because second period elements have very
small atomic size. Hence there is a tendency of electron electron repulsion, which results
in less evolution of energy in the formation of corresponding anion.
1.38 The first ionization energies of Na, Mg, Al and Si are in the order of :
(a) Na < Mg > Al < Si (b) Na > Mg > Al > Si
(c) Na < Mg < Al > Si (d) Na > Mg > Al < Si
1.39 Which one of the following statements is correct ?
(a) The elements like F, Cl, Br etc having high values of electron affinity act as strong
oxidizing agent.
(b) The elements having low values of ionization energies act as strong reducing agent.
(c) The formation of Be- (g) from Be (g) is an endothermic process
(d) All of these
1.40 Which one of the following statements is incorrect in relation to ionization enthalpy ?
(a) Ionization enthalpy increases for each successive valence shell electron.
(b) The greatest increase in ionization enthalpy is experienced on removal of electron from
core of noble gas configuration.
(c) End of valence electrons is marked by a big jump in ionization enthalpy.
(d) Removal of electron from orbitals bearing lower n value is easier than from orbitals
having higher n value.
1.41 Considering the elements F, Cl, O and N, the correct order of their electron affinity values
is :
(a) F > Cl > O > S (b) F > O > Cl > S (c) Cl > F > S > O (d) O > F > S > Cl

Comprehension # 5
The main group elements complete their electron configuration using s and p electrons in
the periodic table. These elements range from the most metallic to the most non
metallic, with intermediate properties, the semi metals, in between . The elements
which occur at the two extremes of the periodic table are highly reactive and therefore,
these highly reactive elements do not occur in the combined forms.
1.42 Select the correct statement.
(a) Chemical reactivity of the elements is generally lowest in the centre of a period
(b) Oxides of the elements in the centre of period in general are amphoteric or neutral.
(c) Metallic character increases with increasing atomic number in a group here as
decreases from left to right in a period.
(d) All of these
1.43. A compound (i. e. an oxide of metal) has an element in its lowest oxidation state. Then it
will be :
(a) highly acidic (b) highly basic (c) neutral (d) half acidic, half basic
1.44 Which of the following pairs show reverse properties on moving along a period from left to
right and from top to bottom in a group ?
(a) Atomic radius and electron gain enthalpy (negative value)
(b) Nuclear charge and ionization enthalpy
(c) Ionisation enthalpy and electron gain enthalpy (negative value)
(d) None of the above.
SECTION VI : MATRIX MATCH TYPE
1.45 Match the values of ionization energy and electron gain enthalpy listed in column I with
characteristic (s) of elements listed in column II.

Column I Column II

1H1, 1H2, eg H (in KJ mol-1)

(a) 2372 5251 + 48 (p) Element which acts as a strong reducing agent

(b) 419 3051 - 48 (q) Element which exists as a monoatomic molecule.

(c) 1681 3374 - 333 (r) Least reactive non metal

(d) 1008 1846 - 295 (s) Element which acts as a strong oxidizing agent.

(t) Element which oxide is a stronger basic in nature.

1.46 For each of the following orders as listed in Column I pick the correct observation (s)
listed in Column II

Column I Column II

(a) C > N (p) More favourable (exothermic) electron affinity.

(b) Se > Br (q) The higher first ionization energy.

(c) Mg > K (r) The larger size.

(d) F > Cl (s) The higher electronegativity.

(t) The higher number of valence electrons.

1.47 Match the increasing order given in column I with the property (ies) given in column II.

Column I Column II

(a) Na+ < F- < O2- < N3- (p) Electronegativity

(b) Li+ < Na+ < K+ < Rb+ < Cs+ (q) Mobility of hydrated ions

(c) O < S < F < Cl (r) Ionic size

(d) Cl- < K+ < Ca2+ < Sc3+ (s) Electron affinity
SECTION VII : SUBJECTIVE ANSWER TYPE

SHORT SUBJECTIVE :

1.48 A metal has electronic configuration [Ar]18 3d7 4s2. On the basis cf this electronic
configuration find out the group number.
1.49 Give the atomic number of the inert gas atom in which the total number of d electrons is
equal to the difference in the number of total p and s electrons.
1.50 The successive ionization energies for an unknown element are :
IE1 = 899 kJ/mol ; IE2 = 1757 kJ/mol.
IE3 = 14,847 kJ/mol ; IE4 = 17,948 kJ/mol.
To which group in the periodic table does the unknown element most likely belong ?
1.51 An ion having a 4 + charge and a mass of 51.99 amu has two electrons with n = 1, eight
electrons with n = 2, and ten electrons with n = 3. Give the total number of protons
present in the nucleus of the atom of metal.
1.52 Which of the following oxides has the strongest acidic character ?
SO3 Cl2O7 N2O5 CO2
(1) (2) (3) (4)
Fill in the boxes provided below with suitable number.
Answers

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15
C D D C C D C B A D B ABCD CD BD ABCD
1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.28 1.29 1.30
ABCD A A C D A A A A B A D C D B
1.31 1.32 1.33 1.34 1.35 1.36 1.37 1.38 1.39 1.40 1.41 1.42 1.43 1.44
D A C A D B A A D D C D B A

1.45 (A q); (B p,t); (C s); (D r)


1.46 (A p, r); (B r); (C q,s,t); (D q,s)
1.47 (A r); (B q,r); (C s); (D p,s)
1.48 Last electron enters in d subshell so it belongs to d block elements. For block
elements group number
= no of electrons in (n 1) d subshell + number of electrons in valence shell (i. e. ns)
= 7 + 2 = 9.
1.49 First gas which contains d electron is Kr.
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6
Total number of d electrons = 10
Total number of p electrons = 6 + 6 + 6 = 18
Total number of s electrons = 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 8
Difference in total number of p and s electrons = 18 8 = 10
So inert gas is 36Kr.
1.50 There is jump ionization energy from second to third one. Alkaline earth metals have the
electron configuration [noble gas] ns2; third electron is to be removed from the electron
configuration [noble gas] which will require very high energy. These data are of beryllium.
1.51 In M4+ ion total number of electrons = 20
1s 2 2s 2 2p6 3s 2 3p6 3d 2
Electronic configuration =
2 8 10
Number of electrons in metal = number of protons = 4 + 20 = 24
1.52 Acidic character of oxides increases as non metallic character of the element that is
combined with oxygen increases.
The ionization energy is the measure of metallic and non metallic character.
As ionization energy of element decreases the metallic character increases and non
metallic character decreases and vice versa. Hence the correct increasing order of acidic
character is increasing non metallic character
4 5 6 7
CO 2 N 2O 5 SO3 Cl 2O 7
14 th group 15th group 16 th group 17 th group

Increasing acidic character