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PERIODIC TABLE 1

PERIODIC TABLE
1. PROUTS HYPOTHESIS
The atomic weights of all elements are simple multiple of atomic weight of hydrogen. Prout gave this
hypothesis on the basis of Daltons atomic theory and the atomic weights of some elements known at
that time. But this hypothesis could not last longer, because there are some atomic weights which are
fractional and not in whole number.

2. DOBEREINERS TRIADS
According to Dobereiner when elements of same properties are kept in the increasing order of their
atomic weights, the atomic weight of middle element is equal to the mean atomic weight of remaining
two elements. Such a group of elements is called Dobereiners triad.

Triad of atoms Mean of first and last element

Li Na K 7 39
23
2
7 23 39

Be Mg Ca 8 40
24
8 24 40 2

Dobereiner could arrange only a few elements as triads and there are some such elements present in a
triad, whose atomic weights are approximately equal, e.g.
Fe Co Ni
Ru Rh Pd
There fore, this hypothesis was not acceptable for all elements.

3. NEWLANDS RULE OF OCTAVE


As in music, the eighth node is same as the first node. If the elements are arranged in the increasing
order of atomic weights, on starting with an element, the first element will exhibit similarities with the
eighth element e.g.
do re mi pha sol la si
lk sj x e i k/ f
u
Symbol of element Li Be B C N O F
7 9 11 12 14 16 19
Symbol of element Na Mg Al Si P S Cl
23 24 27 28 31 32 35.5
It is clear from the above table that sodium is the eighth element from lithium, whose properties re-
semble that of lithium.
This type of classification was limited up to only 20 elements.

4. LOTHAR MEYERS VOLUME CURVES


The graphs of atomic volumes against atomic weights are known as Lothar Meyer volume curves.
The alkali metals have highest atomic volumes.

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Alkaline earth metals (Be, Mg Ca, Sr, Ba, etc.) which are relatively a little less electropositive. Occupy
positions on the descending part of the curve.
Halogens and the noble gases (except helium) occupy positions on the ascending part of the curve.
Transition elements have very small volumes and therefore these are present at the bottoms of the curve

5. MENDELEEFS PERIODIC LAW


According to Mendeleefs periodic law, the physical and chemical properties of elements are periodic
functions of their atomic weights.
5.1 MENDELEEFS PERIODIC TABLE
Periodic table is based on atomic weight.
In the periodic table, the horizontal lines are called periods and the vertical lines are called groups.
The periodic table consists of seven periods and nine groups (The earlier periodic table had only 8
groups. The noble gases were added later in the zero group because these were not discovered when
Mendeleef put forward his periodic table.
All the groups (except VIII and Zero groups) are divided into subgroups A and B.
2, 8, 18 and 32 are called magic numbers.
5.2 MERITS OF MENDELEEFS PERIODIC TABLE
Classification of elements then known, was done for the first time and the elements having similar
properties were kept in the same group.
It encouraged research and led to discovery of newer elements.
Mendeleef had even predicted the properties of many elements not discovered at that time. This helped
in the discovery of these elements. For example. Mendeleef predicted the properties of the following
elements.
(a) Eka-boron- This was later called scandium (Sc)
(b) Eka-aluminium - This was later called gallium (Ga)
(c) Eka-silicon - This was later called germanium (Ge)
5.3 DEFECTS OF MENDELEEFS PERIODIC TABLE
(1) Position of Hydrogen Hydrogen resembles alkali metals and halogens in its properties. Hence its
position was not sure.
(2) Position of Isotopes The isotopes have different atomic weights and the periodic table is based on
atomic weights. Therefore, isotopes should get different places in the periodic table on the basis of
atomic weights.
(3) The periodic table is not fully based on increasing order of atomic weights.
(4) It is not proper to place together the elements having differing properties, such as coinage metals (Cu,
Ag and Au) with alkali metals; Zn, Cd and Hg with alkaline earth metals and metal like Mn with
halogens. Similarly. Pt and Au having similar properties have been placed in different groups.
(5) There is no indication whether lanthanides and actinides are associated with group IIIA or group IIIB.
(6) Position of Isobars These elements have different groups when mass remains same.
(7) Lot of stress was given to valency of elements.

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6. MODERN PERIODIC LAW AND MODERN PERIODIC TABLE


Mosley proved that the square root of frequency () of the rays, which are obtained from a metal on
showering high velocity electrons is proportional to the nuclear charge of the atom. This can be repre-
sented by the following expression.
= a (Zb) where Z is nuclear charge on the atom and a and b are constants.
The nuclear charge on an atom is equal to the atomic number.
According to modern periodic law. The properties of elements are the periodic functions of their
atomic numbers
6.1 MODERN PERIODIC TABLE
On the basis of the modern periodic law, a scientist named Bohr proposed a long form of periodic
table that was prepared by Rang and Warner.
In the periodic table the horizontal lines are periods and the vertical lines are groups.
The periodic table has a total of seven periods and 18 groups. But according to CAS system, the
number of groups is 16, because the eighth group has been divided into three groups.
There are two elements in the first period eight elements in each of the second and third periods,
eighteen elements in each of the fourth and fifth period thirty two elements in the sixth period and only
nineteen elements till now in the seventh period. Total 105 elements have been discovered so far.
The first period is very short period, second and third are short periods fourth and fifth are long periods
sixth is very long period, while the seventh is incomplete period.
The lanthanides (Elements from atomic numbers 58 to 71) and actinides (elements from atomic num-
bers 90 to 103) are included in the sixth and seventh periods through these have been kept outside the
periodic table.
Period - The details about the seven periods are as follows.

Period Atomic number Number of elements

From to
First H (1) He (2) 2

Second Li (3) Ne (10) 8


Third Na (11) Ar (18) 8
Fourth K (19) Kr (36) 18
Fifth Rb (37) Xe (54) 18
Sixth Cs (55) Rn (86) 32 (including lanthanides)
Seventh Fr (87) Ha (105) 19 (including actinides)

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Group - The modern periodic table has 18 vertical columns and according to CAS system there are 16
groups having the following number of elements.

Group Number of Elements


(a) IA group 7 (H, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs Fr) Alkali metals
(b) IIA group 6 (Be, Mg, Ca , Sr, Ba, Ra) Alkaline earth metals

(c) IIIA group 5 (B, Al , Ga , In, Tl) Boron family

(d) IV A group 5 (C, Si, Ge , Sn , Pb) Carbon family


(e) V A group 5 (N, P , As, Sb, Bi) Nitrogen family

(f) VI A group 5 (O, S , Se, Te , Po) Oxygen family (chalcogen)

(g) VII A group 5 (F, Cl, Br, I, At) - Halogen family


(h) Zero group 6 (He , Ne , Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn) Inert elements
32(Sc, Y, La, Ac & 14 lanthanide elements & 14 actinide
(i) III B group elements.These are elements of IIIB group, which could
not be accommodated in one column and therefore
written separately outside the periodic table.

(j) IV B group 4 (Ti, Zr, Hf, Ku)

(k) V B group 4 (V, Nb, Ta, Ha)

(l) VI B group 3 (Cr, Mo, W)

(m) VII B group 3 (Mn, Tc, Re)

(n) VIII (3) group 9 (Fe, Co, Ni, Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, Pt)

(o) I B group 3 (Cu, Ag, Au)

(p) II B group 3 (Zn, Cd, Hg)

6.2 MERITS OF LONG FORM OF PERIODIC TABLE OVER MENDELEEFS PERIODIC


TABLE
Positions of Isotopes and Isobars - Isotopes have same atomic number and the periodic table is
based on atomic numbers. Therefore, various isotopes of the same elements have to be provided the
same position in the periodic table. Isobars gave same atomic weights but different atomic numbers and
therefore they have to be placed at different positions.
The positions of actinides and lanthanides is more clear now because these have been placed in IIIB
groups and due to paucity of space, these are written at the bottom of the periodic table.
The general electronic configurations of the elements remains same in group.

6.3 DEFECTS OF LONG FORM OF PERIODIC TABLE


The position of hydrogen is still disputable as it was there in Mendeleef periodic table in group I A as
well as IVA & VIIA.
Helium is an inert gas but its configuration is different from that of the other inert gas elements
Lanthanide and actinide series could not be adjusted in the main periodic table and therefore they had
to be provided with a place separately below the table.
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7. s-BLOCK ELEMENTS
The elements of the periodic table in which the last electron enters in sorbital, are called sblock
elements.
s-Orbital can accommodate a maximum of two electrons.
Their general formulae are ns1 and ns2 respectively, where n = (1 to 7).
I A group elements are known as alkali metals because they react with water to form alkali. II A group
elements are known as alkaline earth metals because their oxides react with water to form alkali and
these are found in the soil or earth.
The total number of s block elements are 14.
Fr87 and Ra88 are radioactive elements while H and He are gaseous elements
Cs and Fr are liquid elements belonging to s-block.

8. p - BLOCK ELEMENTS
The elements of the periodic table in which the last electron gets filled up in the p-orbital, called p-block
elements.
A p-orbital can accommodate a maximum of six electrons. Therefore, p-block elements are divided
into six groups which are III A, IV A, V A, VI, A VII A and zero groups.
The general formulae of p block elements are ns2 p16 (where n = 2 to 6)
The zero group elements having general formula ns2p6 are inert, because their energy levels are fully
filled.
The total number of p block elements in the periodic table is 30 (excluding He)
There are nine gaseous elements (Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn, F2, Cl2, O2 and N2) belonging to p-block.
Gallium (Ga) and bromine (Br) are liquids.
The step-like thick lines drawn in the periodic table in the p-block divides elements into metals nonmet-
als and metalloids.

9. d-BLOCK ELEMENTS
The elements of the periodic table in which the last electron gets filled up in the d orbital, called d block
elements.
The d block elements are placed in groups named IIIB, IV B, V B, VI B, VII B, VIII, I B and II B.
In d block elements the electron gets filled up in the d orbital of the penultimate shell. That is why these
elements are known as transition elements.
Through the total number of d block elements is 33 in the periodic table but there are only 30 transition
elements. Becuase only those elements are transition in which d orbital is partially filled.
The general formula of these elements is (n1)s2, p6, d110 ns12 where n = 4 to 7.
All of these elements are metals
Out of all the d block elements mercury is the only liquid element.

10. f-BLOCK ELEMENTS


The elements of the periodic table in which the last electron gets filled up in the f orbital, called f block
elements.
The f block elements are from atomic number 58 to 71 and from 90 to 103.
The lanthanides occur in nature in low abundance and therefore, these are called rare earth elements.

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There are 28 f block elements in the periodic table.


The elements from atomic number 58 to 71 are called lanthanides because they come after lanthanum
(57). The elements from 90 to 103 are called actinides because they come after actinium (89).
All the actinide elements are radioactive
All the elements after atomic number 92 (i.e. U92) are transuranic elements.
The general formula of these elements is (n2)s2 p6 d10 f(114) (n1)s2 p6 d01 ns2 where n = 6 & 7.

Ex.1 Which alfabate is not used in nomenclature of elements.


(1) K (2) W (3) V (4) J & Q Ans. (4)
Sol. K is potassium (Kalium), W is Tungsten (Wolfram) and V is vanadium. There is no element associated
with the letters J and Q.
Ex.2 Which of the following is the period number of the element whose atomic number is 98
(1) 4 (2) 7 (3) 5 (4) 6 Ans. (2)
Sol. The electronic configuration of the element with atomic number 98 is as follow
1s2 , 2s2 , 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 4s2 , 3d10, 4p6, 5s2, 4d10 , 5p6, 6s2, 4f14, 5d10, 6p6, 7s2, 5f 10
The last electron enters in f orbital, so it belongs to f block in the period.
Ex.3 The nuclei of elements X, Y and Z have same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons.
According to Mendeleef periodic table, the elements X,Y and Z
(1) belong to same group and same period
(2) belong to different groups and different periods
(3) belong to same group and different periods
(4) are isotopes, which do not have different positions Ans. (4)
Sol. Isotopes have same number of protons (i.e. same atomic number). So they occupy same position in the
periodic table. However, due to different numbers of neutrons their atomic weights are different.
Ex.4 Which of the following is the artificial element in the periodic table
(1) Tc (2) Te (3) Ru (4) Os Ans. (1)
43
Sol. Tc is the first artificial element.
Ex.5 Which of the following is not a transition element
(1) Co (2) Ni (3) Mn (4) Zn Ans. (4)
Sol. There is only one incomplete orbit in Zn+2 and its stable oxidation state is (+2) does not have incomplete
d orbital. Therefore it is not a transition element.

11. EFFECTIVE NUCLEAR CHARGE


In a polyelectronic atom, the internal electrons repel the electrons of the outermost orbit. This results
the decrease in the nuclear attraction on the electrons of the outermost orbit.
Therefore, only a part of the nuclear charge is effective on the electrons of the outermost orbit. Thus,
the inner electrons protect or shield the nucleus and thereby decrease the effect of nuclear charge
towards the electrons of the outermost orbit.
Thus the part of the nuclear charge works against outer electrons, is known as effective nuclear
charge
Z *Z
Z* = effective nuclear charge, s = shielding constant and Z = nuclear charge
A scientist named slater, determined the value of shielding constant and put forward some rules as
following.
(1) The shielding effect or secreening effect of each electron of 1s orbital is 0.30.
(2) The shielding effect of each electrons of ns and np i.e. electron of the outermost orbit, is 0.35.

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(3) The shielding effect of each electron of s,p or d orbnitals of the penultimate orbit (n 1) is 0.85.
(4) The shielding effect of each electron of s, p, d or f orbital of the innerpenultimate orbit (n 2) and below
this is 1.0.

12. ATOMIC RADIUS


The distance of the outermost orbit from the centre of the nucleus of an atom is called atomic radius.
12.1 Single Bond Covalent Radius, SBCR -
(a) For Homoatomic molecules dAA = rA + rA or 2rA
dA A
rA =
2
(b) For hetrodiatomic molecules in which electron negativity remains approx imately same.
dAB = rA + rB
For heteronuclear diatomic molecule, AB, while difference between the electronegativity values of
atom A and atom B is relatively larger,
dAB = rA + rB 0.09 (XA XB)
where XA and XB are electronegativity values of high electronegative element A and less electronegative
element B, respectively. This formula is given by Stevenson & Schomaker.
Note : Covalent radius is slightly smaller than actual radius.
Ex. 6 Calculate the bond length of CX bond, if CC bond length is 1.54 , XX bond length is 1.00 and
electronegativity values of C and X are 2.0 and 3.0 respectively
Sol. (1) CC bond length = 1.54
1.54
rC = = 0.77
2
1.00
rX = = 0.50
2
(2) CX bond length
dCX = rC + rX 0.09 (XX XC)
= 0.77 + 0.50 0.09 (32)
= 0.77 + 0.50 0.09 1
= 1.27 0.09 = 1.18
Thus CX bond length is 1.18
12.2 VAN DER WAALS RADIUS
Half of the distance between the nuclei of two non bonded atoms belonging to two different molecules
closest to one another is called van der waals radius.
The values of atomic radii in noble gases are always determined as van der Waals radii. Therefore, the
value of van der waals radius of a noble gas is always greater than that of the halogen coming before it
in the same period.

van der Waals radius > Metallic radius > Covalent radius
Note : vander Waals radius is slightly larger than the actual radius.

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12.3 PERIODICITY IN ATOMIC RADIUS


The atomic radius depends upon the following two factors.
(a) Effective Nuclear Charge - The effect of increase in the number of protons increases the effective
nuclear charge. This results in decrease in the value of atomic radius because protons attract the
electronic orbits with greater force.
(b) Number of orbits - The effect of increase in the number of orbit in an atom increases the atomic
size.
(c) Shielding effect/screening effect - The electrons of inner shell repel the electrons of valence shell
from coming closer to the nucleus. Due to this the atomic radius increasing . This is called as shielding.
When an atom has more number of shells, the shielding provided will also be greater.
With in a shell the shielding provided by different types of orbitals follows the order s > p > d > f. (As
s orbitals experience greater penetration towards the nucleus, they provide greater shielding to the
electrons of p, d and f orbitals).
In the elements of d and f blocks where number of shells remain the same in a particular series along
with shielding provided, the nuclear charge is also compared.
In a period - The number of orbits remains same on going from left to right in a period while there is a
unit increase in the atomic number. Thus the electron experiences more force of attraction towards
nucleus. Hence atomic radius decreases from left to right in a period.
In a group - The atomic radii increase on going downwards in a group because the number of orbits
also increase on going from top to bottom in a group.
In a period, the size of an alkali metal (Group I A ) is second largest because it has minimum number of
proton, while the size of the halogen is smallest.
In the periodic table, Cs is the biggest atom, because Fr is a radioactive element, while H is the smallest
atom.
Ex.7 The increasing order of atomic size of Li, Be, B and Ne is
Sol. B < Be < Li < Ne
Inert gas is biggest in a period
Ex.8 The increasing order of atomic size As, Bi, Sn, Pb and Sb is
Sol. As < Sb < Sn < Bi < Pb
Ex.9 Which of the following should be the longest bond ?
(1) SH (2) OH (3) NH (4) PH Ans. (4)
Sol. The atomic radius of P is largest out of O,S,N, and P therefore, PH bond will be the longest one .
12.4 IONIC RADIUS
When a neutral atom loses one or more electrons it forms a cation having one or more number of
positive charge. Similarly when a neutral atom acquires one or more electrons it forms an anion having
one or more number of negative charge.
Ionic radius is the distance between the nucleus and the limit of the electron cloud scattered around the
nucleus in an ion.
12.4.1 Cationic Radius
An atom forms a cation on loss of electron/s. The cationic radius can be defined as the distance be-
tween the nucleus and the limit of the electron cloud scattered around the nucleus.
The size of a cation is smaller in comparison to the size of its corresponding atom. Usually a cation has
one shell less than the neutral atom hence it has smaller size than the atom. This is because of the fact
that an atom on losing electrons/s form a cation, which has lesser number of electrons/s than the number
of proton/s. This results in increase in the effective nuclear charge.
Examples - (1) Mn > Mn+2 > Mn+3 > Mn+4 > Mn+6 > Mn+7
(2) Pb+2 > Pb+4

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12.4.2 Anionic Radius
When a neutral atom gains electron/s it becomes a negatively charged ion called an anion. The distance
between the nucleus of an anion and the limit of the electron cloud scattered around the nucleus, is
called its anionic radius.
The size of an anion is greater than the size of its corresponding atom, because the number of electrons
present in the anion gets larger than the number of protons due to gain of electron/s. This results in
decrease in the effective nuclear charge.
O0 < O1 < O2
12.5 SIZE OF ISOELECTRONIC SERIES
The species, which have same number of electrons but different nuclear charges, constitute an isoelectronic
series. In the isoelectronic species with the increase in effective nuclear charge, the size of ion goes on
decreasing.
Ex. 10 What should be the order of size of H1 , H+1 and H ?
H1 H+1 H
1p 1p 1p
2e 0e 1e
+1 1
Sol. H < H < H
Ex.11 Which of the following has the largest size
(1) N3 (2) O2 (3) K+1 (4) Ca+2 Ans. (1)
3 2 +1 +2
Sol. N O K Ca
7p 8p 19p 20p
10e 10e 18e 18e

13. IONISATION POTENTIAL


The energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron from the outermost orbit of one mole
of isolated gaseous atoms of an element, is called ionisation potential (IP). This ionisation is an
endoergic or energy-absorbing process.
An electron cannot be removed directly from an atom in solid state. For this purpose, the solid state is
converted to gaseous state and the energy required for this is called sublimation energy.
+1
A(g) st
I IP
A (g)
nd
II IP A+2(g) rd
III IP A+3(g)
The energy required to remove one electron from a neutral gaseous atom to convert it to monopositive
cation, is called first ionisation potential (Ist IP). The energy required to convert a monopositive cation
to a dipositive cation is called second ionisation potential (IInd IP)
Ist IP < IInd IP < IIIrd IP because as the electrons go out of the atom, the effective nuclear charge
increases & the ionic size goes on decreasing. Thus the forces of attraction on valence shell electrons
increases and hence the order.
13.1 FACTORS AFFECTING IONISATION POTENTIAL
(i) Number of shells : With the increase in number of shells the atomic radius increases i.e. the distance
of outer most shell electron from the nucleus increases and hence the ionisation potential decreases.
(ii) Effective Nuclear Charge : Atomic size decreases with increase in effective nuclear charge because,
higher the effective nuclear charge stronger will be the attraction of the nucleus towards the electron of
the outermost orbit and higher will be the ionisation potential
(iii) Shielding Effect : The electrons of internal orbits repel the electron of the outermost orbit due to
which the attraction of the nucleus towards the electron of the outermost orbit decreases and thus
atomic size increases and the value of ionisation potential decreases.
(iv) Stability of half filled and fully filled orbitals : The atoms whose orbitals are half-filled (p3, d5, f7)
or fully-filled (s2 , p6 , d10 , f14) have greater stability than the others. Therefore, they require greater
energy for removing an electron. However stability of fully filled orbitals is greater than that of the half
filled orbitals
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(v) Penetration power : In any atom the s orbital is nearer to the nucleus in comparison to p, d and f
orbitals. Therefor, greater energy is required to remove an electron from s orbital than from p, d and f
orbitals. Thus the decreasing order of ionisation potential of s, p, d and f orbitals is as follows
s>p>d>f
13.2 PERIODIC TRENDS IN IONISATION POTENTIAL
(a) In a Period :- The value of Ionisation potential normally increase on going from left to right in a
period, because effective nuclear charge increases and atomic size decreases.
13.2.1 Exceptions
In second period ionisation potential of Be is greater than that of B, and in the third period ionisation
potential of Mg is greater than that of Al due to high stability of fully filled orbitals.
In second period ionisation potential of N is greater than O and in the third period ionisation potential
of P is greater than that of S, due to stability of half filled orbitals.
The increasing order of the values of ionisation potential of the second period elements is
Li < B < Be < C < O < N < F < Ne
The increasing order of the values of ionisation potential of the third period elements is
Na < Al < Mg < Si < S < P < Cl < Ar
13.2.2 IONISATION POTENTIAL OF TRANSITION ELEMENTS
In transition elements, the value of ionisation potential has very little increase on going from left to right
in a period because the outermost orbit remains the same but electrons get filled up in the (n1)d
orbitals resulting in very little increase in the values of ionisation potential.
In transition element series the first ionisation potential normally increases with increase in atomic num-
ber on going from left to right, but this periodicity is not uniform. The value of ionisation potential of
transition elements depends on the following two important factors.
(a) The value of ionisation potential increases with increase in effective nuclear charge.
(b) The value of ionisation potential decreases with increase in shielding effect when the number of
electrons increases in (n-1)d orbitals
In the first transition element series the first ionisation potential normally increases on going from left to
right from Sc to Cr because shielding effect is much weaker in comparison to effective nuclear charge.
The value of first ionisation potential of Fe, Co and Ni remains constant, because shielding effect and
effective nuclear charge balance one another. The value of ionisation potential shows slight increase
from Cu to Zn because they have fully filled s and d orbitals. The value of first ionisation potential of Mn
is maximum because it has maximum stability due to fully filled s and half filled orbitals.
13.2.3 INNER TRANSITION ELEMENTS
The size of inner transition elements is greater than that of d block elements. Therefore the value of
ionisation potential of f block elements is smaller than that of d block elements and due to almost
constant atomic size of f block elements in a period the value of their ionisation potential remains
more constant than that of d block elements.
13.2.4 In a Group
The value of ionisation potential normally decreases on going from top to bottom in a group because
both atomic size and shielding effect increase.
Exception :
The value of ionisation potential remains almost constant from Al to Ga in the III A group. (B>Al ,
Ga > In)
In IVB group i.e. Ti,, Zr and Hf the I.P. of Hf is higher than that of Zr due to Lanthanide contraction.
Thus the I.P. of IVB group varies as Ti > Zr < Hf.
In the periodic table the element having highest value of ionisation potential is He.

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The values of ionisation potential of noble gases are extremely high, because the orbitals of outer-
most orbit are fully-filled (ns2 , np6) and provide great stability.
In a period, the element having least value of ionisation potential is an alkali metal (group I A ) and
that having highest value is inert gas (Group 0)
13.3 APPLICATIONS OF IONISATION POTENTIAL
The elements having high values of ionisation potential have low reactivity, e.g. inert gases.
The value of ionisation potential decreases more on going from top to bottom in a group in compari-
son to a period. Therefore, reactivity increases and the atom forms a cation by loss of electron.
The elements having low value of ionisation potential readily lose electron and thus behave as strong
reducing agents.
The elements having low value of ionization potential readily lose electron and thus exhibit greater
metallic property.
The elements having low value of ionisation potential readily lose electron and thus oxide and hy-
droxides of these elements have basic property.
Ex.12 Which of the following should be the order of increasing values of second ionisation potential of C6,
N7, O8 and F9
(1) C > N > F > O (2) C < F < N < O (3) C < F < N < O (4) C < N < F< O
Ans. (4)
Sol. The second ionisation potential means removal of electron from a cation
C+1 (5e) = 1s2 , 2s2 , 2p1
N+1 (6e) = 1s2, 2s2, 2p2
O+1 (7e) = 1s2, 2s2, 2p3
F+1 (8e) = 1s2, 2s2 , 2p4
Therefore C < N < F < O
Ex.13 Which of the following should be the correct order of the second ionisation potential of Li, Be B and
C
(1) Li < Be > B < C (2) Be < B < C < Li (3) Be < C < B < Li (4) Li < C < B < Be
Ans. (3)
+1 2
Sol. Li (2e) = 1s
Be+1 (3e) = 1s2 , 2s1
B+1 (4e) = 1s2 . 2s2
C+1 (5e) = 1s2 , 2s2 , 2p1
Therefore Be < C < B < Li
Here, Li+1 has inert configuration and B+1 has fully filled s orbital. Hence these will have high value of
second ionisation potential.
Ex.14 Which of the following should have least value of ionisation potential
(1) Be+3 (2) H (3) Li+2 (4) He+1
Ans. (2)
Sol. All the above four species have one electron each, H has least number of proton. Therefore, H will
have least value of ionisation potential.
Ex.15 Which of the following should have less than 11.0 eV difference between the values of first and
second ionisation potentials
(1) Mg (2) Na (3) K (4) All of the above three
Ans. (1)
+2 +1 +1
Sol. Mg exhibits higher oxidation state (Mg ) than Na (Na ) and K (K )

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12 PERIODIC TABLE

Ex.16 Which of the following should be correct for Z1 and Z2 in the following two processes
M+ + Z1 M+2 + e
M+2 + Z2 M+3 + e
1 1
(1) Z = Z2 (2) Z1 = Z2 (3) Z1 = Z (4) Z1 < Z2
2 1 2 2
Ans. (4)
Sol. Z1 = second ionisation potential and Z2 = Third ionisation potential.
Second ionisation potential is always less than the third ionisation potential.

14. ELECTRON AFFINITY


The energy released on adding up one mole of electron to one mole of neutral atom (A) in its gas-
eous state to form an anion (A) is called electron affinity of that atom. Since the electron adds up
in the outermost orbit, energy is given out. Therefore, electron affinity is associated with an exo-
thermic process.
A(g) + e A (g) , H = En
When one electron adds up to a neutral atom, it gets converted to a uninegative ion and energy is
released. On adding one more electron to the mononegative anion, there is a repulsion between the
negatively charged electron and anion. In order to counteract the repulsive forces, energy has to be
provided to the system. Therefore, the value of the second electron affinity is positive.
A (g) + e A2 (g) , H = + En
14.1 FACTORS AFFECTING ELECTRON AFFINITY
Atomic Size or Atomic Radius
When the size or radius of an atom increases, the electron entering the outermost orbit is more
weakly attracted by the nucleus and the value of electron affinity is lower.
Effective Nuclear charge
When effective nuclear charge is more then, the atomic size less. Then the atom can easily gain an
electron and higher electron affinity.
Stability of Fully-Filled and Half-Filled Orbitals
The stability of the configuration having fully-filled orbitals (p6, d10, f14) and half-filled orbital (p3 , d5 ,
f7 ) is relatively higher than that of other configurations. Hence such type of atoms have less ten-
dency to gain an electron, therefore their electron affinity values will be very low or zero.
14.2 TRENDS IN ELECTRON AFFINITY
14.2.1 In a period, atomic size decreases with increase in effective nuclear charge and hence increase in
electron affinity.
Exception :
On going from C6 to N7 in the second period, the values of electron affinity decreases in stead of
increasing. This is because there are half-filled (2p3) orbitals in the outermost orbit of N, which are
more stable. On the other hand, the outermost orbit in C has 2p2 configuration.
In the third period, the value of electron affinity of Si is greater than that of P. This is because elec-
tronic configuration of the outermost orbit in P atom is 3p3 , which being half-filled, is relatively more
stable
The values of electron affinity of inert gases are zero, because their outermost orbit has fully-filled p
orbitals.
In a period, the value of electron affinity goes on decreasing on going from group IA to group IIA.
The value of electron affinity of the elements of group IIA is zero because ns orbitals are fully-filled
and such orbitals have no tendency to accept electrons.

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PERIODIC TABLE 13
14.2.2 In a Group
The values of electron affinity normally decrease on going from top to bottom in a group because the
atomic size increases which decreases the actual force of attraction by the nucleus.
Exceptions
The value of electron affinity of F is lower than that of Cl, because the size of F is very small and
compact and the charge density is high on the surface. Therefore, the incoming electron experiences
more repulsion in comparison to Cl . That is why the value of electron affinity of Cl is highest in the
periodic table.
The values of electron affinity of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals can be regarded as zero,
because they do not have tendency to form anions by accepting electron.
Ex.17 O(g) + 2e1 O2 (g) E = + 744.7
The reason for the positive value of E is
(1) endothermic reaction (2) exothermic reaction
(3) both 1 and 2 (4) All of the above are wrong
Ans. (1)
Sol. When electron is brought near O1 there will be repulsion between them, and therefore the energy
will be positive i.e there will be absorption of energy during the process.
Ex.18 The increasing order of electron affinity of N, P and As is
(1) N < P < As (2) As < P < N (3) As < N < P (4) As < N > P
Ans. (3)
Sol. Phosphorus have vacant d orbitals due to which it has higher electron affinity than Nitrogen.
Ex.19 The increasing order of electron affinity values of O,S and Se is
(1) O < S < Se (2) S < O < Se (3) Se < O < S (4) Se < O > S
Ans. (3)
Sol. Atomic size of Se is very large.

15. ELECTRONEGATIVITY
The measure of the capacity or tendency of an atom to attract the shared pair of electrons of the
covalent bond towards itself is called electronegativity of that atom.
Electronegativity is a relative value that indicates the tendency of an atom to attract shared electrons
more than the other atom bonded to it. Therefore it does not have any unit. Pauling was the first
scientist to put forward the concept of electronegativity. On paulings scale the electronegativity is
expressed in paulings.
The numerical value of electronegativity of an atom depends on its ionisation potential and electron
affinity values.
15.1 Factors Affecting Electronegativity
Atomic size Electronegativity of a bonded atom decreases with increase in size with increase in size
the forces of attractions on valence shell electrons decrease and hence electron negativity decreases.
When effective nuclear charge is high the nucleus will attract the shared electrons with greater strength
and the electronegativity will be high.
This effect increases the atomic size which decreases the electronegativity value.
Hybridisation state of atom Electronegativity increases with increases in the s character of the
hybrid orbital. This is because the s orbital is nearer to the nucleus and thus suffers greater attraction
resulting in increase in electronegativity.
The number of covalent bonds present between two bonded atoms is known as bond order. With
increases in the bond order, the bond distance decreases, effective nuclear charge increases and thus
electronegativity increases. Increasing order of electronegativity is as follows : CC < C = C < C C
ABHISHEK TUTORIALS
14 PERIODIC TABLE

Oxidation number The electronegativity value increases with increase in oxidation number
because radius decreases with increase in oxidation number.
The increasing order of electronegativity is as follows : Fe < Fe+2 < Fe+3
Electronegativity does not depend on stability of fully-filled or half-filled orbitals because it is simply
the capacity of nucleus to attract bonded pair of electrons.
15.2 Trends in Electronegativity
Atomic size decreases on going from left to right in a period thus electronegativity increases. Atomic
size increases on going from top to bottom in a group thus electronegativity decreases.
Inert Gases The electronegativity value of inert gases is zero, because they do not form covalent
bonds
In a period, the electronegativity value of halogen is maximum, while the electronegativity value ofalkali
metal is minimum.
F has maximum electronegativity value in the periodic table, while Cs has minimum electronegativity.
According to Pauling scale, the electronegativity value of F is 4.0, O is 3.5 N is 3.0 and Cl is 3.1.
Exceptions -
The elements of group II B i.e. Zn, Cd and Hg show increase in electronegativity value on going
from top to bottom in the group.
The elements of group III A , i.e. Al to Ga show increase in electronegativity value on going from top
to bottom in the group.
The elements of group IV A, show no change in electronegativity value on going from top to bottom
in the group from Si on words.

16. MEASUREMENT OF ELECTRONEGATIVITY


16.1 Pauling Scale
If two atoms, A and B, having different electronegativity values, get bonded to form a molecule, AB,
then the bond between A and B in A B will have both covalent and ionic properties.
AB = Observed bond energy Energy of 100% covalent or AB = D EAB
where D = Observed bond energy
EAB = Bond energy of pure covalent bond of A B.
The value of EAA and EBB is EAB = 1/2 [EAA + EBB]
= 0.208 AB = XA XB where XA > XB or 0.043 AB = (XA XB)2
16.2 Mulliken Scale
Mulliken suggested that the value of electronegativity of an element as an average of the values of
ionisation potential and electron affinity of the element.
I.P. E.A
XM = (in eV)
2
where XM = Electronegativity value as given by Mulliken
XM I.P. E.A
Xp = =
2.8 5 .6
where Xp = Electronegativity value as given by pauling or Xp = 0.336 (XM 0.615)
16.3 Allred-Roschovs Scale
Z eff .e 2 Z eff .e 2 0.744
XAR = 2
Xp = 0.359
r r2
Zeff = Z where Z = Nuclear charge
= Shielding constant
or Xp = 0.359 XAR + 0.744

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PERIODIC TABLE 15
16.4 Sendersons Scale
In Senderson scale the stability ratio of an atom itself has been regarded as its electronegativity.
Average electron density of an atom
XS or S.R. =
Electron density of the isoelectronic inert gas
This is related to Pauling scale as follows
0.2
XP 0.77
S.R. or X s

17. APPLICATIONS OF ELECTRONEGATIVITY


(i) Nomenclature
Compounds formed from two nonmetals are called binary compounds. Name of more electronegative
element is written at the end and ide is suffixed to it. The name of less electronegative element is
written before the name of more electronegative element of the formula.
Ex.20 Write the correct formula and name of the following
(a) ICI or CII (b) FCl or ClF (c) BrCl or ClBr (d) BrI or IBr
(e) OF2 or F2O (f) Cl2O or OCl2
Sol. Correct formula Name
(a) I+ Cl Iodine chloride
(b) Cl+ F Chlorine fluoride
+
(c) Br Cl Bromine chloride
(d) IBr Iodine bromide
(e) OF2 Oxygen difluoride
(f) Cl2O Dichlorine oxide
(ii) Nature of Bond
If difference of electronegativities of the two elements is 1.7 or more, then ionic bond is formed be-
tween them whereas if it is less than 1.7, then covalent bond is formed. (HF is exception in which bond
is covalent although difference of electronegativity is 1.9)
(iii) Metallic and Nonmetallic Nature
Generally values of electronegativity of metallic elements are low, whereas electronegativity values of
nonmetals are high.
17.1 Partial Ionic Character in Covalent bonds
Partial ionic characters are generated in covalent compounds by the difference of electronegativities.
Hanny and smith calculated percentage of ionic character from the difference of electronegativity.
Percentage of ionic character = 16(XA XB) + 3.5(XA XB)2
= 16 + 3.52
= (0.16 + 0.0352) 100
(Here XA XB)
XA is electronegativity of element A
XB is electronegativity of element B
= XA XB

17.2 Bond Length


When difference of electronegativities of atoms present in a molecule is increased, then bond length
decreases. Shoemaker and stephensen determined.
Bond length dAB = rA + rB 0.09 (XA XB)
1
or dAB = (DAA + DBB) 0.09 (XA XB)
2
Here XA > XB

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16 PERIODIC TABLE

17.3 Bond Strength & Stability


Bond strength and stability of AB increases on increase in difference of electronegativities of atoms A
and B bonded AB. Therefore HF > HCl > HBr > HI

18. NATURE OF OXIDES


If difference of the two electronegativities (XOXA) is 2.3 or more than 2.3 then the oxide will be basic
in nature. Similarly if value of XOXA is lower than 2.3 then the compound will be first amphoteric then
acidic in nature.
Oxide Na 2 O MgO Al2O3 SiO2 P2 O 5 SO 3 Cl2O 7
(XOXA) 2.6 2.3 2.1 1.8 1.5 1.1 0.5
Nature Strong Basic Amphoteric weak Acidic Strong Strongest
basic acidic acidic acidic

19. NATURE OF HYDROXIDES


According to Gallis if electronegativity of A in a hydroxide (AOH) is more than 1.7 then it will be acidic
in nature whereas it will be basic in nature if electronegativity is less than 1.7
For example NaOH and ClOH
Electronegativity (XA) 0.9 3.00
Nature Basic Acidic
If the value is more than XOXH , then that hydroxide will be basic otherwise it will be acidic.
Ex.21 Increasing order of electronegativities of F, Cl, Br and I is
(1) F < Cl < Br < I (2) I < Br < Cl < F (3) Br < I > Cl > F (4) I < Br > Cl < F
Ans. (2)
Sol. Electronegativity decreases in a group on going from top to bottom. Therefore increasing electronega-
tivity order is I < Br < Cl < F.
Ex.22 Electronegativity of which of the following is high ?
(1) CH3 (sp3) (2) H2C = CH2 (sp2) (3) CHCH (sp) (4) Equal in all
Ans. (3)
Sol. Electro negativity increases with increase in % of s character as in HC CH 50% s character is
present hence to electro negativity is higher.
Ex.23 Which of the following is the most polar bond
(1) NH (2) ClH (3) OH (4) BrH Ans. (3)
Sol. Difference of electronegativities of O and H is very high.
Ex.24 Which of the following formula is incorrectly written
(1) OF2 (2) Cl2O (3) BrCl (4) None of these
Ans. (4)
Sol. In all the formulae less electronegative element (cation) could be indicated followed by the more elec-
tronegative element (anion)
Ex.25 CF3NH2 is not a base, whereas CH3NH2 is a base. What is the reason ?
Sol. Due to high electronegativity of F tendency of donating the lone pair of electrons present on N will be
less
Ex.26 OF2 is called oxygen difluoride, whereas Cl2O is called dichlorine monoxide. Why ?
Sol. Electronegativity of O in OF2 is less than F. Therefore, there will be positive charge on oxygen and
negative charge on fluorine. Whereas in Cl and O, electronegativity of Cl is less than that of O therefore
there will be positive charge on Cl and negative charge on O. Positive charge is written first followed by
negative charge.

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PERIODIC TABLE 17
Exception :
Negative N is written first in NH3 because it became very common from the very beginning. There is no
scientific basis for that. Otherwise according to rule it should have been written as H3N in the form of
trihydrogen nitride.
19.1 Acidic and Basic Nature of Hydroxides of Elements
Acidic and basic nature of hydroxide of an element AOH depends on ionisation potential of A. If
ionisation potential of A is low then it will give its electron to oxygen easily thus AOH will be basic.

20. DIAGONAL RELATIONSHIP


Some elements of second period Li, Be, B shows dissimilarities with other elements of this group but shows
similarities with elements of third group like Mg,. Al, Si situated diagonally to them. It is called diagonal
relationship.

Similarities between properties of Li and Mg are as follows.


(a) Li and Mg both reacts directly with nitrogen to form lithium nitride (Li3N) and magnesium nitride (Mg3N2)
whereas other alkali metals of IA group does not form nitride.
(b) Fluoride carbonate and phosphate of Li and Mg are insoluble in water whereas these compounds of
other alkali metals are soluble.
(c) Li and Mg both are hard metals, whereas other metals of IA group are soft.
(d) LiOH and Mg(OH)2 both are weak bases, whereas hydroxides of other elements of IA group are
strong base.
(f) Metallic bond in Li and Mg both are strong compare to other alkali metals .
(g) Their melting and boiling points are high.
(h) By thermal disintegration of LiNO3 and Mg (NO3)2 Li2O and MgO is obtained respectively.
(i) Thermal stability of Li2CO3 and Mg CO3 is very less compare to other alkali metals and they liberates
CO2 gas easily.
Similarly Be shows similarity to Al of IIIA group compare to other elements of IIA group which are as
follows.
(a) These both elements do not provide colour to Bunsen burner.
(b) They both are comparatively stable in air.
(c) Both are insoluble in NH3 therefore do not form blue coloured solution.
(d) There is no tendency of making peroxide and superoxide in them.
(e) Reducing power is very less due to low value of standard electrode potential in the form of oxidation
potential.
(f) Be and Al both forms halogen bridge halides.

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18 PERIODIC TABLE

21. SOME IMPORTANT POINTS


The periodic table proposed by Rang.
Modified by Werner
Extended by Burry and his co_workers
(1) Triad rule Dobereiner
(2) Octet rule Newland
(3) Study of atomic volume Lothar Mayer
(4) Inventor of atomic number Moseley
(5) Godfather of periodic table Mendeleef
(6) Maker of modern periodic table Bohr
(7) Mg is bridge element, which joins metals of IIA and II B groups.
(8) Elements after atomic number 92 are transuranic elements.
(9) Artificial element is Tc43.
(10) Liquid non-metal Br
(11) Liquid metal Hg, Ga, Cs, Fr
(12) Solid volatile non-metal Iodine
(13) Lightest metal Li
(14) Heaviest metal Ir
(15) Hardest metal W
(16) Noble metals Pc, Pt, Au, Ag
(17) Element most found on earth Al
(18) Gaseous elements 11 (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn, H2, N2, O2, Cl2, F2)
(19) Liquid elements 5(Br, Hg, Ga, Cs, Fr)
(20) Submetals 5(B, Si, As, Te, At)
(21) Inert gases 6
(22) Lowest electronegativity : Cs
(23) Highest electronegativity : F
(24) Highest ionisation potential : He
(25) Lowest ionisation potential : Cs
(26) Highest electron affinity : Chlorine (Cl)
(27) Least electropositive element : Fluorine (F)
(28) Most reactive solid element : Li
(29) Most reactive liquid element : Cs
(30) Most stable element : Te
(31) Largest atomic size : Cs
(32) Most electropositive element : Cs ; Fr
(in stable element) (In all element)

ABHISHEK TUTORIALS
PERIODIC TABLE 19
(33) Group containing maximum no. : Zero gp ; next to zero gp is VII gp or
of gaseous elements in periodic table halogen gp (F2 and Cl2)
(34) Total number of gaseous : 11 (H2, He, N2, O2, F2 Ne, Cl2
elements in periodic table Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn)
(35) Total number of liquid elements : 4 (Ga, Br, Cs, Hg)
in periodic table (Fr and Eka are also liquid)
(36) Volatile d-block elements : Zn, Cd, Hg
(37) Most abundant element on earth : Oxygen followed with Si
(38) Most stable carbonate : Cs 2CO 3
(39) Strongest alkali : Cs(OH)
(40) Element kept in water : P
(41) Elements kept in kerosene oil : Na, K, I, Cs
(42) Liquid non metal : Br2
(43) Bridge metals : Na, Mg
(44) Lightest element : H
(45) Poorest conductor of current : Pb(metal), S (non metal)
(46) Most abundant gas : N2
(47) Lightest solid metal : Li
(48) Heaviest solid metal : Os(highest density 22.6 g/cm3)
(49) Natural explosive : NCl3
(50) Dry ice : CO 2
(51) First Nobel prize of chemistry was given to : vant Hoff
* Core charge - Atomic number Kernel of electron
* Penultimate shell Shell present inside one shell (n 1) from outermost shell, is called penultimate
shell.
* Innerpenultimate shell Shell present inside two shells (n 2) from outermost shell, is called
prepenultimate shell

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20 PERIODIC TABLE

GENERAL TREND OF DIFFERENT PROPERTIES IN THE PERIOD AND GROUPS

G
R
O
U
P
S

ABHISHEK TUTORIALS
PERIODIC TABLE 21

GRAPHS OF PERIODIC PROPERTIES


ALKALI METALS

LANTHANIDES

ALKALINE EARTH METALS

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22 PERIODIC TABLE

ELEMENT OF GROUP IIIA

ABHISHEK TUTORIALS
PERIODIC TABLE 23

CARBON FAMILY

NITROGEN FAMILY (PNICOGENS)

CHALCOGENS

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24 PERIODIC TABLE

HALOGENS

3-D SERIES

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PERIODIC TABLE 25

LEVEL - I

Q.1 The law of octet was given by


(A) Newlands (B) Dobereiner (C) Moseley (D) Mendeleev
Q.2 Hydrogen exists in
(A) +1 oxidation state only (B) 1 oxidation state only
(C) +1 and 1 oxidation states (D) +1, 1 and zero oxidation states
Q.3 Which d-block metals is liquid at room temperature ?
(A) Hg (B) Cd (C) Ga (D) Cs
Q.4 In a given energy level, the order of penetration effect of different orbitals is
(A) f > d < p < s (B) s = P = d = f (C) s < p < d < f (D) p > s > d > f
Q.5 Four quantum numbers of the outermost electron are : 5, 0, 0 + 1/2. The element belongs to
(A) p-block (B) f-block (C) s-block (D) d-block
Q.6 X is placed in group number 7 and 5th period. Its outermost configuration is
(A) 5s2, 5p5 (B) 3d5, 4s2 (C) 4d5, 5s2 (D) 4d5, 4s1
Q.7 Which of the following sets does not represent isoelectronic species ?
(A) Ne, F, O2 (B) Cl, Ar, K+ (C) S2, Br, Kr (D) Mg+2, Na+, Ne
Q.8 Isoelectronics do not differ in
(A) molar mass (B) ionic mass (C) charge (D) numbers of electrons
Q.9 The first transition series begins with
(a) titanium (B) Scandium (C) Calcium (D) Yttrium
Q.10 Modern periodic table is based on the
(A) atomic mass (B) mass number (C) atomic number (D) atomic volume
Q.11 The diagonal relationship between Li and Mg is due to
(A) similarity of ionisation potential (B) similarly of electronegativity
(C) similarlity of ionic radii (D) dissimilar atomic radii
Q.12 Last group of d-block is known as
(A) II B (B) VII B (C) VIII (D) X
Q.13 Correct electronic configuration of Cr is
(A) 1s22s22p63s23p23d44s1 (B)1s22s22p63s23d64s0
(C) 1s22s22p63s23p63d54s1 (D) 1s22p22p63p03d5
Q.14 ns2np4 (n-outermost orbit) represents the valency electrons. The corresponding group would be
(A) F, Cl, Br .......... (B) N, P, As ......... (C) O, S, Se ......... (D) C, Si, Ge................
Q.15 Electronic configuration of X is 1s2; 2s2, 2p6; 3s2, 3p1. It belongs to
(A) third group and third period (B) thirteenth group and third period
(C) first group and third period (D) third group and first period
Q.16 Outer configuration of X is 3d5, 4s1. It belongs to group number
(A) 16 (B) 15 (C) 5 (D) 6
Q.17 Ionisation potential does not depend upon
(A) atomic size (B) type of electron
(C) nuclear charge (D) type of bonding in crystal lattice
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26 PERIODIC TABLE

Q.18 Ionization potential phosphorus is greater than that of sulphur because


(A) of its smaller size (B) of more penetrating power of p-orbitals
(C) its nuclear force of attraction on electrons (D) half-filled orbitals are more stable
Q.19 Most metallic elements
(A) will have least ionization potential (B) will form most highly charged cation
(C) will display strongest metallic bonding (D) will have zero electronegativity
Q.20 The correct sequence of electron affinity of C, N, O and F is
(A) C > N < O < F (B) C > N < O > F (C) C < N > O < F (D) C > N > O > F
Q.21 The compound X O H is likely to act as a base, if compared to hydrogen, X has
(A) higher ionization potential (B) lower ionization potential
(C) higher electronegativity (D) lower radius
Q.22 Which of the following has the highest electron affinity ?
(A) C (B) N (C) Si (D) P
Q.23 The electron affinity of nitrogen is lower than that of carbon because
(A) atomic radius of nitrogen is lower than that of carbon
(B) effective nuclear charge in carbon in greater
(C) addition of an electron in N gives 2p4 configuration
(D) nitrogen is gaseous element
Q.24 The second ionization potential of sodium is much more than the second ionization potential of
magnesium because
(A) sodium atom acquires a stable electronic configuration by losing one electron
(B) Magnesium atom does not acquire a stable electronic configuration by losing one electron
(C) it is very difficult to remove electron from a stable electronic structure
(D) of all the above facts
Q.25 Predominantyl ionic compound will be obtained by combination of elements belonging to
(A) IA and VII A group (B) II A and VI A group
(C) III A and V A group (D) zero and VII A group
Q.26 Electropositive or metallic character
(A) increases in a period (B) decreases in a group
(C) decreases in a period and increases in a group
(D) of an element is reflected in its tendency to form covalent compounds.
Q.27 The heaviest atom is
(A) Ra (B) U (C) Pb (D) Hg
Q.28 What is the atomic number of the third alkali metal ?
(A) 3 (B) 9 (C) 11 (D) 19
Q.29 OF2 is called oxygen difluoride because
(A) electronegativity of oxygen is less than that of fluorine
(B) F is prior to O alphabetiacally
(C) oxygen has higher electronegativity than fluorine
(D) oxygen has less electron affinity than folurine
Q.30 Commonly used electronegativity scale was given by
(A) Pauling (B) Muliken (C) Allred & rochow (D) Pauli

ABHISHEK TUTORIALS
PERIODIC TABLE 27
Q.31 Which of the following groups of elements is assigned zero electronegativity ?
(A) noble gases (B) alkali metals
(C) alkaline earth metals (D) rare earths
Q.32 As compared with calcium, hydrogen would be
(A) electropositive (B) electronegative (C) amphoteric (D) neutral
Q.33 The element whose valency is 7 would be
(A) V (B) Mn (C) Cr (D) C
Q.34 Match list I with list II and then select the correct answer from the codes given below the lists
List I List II
A. Metalloid a. Selenium
B. Radioactive b. Silver
C. Transition c. Arsenic
D. Chalcogen d. Uranium
Codes :
A B C D A B C D
(A) a b c d (B) c d b a
(C) d b c a (D) b c d a
Q.35 Match list I with list II and then select the correct answer from the codes given below the lists
List I List II
A. Isoelectronic a. A + + energy A++
B. Half filled orbital b. Ar, K+, Ca++
C. Second ionisation energy c. Cerium
D. Lanthenide d. Arsenic
Codes :
A B C D A B C D
(A) c b d a (B) b c a d
(C) d c a b (D) b d a c
Q.36 The most polar bond is
(A) Br H (B) Cl H (C) O H (D) N H
Q.37 covalent oxide is
(A) CaO (B) SrO (C) MgO (D) BeO
Q.38 In which process energy will be released
(A) A(g) A+(g) + e (B) 1/2 A2(g) A(g)
(C) A(s) A(g) (D) A+(g) + B(g) A+B(s)
Q.39 Ionisation potential is lowest for
(A) halogens (B) inert gas (C) alkaline earth metals (D) alkali metals
Q.40 Who is called the father of chemistry
(A) Faraday (B) Priestley (C) Rutherford (D) Lavosier
Q.41 The first ionization potential (eV) of Be and B respectively are
(A) 8.29 eV, 9.32 eV (B) 9.32 eV, 9.32 eV
(C) 8.29 eV, 8.29 eV (D) 9.32 eV, 8.29 eV
Q.42 which of the following the ion with the smallest ionic radius is
(A) K+ (B) Ca2+ (C) Ti3+ (D) Ti4+

ABHISHEK TUTORIALS
28 PERIODIC TABLE

Q.43 Alkali metals in each period have


(A) smallest size (B) lowest ionization potential
(C) highest ionization potential (D) highest electronegativity
Q.44 The electronegativity of the following elements increases in the order
(A) C, N, Si, P (B) N, Si, C, P (C) Si, P, C, N (D) P, Si, N, C
Q.45 Van-der waals forces exist in
(A) inert gases (B) rare gases (C) gaseous mixture (D) elementary gase
Q.46 Exothermic process is
(A) Na Na + e (B) O + e O (C) O + e O2 (D) Cl Cl + e
Q.47 Element M of IIIA group forms a compound with element Y of VI group has the formula
(A) MY (B) M2Y3 (C) M3Y2 (D) M6Y3
Q.48 Fluorine is the most reactive among all the halogens, because of it's
(A) small size (B) low dissociation energy of F F bond
(C) large size (D) high dissociation energy of F F bond
Q.49 Which of the folloiwng has the least acidic
(A) HF (B) HCl (C) HBr (D) HI
Q.50 The element which have lowest ionisation potential
(A) Cs (B) Li (C) Na (D) K

LEVEL - II
Q.1 The law of triads is not applicable on
(A) Cl, Br, I (B) Na, K, Rb (C) S, Se, Te (D) Ca, Sr, Ba
Q.2 The atomic volume was choosen as the basis of periodic classification of elements by
(A) Niels Bohr (B) Mamdeleev (C) Lother meyer (D) Newlands
Q.3 The majority of gaseous elements in the periodic table are placed
(A) at bottom left hand side (B) at top right hand side
(C) below the main table (D) along side d block elements
Q.4 The last electron in each normal element of a period is filled in
(A) the same energy sublevel (B) the same energy level
(C) the same orbital (D) successive energy level
Q.5 Two p-block elements x (outer configuration ns2, np3) and z (outer configuration ns2np4) occupy
neighbouring positions in a period. Using this information which of the following is correct with respect
to their ionization potential Ix and Iz.
(A) Ix > Iz (B) Iz > Ix
(C) Iz = Ix (D) relation between Ix and Iz is uncertains
Q.6 The greater stability of the lower oxidation state in heavier P block metals in the consequence of
(A) electronic transition within p-orbitals (B) electronic transition from s to p-orbitals
(C) inert pair effect (D) expansion of octet
Q.7 Oxidation number of p-block elements is [Excluding inert gases]
(A) equal to group number (B) group number +2
(C) between the range [Group no..... (Group no. 8)]
(D) number of unpaired electrons in the valence shell
ABHISHEK TUTORIALS
PERIODIC TABLE 29
Q.8 Which of the following is the configuration of second excited state of the element isoelectronic with O2 or
P or Cl+
(A) [Ne]3s2 3px2 3py1 3pz1 (B) [Ne]3s2
(C) [Ne] 3s1 3pz1 3py1 3pz1 3dxy1 3dyz1 (D) [Ne] 3s2 3px1 3pz1 3dxy1
Q.9 Which of the following isoelectronic species is smallest ?
(A) O2 (B) F (C) Ne (D) Na+
Q.10 Metallic radii of transition elements
(A) first increase, then decrease periodically
(B) first decrease, then remain almost constant
(C) first increase, then remaining almost constant
(D) first increase, then increase periodically
Q.11 True position of lanthanides are
(A) after III B group and in the 6th period (B) after III B group in the 3rd period
(C) after VI B group in the 3rd period (D) after VI B group and in the 6th period
Q.12 Properties of the elements of which of the following pairs do not resemble ?
(A) Li and Mg (B) Be and Al (C) Mg and Al (D) B and Si
Q.13 The main cause of diagonal relationship between Be and Al is
(A) similarity in ionic sizes (B) similar ionic potentials
(C) similar electronegativity (D) similar atomic sizes
Q.14 Electronic configuration of four elements are : a = 1s2; 2s2, 2p1, b = 1s2; 2s2, 2p2, c = 1s2; 2s2, 2p5, d=
1s2; 2s2, 2p6; 3s1. Which one of these would most readily form diatomic molecule ?
(A) a (B) b (C) c (D) d
Q.15 Which of the following statement is untrue
(A) the atoms have no tendency to accept electrons in empty higher energy levels
(B) the atoms have no tendency to accept electrons in empty higher energy sublevels
(C) the alkali metals have no tendency to accept electrons
(D) the atoms with exactly half filled electronic configurations have no tendency to accept electrons.
Q.16 Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists
List I List II
2 2 6 2 6 2
A. 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s a. ln
2 2 6 2 6 10 1
B. 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s b. Pd
C. 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d10 c. Ca
2 2 6 2 10 2 10 2 1
D. 1s 2p 2p 3s 3d 4s 4p 5s 5p d. Cu
Codes : A B C D A B C D
(A) a b c d (B) a c b d
(C) c d b a (D) a d c b
Q.17 Electronic configuration of an element of atomic weight 40 is 2,8,8,2 which of the following statement
regarding this element is not correct
(A) it belong to second group of periodic table (B) it has 20 neutrons
(C) the formula of its oxide is MO2 (D) it belongs to the fourth period

Q.18 the above configuration would be of the species


+
(a) S (b) Cl (c) P (d) Ar2
Code is
(A) a, b (B) c, d (C) a, c (D) b, d

ABHISHEK TUTORIALS
30 PERIODIC TABLE

Q.19 There are four elements P, Q, R and S : their configuration are also given. Show that which element will
have highest value of I.P. (II) ?
(A) (P) = [He] 2s2 (B) (Q) = [He] 2s22p2
(C) (R) = [He]2s22p1 (D) (S) = [He] 2s12p3
Q.20 The ionization potential of nitrogen is greater than that of oxygen because
(A) nitrogen is an inert element
(B) the outermost shell of nitrogen has half filled orbitals
(C) the radius of nitrogen is more than that of oxygen
(D) the radius of oxygen is more than that of nitrogen
Q.21 The second I.P. of Na, third I.P. of Mg and fourth I.P. of Al are very high because
(A) the ion Na+, Mg2+ and Al3+ have high ionic potential
(B) these ions are isoelectronic
(C) these ions have outer ns2np6 configuration
(D) these ions are of normal elements
Q.22 Which of the following statements is correct for the addition of an electron to an isolated and gaseous
uninegatively charged oxygen (O) ion ?
(A) the addition of electron cannot occur
(B) the addition of electron occurs with evolution of energy
(C) the addition of electron occurs with absorption of energy
(D) the heat of reaction is zero
Q.23 Be and Mg have zero value of electron affinities, because
(A) Be and Mg have (He) 2s2 and (Ne) 3s2 configuration respectively
(B) 2s and 3s orbitals are filled to their capacity
(C) Be and Mg are unable to accept electron
(D) all the above are correct
Q.24 Following mulliken scale, what parameters are required to evaluate electronegativity ?
(A) only electronegativity (B) only ionization affinity
(C) electron affinity and ionization potential (D) ionic potential and electronegativity
Q.25 If I1, I2 and I3 etc. represent the successive ionization potentials of an atom then the correct order is :
(A) I1 > I2 > I3 (B) I1 < I2 > I3 (C) I1 < I3 > I2 (D) I2 > I1 > I3
Q.26 Increasing order of first ionisation potential is
(A) Na < Mg < Al < Si (B) Na < Mg > Al > Si
(C) Na > Mg > Al > Si (D) Na > Mg > Al < Si
Q.27 In the transformation Na(s) Na+(g), the energies involved are
(A) ionization energy (B) sublimation energy
(C) ionization energy and sublimation energy (D) bond dissociation energy
Q.28 4th I.P. > 3rd I.P. > 2nd I.P. > Ist I.P.
The above sequence for an atom is due to increase in the
(A) number of electrons (B) number of protons
(C) effective nuclear charge (D) ionic radius
Q.29 For I.P. which order is wrong
(a) F > O (b) O > N (c) S > P (d) Be > B
Code is
(A) a, b, c (B) b, c, d (C) a, d (D) a, b, d

ABHISHEK TUTORIALS
PERIODIC TABLE 31
Q.30 Alkali metals do not form dipositive ions, because
(A) the difference in the first and second I.P. is more than 16 eV
(B) the difference in the first and second I.P. is less than 11 eV
(B) Alkali metals have one electron in their ultimate energy level
(D) oxidation state of alkali metal is +1
Q.31 Which of the following properties in a period, in general, increase or decreases with regularity ?
(A) density (B) melting point
(C) amphoteric character of oxides (D) relative shared electron attracting ability in a bond
Q.32 Select the wrong statement with respect to gradation in properties as we more from left to right along a
period
(A) base forming tendency to acid forming
(B) metallic solids through the net work solids to molecular solids
(C) oxidising to reducing (D) metallic to non-metallic character
Q.33 Electronic configuration of X+2 and Y+3 are : X2 = [Ar] 3d8, Y+3 = [Ar] 3d3. What are the atomic
number of X0 and Y0 respectively
(A) 28, 24 (B) 28, 25 (C) 28, 26 (D) 28, 27
Q.34 Cl2O is named as
(A) oxygen chloride (B) chloro oxide (C) oxy chloride (D) chlorine oxide
Q.35 The electronegavitity values of C, N, O and F
(A) increase from carbon to fluorine (B) decrease from carbon to fluorine
(C) increase up to oxygen and is minimum at fluorine
(D) is minimum at nitrogen and then increase continuously
Q.36 The valency in the II period from left to right
(A) increases (B) decreases
(C) first increases then decreases (D) first decreases then increases
Q.37 Match List I with List II and select the correct answer from the codes given below the lists
List I List II
2 5
A. ns , np a. Chromium
B. (n 1)d10, ns1 b. Copper
5 1
C. (n 1) d , ns c. Krypton
D. (n 1) d10, ns2, np6 d. Bromine (n = 4)
Codes : A B C D A B C D
(A) a b c d (B) b c d a
(C) d b a c (D) a d b c
Q.38 Match List I with List II and select the correct answer from the codes given below the lists
List I List II
A. Highest ionization potential a. Technitium
B. Highest electronegativity b. Lithium
C. Artificial element c. Helium
D. High reducing ability d. Fluorine
Codes : A B C D A B C D
(A) c d a b (B) c d b a
(C) c b d a (D) a d b c
Q.39 The correct order of relative basic character of NaOH, Mg(OH)2 and Al(OH)3 is
(A) Al(OH)3 > Mg(OH)2 > NaOH (B) Mg(OH)2 > NaOH > Al(OH)3
(C) NaOH > Mg(OH)2 > Al(OH)3 (D) Al(OH)3 > NaOH < Mg(OH)2

ABHISHEK TUTORIALS
32 PERIODIC TABLE

Q.40 Match List I with List II and select the correct answer from the codes given below the lists
List I List II
A. Increasing atomic size a. Cl < O < F
B. Decreasing atomic radius b. Li < Be < B
C. Increasing electronegativity c. Si < Al < Mg
D. Decreasing effective nuclear charge d. N>O>F
Codes : A B C D A B C D
(A) c d a b (B) d b c a
(C) a b c d (D) b a d c
Q.41 Which of the following represents incorrect relation of O
(A) C > O > N (B) C < O > N (C) O > C < N (D) O > N > C
Q.42 In a period, elements are arranged in strict sequence of
(A) decreasing charges in the nucleus (B) increasing charges in the nucleus
(C) constant charges in the nucleus (D) equal charges in the nucleus
Q.43 Which of the following statement concerning lanthanides elements is false
(A) lanthanides are separated from one another by ion exchange method
(B) ionic radii of trivalent lanthanides steadily increases with increases in the atomic number
(C) all lanthanides are highly dense metals
(D) more characteristic oxidation state of lanthanide elements is +3
Q.44 In the periodic table, the metallic character of elements
(A) decrease from left to right across a period and on descending a group
(B) decreases from left to right across a period and increases on descending a group
(C) increases from left to right across a period and on descending a group
(D) increases from left to right across a period and decreases on descending a group
Q.45 The screening effect of inner electrons of the nucleus causes
(A) A decreases in the ionisation potential (B) an increase in the ionisation potential
(C) no effect on the ionisation potential
(D) an increase in the attraction of the nuclei of the electrons
Q.46 The order of the magnitude of ionic radii of ions N3, O2 and F is
(A) N3 > O2 > F (B) N3 < O2 < F (C) N3 > O2 < F (D) N3 < O2 > F
Q.47 The statement that is not correct for the periodic classification of elements is
(A) The properties of elements are the periodic functions of their atomic numbers
(B) non-metallic elements are lesser in number than metallic elements
(C) the first ionisation energies along a period do into vary in a regular manner with increase in
atomic number
(D) for transition elements the d-sub-shells are filled with electrons monotonically with increase in
atomic number
Q.48 The electron affinity of the halogens follows the order
(A) F < Cl < Br < I (B) F > Cl < Br < I (C) F < Cl > Br > I (D) F > Cl > Br > I
Q.49 The process of requiring absorption of energy is
(A) F F (B) Cl Cl (C) O O2 (D) H H
Q.50 The cynide CN & N2 are isoelectronic. But in contrast to CN, N2 is chemically inert because of
(A) low bond energy (B) absence of bond polarity
(C) unsymmetrical electron distribution (D) presence of more electron in bonding

ABHISHEK TUTORIALS
PERIODIC TABLE 33

ANSWER

LEVEL-I
Que . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Ans A D A A C C C D B C
Que . 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Ans C A C C B D D D A A
Que . 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
Ans B D B D A C B D A A
Que . 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
Ans A B B B D D D D D D
Que . 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
Ans D D B C A B B B A A

LEVEL-II

Que . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Ans B B B B A C C C D B
Que . 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Ans A C B C D C A A B
Que . 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
Ans C C D C C C C B A
Que . 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
Ans D C C D A C C A C A
Que . 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
Ans A B B A A C C C B

ABHISHEK TUTORIALS
34 PERIODIC TABLE

SUBJETIVE PROBLEMS WITH SOLUTION


Q.1 Dipole moment of HX is 2.59 1030 coulomb-metre. Bond length of HX is 1.39. Calculate percentage
ionic character of molecule.
Sol. Calculate dipole moment q d
cal = q 1.39 1010 coulomb-metre
= 1.5 1019 1.39 1010
exp
Percentage ionic character = 100
cal
2.59 10 30
= 100
1.6 10 19 1.39 10 10
= 11.65%

Q.2 Calculate lattice energy of NaCl, from following data of Born-Habers cycle.
1
Sol. Hf = Hsub + HD + IE + EA + U (using Hass Law)
2
1
411.2 = 108.2 + 242 + 495.8 348 + U
2
U = 788.4 kJ mol1

Q.3 Set up the Born-Habers cycle for determination of heat of solvation of Mg2+ ions by water given the
following data
Enthalpy of atomization of Mg = 167.2 kJ mol1
First ionization energy of Mg = 7.646 eV
Second ionization energy of Mg = 14.035 eV
Enthalpy of dissociation of Cl2(g) = 241.6 kJ mol1
Electron affinity of chlorine = 3.78 eV
enthalpy of formation of MgCl2(s) = 639.5 kJ mol1
Enthalpy of solution of MgCl2(s) = 150.5 kJ mol1
Enthalpy of hydration of Cl (g) = 383.7 kJ mol1
Sol. [-1890.3 kJ mol1]

ABHISHEK TUTORIALS
PERIODIC TABLE 35
Q.4 Dipole moment of KCl is 3.336 1029 coulomb metre which indicates that it is highly polar molecule.
The interatomic distance between K+ and Cl in this molecule is 2.6 1010 m. Calculate the dipole
moment of KCl molecule if there were opposite charges of one fundamental unit located at each molecule.
Calculate the percentage ionic character of KCl.
Sol. 4.1652 1029 coulomb metre, percentage of ionic character = 80.09

Q.5 The dipole moment of HBr is 2.60 1030 cm, and the interatomic spacing is 1.41 . What is the
percentage ionic character of HBr ?
Sol. 11.4%

Q.6 Calculate the percentage of ionic character in K-Cl bond in KCl molecule. The electronegativity values
of K and Cl are 0.8 and 3.0 respectively.
Sol. 52.1%

Q.7 Calculate the electronegativity of fluorine from the following data :


EHH = 104.2 kcal mol1, EFF = 36.6 kcal mol1
EHF = 134.6 kcal mol1, XH = 2.1
Sol. Let the electronegativity of fluorine be XF.
Applying Paulings equation.
XF XH = 0.208 [EHF (EFF EHH)1/2]1/2
In this equation, dissociation energies are taken in kcal mol1.
XF 2.1 = 0.208 [134.6 (104.2 36.6)1/2]1/2
XF = 3.87

Q.8 Calculate the electronegativity of carbon from the following data :


EHH = 104.2 kcal mol1, ECC = 83.1 kcal mol1
ECH = 98.8 kcal mol1, XH = 2.1
Sol. Let the electronegativity of carbon be XC. Applying Pauling equation,
XC XH = 0.208 [ECH (ECC EHH)1/2]1/2
XC 2.1 = 0.208 [98.8 (83.1 104.2)1/2]1/2
XC = 2.59

Q.9 Ionisation potential and electron affinity of fluorine are 17.42 and 3.45 eV respectively. Calculate the
electronegativity of fluorine.
Sol. According to Mulliken equation
IP EA
X= when both IP and EA are taken in eV..
5.6
17.42 3.45
XF = = 3.726
5.6

Q.10 The electron affinity of chlorine is 3.7 eV. How much energy in kcal is released when 2 g of chlorine is
completely converted to Cl ion in a gaseous state ?
(1 eV = 23.06 kcal mol1)
Sol. Cl + e Cl + 3.7 eV
35.5 3.7 23.06 kcal
Energy released for conversion of 2 g gaseous chlorine into Cl ions
3.7 23.06
= 2 = 4.8 kcal
35.5

ABHISHEK TUTORIALS
36 PERIODIC TABLE

Q.11 Calculate the electronegativity of silicon using Allred-Rochow method. Covalent radius of silicon is
1.175.
Sol. Allred-Rochow equation is
Zeff
X = 0.359 + 0.744
r2
(Zeff is calculated on the basis of Slaters rules taking all the electrons).
Zeff = 14 (0.35 4 + 0.85 8 + 2 1) =3 .80
3.80
X = 0.359 + 0.744 = 1.73
(1.175) 2

Q.12 The first ionisation potential of Li is 5.4 eV and the electron affinity of Cl is 3.6 eV. Calculate H in kcal
mol1 for the reaction.
Li (g) + Cl(g) Li+ + Cl
Carried out at such low pressures that resulting ions do not combine with each other.
Sol. The overall reaction is written into two partial equations
Li(g) Li+ + e E1 = 5.4 eV

Cl(g) + e Cl E2 = 3.6 eV
H = E1 E2 = 5.4 3.6 = 1.8 eV
= 1.8 23.06 kcal mol1
= 41.508 kcal mol1

Q.13 Calculate the electronegativity value of chlorine on Mullikens scale, given that IP = 13.0 eV and
EA = 4.0 eV.

Q.14 The ionisation potential of atoms A and B are 400 and 300 kcal mol1 respectively. The electron
affinities of these atoms are 80.0 and 85.0 kcal mol1 respectively. Prove that which of the atoms has
higher electronegativity.
400 80 300 85
Sol. XA = = 3.84 ; XB = = 3.08
2 62.5 2 62.5
ans: A

Q.15 For the gaseous reaction,


K + F K+ + F, H was calculated to be 19 kcal under conditions where the cations and anions
were prevented by electrostatic separation from combining with each other. The ionisation potential of
K is 4.3 eV. What is the electron affinity of F ?
Sol. K K+ + e E1 = 4.3 eV

F + e F E2 = E eV
19.0
= E1 E2 = 4.3 E
23.06
0.82 = 4.3 E
E = 3.48

Q.16 How many Cl atoms can you ionise in the process Cl Cl+ + e the energy liberated for the process
Cl + e Cl for one Avogadro number of atoms. Given IP = 13.0 eV and EA = 3.60 eV.
Sol. Let n atoms be ionised.
6.02 1023 EA = n + IP
6.02 10 23 3.60
n= = 1.667 1023
13

ABHISHEK TUTORIALS
PERIODIC TABLE 37
Q.17 First and second ionisation energies of Mg(g) are 740 and 1450 kJ mol1. Calculate percentage of
Mg+(g) and Mg2+(g), if 1 g of Mg(g) absorbs 50 kJ of energy.
1
Sol. Number of moles of 1g of Mg = = 0.0417
24
Energy required to convert Mg(g) to Mg+(g)
= 0.0417 740 = 30.83 kJ
Remaining energy = 50 30.83 = 19.17 kJ
19.17
Number of moles of Mg2+ formed = = 0.0132
1450
Thus, remaining Mg+ will be = 0.0417 0.0132 = 0.0285
0.0285
%Mg+ = 100
0.0417
= 68.35%
% Mg2+ = 100 68.35 = 31.65 %

Q.18 Calculate the electronegativity of fluorine from following data :


EHH = 104.2 kcal mol1
EFF = 36.6 kcal mol1
EHF = 134.6 kcal mol1
Electronegativity of H is 2.05.
Sol. On Pauling scale :
xF xH = 0.182 HF
(using B. E. in kcal mol1)
HF = EHF E H H E FF = 13.45 104.2 36.6 = 72.84 kcal
From (i)
xF xH = 0.182 72.84 = 1.5534
xF = xH + 1.4434 = 2.05 + 1.5534 = 3.6034

Q.19 The standard enthalpies of formation of gaseous XeF2, XeF4 & XeF5 are 108, 216 & 294 kJ mol1
respectively an the bond energy in F2 is 159 kJ mol1. Calculate the average XeF bond energy in each
of these compounds and use of the value for XeF2 to obtain a value for the electronegativity of xenon on
the Pauling scale assuming the electronegativity of fluorine to be 4.
N0 N0
Q.20 atoms of A(g) are converted to A+(g) by energy H1, atoms of A(g) are converted to A+(g)
2 2
N0
and atoms of A(g) are converted to A(g) by energy H2. Calculate I. E. (ionisation energy) and E.
2
A. (electron affinity) of A(g).
Sol. Let I. E. = 1 atom1, E. A = E atom1
N0
(i) For atoms. Energy required to convert A(g) to
2
I
A+(g) = N0
2
I
H1 = N0
2

ABHISHEK TUTORIALS
38 PERIODIC TABLE

N0 I N0
(ii) A(g) A+(g) + e ; Energy = for atoms
2 2
N 0E N0
A(g) + e A(g) ; Energy = for atoms
2 2
N0 I N 0E
H2 =
2 2
H1
From Eqs. (i) and (ii) I. E. = 2 N atom1,
0

H 2 H1
E. A = 2 N0 atom1

Q.21 Calculate the electron affinity of the hydrogen atom using the following enthalpy data
H2(g) 2H(g) ; H = +436 kJ mol1
H2(g) + 2K(s) 2KH(s) ; H = 118 kJ mol1
K(s) K(g) ; H = +83 kJ mol1
+
K(g) K (g) + e ; H = +413 kJ mol1
H(g) + K+(g) KH(s) ; H = 742 kJ mol1
Sol. It can be solved by forming the Born Habers cycle

118 kJ = (+83 2) + (413 2) + (436) + (2x) + (2 742)


2x = 62 kJ mol1
x = 31 kJ mol1

Q.22 Indicate whether the following process is exothermic or endothermic :


M(g) + 2X(g) M2+(g) + 2X(g)
(I. E.)1 of M(g) = 737.7 kJ mol1
(I. E.)2 of M(g) = 1451 kJ mol1
(E. A.) of X(g) = 328 kJ mol1
Sol. M(g) M2+(g) + 2e
[(I. E.)1 + (I. E.)2 = 2188.7 kJ mol1]
2X(g) + 2e 2X(g) E. A. = 328 2 kJ
M + 2X M2+ + 2X H = 2188.7 328 2
= 1532.7 kJ

ABHISHEK TUTORIALS
PERIODIC TABLE 39
Q.23 A diatomic molecule has a dipole moment of 1.2 d. If the bond distance is 1.0 , what fraction of an
electronic charge, e, exists on each atom ?
Dipole moment
Sol. Partial charge = Bond dis tan ce

1.2 10 18 esu cm
= 8 = 1.2 1010 esu
1.0 10 cm
The fraction of an electronic charge is
1.2 10 10
= = 0.25
4.8 10 10
25% of e.
(b) The dipole moment of LiH is 1.964 1029 cm and the interatomic distance between Li and H in
this molecule is 1.596. What is the percent ionic character in LiH.

Sol. The dipole moment of 100% ionic molecule (Li+H) = (1 electronic charge x interdiatomic distance)
Exp. value of dipole moment
Fractional ionic character = Theoretical value of dipole moment

1.964 1029
= = 0.768
2.557 10 29

ABHISHEK TUTORIALS