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EE 158 Electrical System Design

Fire Detection and Alarm


System Basics
A. C. Nerves
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute
University of the Philippines Diliman
Fire Detection and Alarm Systems
A key aspect of fire protection is to identify a developing fire emergency in
a timely manner, and to alert the building's occupants and fire emergency
organizations.

This is the role of fire detection and alarm systems. Depending on the
anticipated fire scenario, building and use type, number and type of
occupants and criticality of contents and mission, these systems can
provide several main functions:

First, they provide a means to identify a developing fire through either


manual or automatic methods.

Second, they alert building occupants to a fire condition and the need to
evacuate.

Another common function is the transmission of an alarm notification signal


to the fire department or other emergency response organization.

They may also shut down electrical, air handling equipment or special
process operations, and they may be used to initiate automatic
suppression systems.
Fire Detection Principles
Manual Fire Detection - Pull Stations
Manual fire detection is the oldest method of detection. In the
simplest form, a person yelling can provide fire warning. In
buildings, however, a person's voice may not always transmit
throughout the structure. For this reason, manual alarm stations
are installed. The general design philosophy is to place stations
within reach along paths of escape. It is for this reason that they
can usually be found near exit doors in corridors and large rooms.

The advantage of manual alarm stations is that, upon discovering


the fire, they provide occupants with a readily identifiable means
to activate the building fire alarm system. The alarm system can
then serve in lieu of the shouting person's voice. They are simple
devices, and can be highly reliable when the building is occupied.
The key disadvantage of manual stations is that they will not work
when the building is unoccupied. They may also be used for
malicious alarm activations. Nonetheless, they are an important
component in any fire alarm system.

2007 NFPA 72, 3.3.63.3 Manual Fire Alarm Box.


Box. A manually operated device used
to initiate an alarm signal.
Fire Detection Principles
Automatic Detectors Spot type

2007 NFPA 72, 3.3.43.21 Spot Type Detector.


Detector. A device in which the detecting
element is concentrated at a particular location. Typical examples are
bimetallic detectors, fusible alloy detectors, certain pneumatic rate-
rate-of
of--rise
detectors, certain smoke detectors, and thermoelectric detectors.
Fire Detection Principles
Automatic Detectors Photoelectric

Hochiki SLR-24V detector

2007 NFPA 72, 3.3.181.4 Light Scattering Smoke Detection. Detection. The principle of
using a light source and a photosensitive sensor arranged so that the rays from the
light source do not normally fall onto the photosensitive sensor. When smoke
particles inter the light path, some of the light is scattered by reflection and
refraction onto the sensor. The light signal is processed and used to convey an
alarm condition when it meets preset criteria.
Fire Detection Principles
Automatic Detectors Photoelectric
In the normal case, the light from the light source on the left shoots straight
across and misses the sensor.

When smoke enters the chamber, however, the smoke particles scatter the
light and some amount of light hits the sensor.

A Light Source
B Photo Sensor
Fire Detection Principles
Automatic Detectors Ionization
Ionization smoke detectors use an ionization chamber and a source of ionizing radiation
to detect smoke. This type of smoke detector is more common because it is inexpensive and
better at detecting the smaller amounts of smoke produced by flaming fires.
Inside the ionization detector is a small amount (perhaps 1/5000th of a gram) of Americium
Americium--
241.. The radioactive element americium has a half-
241 half-life of 432 years, and is a good source of
alpha particles.
particles.
An ionization chamber is very simple. It consists of two plates with a voltage across them,
along with a radioactive source of ionizing radiation.

Hochiki SIJ-24 detector

2007 NFPA 72, 3.3.181.2 Ionization Smoke Detection.


Detection. The principle of using a small amount of
radioactive material to ionize the air between two differentially charged electrodes to sense the
presence of smoke particles. Smoke Particles entering the ionization volume decrease the
conductance of the air by reducing ion mobility. The reduced conductance signal is processed and
used to convey an alarm condition when it meets preset criteria.
Fire Detection Principles
Automatic Detectors Ionization
Ionization Smoke detectors

The alpha particles generated by the americium have the following property: They ionize the
oxygen and nitrogen atoms of the air in the chamber. To "ionize" means to "knock an electron off
of." When you knock an electron off of an atom, you end up with a free electron (with a negative
charge) and an atom missing one electron (with a positive charge). The negative electron is
attracted to the plate with a positive voltage, and the positive atom is attracted to the plate with a
negative voltage (opposites attract, just like with magnets). The electronics in the smoke detector
sense the small amount of electrical current that these electrons and ions moving toward the
plates represent.

When smoke enters the ionization chamber, it disrupts this current -- the smoke particles attach
to the ions and neutralize them. The smoke detector senses the drop in current between the
plates and sets off the horn.
Fire Detection Principles
Automatic Detectors Heat/Thermal
Heat detectors are the oldest type of automatic fire detection device. They began
development of automatic sprinklers in the 1860s and have continued to the present
with proliferation of various types of devices.

Heat detectors that only initiate an alarm and have no extinguishing function are still in use.
Although they have the lowest false alarm rate of all automatic fire detector devices, they
also are the slowest in fire detecting. A heat detector is best situated for fire detection in a
small confined space where rapidly building high-
high-output fires are expected, in areas where
ambient conditions would not allow the use of other fire detection devices, or when speed of
detection is not a prime consideration.

Heat detectors are generally located on or near the ceiling and respond to the convected
thermal energy of a fire. They respond either when the detecting element reaches a
predetermined fixed temperature or to a specified rate of temperature change. In general,
heat detectors are designed to operate when heat causes a prescribed change in a
physical or electrical property of a material or gas.

2007 NFPA 72, 3.3.43.9 Heat Detector.


Detector. A fire detector that detects either abnormally
high temperature, or rate of temperature rise, or both.

sub-divided by their operating principles:


Heat detectors can be sub-
Fire Detection Principles
Automatic Detectors Fixed Temp.
Fixed-temperature heat detectors are designed to alarm when the temperature of the
Fixed-
operating elements reaches a specific point. The air temperature at the time of alarm is
usually considerably higher than the rated temperature because it takes time for the air
to raise the temperature of the operating element to its set point. This condition is called
thermal lag. Fixed-
Fixed-temperature heat detectors are available to cover a wide range of
operating temperatures - from about 135'F (57'C) and higher. Higher temperatures
detectors are also necessary so that detection can be provided in areas normally subject
to high ambient temperatures, or in areas zoned so that only detectors in the immediate
fire area operate.

Hochiki DFE Series Heat Detector

2007 NFPA 72, 3.3.43.7 Fixed


Fixed--Temperature Detector.
Detector. A device that responds when
its operating element becomes heated to a predetermined level.
Fire Detection Principles
Automatic Detectors Rate
Rate--of
of--Rise
One effect that flaming fire has on the surrounding area is to rapidly increase air
temperature in the space above the fire. Fixed-
Fixed-temperature heat detectors will not
initiate an alarm until the air temperature near the ceiling exceeds the design operating
point. The rate-
rate-of
of--rise detector, however, will function when the rate of temperature
increase exceeds a predetermined value, typically around 12 to 15'F (7 to 8'C) per
minute. Rate-
Rate-of
of--rise detectors are designed to compensate for the normal changes in
ambient temperature that are expected under non- non-fire conditions.

Hochiki DSC-EA Heat Detector

2007 NFPA 72, 3.3.43.18 Rate


Rate--of
of--Rise Detector.
Detector. A device that responds when the
temperature rises at a rate exceeding a predetermined value
Fire Detection Principles
Automatic Detectors Combination
Combination detectors contain more than one element which responds to fire. These detectors
may be designed to respond from either element, or from the combined partial or complete
response of both elements. An example of the former is a heat detector that operates on both
the rate-
rate-ofof--raise and fixed-
fixed-temperature principles. Its advantage is that the rate-
rate-of
of--rise element
will respond quickly to rapidly developing fire, while the fixed-
fixed-temperature element will respond
to a slowly developing fire when the detecting element reaches its set point temperature. The
most common combination detector uses a vented air chamber and a flexible diaphragm for the
rate--of
rate of--rise function, while the fixed-
fixed-temperature element is usually leaf-
leaf-spring restrained by a
eutectic metal. When the fixed-fixed-temperature element reaches its designated operating
temperature, the eutectic metal fuses and releases the spring, which closes the contact.

Hochiki Hochiki DCD Series


Photoelectric/Heat Fixed Temp/Rate of
Smoke Detector Rise Heat Detector

2007 NFPA 72, 3.3.43.4 Combination Detector.


Detector. A device that either responds to more than one
of the fire phenomena or employs more than one operating principle to sense one of these
phenomena. Typical examples are a combination of a heat detector with a smoke detector or a
combination of rate-
rate-of
of--rise and fixed temperature heat detector. This device has listings for each
sensing method employed.
Fire Detection Principles
Automatic Detectors Flame
A flame detector responds either to radiant energy visible to the human eye (approx.
4000 to 7700 A) or outside the range of human vision. Similar to the human eye, flame
detectors have a 'cone of vision', or viewing angle, that defines the effective detection
capability of the detector.
With this constraint, the sensitivity increases as the angle of incidence decreases.
Such a detector is sensitive to glowing embers, coals, or flames which radiate energy
of sufficient intensity and spectral quality to actuate the alarm. Each type of fuel, when
burning, produces a flame with specific radiation characteristics. A flame detection
system must be chosen for the type of fire that is probable. For example an ultraviolet
(UV) detector will respond to a hydrogen fire, but an infrared (IR) detector operating in
the 4.4 micron sensitivity range will not. It is imperative therefore; that a qualified fire
protection engineer is involved in the design of these systems, along with assistance
from the manufacturer's design staff.

2007 NFPA 72, 3.3.43.8 Flame Detector.


Detector. A radiant energy-
energy-sensing detector that
detects the radiant energy emitted by a flame.

2007 NFPA 72, 3.3.43.16 Radiant Energy-


Energy-Sensing Fire Detector.
Detector. A device that
detects radiant energy, such as ultraviolet, visible, or infrared, that is emitted as a
product of combustion reaction and obeys the laws of optics.
Fire Detection Principles
Automatic Detectors Flame
Due to their fast detection capabilities, flame detectors are generally used only in high-
high-
hazard areas, such as fuel-
fuel-loading platforms, industrial process areas, hyperbaric
chambers, high-
high-ceiling areas, and atmospheres in which explosions or very rapid fires
may occur. Because flame detectors must be able to 'see' the fire, they must not be
blocked by objects placed in front of them. The infrared-
infrared-type detector, however, has
some capability for detecting radiation reflected from walls.

Hochiki HF-24 Flame Detector


Fire Detection Principles
Automatic Detectors Linear Type

2007 NFPA 72, 3.3.43.10 Line


Line--Type Detector.
Detector. A device in which detection is continuous
along a path. Typical examples are rate-
rate-of
of--rise pneumatic tubing detectors, projected
beam smoke detectors, and heat sensitive cable.

2007 NFPA 72, 3.3.43.15 Projected Beam-


Beam-Type Detector.
Detector. A type of photoelectric light
obscuration smoke detector wherein the beam spans the protected area.

2007 NFPA 72, 3.3.181.3 Photoelectric Light Obscuration Detection.


Detection. The principle
of using a light source and a photosensitive sensor onto which the principal portion of
the source emission is focused. When smoke particles enter the light path, some of the
light is scattered and some of the light is absorbed, thereby reducing the light reaching
the receiving sensor. The light reduction signal is processed and used to convey an
alarm condition when it meets preset criteria.
Fire Detection Principles
Automatic Detectors Air Sampling

2007 NFPA 72, 3.3.43.1 Air Sampling-


Sampling-Type Detector.
Detector. A detector that
consists of a piping or tubing distribution network that runs from the detector to
the area(s) to be protected. An aspiration fan in the detector draws air form the
protected area back to the detector through air sampling ports, piping, or
tubing. At the detector, the air is analyzed for fire products.
Building Notification
Notification Appliances

2007 NFPA 72, 3.3.113 Notification Appliance.


Appliance. A fire alarm system
component such as a bell, horn, speaker, light or text display that provides
audible, tactile, or visible outputs, or any combination thereof.

2007 NFPA 72, 3.3.113.1 Audible Notification Appliance.


Appliance. A notification
appliance that alerts by the sense of hearing.

2007 NFPA 72, 3.3.113.3 Visible Notification Appliance.


Appliance. A notification
appliance that alerts by the sense of sight.
Fire Alarm Circuit Classes
2007 NFPA 72, 6.4.2.1 ClassClass.. Initiating device circuits, notification appliance
circuits, and signaling line circuits shall be permitted to be designated as either
Class A or Class B, depending on their performance during nonsimultaneous
single circuit fault conditions as specified by the following:

(1) Initiating device circuits and signaling line circuits that transmit an alarm or
supervisory signal, or notification appliance circuits that allow all connected
devices to operate during a single open or a nonsimultaneous single ground
fault on any circuit conductor, shall be designated as Class A

(2) Initiating device circuits and signaling line circuits that do not transmit an
alarm or supervisory signal, or notification appliance circuits that do not allow
all connected devices to operate beyond the location of a single open on any
circuit conductor, shall be designated as Class B

2007 NFPA 72, 6.4.2.2.


6.4.2.2. An open or ground fault condition shall result in the
annunciation of a trouble signal at the protected premise within 200 seconds as
required in 4.4.7
Class B Circuits

Class B circuits differentiate between short circuits across the loop (alarm)
and opens on the loop (trouble). Supervision of this circuit is accomplished
by passing a low current through the installation wiring and an end-
end-of
of--line
device. Increases or decreases in this supervisory current are monitored by
the fire alarm control panel, and will cause alarm or trouble conditions,
respectively, to be indicated. A single open in a Class B circuit disables all
devices electrically beyond the open.
Class B Circuits

Class B Initiating Device Circuit


4.7K
EOLR

Class B Notification Appliance Circuit


4.7K
EOLR

End of line supervision resistors


are required to supervise the
integrity of the loop.
Class B Circuits

Class B Initiating Device Circuit


4.7K
EOLR

4.7K
EOLR

Class B Notification Appliance Circuit

Single open circuit condition causes a


trouble on the panel and renders all
devices beyond the fault inoperative.
Class A Circuits
Class A circuits also differentiate between short circuits across the loop and opens on
the loop. Supervision is accomplished by monitoring the level of current passing
through the installation wiring and the end-end-of
of--line device, which in a Class A circuit is
an integral part of the fire alarm control panel. Class A wiring must return to and be
terminated in the control panel. This technique requires a minimum of four
conductors to be terminated at the panel, and further requires that the fire alarm
control panel is designed to monitor Class A circuits. The additional circuitry
necessary for Class A supervision enables the control panel to condition the
initiating circuit to monitor the initiating circuit from both ends when in a trouble
mode due to an open fault on the loop. This conditioning ensures that all devices
are capable of responding and reporting an alarm despite a single open at any point
in the circuit.
Class A Circuits

Class A Initiating Device Circuit

Class A Notification Appliance Circuit

End of line supervision resistors are not


necessary as the loop returns to the
panel and is driven from both ends.
Class A Circuits

Class A Initiating Device Circuit

Class A Notification Appliance Circuit

Single open circuit condition causes a


trouble on the panel. All devices on the
loop remain operative.
Additional Fire Alarm Terminology
Addressable Device - A fire alarm system component with discreet identification that can
have its status individually identified or that is used to individually control other functions.
Analog Addressable Sensor - An initiating device that transmits a signal indicating varying
degrees of condition as contrasted with a conventional or addressable initiating device, which
can only indicate an off/on condition.
Signaling Line Circuit (SLC) - A circuit or path between any combination of circuit interfaces,
control units, or transmitters over which multiple system input signals or out put signals or
both are carried.
SLC Interface - A system component that connects a signaling line circuit to any
combination of initiating devices, initiating device circuits, notification appliances,
notification appliance circuits, system control outputs and other signaling line
circuits.
Protocol - A language for communicating between control panels and their proprietary devices.
Comparing System Types

To better understand todays newer technology, a firm


understanding of the types of systems available is necessary. The
three most popular types of systems installed today are:

Conventional
Addressable
Analog Addressable
Conventional Systems

Natural choice for smaller systems or where budget constraints


exist.
The Intelligence of the system resides solely within the Fire
Alarm Control Panel.
Panel. The panel receives a trigger signal from a
Conventional Detector or Initiating Device Circuit (Smoke,
heat, flame detectors) which in turn signals the condition to the
Notification (Indicating) Device Circuit such as alarm
sounders, horns, strobes and other remote signalling equipment.
Conventional detectors are normally connected to the Fire Control
Panel via dedicated circuits, each circuit protecting a designated
Zone or area of the building. The system has different modes:
Normal, Alarm, Trouble, and others,
others, depending on the Fire Alarm
Manufacturer.
Conventional Systems
Conventional control panels range in size from 1 zone
to over 100 zones.
Zones typically consist of some or all of the initiating
devices in an area or floor of a building.
Some control panels zone capacity is expandable
while others are not, limiting its usefulness if a facility
adds additional buildings or rooms.
Conventional Systems
Zone 1
4.7K
EOLR
Zone 2
FIRE FIRE FIRE FIRE FIRE FIRE FIRE FIRE FIRE FIRE

FACP SILENT KNIGHT SILENT KNIGHT SILENT KNIGHT SILENT KNIGHT SILENT KNIGHT

NAC 1 4.7K
EOLR

Multiple devices are combined


into a single zone. Zones can
contain 30 or more devices.
Conventional Systems
Zone 1
4.7K
EOLR
Zone 2
FIRE FIRE FIRE FIRE FIRE FIRE FIRE FIRE FIRE FIRE

SILENT KNIGHT SILENT KNIGHT SILENT KNIGHT SILENT KNIGHT SILENT KNIGHT

NAC 1 4.7K
EOLR

Care must be taken when laying


out zones to comply with code
requirements.
Zone Considerations
2007 NFPA 72 6.8.5.5.2 Limits the number of waterflow
switches in a single zone to 5.

2007 NFPA 72 6.8.5.6.2 Limits the number of


supervisory devices in a single zone to 20.

2007 NFPA 72 Annex A.4.4.6.6 Suggests that the


maximum number of square feet in a single zone be
limited to no more than 22,500.
Conventional Systems
Zone #1
4.7K
EOLR
Zone #2

NAC #1
4.7K
EOLR

Wiring must be installed in a


supervised manner either Class A,
or Class B with an EOLR.
Conventional Systems
Zone #1
4.7K
EOLR
Zone #2

FIRE!

NAC #1
4.7K
EOLR

Alarm conditions are annunciated


by zone only. Inspection is
required to determine the device.
Conventional Systems
Zone #1
4.7K
EOLR
Zone #2

NAC #1
4.7K
4.7K
EOLR

Trouble conditions are annunciated


by zone only. Inspection is required
to determine the cause.
Conventional Systems
Zone #1
4.7K
EOLR
Zone #2

RJ RJ

NAC #1
4.7K
EOLR

Information transmitted to the central


station is by zone at best. Many
panels send Alarm, Supv, Trbl only.
Conventional Systems
Conventional Systems
The removal of any detector on a circuit shall not
prevent the operation of any break glass call point.
It will be necessary to either:
a. connect manual call points on a separate circuit from
fire detectors or
b. to install all call points as the first devices on the
circuit, with any automatic fire detectors
downstream of these.
Conventional Systems
Cable Selection
The designer must be sure that the last device on the circuit has sufficient
voltage to operate the device within its rated voltage. When calculating the
voltage available to the last device, it is necessary to consider the voltage drop
due to the resistance of the wire. The larger the wire, the less the voltage
drop. Generally, for purposes of determining the wire size necessary for the
system, it is best to consider all of the devices as lumped on the end of the
supply circuit, this simulates the worst case.
Typical wire size resistance: Loop Resistance:
18 AWG solid: Approximately 6.5ohms/1000ft. 13ohms/1000ft.
16 AWG solid: Approximately 4.1ohms/1000ft. 8.2ohms/1000ft.
14 AWG solid: Approximately 2.6ohms/1000ft. 5.2ohms/1000ft.
12 AWG solid: Approximately 1.8ohms/1000ft. 3.6ohms/1000ft.
EXAMPLE:
Assume you have 10 devices on a zone and each require 50mA average and
2000ft.of 14 AWG wiring. The voltage drop at the end of the loop is .050 amps
per device x 10 devices x 2.6
2.6/1000ft x 2000 = 2.6 V. A 12 AWG would
produce a drop 1.8 V, and a 18 AWG would produce a voltage drop of 6.5 V.
Addressable Systems
In an Addressable system, detectors are wired in a loop around the building
with each detector having its own unique address. The system may contain
one or more loops depending upon the size of the system and design
requirements. The Fire Control Panel communicates with each detector
individually and receives a status report e.g. Normal, Alarm, Trouble etc. As
each detector has an individual address the fire alarm control panel is able
to display or indicate the precise location of the device in question, which
obviously helps speed the location of an incident and for this reason zoning
of the system is not necessary, although it may be done for convenience.

Addressable detectors are, in themselves, intelligent devices which are


capable of reporting far more than just fire or fault conditions. Most analog
addressable detectors are able to signal if contamination in the device
reaches a pre-
pre-set level enabling maintenance to take place prior to
problems being experienced.
Addressable Systems
Signals from addressable detectors and/or call-
call-points are
individually identified at the control panel
Addressable detectors/call-
detectors/call-points shall be connected via
a two
two--wire circuit connected to form a loop in order to
provide circuit integrity.
Line isolators should be distributed around the loop to
ensure compliance with the code.
Main difference from the conventional system is that the
base of the addressable detector is addressed through
soft addressing or dip switch.
switch.
Multiplex communication techniques allow each detector
to independently signals it status back to the control
panel.
Addressable Systems
An addressable systems point capacity is
determined by the amount of SLC Signaling
Line Circuits it contains.
FACP Each SLC circuit provides power,
communication, & supervision for all of the
devices connected to it.
Each SLC can accommodate over 100
addressable devices, depending upon the
manufacturer.
Addressable Systems
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Detector Smoke Detector (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Detector

FIRE FIRE

SILENT KNIGHT

Addressable
FACP Relay Module
(Fan Shutdown)

NAC #1
4.7K
EOLR

Each SLC loop can contain a variety of


addressable devices. Non-addressable devices
are connected via addressable module.
Addressable Systems
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Detector Smoke Detector (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Detector

FIRE FIRE

004
001 002 SILENT KNIGHT
006
005
Addressable
FACP Relay Module
(Fan Shutdown) 003

NAC #1
4.7K
EOLR

Each point on the SLC loop is given


a unique address when installed.
Addressable Systems
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Detector Smoke Detector (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Detector

FIRE FIRE

004
001 002 SILENT KNIGHT
006
005
Addressable
FACP Relay Module
(Fan Shutdown) 003

NAC #1
4.7K
EOLR

Supervision is accomplished from


the panel by polling the devices on
the SLC loop.
Addressable Systems
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Detector Smoke Detector (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Detector

FIRE FIRE

004
001 002 SILENT KNIGHT
006
005
Addressable
FACP Relay Module
(Fan Shutdown) 003

NAC #1
4.7K
EOLR

Supervision is accomplished from


the panel by polling the devices on
the SLC loop.
Addressable Systems
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Detector Smoke Detector (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Detector

FIRE FIRE

004
001 002 SILENT KNIGHT
006
005
Addressable
FACP Relay Module
(Fan Shutdown) 003

NAC #1
4.7K
EOLR

Supervision is accomplished from


the panel by polling the devices on
the SLC loop.
Addressable Systems
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Detector Smoke Detector (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Detector

FIRE FIRE

004
001 002 SILENT KNIGHT
006
005
Addressable
FACP Relay Module
(Fan Shutdown) 003

NAC #1
4.7K
EOLR

Supervision is accomplished from


the panel by polling the devices on
the SLC loop.
Addressable Systems
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Detector Smoke Detector (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Detector

FIRE FIRE

004
001 002 SILENT KNIGHT
006
005
Addressable
FACP Relay Module
(Fan Shutdown) 003

NAC #1
4.7K
EOLR

Supervision is accomplished from


the panel by polling the devices on
the SLC loop.
Addressable Systems
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Detector Smoke Detector (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Detector

FIRE FIRE

004
001 002 SILENT KNIGHT
006
005
Addressable
FACP Relay Module
(Fan Shutdown) 003

NAC #1
4.7K
EOLR

Supervision is accomplished from


the panel by polling the devices on
the SLC loop.
Addressable Systems
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Detector Smoke Detector (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Detector

FIRE FIRE

004
001 002 SILENT KNIGHT
006
005
Addressable
FACP Relay Module
(Fan Shutdown) 003

NAC #1
4.7K
EOLR

Supervision is accomplished from


the panel by polling the devices on
the SLC loop.
Addressable Systems
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Detector Smoke Detector (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Detector

FIRE FIRE

004
001 002 SILENT KNIGHT
006
005
Addressable
FACP Relay Module
(Fan Shutdown) 003

NAC #1
4.7K
EOLR

Supervision is accomplished from


the panel by polling the devices on
the SLC loop.
Addressable Systems
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Detector Smoke Detector (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Detector

FIRE FIRE

004
001 002 SILENT KNIGHT
006
005
Addressable
FACP Relay Module
(Fan Shutdown) 003

NAC #1
4.7K
EOLR

Supervision is accomplished from


the panel by polling the devices on
the SLC loop.
Addressable Systems
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Detector Smoke Detector (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Detector

FIRE FIRE

004
001 002 SILENT KNIGHT
006
005
Addressable
FACP Relay Module
(Fan Shutdown) 003

NAC #1
4.7K
EOLR

Supervision is accomplished from


the panel by polling the devices on
the SLC loop.
Addressable Systems
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Detector Smoke Detector (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Detector

FIRE FIRE

004
001 002 SILENT KNIGHT
006
005
Addressable
FACP Relay Module
(Fan Shutdown) 003

NAC #1
4.7K
EOLR

Supervision is accomplished from


the panel by polling the devices on
the SLC loop.
Addressable Systems
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Detector Smoke Detector (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Detector

FIRE FIRE

004
001 002 SILENT KNIGHT
006
005
Addressable
FACP Relay Module
(Fan Shutdown) 003

NAC #1
4.7K
EOLR

Supervision is accomplished from


the panel by polling the devices on
the SLC loop.
Addressable Systems
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Detector Smoke Detector (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Detector

FIRE FIRE

004
001 002 SILENT KNIGHT
006
005
Addressable
FACP Relay Module
(Fan Shutdown) 003

NAC #1
4.7K
EOLR

Supervision is accomplished from


the panel by polling the devices on
< Replay the SLC loop.
Addressable Systems
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Detector Smoke Detector (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Detector

FIRE FIRE

004
001 002 SILENT KNIGHT
006
005
Addressable
FACP Relay Module
(Fan Shutdown) 003 FIRE!
NAC #1
4.7K
EOLR

ALARM POINT 006 Alarm conditions are annunciated


LOBBY SMOKE DETECTOR
by point allowing responding
personnel to quickly find the fire.
Addressable Systems
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Detector Smoke Detector (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Detector

FIRE FIRE

004
001 002 SILENT KNIGHT
006
005
Addressable
FACP Relay Module
(Fan Shutdown) 003

NAC #1
4.7K
EOLR

TRBL POINT 006 Trouble conditions can be located


DISCONNECTED
LOBBY SMOKE DETECTOR more quickly by analyzing the
affected points.
Addressable Systems
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Detector Smoke Detector (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Detector

FIRE FIRE

004
001 002 SILENT KNIGHT
006
005
Addressable
FACP Relay Module
(Fan Shutdown) 003
RJ RJ

NAC #1
4.7K
EOLR

More detailed information can be


sent to the central station aiding in
a quick resolution to the problem.
Addressable Systems
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Detector Smoke Detector (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Detector

FIRE FIRE

004
001 002 SILENT KNIGHT
006
005
Addressable
FACP Relay Module
(Fan Shutdown) 003

NAC #1
4.7K
EOLR

Since supervision is accomplished


through polling, t-tapped wiring is
permitted. (Class B wiring)
Addressable Systems
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Detector Smoke Detector (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Detector

FIRE FIRE

004
001 002 SILENT KNIGHT
006
005
Addressable
FACP Relay Module
(Fan Shutdown) 003 FIRE!
NAC #1
4.7K
EOLR

Many systems support flexible


input/output programming to link
initiating devices to outputs.
Addressable Systems
Addressable Systems
Addressable Systems
Addressable system can also handle output device on
the zone circuit (addressable loop), where part of the
address message from the control panel can be a
command instruction to an output device ( On/Off )
Example: Sounder Module , Switching On/Off Relays
Interface Module is a device that is used interface the
conventional alarm system and the addressable system.
These modules allow conventional detectors on spur
detector circuits to be connected to an addressable zone
circuit and monitor the status of typically 20
conventional detectors.
CABLE SELECTION:
The designer must be aware of not only the DC Resistance of the cable, but the
capacitance and the velocity of propagation of the cable. The designer must assure
that the overall loop capacitance is not compromised, and error rates are kept to a
minimum.
Nominal Capacitance for wire sizes:
18 AWG solid unshielded: 16pf/ft
18 AWG solid shielded: 25pf/ft - 45pf/ft
16 AWG solid unshielded: 18pf/ft
16 AWG solid shielded: 30pf/ft - 54pf/ft
14 AWG solid shielded: 30pf/ft. - 54pf/ft
12 AWG solid shielded: 35pf/ft. - 63pf/ft
Capacitance between one conductor and the other connected to the shield.
Comparison
Conventional Addressable
Lower initial Easier to install.
equipment costs. More system status
Wide range of information at the
compatible devices. panel and central
Can be easier to station.
program. Input/Output
Limited expansion programming much
capability. more flexible.
Usually much more
room available to
expand.
Analog Addressable Systems
Analogue addressable detectors give an output
signal representing the value of the sensed
phenomenon.
The output of an analogue addressable detector
is variable and is a proportional representation
of the sensed effect of fire, that is smoke, heat,
carbon monoxide or flame. Transmission of this
output from the detector to the control panel is
usually in the form of an analogue current.
Control panel interprets the analogue value
received and decides whether or not to indicate
an alarm (building evacuation), pre
prealarm
(inspection & search for source), normal or fault
(warning; need for repair) condition.
In order that the system raises an alarm in the event of a fire, the analogue
value output from the detector must be in the alarm condition (that is, above
the alarm threshold) for a period equal to the time taken to complete three
successive address sequences, typically fifteen seconds.
Analog Addressable Systems
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Sensor Smoke Sensor (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Sensor

004
001 002 006
005
Addressable
Relay Module 003
(Fan Shutdown)

10K
EOLR
NAC #1

HEAT DETECTOR Supervision is still checked by


MECHANICAL ROOM polling. In addition an analog
POINT 001 A=062 value is transmitted to the
NORMAL F=190 panel for processing.
Analog Addressable Systems
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Sensor Smoke Sensor (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Detector

004
001 002 006
005
Addressable
Relay Module 003
(Fan Shutdown)

10K
EOLR
NAC #1

SMOKE DETECTOR Supervision is still checked by


LOBBY NORTH polling. In addition an analog
POINT 002 A=060 value is transmitted to the
NORMAL F=188 panel for processing.
Analog Addressable Systems
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Sensor Smoke Sensor (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Sensor

004
001 002 006
005
Addressable
Relay Module 003
(Fan Shutdown)

10K
EOLR
NAC #1

RELAY MODULE Supervision is still checked by


FAN SHUTDOWN polling. In addition an analog
POINT 003 A=N/A value is transmitted to the
NORMAL F=N/A panel for processing.
Analog Addressable Systems
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Sensor Smoke Sensor (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Sensor

004
001 002 006
005
Addressable
Relay Module 003
(Fan Shutdown)

10K
EOLR
NAC #1

INPUT MODULE Supervision is still checked by


WATERFLOW polling. In addition an analog
POINT 004 A=N/A value is transmitted to the
NORMAL F=N/A panel for processing.
Analog Addressable Systems
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Sensor Smoke Sensor (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Sensor

004
001 002 006
005
Addressable
Relay Module 003
(Fan Shutdown)

10K
EOLR
NAC #1

INPUT MODULE Supervision is still checked by


MANUAL PULL polling. In addition an analog
POINT 005 A=N/A value is transmitted to the
NORMAL F=N/A panel for processing.
Analog Addressable Systems
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Sensor Smoke Sensor (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Sensor

004
001 002 006
005
Addressable
Relay Module 003
(Fan Shutdown)

10K
EOLR
NAC #1

SMOKE DETECTOR Supervision is still checked by


FRONT DESK polling. In addition an analog
POINT 006 A=061 value is transmitted to the
NORMAL F=189 panel for processing.
Analog Addressable Systems
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Sensor Smoke Sensor (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Sensor

004
001 002 006
005
Addressable
Relay Module 003
(Fan Shutdown)

10K
EOLR
NAC #1

HEAT DETECTOR Supervision is still checked by


MECHANICAL ROOM polling. In addition an analog
POINT 001 A=062 value is transmitted to the
NORMAL F=190 panel for processing.
Analog Addressable Systems
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Sensor Smoke Sensor (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Sensor

004
001 002 006
005
Addressable
Relay Module 003
(Fan Shutdown)

10K
EOLR
NAC #1

SMOKE DETECTOR Supervision is still checked by


LOBBY NORTH polling. In addition an analog
POINT 002 A=060 value is transmitted to the
NORMAL F=188 panel for processing.
Analog Addressable Systems
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Sensor Smoke Sensor (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Sensor

004
001 002 006
005
Addressable
Relay Module 003
(Fan Shutdown)

10K
EOLR
NAC #1

RELAY MODULE Supervision is still checked by


FAN SHUTDOWN polling. In addition an analog
POINT 003 A=N/A value is transmitted to the
NORMAL F=N/A panel for processing.
Analog Addressable Systems
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Sensor Smoke Sensor (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Sensor

004
001 002 006
005
Addressable
Relay Module 003
(Fan Shutdown)

10K
EOLR
NAC #1

INPUT MODULE Supervision is still checked by


WATERFLOW polling. In addition an analog
POINT 004 A=N/A value is transmitted to the
NORMAL F=N/A panel for processing.
Analog Addressable Systems
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Sensor Smoke Sensor (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Sensor

004
001 002 006
005
Addressable
Relay Module 003
(Fan Shutdown)

10K
EOLR
NAC #1

INPUT MODULE Supervision is still checked by


MANUAL PULL polling. In addition an analog
POINT 005 A=N/A value is transmitted to the
NORMAL F=N/A panel for processing.
Analog Addressable Systems
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Sensor Smoke Sensor (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Sensor

004
001 002 006
005
Addressable
Relay Module 003
(Fan Shutdown)

10K
EOLR
NAC #1

SMOKE DETECTOR
FRONT DESK
POINT 006 A=061 < Replay
NORMAL F=189
Analog Addressable Systems
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Sensor Smoke Sensor (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Sensor

004
001 002 006
005
Addressable
Relay Module 003
(Fan Shutdown)

10K
EOLR
NAC #1
HEAT DETECTOR This analog value corresponds
MECHANICAL ROOM to the amount of heat or
POINT 001 A=062 smoke in that detectors area
NORMAL F=190 of coverage. Higher = more.
Analog Addressable Systems
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Sensor Smoke Sensor (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Sensor

004
001 002 006
005
Addressable
Relay Module 003
(Fan Shutdown)

10K
EOLR
NAC #1
HEAT DETECTOR If the analog value exceeds
MECHANICAL ROOM the alarm threshold, an alarm
POINT 001 A=062 occurs. This alarm threshold is
NORMAL F=190 calculated by the panel.
Analog Addressable Systems
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Sensor Smoke Sensor (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Sensor

004
001 002 006
005
Addressable
Relay Module 003
(Fan Shutdown)

10K
EOLR
NAC #1
INPUT MODULE Input/output modules do not
WATERFLOW relay analog values to the
POINT 004 A=N/A panel as they are monitoring
NORMAL F=N/A or controlling on/off devices.
Analog Addressable
Features

An analog addressable control panel is capable of


several enhanced features not available on conventional,
and some addressable systems.
Drift Compensation / Maintenance Alert

Adjustable Detector Sensitivity

Day/Night Detector Sensitivity Adjustment

U.L. Calibrated Sensitivity Test Instrument


Drift Compensation

Drift compensation is the process by which an analog


addressable control panel automatically adjusts an
analog detectors alarm threshold to compensate for
contaminants such as dust.
This ensures the detector maintains a consistent
sensitivity level, helping to avoid false alarms due to
dirty detectors.
Maintenance Alert

Drift compensation occurs until it is nearing a point


where it can no longer compensate and remain within
U.L. requirements. This point is called Maintenance
Alert
Some systems handle a maintenance alert condition as
a trouble while others flag the condition only, and
continue to operate normally.
Calibration Trouble

A detector in a maintenance alert condition will


eventually go into calibration trouble if not serviced.
A detector in calibration trouble is not functioning
correctly and requires service immediately.
Adjustable (Day/Night)
Sensitivity

In order to allow for varying environmental conditions or


to provide quicker detection, analog systems typically
allow you to change the sensitivity of a detector within a
range of U.L. tolerances.

This is typically made user friendly by giving the installer


choices such as high-
high-medium
medium--low.
Adjustable (Day/Night)
Sensitivity

By changing a detectors sensitivity you are instructing


the panel to adjust its alarm threshold (analog) value up
or down accordingly.

Some systems allow this sensitivity adjustment to


happen automatically on a day/night schedule.
U.L. Calibrated Sensitivity Test

1996 NFPA 72 7-3.2.1


Detector sensitivity shall be tested within 1 year after installation and
every alternate year thereafter. After the second required calibration
test, where sensitivity tests indicate that the detector has remained
within its listed and marked sensitivity range, the length of time shall be
permitted to be extended to a maximum of 5 years.
Testing Methods
A calibrated test method; or
Manufacturers calibrated sensitivity test instrument; or
Listed control equipment arranged for the purpose; or
Smoke detector/control unit arrangement whereby the
detector causes a signal at the control unit where its
sensitivity is outside the acceptable range; or
Other approved calibrated method acceptable to AHJ
U.L. Calibrated Sensitivity Test

Analog addressable control panels are UL listed for the


purpose of performing the calibrated sensitivity testing
internally.

A printout from the panel is usually available to provide


evidence to the AHJ that the test was performed.
How Analog Works
Detectors range of analog values
255
240

210 Range (.5% - 4% per foot obscuration)


180 that U.L. requires, to be listed as a
150 smoke detector.
120

90

60

30

.5% 1% 2% 3% 4% per foot obscuration


How Analog Works
Detectors range of analog values
255
240

210 On the other side of the graph, the range


180 of analog values for the detector is
150 plotted. In this case the range is 0-255.
120

90

60

30

.5% 1% 2% 3% 4% per foot obscuration


How Analog Works
Detectors range of analog values
During power-
255
240 up the detector
performs a self
210 test simulating
193
180 4% per foot
obscuration.
150 This value is
120 plotted, in this
case 193.
90

60

30

.5% 1% 2% 3% 4% per foot obscuration


How Analog Works
Detectors range of analog values
The system
255
240 them initializes
and records the
210 0% per foot
193
180 obscuration
(normal no
150 smoke) value
120 for that
detector. In this
90 case 60.
60

30

.5% 1% 2% 3% 4% per foot obscuration


How Analog Works
Detectors range of analog values
A line is drawn
255
240 connecting
these two
210 points. This line
193
180 is referred to as
the detectors
150 calibration
120 curve.

90
Calibration Curve
60

30

.5% 1% 2% 3% 4% per foot obscuration


How Analog Works
Detectors range of analog values Once the
calibration curve
255
240 is established
the panel can
210 calculate an
193
180 alarm threshold
value for any
150 valid sensitivity
145
120 setting.
112
90

60

30

.5% 1% 2% 3% 4% per foot obscuration


How Analog Works
Detectors range of analog values The panel also
calculates the
255
240 initial ranges for
the drift
210 compensation &
193
180 maintenance
Alarm
alert functions.
150
145
Calibration Trouble
120

90 Maintenance

60 Normal

30

.5% 1% 2% 3% 4% per foot obscuration


How Analog Works
Detectors range of analog values As the detector
gets dirty the
255
240 clear air value
will increase.
210
193
180 Alarm Drift
compensation
150
145 adjusts the
Calibration Trouble
120 alarm threshold
Maintenance
value
90
accordingly.
60 Normal

30

.5% 1% 2% 3% 4% per foot obscuration


How Analog Works
Detectors range of analog values As the detector
gets dirty the
255
240 clear air value
will increase.
210
193
180 Alarm Drift
compensation
150
145 adjusts the
Calibration Trouble
120 alarm threshold
Maintenance
value
90
accordingly.
60 Normal

30

.5% 1% 2% 3% 4% per foot obscuration


How Analog Works
Detectors range of analog values As the detector
gets dirty the
255
240 clear air value
will increase.
210
193
180 Alarm Drift
compensation
150
adjusts the
Calibration Trouble
120 alarm threshold
Maintenance
value
90
accordingly.
60 Normal

30

.5% 1% 2% 3% 4% per foot obscuration


How Analog Works
Detectors range of analog values As the detector
gets dirty the
255
240 clear air value
will increase.
210
193
180 Alarm Drift
155 compensation
150
adjusts the
Calibration Trouble
120 alarm threshold
Maintenance
value
90
accordingly.
60 Normal

30

.5% 1% 2% 3% 4% per foot obscuration


How Analog Works
Detectors range of analog values As the detector
gets dirty the
255
240 clear air value
will increase.
210
193
180 Alarm Drift
160 compensation
150
adjusts the
Calibration Trouble
120 alarm threshold
Maintenance
value
90
accordingly.
60 Normal

30

.5% 1% 2% 3% 4% per foot obscuration


How Analog Works
Detectors range of analog values Even though the
detector has
255
240 gotten dirty, it
has still
210 maintained a
193
180 2.5% sensitivity
Alarm
165 level.
150
Calibration Trouble
Calibration Trouble
120

90 Maintenance

60 Normal

30 < Replay
.5% 1% 2% 3% 4% per foot obscuration
Communication Protocols

Each manufacturer of (analog) addressable fire alarm systems


utilize a unique communications protocol on the SLC loop to
communicate between the control panel and the addressable
devices.

Most protocols are developed by detector manufacturers.

Many manufacturers subtly modify standard protocols, developed by


detector manufacturers, to provide a proprietary environment for
their equipment & distributors.
Communication Protocols
Many of the panels installation requirements and
operational parameters are based on the communication
protocol used.
SLC Loop Length

SLC Loop Wire Type

SLC Loop Communications Speed

SLC Loop Alarm Response Time

Communication protocols can be broken down into two


categories.
Non
Non--Digital
Digital
Comparing Protocols
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Detector Smoke Detector (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Detector

004
001 002 006
005

003
Addressable
Relay Module
(Fan Shutdown)

To take a closer look at


communication protocols we
can look at non-digital and
digital SLC Loops through an
oscilloscope.
Non--Digital Protocol
Non

Each detector when


polled responds to the
panel with square wave
pulses.
Non--Digital Protocol
Non

The panel reads these


square wave pulses and
determines the values by
measuring the length
(time) of each.
Non--Digital Protocol
Non
Various sources of
interference can cause
these square wave pulses
? to round off. This makes
an accurate reading very
difficult.
Non--Digital Protocol
Non
Most manufacturers that
utilize a non-
non-digital
protocol will specify
? special requirements
such as twisted or
shielded wire to
counteract this problem.
Digital Protocol
Using a digital protocol
the panel looks for for a
series of 1 or on bits
that are detected by
1 1 1 1

24v
looking for voltage rather
than the length of a pulse.
0 0 0
Digital Protocol
Even if a source of
interference causes
rounding off of the digital
pulses the voltage is still
1 1 1 1

24v
present for the panel to
determine the digital
0 0 0
value.
Digital Protocol
Digital protocol panels do
not typically require
special cabling since
interference does not
1 1 1 1

24v
pose any substantial
signal problems.
0 0 0
Retrofits can be done
using existing cable.
Non--digital Loop Response
Non
When an alarm occurs on many non-
non-digital protocol
systems, some panels must continue polling until it
reaches the alarming device, before an alarm is initiated.
Larger systems with hundreds of points can cause
delays initiating an alarm.
Non--Digital Loop Response
Non
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Detector Smoke Detector (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Detector

FIRE FIRE

004
001 002 SILENT KNIGHT
006
005

003
Addressable
Relay Module
(Fan Shutdown)

ABC FIRE SYSTEMS

ALL SYSTEMS NORMAL


15-Jan-00 3:10 PM
Non--Digital Loop Response
Non
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Detector Smoke Detector (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Detector

FIRE FIRE

004
001 002 SILENT KNIGHT
006
005

FIRE! 003
Addressable
Relay Module
(Fan Shutdown)

ABC FIRE SYSTEMS A fire erupts at the Heat


Detector (Point 001) while the
ALL SYSTEMS NORMAL system is polling the Smoke
15-Jan-00 3:10 PM Detector (Point 002).
Non--Digital Loop Response
Non
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Detector Smoke Detector (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Detector

FIRE FIRE

004
001 002 SILENT KNIGHT
006
005

FIRE! 003
Addressable
Relay Module
(Fan Shutdown)

ABC FIRE SYSTEMS An alarm is not initiated. The


system continues polling until
ALL SYSTEMS NORMAL it reaches the point in alarm.
15-Jan-00 3:10 PM
Non--Digital Loop Response
Non
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Detector Smoke Detector (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Detector

FIRE FIRE

004
001 002 SILENT KNIGHT
006
005

FIRE! 003
Addressable
Relay Module
(Fan Shutdown)

ABC FIRE SYSTEMS An alarm is not initiated. The


system continues polling until
ALL SYSTEMS NORMAL it reaches the point in alarm.
15-Jan-00 3:10 PM
Non--Digital Loop Response
Non
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Detector Smoke Detector (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Detector

FIRE FIRE

004
001 002 SILENT KNIGHT
006
005

FIRE! 003
Addressable
Relay Module
(Fan Shutdown)

ABC FIRE SYSTEMS An alarm is not initiated. The


system continues polling until
ALL SYSTEMS NORMAL it reaches the point in alarm.
15-Jan-00 3:10 PM
Non--Digital Loop Response
Non
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Detector Smoke Detector (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Detector

FIRE FIRE

004
001 002 SILENT KNIGHT
006
005

FIRE! 003
Addressable
Relay Module
(Fan Shutdown)

ABC FIRE SYSTEMS An alarm is not initiated. The


system continues polling until
ALL SYSTEMS NORMAL it reaches the point in alarm.
15-Jan-00 3:10 PM
Non--Digital Loop Response
Non
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Detector Smoke Detector (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Detector

FIRE FIRE

004
001 002 SILENT KNIGHT
006
005

FIRE! 003
Addressable
Relay Module
(Fan Shutdown)

ALARM
POINT 001 ALARM!
HEAT DETECTOR
15-Jan-00 3:10 PM
Non--Digital Loop Response
Non
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Detector Smoke Detector (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Detector

FIRE FIRE

004
001 002 SILENT KNIGHT
006
005

FIRE! 003
Addressable
Relay Module
(Fan Shutdown)

ALARM Systems with hundreds of


POINT 001 points can take 15 -20
HEAT DETECTOR seconds or longer to respond
15-Jan-00 3:10 PM to alarm conditions.
Digital Loop Response
When an alarm occurs on most digital protocol systems,
an interrupt request from the device sensing the alarm
interrupts the polling sequence to immediately handle
the alarm.
Systems with hundreds of points will respond to
alarms in the same amount of time that they would to
smaller systems with very few points.
Digital Loop Response
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Sensor Smoke Sensor (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Sensor

004
001 002 006
005

003
Addressable
Relay Module
(Fan Shutdown)

ABC FIRE SYSTEMS

ALL SYSTEMS NORMAL


15-Jan-00 3:10 PM
Digital Loop Response
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Sensor Smoke Sensor (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Sensor

004
001 002 006
005

FIRE! 003
Addressable
Relay Module
(Fan Shutdown)

ABC FIRE SYSTEMS A fire erupts at the Heat


sensor (Point 001) while the
ALL SYSTEMS NORMAL system is polling the Smoke
15-Jan-00 3:10 PM Detector (Point 002).
Digital Loop Response
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Sensor Smoke Sensor (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Sensor

004
001 002 006
005

FIRE! 003
Addressable
Relay Module
(Fan Shutdown)

ABC FIRE SYSTEMS The Heat Sensor (Point 001)


interrupts the polling process
ALL SYSTEMS NORMAL to handle the alarm
15-Jan-00 3:10 PM immediately.
Digital Loop Response
Addressable
Addressable Addressable Input Module Addressable Addressable
Heat Sensor Smoke Sensor (Waterflow) Pull Station Smoke Sensor

004
001 002 006
005

FIRE! 003
Addressable
Relay Module
(Fan Shutdown)

ALARM
POINT 001 ALARM!
HEAT SENSOR
15-Jan-00 3:10 PM
THE END
Reference:
Hochiki America Corporation
7051 Village Drive, Suite 100
Buena Park, California 90621
www.hochiki.com